Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 318: Oral Fluids for the Early Detection of Classical Swine Fever in Commercial Level Pig Pens
na Ambagala The early detection of classical swine fever (CSF) remains a key challenge, especially when outbreaks are caused by moderate and low-virulent CSF virus (CSFV) strains. Oral fluid is a reliable and cost-effective sample type that is regularly surveilled for endemic diseases in commercial pig herds in North America. Here, we explored the possibility of utilizing oral fluids for the early detection of CSFV incursions in commercial-size pig pens using two independent experiments. In the first experiment, a seeder pig infected with the moderately-virulent CSFV Pinillos strain was used, and in the second experime...
Source: Viruses - February 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Erin Robert Kalhari Goonewardene Ian El Kanoa Orie Hochman Charles Nfon Aruna Ambagala Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 313: Metabolic Alterations in Mothers Living with HIV and Their HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Infants
Roan Louw HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children present with suboptimal growth and a greater susceptibility to infection in early life when compared to HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) children. The reasons for these findings are poorly understood. We used a metabolomics approach to investigate the metabolic differences between pregnant women living with HIV (PWLWH) and their HEU infants compared to the uninfected and unexposed controls. Untargeted metabolomic profiling was performed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy on maternal plasma at 28 weeks’ gestation and infant plasma at birth, 6/10 weeks, and 6 months. P...
Source: Viruses - February 19, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Louise D. V. du Toit Shayne Mason Mari van Reenen Theresa M. Rossouw Roan Louw Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 314: Change in Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in the Last Two Decades in Thailand
Conclusion: The prevalence of HBV infection in pregnant women has significantly decreased in the past two decades from 6.11% in 2003 to 3.15% in 2022. The percentage of reduction was very striking in the adolescent group, dropping from 8.6% in 2003 to 0.0% in 2022 or being nearly eradicated in the most recent years. Our results suggest that the overall prevalence of HBV infection among our pregnant women will probably be less than 1.0% in the near future. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 19, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Yosagorn Porngasemsart Sirinart Sirilert Theera Tongsong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 315: Emergence of Crimean & ndash;Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Eastern Senegal in 2022
In this study, clinical samples collected through national surveillance systems were screened for acute CCHF virus (CCHFV) infection using RT-PCR and for exposure using ELISA. For any CCHF-positive sample, livestock and tick samples were also collected in the neighborhood of the confirmed case and tested using ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were also performed on samples with positive RT-PCR results. In Eastern Senegal, two human cases and one Hyalomma tick positive for CCHF were identified and a seroprevalence in livestock ranging from 9.33% to 45.26% was detected. Phylogenetic...
Source: Viruses - February 19, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Ousseynou Sene Samba Niang Sagne D éthié Ngom Moussa Moise Diagne Aminata Badji Aliou Khoul é El Hadji Ndiaye Safietou Sankhe Cheikh Loucoubar Mawlouth Diallo Manfred Weidmann Ndongo Dia Etienne Simon-Lori ère Yoro Sall Boly Diop Mamadou Ndiaye Anavaj Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 316: The Influenza A Virus Replication Cycle: A Comprehensive Review
bal Influenza A virus (IAV) is the primary causative agent of influenza, colloquially called the flu. Each year, it infects up to a billion people, resulting in hundreds of thousands of human deaths, and causes devastating avian outbreaks with worldwide losses worth billions of dollars. Always present is the possibility that a highly pathogenic novel subtype capable of direct human-to-human transmission will spill over into humans, causing a pandemic as devastating if not more so than the 1918 influenza pandemic. While antiviral drugs for influenza do exist, they target very few aspects of IAV replication and risk beco...
Source: Viruses - February 19, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Toby Carter Munir Iqbal Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 309: Phylogenetic and Molecular Analysis of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in Mexico during the First Reported Outbreaks (2013 & ndash;2017)
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 309: Phylogenetic and Molecular Analysis of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in Mexico during the First Reported Outbreaks (2013–2017) Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16020309 Authors: José Francisco Rivera-Benítez Rebeca Martínez-Bautista Raúl González-Martínez Jazmín De la Luz-Armendáriz Irma Herrera-Camacho Nora Rosas-Murrieta Laura Márquez-Valdelamar Rocio Lara The characteristics of the whole PEDV genome that has circulated in Mexico from the first outbreak to the present are unknown. We chose samples obtained from 2013 to 2017 and sequenced them, which enabled...
Source: Viruses - February 18, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Jos é Francisco Rivera-Benítez Rebeca Mart ínez-Bautista Ra úl González-Martínez Jazm ín De la Luz-Armendáriz Irma Herrera-Camacho Nora Rosas-Murrieta Laura M árquez-Valdelamar Rocio Lara Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 310: Serpentoviruses Exhibit Diverse Organization and ORF Composition with Evidence of Recombination
lehan Serpentoviruses are a subfamily of positive sense RNA viruses in the order Nidovirales, family Tobaniviridae, associated with respiratory disease in multiple clades of reptiles. While the broadest viral diversity is reported from captive pythons, other reptiles, including colubrid snakes, turtles, and lizards of captive and free-ranging origin are also known hosts. To better define serpentoviral diversity, eleven novel serpentovirus genomes were sequenced with an Illumina MiSeq and, when necessary, completed with other Sanger sequencing methods. The novel serpentoviral genomes, along with 57 other previously publ...
