Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 448: Viral Epitope Scanning Reveals Correlation between Seasonal HCoVs and SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Responses among Cancer and Non-Cancer Patients
West Charles Wood Seasonal coronaviruses (HCoVs) are known to contribute to cross-reactive antibody (Ab) responses against SARS-CoV-2. While these responses are predictable due to the high homology between SARS-CoV-2 and other CoVs, the impact of these responses on susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients is unclear. To investigate the influence of prior HCoV infection on anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab responses among COVID-19 asymptomatic individuals with cancer and controls without cancers, we utilized the VirScan technology in which phage immunoprecipitation and sequencing (PhIP-seq) of longitudinal plasma sa...
Source: Viruses - March 13, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Salum J. Lidenge Dicle Yalcin Sydney J. Bennett Owen Ngalamika Brenda B. Kweyamba Chacha J. Mwita For Yue Tso Julius Mwaiselage John T. West Charles Wood Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 444: The Prevalence of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Wild Rodents Captured in Tick-Borne Encephalitis Foci in Highly Endemic Lithuania
This study shows that wild rodents are suitable sentinel animals to confirm TBEV foci. In addition, the study results demonstrate that sample cultivation in cell culture is a highly efficient method for increasing TBEV viral load to detectable quantities. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - March 13, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Evelina Simkute Arnoldas Pautienius Juozas Grigas Marina Sidorenko Jana Radzijevskaja Algimantas Paulauskas Arunas Stankevicius Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 445: Porcine Deltacoronavirus Occurrence in the United States Breeding Herds since Its Emergence in 2014
Corzo PDCoV, an enveloped RNA virus, causes atrophic enteritis in neonatal piglets, leading to diarrhea, malabsorption, dehydration, and death. The study aims to fill the gap in the current epidemiological information about PDCoV in the U.S. pig population after its emergence in 2014. Data from the Morrison Swine Health Monitoring Project (MSHMP) between January 2015 and December 2023 were analyzed, representing approximately 60% of the U.S. breeding herd. Participating herds report weekly PDCoV health status. In total, 244 PDCoV outbreaks occurred in 186 sites from 22 production systems across 16 states. Case counts p...
Source: Viruses - March 13, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Mariana Kikuti Catalina Picasso-Risso Cesar A. Corzo Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 447: Immune System Deficiencies Do Not Alter SARS-CoV-2 Evolutionary Rate but Favour the Emergence of Mutations by Extending Viral Persistence
This study suggests that a compromised immune system alone does not affect SARS-CoV-2 within-host genomic variability. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - March 13, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Laura Manuto Martina Bado Marco Cola Elena Vanzo Maria Antonello Giorgia Mazzotti Monia Pacenti Giampaolo Cordioli Lolita Sasset Anna Maria Cattelan Stefano Toppo Enrico Lavezzo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 446: SARS-CoV-2-Specific Immune Responses in Vaccination and Infection during the Pandemic in 2020 & ndash;2022
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 446: SARS-CoV-2-Specific Immune Responses in Vaccination and Infection during the Pandemic in 2020–2022 Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16030446 Authors: Wakana Inoue Yuta Kimura Shion Okamoto Takuto Nogimori Akane Sakaguchi-Mikami Takuya Yamamoto Yasuko Tsunetsugu-Yokota To gain insight into how immunity develops against SARS-CoV-2 from 2020 to 2022, we analyzed the immune response of a small group of university staff and students who were either infected or vaccinated. We investigated the levels of receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific and nucleocapsid (N)-specific IgG and IgA...
Source: Viruses - March 13, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Wakana Inoue Yuta Kimura Shion Okamoto Takuto Nogimori Akane Sakaguchi-Mikami Takuya Yamamoto Yasuko Tsunetsugu-Yokota Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 449: The Accumulation of Phenyllactic Acid Impairs Host Glutamine Metabolism and Inhibits African Swine Fever Virus Replication: A Novel Target for the Development of Anti-ASFV Drugs
This study aimed to investigate the impact of glucose and glutamine metabolic dynamics on the rate of ASFV replication. Our findings demonstrate that ASFV infection favors using glutamine as a metabolic fuel to facilitate self-replication. ASFV replication can be substantially inhibited by blocking glutamine metabolism. The metabolomics analysis of the host cell after late-stage ASFV infection revealed a significant disruption of normal glutamine metabolic pathways due to the abundant expression of PLA (phenyllactic acid). Pretreatment with PLA also inhibited ASFV proliferation and glutamine consumption following infection...
