Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 465: Detection of Acipenser European Iridovirus (AcIV-E) in Sturgeon Farms in Northern Italy between 2021 & ndash;2023
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 465: Detection of Acipenser European Iridovirus (AcIV-E) in Sturgeon Farms in Northern Italy between 2021–2023 Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16030465 Authors: Fabio Bondavalli Dáša Schleicherová Paolo Pastorino Davide Mugetti Claudio Pedron Marino Prearo Sturgeon farming is rapidly expanding in Europe, where Italy ranks first in farmed caviar production. A major threat to sturgeon health in captivity is infection with Acipenser European Iridovirus (AcIV-E), a viral disease definitively identified in 2016. Here we present data on the occurrence of AcIV-E in 482 sturgeons (age &...
Source: Viruses - March 18, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Fabio Bondavalli D áša Schleicherová Paolo Pastorino Davide Mugetti Claudio Pedron Marino Prearo Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 463: Acalculous Cholecystitis as a Complication of Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: A Case-Based Scoping Review of the Literature
olina Akinosoglou Primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection manifests with diverse clinical symptoms, occasionally resulting in severe complications. This scoping review investigates the rare occurrence of acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) in the context of primary EBV infection, with a focus on understanding its prevalence, clinical features, and underlying mechanisms. The study also explores EBV infection association with Gilbert syndrome, a condition that potentially exacerbates the clinical picture. Additionally, a case report of an 18-year-old female presenting with AAC and ascites secondary to EBV infection e...
Source: Viruses - March 18, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Aristotelis Tsiakalos Georgios Schinas Aggelos Karatzaferis Emmanouil Angelos Rigopoulos Christos Pappas Eleni Polyzou Effrosyni Dimopoulou George Dimopoulos Karolina Akinosoglou Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 462: Serologic, Virologic and Pathologic Features of Cats with Naturally Occurring Feline Infectious Peritonitis Enrolled in Antiviral Clinical Trials
tle L. Reagan Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a multisystemic, generally lethal immuno-inflammatory disease of domestic cats caused by an infection with a genetic variant of feline coronavirus, referred to as the FIP virus (FIPV). We leveraged data from four different antiviral clinical trials performed at the University of California, Davis. Collectively, a total of 60 client-owned domestic cats, each with a confirmed diagnosis of naturally occurring FIP, were treated with a variety of antiviral compounds. The tested therapies included the antiviral compounds GS-441524, remdesivir, molnupiravir and allogeneic f...
Source: Viruses - March 17, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Brain G. Murphy Diego Castillo N E Neely Amir Kol Terza Brostoff Chris K. Grant Krystle L. Reagan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 458: Insights from Avian Influenza: A Review of Its Multifaceted Nature and Future Pandemic Preparedness
Kam Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have posed a significant pandemic threat since their discovery. This review mainly focuses on the epidemiology, virology, pathogenesis, and treatments of avian influenza viruses. We delve into the global spread, past pandemics, clinical symptoms, severity, and immune response related to AIVs. The review also discusses various control measures, including antiviral drugs, vaccines, and potential future directions in influenza treatment and prevention. Lastly, by summarizing the insights from previous pandemic control, this review aims to direct effective strategies for managing future i...
Source: Viruses - March 17, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Jianning He Yiu-Wing Kam Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 459: Torque Teno Virus DNA Load in Blood as an Immune Status Biomarker in Adult Hematological Patients: The State of the Art and Future Prospects
d Navarro A solid body of scientific evidence supports the assumption that Torque teno virus (TTV) DNA load in the blood compartment may behave as a biomarker of immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients; in this clinical setting, high or increasing TTV DNA levels precede the occurrence of infectious complications, whereas the opposite anticipates the development of acute rejection. The potential clinical value of the TTV DNA load in blood to infer the risk of opportunistic viral infection or immune-related (i.e., graft vs. host disease) clinical events in the hematological patient, if any, remains to be d...
