Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 281: Metformin Alters mRNA Expression of FOXP3, RORC, and TBX21 and Modulates Gut Microbiota in COVID-19 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
This study found that people who did not take metformin had a downregulated expression of FOXP3 by 6.62-fold, upregulated expression of RORC by 29.0-fold, and upregulated TBX21 by 1.78-fold, compared to the control group. On the other hand, metformin patients showed a 1.96-fold upregulation in FOXP3 expression compared to the control group, along with a 1.84-fold downregulation in RORC expression and an 11.4-fold downregulation in TBX21 expression. Additionally, we found a correlation with gut microbiota (F/B ratio and alpha-diversity index) and pro-inflammatory biomarkers. This novel observation of metformin&rsquo...
Source: Viruses - February 11, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Pavlo Petakh Iryna Kamyshna Valentyn Oksenych Oleksandr Kamyshnyi Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 277: Phage Display & rsquo;s Prospects for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 277: Phage Display’s Prospects for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16020277 Authors: Valery A. Petrenko Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most diagnosed cancer among men. It was observed that early diagnosis of disease is highly beneficial for the survival of cancer patients. Therefore, the extension and increasing quality of life of PC patients can be achieved by broadening the cancer screening programs that are aimed at the identification of cancer manifestation in patients at earlier stages, before they demonstrate well-understood signs of the disease. ...
Source: Viruses - February 10, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Valery A. Petrenko Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 278: Association between Statins Administration and Influenza Susceptibility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies
long Shu Caijun Sun Previous studies reported that the association between statins use and influenza infection was contradictory. A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies were performed to determine the association between statins use and influenza susceptibility. The literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, from each database’s inception to 21 May 2023. The fixed effect model and random effects model were used for data synthesis. In our study, a total of 1,472,239 statins users and 1,486,881 statins non-users from five articles were included. The poole...
Source: Viruses - February 10, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Fan Wu Congcong Wang Shunran Li Ying Ye Mingting Cui Yajie Liu Shiqiang Jiang Jun Qian Jianhui Yuan Yuelong Shu Caijun Sun Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 276: Genomic Analyses of Major SARS-CoV-2 Variants Predicting Multiple Regions of Pathogenic and Transmissive Importance
We report the identification of two codon sites in the orf8 and N genes demonstrating such evidence with real-world impacts on pathogenicity and transmissivity. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 10, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Steven W. Brugger Julianne H. Grose Craig H. Decker Brett E. Pickett Mary F. Davis Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 273: Acellular Human Amniotic Fluid-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Novel Anti-Inflammatory Therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 Infection
In this study, we evaluated acellular human amniotic fluid (acAF) containing extracellular vesicles (hAF-EVs) as a potential non-toxic and safe biologic for immunomodulation during COVID-19. Our in vitro results showed that acAF significantly reduced inflammatory cytokine production in TLR2/4/7 and SARS-CoV-2 structural protein-stimulated mouse macrophages. Importantly, an intraperitoneal administration of acAF reduced morbidity and mortality in SARS-CoV-2-infected mice. A detailed examination of SARS-CoV-2-infected lungs revealed that the increased protection in acAF-treated mice was associated with reduced viral titers a...
Source: Viruses - February 9, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Debarati Chanda Tania Del Rivero Roshan Ghimire Sunil More Maria Ines Mitrani Michael A. Bellio Rudragouda Channappanavar Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 274: Phylogenetics, Epidemiology and Temporal Patterns of Dengue Virus in Araraquara, S & atilde;o Paulo State
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 274: Phylogenetics, Epidemiology and Temporal Patterns of Dengue Virus in Araraquara, São Paulo State Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16020274 Authors: Caio Santos de Souza Giovana Santos Caleiro Ingra Morales Claro Jaqueline Goes de Jesus Thaís Moura Coletti Camila Alves Maia da Silva Ângela Aparecida Costa Marta Inenami Andreia C. Ribeiro Alvina Clara Felix Anderson Vicente de Paula Walter M. Figueiredo Expedito José de Albuquerque Luna Ester C. Sabino Camila M. Romano Dengue virus (DENV) is a prominent arbovirus with global spread, causing approximately 390...