Source: Viruses - March 13, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Junfei Dai Xusheng Ma Ashenafi Kiros Wubshet Qian Li Xiaofen Shang Zhikuan Luo Jianan Liu Zhiyu Li Mingxia Li Yujie Song Lijun Guo Jie Zhang Haixue Zheng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 442: Natural Adeno-Associated Virus Serotypes and Engineered Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid Variants: Tropism Differences and Mechanistic Insights
mas Weber Today, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are arguably the most promising in vivo gene delivery vehicles for durable therapeutic gene expression. Advances in molecular engineering, high-throughput screening platforms, and computational techniques have resulted in a toolbox of capsid variants with enhanced performance over parental serotypes. Despite their considerable promise and emerging clinical success, there are still obstacles hindering their broader use, including limited transduction capabilities, tissue/cell type-specific tropism and penetration into tissues through anatomical barriers, off-ta...
Source: Viruses - March 12, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Estrella Lopez-Gordo Kyle Chamberlain Jalish Mahmud Riyad Erik Kohlbrenner Thomas Weber Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 443: The Medicinal Phage & mdash;Regulatory Roadmap for Phage Therapy under EU Pharmaceutical Legislation
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 443: The Medicinal Phage—Regulatory Roadmap for Phage Therapy under EU Pharmaceutical Legislation Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16030443 Authors: Timo Faltus Bacteriophage therapy is a promising approach to treating bacterial infections. Research and development of bacteriophage therapy is intensifying due to the increase in antibiotic resistance and the faltering development of new antibiotics. Bacteriophage therapy uses bacteriophages (phages), i.e., prokaryotic viruses, to specifically target and kill pathogenic bacteria. The legal handling of this type of therapy raises several questio...
Source: Viruses - March 12, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Timo Faltus Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 435: Understanding the Impact of COVID-19 on Roma Vulnerable Communities in Western Romania: Insights and Predictive Factors from a Retrospective Study
Conclusions: Higher rates of ICU admissions, severe symptomatology, and distinct laboratory biomarker profiles among Roma patients emphasize the critical importance of personalized care strategies and targeted interventions to mitigate the disproportionate burden of COVID-19 on vulnerable communities. CRP values at admission have had a clear impact as a risk assessment biomarker for Roma patients, while the significance of IL-6, HDL, and 25-OHD should also not be overlooked in these patients. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - March 12, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Ionut Dragos Capraru Catalin Marian Dan Dumitru Vulcanescu Sonia Tanasescu Tiberiu Liviu Dragomir Teodora Daniela Marti Casiana Boru Cecilia Roberta Avram Monica Susan Cristian Sebastian Vlad Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 436: Exogenous Application of dsRNA for Protection against Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus
aura Miozzi Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) is an emerging plant pathogen, fast spreading in Asian and Mediterranean regions, and is considered the most harmful geminivirus of cucurbits in the Mediterranean. ToLCNDV infects several plant and crop species from a range of families, including Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Up to now, protection from ToLCNDV infection has been achieved mainly by RNAi-mediated transgenic resistance, and non-transgenic fast-developing approaches are an urgent need. Plant protection by the delivery of dsRNAs homologous to a pathogen target sequenc...