Source: Viruses - March 17, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Eliseo Albert Estela Gim énez Rafael Hernani Jos é Luis Piñana Carlos Solano David Navarro Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 460: A Novel Tiled Amplicon Sequencing Assay Targeting the Tomato Brown Rugose Fruit Virus (ToBRFV) Genome Reveals Widespread Distribution in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Systems in the Province of Ontario, Canada
Trevor C. Charles Tomato Brown Rugose Fruit Virus (ToBRFV) is a plant pathogen that infects important Solanaceae crop species and can dramatically reduce tomato crop yields. The ToBRFV has rapidly spread around the globe due to its ability to escape detection by antiviral host genes which confer resistance to other tobamoviruses in tomato plants. The development of robust and reproducible methods for detecting viruses in the environment aids in the tracking and reduction of pathogen transmission. We detected ToBRFV in municipal wastewater influent (WWI) samples, likely due to its presence in human waste, demonstrating ...
Source: Viruses - March 17, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Delaney Nash Isaac Ellmen Jennifer J. Knapp Ria Menon Alyssa K. Overton Jiujun Cheng Michael D. J. Lynch Jozef I. Nissimov Trevor C. Charles Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 461: Hereditary Connective Tissue Diseases and Risk of Post-Acute SARS-CoV-2
Jain We completed a retrospective review of data collected by the JH-CROWN consortium based on ICD10 codes for a hospitalized cohort. The severity and prevalence of COVID-19 and development of PASC within heritable connective tissue diseases were unknown; however, clinical observation suggested a thorough examination was necessary. We compared rates of disease severity, death, and PASC in connective tissue diseases versus the entire cohort as well as in diabetes and hypertension to determine if connective tissue disease was a risk factor. Of the 15,676 patients in the database, 63 [0.40%] had a connective tissue disea...
Source: Viruses - March 17, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Maggie L. Bartlett Daniel Sova Mahim Jain Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 456: Direct Evidence of Powassan Virus Vertical Transmission in Ixodes scapularis in Nature
. Ciota Powassan virus (POWV) is a tick-borne flavivirus endemic in North America and Russia. Experimental infections with POWV have confirmed horizontal, transstadial, vertical, and cofeeding transmission routes for potential virus maintenance. In the field, vertical transmission has never been observed. During New York State tick-borne pathogen surveillance, POWV RNA and/or infectious POWV was detected in five pools of questing Ixodes scapularis larvae. Additionally, engorged female I. scapularis adults were collected from hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a region with relatively high ti...
Source: Viruses - March 16, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Rachel E. Lange Melissa A. Prusinski Alan P. Dupuis Alexander T. Ciota Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 457: Determination of Optimal Antigen Yield and Virus Inactivation Conditions for the Production of the Candidate Foot-and-Mouth Disease Recombinant Vaccine Strain Asia1 Shamir-R in a Bioreactor
This study evaluated the antigen yield and viral inactivation kinetics of the recombinant Asia1 Shamir vaccine strain (Asia1 Shamir-R). When Asia1 Shamir-R was proliferated in shaking flasks (1 L), a 2 L bioreactor (1 L), and a wave bioreactor (25 L), the antigen yields were 7.5 μg/mL, 5.2 μg/mL, and 3.8 μg/mL, respectively. The optimal FMDV inactivation conditions were 2 mM BEI at 26 °C and 1.0 mM BEI at 37 °C. There was no antigen loss due to BEI treatment, and only a decrease in antigen levels was observed during storage. The sera from pigs immunized with antigen ...
Source: Viruses - March 16, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Jae Young Kim Sun Young Park Gyeongmin Lee Sang Hyun Park Jong-Sook Jin Dohyun Kim Jong-Hyeon Park Seong-Yun Jeong Young-Joon Ko Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 454: Clinical Manifestations of Infections with the Omicron Sub-Lineages BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5: A Retrospective Follow-Up Analysis of Public Health Data from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany
tudy Group The Omicron variants BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 caused several waves of SARS-CoV-2 in Germany in 2022. In this comparative study, public health data on SARS-CoV-2 infections from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, between January and October 2022 were examined retrospectively using Pearson’s chi-squared tests and Fisher’s exact tests for testing for statistical significance. Compared to BA.5 infections, BA.1 and BA.2 infections affected younger individuals aged up to 19 years significantly more often, whereas BA.5 infections occurred significantly more frequently in patients betwee...