Source: Viruses - February 18, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Steven B. Tillis Robert J. Ossiboff James F. X. Wellehan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 311: Application of CRISPR/Cas9 for Rapid Genome Editing of Pseudorabies Virus and Bovine Herpesvirus-1
In conclusion, we showed that alpha herpesvirus, including PRV and BHV-1, can be rapidly edited using the CRISPR/Cas9 approach paving the way to the development of animal herpesvirus vaccines. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 18, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Wanqi Yu Jingyi Liu Yingnan Liu Maria Forlenza Hongjun Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 312: Generation of High-Quality African Swine Fever Virus Complete Genome from Field Samples by Next-Generation Sequencing
Jingyue Bao Zhiliang Wang African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal contagious viral disease of domestic pigs and wild boars caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV). The pandemic spread of ASF has caused severe effects on the global pig industry. Whole-genome sequencing provides crucial information for virus strain characterization, epidemiology analysis and vaccine development. Here, we evaluated the performance of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in generating ASFV genome sequences from clinical samples. Thirty-four ASFV-positive field samples including spleen, lymph node, lung, liver and blood with a range of C...
Source: Viruses - February 18, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Chuan Shi Qinghua Wang Yutian Liu Shujuan Wang Yongqiang Zhang Chunju Liu Yongxin Hu Dongxia Zheng Chengyou Sun Fangfang Song Xiaojing Yu Yunling Zhao Jingyue Bao Zhiliang Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 308: Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of Cytokines during Influenza and COVID-19
harma Cytokines are signaling molecules that play a role in myriad processes, including those occurring during diseases and homeostasis. Their homeostatic function begins during embryogenesis and persists throughout life, including appropriate signaling for the cell and organism death. During viral infections, antiviral cytokines such as interferons and inflammatory cytokines are upregulated. Despite the well-known benefits of these cytokines, their levels often correlate with disease severity, linking them to unfavorable outcomes. In this review, we discuss both the beneficial and pathological functions of cytokines a...
Source: Viruses - February 18, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: De Chang Charles Dela Cruz Lokesh Sharma Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 306: Rosuvastatin as a Supplemental Treatment for the Clinical Symptoms of Nephropathia Epidemica: A Pilot Clinical Study
This study aimed to assess the impact of rosuvastatin on the clinical and laboratory results of NE. A total of 61 NE patients and 30 controls were included in this study; 22 NE patients and 7 controls received a daily dose of rosuvastatin (10 mg) for ten consecutive days. Serum samples were collected on days 1, 5, and 10 after admission to the hospital. These samples were analyzed to determine the levels of lipids, cytokines, and kidney toxicity markers. Our findings indicate that rosuvastatin reduced the duration of the second wave of fever and alleviated back pain and headache symptoms. Additionally, low-density lipoprot...
Source: Viruses - February 17, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Venera Shakirova Maria Markelova Yuriy Davidyuk Robert J. Stott-Marshall Toshana L. Foster Svetlana Khaiboullina Albert Rizvanov Ekaterina Martynova Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 307: Identification and Genomic Characterization of Bovine Boosepivirus A in the United States and Canada
ang Boosepivirus is a new genus in the Picornaviridae family. Boosepiviruses (BooVs) are genetically classified into three species: A, B, and C. Initially, Boosepivirus A and B were identified in cattle, whereas Boosepivirus C was detected in sheep. Recent evidence showed that Boosepivirus B was detected in sheep and Boosepivirus C was identified in goats, suggesting that Boosepvirus might cross the species barrier to infect different hosts. Different from BooV B, BooV A is less studied. In the present study, we reported identification of two North American BooV A strains from cattle. Genomic characterization revealed ...
Source: Viruses - February 17, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Christian Savard Leyi Wang Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 305: First Report of the Emergence of Peste des Petits Ruminants Lineage IV Virus in Senegal
tapha Lo Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease and one of the deadliest affecting wild goats, sheep, and small ruminants; however, goats are generally more sensitive. The causative agent is the Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV), which is a single-stranded RNA virus of negative polarity belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. In February 2020, an active outbreak of PPR was reported in a herd of a transhumant farmer in the village of Gainth Pathé (department of Kounguel, Kaffrine region, Senegal). Of the ten swabs collected from the goats, eight returned a positive re...
Source: Viruses - February 17, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Aminata Ba Gaye Laye Diop Mbengu é Ndiaye Michel Dione Modou Moustapha Lo Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 302: The Chemokine CXCL14 as a Potential Immunotherapeutic Agent for Cancer Therapy
n Pyeon There is great enthusiasm toward the development of novel immunotherapies for the treatment of cancer, and given their roles in immune system regulation, chemokines stand out as promising candidates for use in new cancer therapies. Many previous studies have shown how chemokine signaling pathways could be targeted to halt cancer progression. We and others have revealed that the chemokine CXCL14 promotes antitumor immune responses, suggesting that CXCL14 may be effective for cancer immunotherapy. However, it is still unknown what mechanism governs CXCL14-mediated antitumor activity, how to deliver CXCL14, what d...
Source: Viruses - February 16, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Nicholas S. Giacobbi Shreya Mullapudi Harrison Nabors Dohun Pyeon Tags: Opinion Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 301: The Risk of Reinfection or Primary Hepatitis E Virus Infection at a Liver Transplant Center in Brazil: An Observational Cohort Study
A. Camargo The hepatitis E virus is a major etiological agent of chronic hepatitis in immunosuppressed individuals. Seroprevalence in the liver transplantation setting varies according to the seroprevalence of the general population in different countries. This was a prospective cohort study of liver transplant recipients in southeastern Brazil. Recipients were systematically followed for one year, with the objective of determining the prevalence, incidence, and natural history of HEV infection in this population. We included 107 liver transplant recipients and 83 deceased donors. Positivity for anti-HEV IgG was detec...
Source: Viruses - February 16, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Michelle Zicker Jo ão R. R. Pinho Eliane A. R. Welter Bianca D. Guardia Paulo G. T. M. da Silva Leonardo B. da Silveira Lu ís F. A. Camargo Tags: Article Source Type: research