Source: Viruses - March 12, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Fulco Frascati Silvia Rotunno Gian Paolo Accotto Emanuela Noris Anna Maria Vaira Laura Miozzi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 437: Identification and Characterisation of a Myxoma Virus Detected in the Italian Hare (Lepus corsicanus)
trizia Cavadini Myxoma virus (MYXV) is a Leporipoxvirus (genus) belonging to the family Poxviridae; it is characterised by a genome of approximately 161 kb dsDNA encoding for several proteins that play an essential role in both host spectrum determination and immunomodulation. The healthy reservoir of the virus is Sylvilagus spp. At the same time, in wild and domestic European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), MYXV is the etiologic agent of myxomatosis, a disease with an extremely high mortality rate. In 2014, an interspecies jump of MYXV was reported in Lepus europaeus in the UK. In 2018, myxomatosis induced by a new r...
Source: Viruses - March 12, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Elisa Rossini Moira Bazzucchi Valter Trocchi Francesca Merzoni Cristina Bertasio Sascha Knauf Antonio Lavazza Patrizia Cavadini Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 438: Novel Universal Recombinant Rotavirus a Vaccine Candidate: Evaluation of Immunological Properties
tin Olga V. Karpova Rotavirus infection is a leading cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis in children under 5 years of age. Although rotavirus-associated mortality has decreased considerably because of the introduction of the worldwide rotavirus vaccination, the global burden of rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis remains high. Current vaccines have a number of disadvantages; therefore, there is a need for innovative approaches in rotavirus vaccine development. In the current study, a universal recombinant rotavirus antigen (URRA) for a novel recombinant vaccine candidate against rotavirus A was obtained and ...
Source: Viruses - March 12, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Dmitriy L. Granovskiy Nelli S. Khudainazarova Ekaterina A. Evtushenko Ekaterina M. Ryabchevskaya Olga A. Kondakova Marina V. Arkhipenko Marina V. Kovrizhko Elena P. Kolpakova Tatyana I. Tverdokhlebova Nikolai A. Nikitin Olga V. Karpova Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 439: First Detection of Benign Rabbit Caliciviruses in Chile
In this study, liver and duodenum rabbit samples from central Chile were tested for the presence of lagoviruses and positive samples were subject to whole RNA sequencing and subsequent data analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a novel RCV variant in duodenal samples that likely originated from European RCVs. Sequencing analysis also detected the presence of a rabbit astrovirus in one of the lagovirus-positive samples. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - March 12, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Elena Smertina Luca M. Keller Nina Huang Gabriela Flores-Benner Jennifer Paola Correa-Cuadros Melanie Duclos Fabian M. Jaksic Crist óbal Briceño Victor Neira Ramirez Miguel D íaz-Gacitúa Sebasti án Carrasco-Fernández Ina L. Smith Tanja Strive Maria Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 440: Quantifying Plant Viruses: Evolution from Bioassay to Infectivity Dilution Curves along the Model of Tobamoviruses
armen Büttner This review describes the development of the bioassay as a means of quantifying plant viruses, with particular attention to tobamovirus. It delves into various models used to establish a correlation between virus particle concentration and the number of induced local lesions (the infectivity dilution curve), including the Poisson, Furumoto and Mickey, Kleczkowski, Growth curve, and modified Poisson models. The parameters of each model are described, and their application or performance in the context of the tobacco mosaic virus is explored. This overview highlights the enduring value of the infectivity d...
Source: Viruses - March 12, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Shaheen Nourinejhad Zarghani Mehran Monavari Amin Nourinejhad Zarghani Sahar Nouri Jens Ehlers Joachim Hamacher Martina Bandte Carmen B üttner Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 441: Evaluation of Vaccine Immunogenicity & mdash;Correlates to Real-World Protection: Influenza
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 441: Evaluation of Vaccine Immunogenicity—Correlates to Real-World Protection: Influenza Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16030441 Authors: Csaba Laszlofy Gyorgy Fazekas Zoltan Barath Zoltan Vajo Recent events highlighted that, despite decades of studying vaccine immunogenicity and efforts toward finding correlates of protection, evaluating real-world vaccine efficacy as well as establishing meaningful licensing criteria still represents a significant challenge. In this paper, we review all aspects of influenza vaccine immunogenicity, including animal and human challenge studies, humora...
Source: Viruses - March 12, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Csaba Laszlofy Gyorgy Fazekas Zoltan Barath Zoltan Vajo Tags: Review Source Type: research