Source: Viruses - March 15, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Katja Verena Goller Janine Ziemann Christian Kohler Karsten Becker Nils-Olaf H übner on behalf of the CoMV-Gen Study Group on behalf of the CoMV-Gen Study Group Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 455: Acalculous Cholecystitis in COVID-19 Patients: A Narrative Review
stos Savopoulos Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) represents cholecystitis without gallstones, occurring in approximately 5–10% of all cases of acute cholecystitis in adults. Several risk factors have been recognized, while infectious diseases can be a cause of cholecystitis in otherwise healthy people. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has spread worldwide, leading to an unprecedented pandemic. The virus enters cells through the binding of the spike protein to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors expressed ...
Source: Viruses - March 15, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Evanthia Thomaidou Eleni Karlafti Matthaios Didagelos Kalliopi Megari Eleni Argiriadou Karolina Akinosoglou Daniel Paramythiotis Christos Savopoulos Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 453: Recent Molecular Characterization of Porcine Rotaviruses Detected in China and Their Phylogenetic Relationships with Human Rotaviruses
ang Xiaowen Li Bin Zhou Porcine rotavirus A (PoRVA) is an enteric pathogen capable of causing severe diarrhea in suckling piglets. Investigating the prevalence and molecular characteristics of PoRVA in the world, including China, is of significance for disease prevention. In 2022, a total of 25,768 samples were collected from 230 farms across China, undergoing porcine RVA positivity testing. The results showed that 86.52% of the pig farms tested positive for porcine RVA, with an overall positive rate of 51.15%. Through the genetic evolution analysis of VP7, VP4 and VP6 genes, it was revealed that G9 is the predomin...
Source: Viruses - March 14, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Mengli Qiao Meizhen Li Yang Li Zewei Wang Zhiqiang Hu Jie Qing Jiapei Huang Junping Jiang Yaqin Jiang Jinyong Zhang Chunliu Gao Chen Yang Xiaowen Li Bin Zhou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 450: Small Molecules for the Treatment of Long-COVID-Related Vascular Damage and Abnormal Blood Clotting: A Patent-Based Appraisal
iano Altomare People affected by COVID-19 are exposed to, among others, abnormal clotting and endothelial dysfunction, which may result in deep vein thrombosis, cerebrovascular disorders, and ischemic and non-ischemic heart diseases, to mention a few. Treatments for COVID-19 include antiplatelet (e.g., aspirin, clopidogrel) and anticoagulant agents, but their impact on morbidity and mortality has not been proven. In addition, due to viremia-associated interconnected prothrombotic and proinflammatory events, anti-inflammatory drugs have also been investigated for their ability to mitigate against immune dysregulation du...
Source: Viruses - March 14, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Francesco Samarelli Giovanni Graziano Nicola Gambacorta Elisabetta Anna Graps Francesco Leonetti Orazio Nicolotti Cosimo Damiano Altomare Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 451: Interferons in Viral Infections
yay Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that inhibit viral replication in host cells by triggering innate immune responses through the transcriptional induction of various IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) [...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - March 14, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Pracheta Sengupta Saurabh Chattopadhyay Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 452: Comparative Analysis of Cytomegalovirus Gastrointestinal Disease in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Patients
Conclusions: GI bleeding is the most common manifestation and prognostic factor in both groups. Early diagnosis and effective antiviral therapy can significantly reduce in-hospital mortality. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - March 14, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Pai-Jui Yeh Ren-Chin Wu Yung-Kuan Tsou Chien-Ming Chen Cheng-Tang Chiu Chien-Chang Chen Ming-Wei Lai Yu-Bin Pan Puo-Hsien Le Tags: Article Source Type: research