Source: Viruses - February 9, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Caio Santos de Souza Giovana Santos Caleiro Ingra Morales Claro Jaqueline Goes de Jesus Tha ís Moura Coletti Camila Alves Maia da Silva Ângela Aparecida Costa Marta Inenami Andreia C. Ribeiro Alvina Clara Felix Anderson Vicente de Paula Walter M. Figuei Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 275: Inflammatory Polymorphisms (IL-6 rs1800796, IL-10 rs1800896, TNF- & alpha; rs1800629, and IFITM3 rs12252) Are Not Associated with Post-COVID Symptoms in Previously Hospitalized COVID-19 Survivors
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 275: Inflammatory Polymorphisms (IL-6 rs1800796, IL-10 rs1800896, TNF-α rs1800629, and IFITM3 rs12252) Are Not Associated with Post-COVID Symptoms in Previously Hospitalized COVID-19 Survivors Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16020275 Authors: César Fernández-de-las-Peñas Gema Díaz-Gil Antonio Gil-Crujera Stella M. Gómez-Sánchez Silvia Ambite-Quesada Juan Torres-Macho Pablo Ryan-Murua Ana I. Franco-Moreno Oscar J. Pellicer-Valero Lars Arendt-Nielsen Rocco Giordano The aim of this study was to identify the association between four selected inflammatory polymorphisms w...
Source: Viruses - February 9, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: C ésar Fernández-de-las-Peñas Gema D íaz-Gil Antonio Gil-Crujera Stella M. G ómez-Sánchez Silvia Ambite-Quesada Juan Torres-Macho Pablo Ryan-Murua Ana I. Franco-Moreno Oscar J. Pellicer-Valero Lars Arendt-Nielsen Rocco Giordano Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 272: Crystal Structures of Fusion Cores from CCoV-HuPn-2018 and SADS-CoV
i Yan Cross-species spillover to humans of coronaviruses (CoVs) from wildlife animal reservoirs poses marked and global threats to human and animal health. Recently, sporadic infection of canine coronavirus–human pneumonia-2018 (CCoV-HuPn-2018) in hospitalized patients with pneumonia genetically related to canine and feline coronavirus were identified. In addition, swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) had the capability of broad tropism to cultured cells including from humans. Together, the transmission of Alphacoronaviruses that originated in wildlife to humans via intermediate hosts was ...
Source: Viruses - February 9, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Fulian Wang Guang Yang Lei Yan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 270: Robust Approaches to the Quantitative Analysis of Genome Formula Variation in Multipartite and Segmented Viruses
We describe the properties of this metric and provide a framework for understanding metric values. Second, we explain how this metric can be applied for different purposes, including testing for genome-formula differences and comparing observations to a reference genome formula value. Third, we re-analyze published data to illustrate the applications and weigh the evidence for previous conclusions. Our re-analysis of published datasets confirms many previous results but also provides evidence that the genome formula can be carried over from the inoculum to the virus population in a host. The simple procedures we propose co...
Source: Viruses - February 8, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Marcelle L. Johnson Mark P. Zwart Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 271: COVID-19 Outcomes and Vaccinations in Swedish Solid Organ Transplant Recipients 2020 & ndash;2021: A Nationwide Multi-Register Comparative Cohort Study
We report infections, hospitalization, ICU care, mortality from COVID-19, and pertinent vaccination data in Swedish SOTRs 2020–2021. We conducted a nationwide cohort study, encompassing all Swedish residents. SOTRs were identified with ICD-10 codes and immunosuppressant prescriptions. Comparison cohorts were weighted based on a propensity score built from potential confounders (age, sex, comorbidities, socioeconomic factors, and geography), which achieved a good balance between SOTRs and non-SOTR groups. We included 10,372,033 individuals, including 9073 SOTRs. Of the SARS-CoV-2 infected, 47.3% of SOTRs and 1...
