Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 161: SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 as a Modulator of Cytokine Induction: Evidence and Search for Molecular Mechanisms
Carlan da Silva Severe cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection are characterized by an immune response that leads to the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, resulting in lung damage, cardiovascular symptoms, hematologic symptoms, acute kidney injury and multiple organ failure that can lead to death. This remarkable increase in cytokines and other inflammatory molecules is primarily caused by viral proteins, and particular interest has been given to ORF8, a unique accessory protein specific to SARS-CoV-2. Despite plenty of research, the precise mechanisms by which ORF8 induces proinflammatory cytokines are not clear. Ou...
Source: Viruses - January 22, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Mar ília Inês Móvio Giovana Waner Carneiro de Almeida Isabella das Gra ças Lopes Martines Gilmara Barros de Lima Sergio Daishi Sasaki Alexandre Hiroaki Kihara Emma Poole Michael Nevels Maria Cristina Carlan da Silva Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 162: Vaccine and Non-Vaccine HPV Types Presence in Adolescents with Vertically Acquired HIV Five Years Post Gardasil Quadrivalent Vaccination: The Zimgard Cohort
Conclusion: The Gardasil quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV) was expected to protect against infection with HPV types 16, 18, 6, and 11. We demonstrated a possible waning of immunity to HPV18 in 17% of the participants, and an associated loss in cross-protection against HPV45. We observed a relatively high prevalence of ‘opportunistic non-vaccine HPV types’ or ‘ecological niche occupiers’ in this cohort, and suggest further research on the involvement of these types in cervical and other genital cancers. Our study is one of the few, if not the first, to report on HPV vac...
Source: Viruses - January 22, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Alltalents T. Murahwa Tinashe Mudzviti Racheal S. Dube Mandishora Takudzwa Chatindo Peace Chanetsa Margaret Pascoe Tinei Shamu Wisdom Basera Ruedi Luethy Anna-Lise Williamson Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 163: The Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell-Based H9 HA Subunit Avian Influenza Vaccine Provides Complete Protection against the H9N2 Virus Challenge in Chickens
Conclusions: These results indicate that the CHO expression system could be a platform used to develop the subunit vaccine against H9 influenza viruses in chickens. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 22, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Shunfan Zhu Zhenyu Nie Ying Che Jianhong Shu Sufang Wu Yulong He Youqiang Wu Hong Qian Huapeng Feng Qiang Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 158: The Global Evolutionary History of Orf Virus in Sheep and Goats Revealed by Whole Genomes Data
This study aims to elucidate the global evolutionary history of ORFV genomes in sheep and goats, including the first genomes from Central America in the analyses. In comparison to the last study on ORFV whole genomes, the database now includes 11 more sheep and goat genomes, representing an increase of 42%. The analysis of such a broader database made it possible to obtain a fine molecular dating of the coalescent time for ORFV S and G genomes, further highlighting the genetic structuring between sheep and goat genomes and corroborating their emergence in the latter half of 20th century. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 21, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Elisabetta Coradduzza Fabio Scarpa Angela Maria Rocchigiani Carla Cacciotto Giada Lostia Mariangela Stefania Fiori Yoel Rodriguez Valera Alessandra Mistral De Pascali Martina Brandolini Ilenia Azzena Chiara Locci Marco Casu Roberto Bechere Davide Pintus C Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 159: Genomic Expedition: Deciphering Human Adenovirus Strains from the 2023 Outbreak in West Bengal, India: Insights into Viral Evolution and Molecular Epidemiology
This study underscores the significance of evaluating the complete genome sequence of HAdV isolates to glean insights into their outbreak potential and the severity of associated illnesses. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 21, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Ananya Chatterjee Uttaran Bhattacharjee Rudrak Gupta Ashis Debnath Agniva Majumdar Ritubrita Saha Mamta Chawla-Sarkar Alok Kumar Chakrabarti Shanta Dutta Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 157: Molecular Survey on Porcine Parvoviruses (PPV1-7) and Their Association with Major Pathogens in Reproductive Failure Outbreaks in Northern Italy
Michele Drigo Successful reproductive performance is key to farm competitiveness in the global marketplace. Porcine parvovirus 1 (PPV1) has been identified as a major cause of reproductive failure, and since 2001 new species of porcine parvoviruses, namely PPV2–7, have been identified, although their role is not yet fully understood yet. The present study aimed to investigate PPVs’ presence in reproductive failure outbreaks occurring in 124 farms of northern Italy. Fetuses were collected from 338 sows between 2019 and 2021 and tested for PPVs by real-time PCR-based assays and for other virus...
Source: Viruses - January 21, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Giulia Faustini Claudia Maria Tucciarone Giovanni Franzo Anna Donneschi Maria Beatrice Boniotti Giovanni Loris Alborali Michele Drigo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 155: Color-Flu Fluorescent Reporter Influenza A Viruses Allow for In Vivo Studies of Innate Immune Function in Zebrafish
enjamin L. King Influenza virus infection can cause severe respiratory disease and is estimated to cause millions of illnesses annually. Studies on the contribution of the innate immune response to influenza A virus (IAV) to viral pathogenesis may yield new antiviral strategies. Zebrafish larvae are useful models for studying the innate immune response to pathogens, including IAV, in vivo. Here, we demonstrate how Color-flu, four fluorescent IAV strains originally developed for mice, can be used to study the host response to infection by simultaneously monitoring infected cells, neutrophils, and macrophages in vivo. Us...