Source: Viruses - February 8, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: John Mackay S øfteland Huiqi Li Jesper M. Magnusson Susannah Leach Vanda Friman Magnus Gissl én Marie Felldin Andreas Schult Kristjan Karason Seema Baid-Agrawal Carin Wallquist Fredrik Nyberg Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 269: An Improved Workflow for the Quantification of Orthohantavirus Infection Using Automated Imaging and Flow Cytometry
We present the use of flow cytometry but highlight fluorescence microscopy in combination with automated data analysis as an attractive alternative to increase the information retrieved from an infection experiment. Additionally, we offer open-source software equipped with a user-friendly graphical interface, eliminating the necessity for advanced programming skills. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 8, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Laura Menke Christian Sieben Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 268: Low gH/gL (Sub)Species-Specific Antibody Levels Indicate Elephants at Risk of Fatal Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus Hemorrhagic Disease
de Haan Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs), of which eleven (sub)species are currently distinguished, infect either Asian (Elephas maximus) or African elephants (Loxodonta species). While all adult elephants are latently infected with at least one EEHV (sub)species, young elephants, specifically those with low to non-detectable EEHV-specific antibody levels, may develop fatal hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) upon infection. However, animals with high antibody levels against EEHV(1A) gB, an immunodominant antigen recognized by antibodies elicited against multiple (sub)species, may also occasionally succumb to ...
Source: Viruses - February 8, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Tabitha E. Hoornweg Willem Schaftenaar Victor P. M. G. Rutten Cornelis A. M. de Haan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 266: The Importance of Lassa Fever and Its Disease Management in West Africa
The objective of this article is to revisit the importance and prevalence of LF in West Africa, with focus on Nigeria, and discuss current therapeutic approaches and ongoing vaccine development. In addition, we aim to emphasize the need for more scientific studies relating to LF-associated hearing loss, and to promote critical discussion about potential risks and benefits of vaccinating the population in endemic regions of West Africa. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 7, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Rachel A. Reyna Kirsten E. Littlefield Nathan Shehu Tomoko Makishima Junki Maruyama Slobodan Paessler Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 267: Meta-Transcriptomic Analysis Uncovers the Presence of Four Novel Viruses and Multiple Known Virus Genera in a Single Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Plant in Colombia
ohn Hammond Hibiscus is not native to Colombia but well suited to its arid soil and dry climates. A single hibiscus plant from Risaralda, showing black spots on upper and lower sides of its leaves, was collected for virome analysis using meta-transcriptomic high-throughput sequencing technology. Bioinformatic analysis identified 12.5% of the total reads in the Ribo-Zero cDNA library which mapped to viral genomes. BLAST searches revealed the presence of carlavirus, potexvirus, and of known members of the genera Betacarmovirus, Cilevirus, Nepovirus, and Tobamovirus in the sample; confirmed by RT-PCR with virus-specific p...
Source: Viruses - February 7, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Avijit Roy Sam Grinstead Guillermo Leon Mart ínez Juan Carlos Campos Pinz ón Schyler O. Nunziata Chellappan Padmanabhan John Hammond Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 263: Stability of Genotube & reg; Swabs for African Swine Fever Virus Detection Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal (LAMP) Laboratory Testing on Samples Stored without Refrigeration
This study used Genotube® swabs stored in temperate and tropical climates without refrigeration for four weeks after collection to demonstrate there was no change in test performance and results using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) ASFV detection on a series of pig serum samples including serum spiked with a synthetic ASFV positive control, naturally acquired ASFV positive serum from Timor-Leste and negative ASFV serum samples. The use of Genotube® swabs for ASFV detection for surveillance purposes, coupled with testing platforms such as LAMP, can provide an alternative to traditional...
Source: Viruses - February 7, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Dianne Phillips Felisiano da Conceicao Joanita Bendita da Costa Jong Grant Rawlin Peter Mee Tags: Article Source Type: research