Source: Viruses - January 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Brandy-Lee Soos Alec Ballinger Mykayla Weinstein Haley Foreman Julianna Grampone Samuel Weafer Connor Aylesworth Benjamin L. King Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 156: Antivirals for Broader Coverage against Human Coronaviruses
R. McLean Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses with a genome that is 27–31 kbases in length. Critical genes include the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), nucleocapsid (N) and nine accessory open reading frames encoding for non-structural proteins (NSPs) that have multiple roles in the replication cycle and immune evasion (1). There are seven known human CoVs that most likely appeared after zoonotic transfer, the most recent being SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Antivirals that have been approved by the FDA for use against COVID-19 such as Pa...
Source: Viruses - January 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Mia Outteridge Christine M. Nunn Kevin Devine Bhaven Patel Gary R. McLean Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 154: The Binding, Infection, and Promoted Growth of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis by the Ranavirus FV3
In this study, we investigated whether FV3 can interact with Bd in vitro using qPCR, conventional microscopy, and immunofluorescent microscopy. Our results reveal the unexpected ability of FV3 to bind, promote aggregation, productively infect, and significantly increase Bd growth in vitro. To extend these results in vivo, we assessed the impact of FV3 on Xenopus tropicalis frogs previously infected with Bd. Consistent with in vitro results, FV3 exposure to previously Bd-infected X. tropicalis significantly increased Bd loads and decreased the host’s survival. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Francisco De Jes ús Andino Anton Davydenko Rebecca J Webb Jacques Robert Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 146: Genomic Characterization and Molecular Evolution of Sapovirus in Children under 5 Years of Age
In this study, a total of 712 stool samples from children under the age of 5 with acute gastroenteritis were collected. Out of these samples, 28 tested positive for SaV, resulting in a detection rate of 3.93% (28/712). Samples with Ct < 30 were collected for library construction and high-throughput sequencing, resulting in the acquisition of nine complete genomes. According to Blast, eight of them were identified as GI.1, while the remaining one was GI.6. The GI.6 strain sequence reported in our study represents the first submission of the GI.6 strain complete genome sequence from mainland China to the Genbank d...
Source: Viruses - January 19, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Xiaolei Ji Chen Guo Yaoyao Dai Lu Chen Yujia Chen Shifang Wang Yihua Sun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 147: Evolutionary-Related High- and Low-Virulent Classical Swine Fever Virus Isolates Reveal Viral Determinants of Virulence
s Nicolas Ruggli Classical swine fever (CSF) has been eradicated from Western and Central Europe but remains endemic in parts of Central and South America, Asia, and the Caribbean. CSF virus (CSFV) has been endemic in Cuba since 1993, most likely following an escape of the highly virulent Margarita/1958 strain. In recent years, chronic and persistent infections with low-virulent CSFV have been observed. Amino acid substitutions located in immunodominant epitopes of the envelope glycoprotein E2 of the attenuated isolates were attributed to positive selection due to suboptimal vaccination and control. To obtain a compl...
Source: Viruses - January 19, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Yoandry Hinojosa Matthias Liniger Obdulio Garc ía-Nicolás Markus Gerber Anojen Rajaratnam Sara Mu ñoz-González Liani Coronado Mar ía Teresa Frías Carmen Laura Perera Llilianne Ganges Nicolas Ruggli Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 148: Domestic Cat Hepadnavirus Antigens in Lymphoma Tissues. Comment on Beatty et al. Domestic Cat Hepadnavirus and Lymphoma. Viruses 2023, 15, 2294
hangamsuwan We are addressing the comments made by Beatty et al [...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 19, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Chutchai Piewbang Sabrina Wahyu Wardhani Jedsada Siripoonsub Sirintra Sirivisoot Anudep Rungsipipat Somporn Techangamsuwan Tags: Comment Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 149: Reply to Piewbang et al. Domestic Cat Hepadnavirus Antigens in Lymphoma Tissues. Comment on & ldquo;Beatty et al. Domestic Cat Hepadnavirus and Lymphoma. Viruses 2023, 15, 2294 & rdquo;
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 149: Reply to Piewbang et al. Domestic Cat Hepadnavirus Antigens in Lymphoma Tissues. Comment on “Beatty et al. Domestic Cat Hepadnavirus and Lymphoma. Viruses 2023, 15, 2294” Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16010149 Authors: Julia A. Beatty Thomas Tu Patricia A. Pesavento Joao P. Cavasin Min-Chun Chen Jonathan A. Lidbury Joerg M. Steiner Vanessa R. Barrs John M. Cullen We are grateful to the authors for providing additional data to demonstrate the presence of domestic cat hepadnavirus in lymphoma tissues [...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 19, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Julia A. Beatty Thomas Tu Patricia A. Pesavento Joao P. Cavasin Min-Chun Chen Jonathan A. Lidbury Joerg M. Steiner Vanessa R. Barrs John M. Cullen Tags: Reply Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 150: Genomic Characterization of a Wild-Type Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoAHV-1) Strain Isolated in An Outbreak in Central Italy
This study reports the first full genomic characterization of a BoAHV-1 isolate in Italy, enriching our understanding of the genetic characteristics of the circulating BoAHV-1 strain in Italy. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 19, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Stefano Petrini Valentina Curini Cecilia Righi Cesare Camm à Valeria Di Lollo Elena Tinelli Luana Fiorella Mincarelli Elisabetta Rossi Giulia Costantino Barbara Secondini Silvia Pirani Monica Giammarioli Francesco Feliziani Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 151: Aerosol Transmission of Norovirus
iyong Gao Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. A comprehensive understanding of the transmission mode is of great significance for the prevention and control of the NoV infection. Currently, the transmission modes of NoV include contact, food-borne, water-borne and aerosol transmission. The first three modes are more common, while aerosol transmission is seldom reported. In this paper, the source, generation mechanism, infectivity, sampling and related outbreaks of NoV aerosol are summarized and discussed. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 19, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Mengdi Tan Yi Tian Daitao Zhang Quanyi Wang Zhiyong Gao Tags: Review Source Type: research