Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 298: Association between Human Papillomavirus 16 Viral Load in Pregnancy and Preterm Birth
This study aimed to measure the association between HPV16 viral load during pregnancy and preterm birth. We used data from participants in the HERITAGE study. The Linear Array assay was used for HPV DNA testing on vaginal samples collected during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy. The HPV16 viral load was measured with a real-time polymerase chain reaction. We used logistic regression to measure the associations between HPV16 viral load during pregnancy and preterm birth (defined as birth before 37 weeks of gestation). The adjusted odd ratios (aORs) and the 95% confidence intervals [CIs] were estimated with inver...
Source: Viruses - February 15, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Pranamika Khayargoli Marie-H élène Mayrand Joseph Niyibizi Fran çois Audibert Louise Laporte Julie Lacaille Ana Maria Carceller Jacques Lacroix Émilie Comète Fran çois Coutlée Trottier Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 299: Meeting Report of the Second Symposium of the Belgian Society for Viruses of Microbes and Launch of the Phage Valley
s Briers Damien Thiry The second symposium of the Belgian Society for Viruses of Microbes (BSVoM) took place on 8 September 2023 at the University of Liège with 141 participants from 10 countries. The meeting program covered three thematic sessions opened by international keynote speakers: two sessions were devoted to “Fundamental research in phage ecology and biology” and the third one to the “Present and future applications of phages”. During this one day symposium, four invited keynote lectures, nine selected talks and eight student pitches wer...
Source: Viruses - February 15, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Salom é Desmecht Agnieszka Latka Pieter-Jan Ceyssens Abel Garcia-Pino Annika Gillis Rob Lavigne Gipsi Lima-Mendez Jelle Matthijnssens Roberto V ázquez Jolien Venneman Jeroen Wagemans Yves Briers Damien Thiry Tags: Conference Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 300: D-Limonene Affects the Feeding Behavior and the Acquisition and Transmission of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus by Bemisia tabaci
Xiaobin Shi Yong Liu Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is an important invasive pest transmitting plant viruses that are maintained through a plant–insect–plant cycle. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) can be transmitted in a persistent manner by B. tabaci, which causes great losses to global agricultural production. From an environmentally friendly, sustainable, and efficient point of view, in this study, we explored the function of d-limonene in reducing the acquisition and transmission of TYLCV by B. tabaci as a repellent volatile. D-limonene increased the duration of non-feeding waves ...
Source: Viruses - February 15, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Yan Wei Liming Gao Zhanhong Zhang Kailong Li Zhuo Zhang Deyong Zhang Jianbin Chen Jing Peng Yang Gao Jiao Du Shuo Yan Xiaobin Shi Yong Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 293: The Study of Bluetongue Virus (BTV) and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) Circulation and Vectors at the Municipal Parks and Zoobotanical Foundation of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil (FPMZB-BH)
This study, conducted at the Belo Horizonte Municipal Parks and Zoobotany Foundation (FPMZB-BH), Minas Gerais, Brazil, focused on Orbivirus and its vectors. Collections of Culicoides spp. were carried out at the FPMZB-BH from 9 December 2021 to 18 November 2022. A higher prevalence of these insects was observed during the summer months, especially in February. Factors such as elevated temperatures, high humidity, fecal accumulation, and proximity to large animals, like camels and elephants, were associated with increased Culicoides capture. Among the identified Culicoides spp. species, Culicoides insignis Lutz, 1913, const...
Source: Viruses - February 15, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Eduardo Alves Caixeta Mariana Andrioli Pinheiro Victoria Souza Lucchesi Anna Gabriella Guimar ães Oliveira Grazielle Cossenzo Florentino Galinari Herlandes Penha Tinoco Carlyle Mendes Coelho Z élia Inês Portela Lobato Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 294: Revisiting the Importance of Orthobunyaviruses for Animal Health: A Scoping Review of Livestock Disease, Diagnostic Tests, and Surveillance Strategies for the Simbu Serogroup
Toribio Orthobunyaviruses (order Bunyavirales, family Peribunyaviridae) in the Simbu serogroup have been responsible for widespread epidemics of congenital disease in ruminants. Australia has a national program to monitor arboviruses of veterinary importance. While monitoring for Akabane virus, a novel orthobunyavirus was detected. To inform the priority that should be given to this detection, a scoping review was undertaken to (1) characterise the associated disease presentations and establish which of the Simbu group viruses are of veterinary importance; (2) examine the diagnostic assays that have undergone developm...
Source: Viruses - February 15, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Tiffany W. O ’Connor Paul M. Hick Deborah S. Finlaison Peter D. Kirkland Jenny-Ann L.M.L. Toribio Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 292: Performance of Three Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Anti-S and One Anti-N Immunoassays for the Monitoring of Immune Status and Vaccine Response
This study aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of three anti-S and one anti-N assays that were available to the project in detecting antibody levels after three commonly used SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (Pfizer, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson). It also aimed to assess the association of age, sex, race, ethnicity, vaccine timing, and vaccine side effects on antibody levels in a cohort of 827 individuals. In September 2021, 698 vaccinated individuals donated blood samples as part of the Association for Diagnostics & Laboratory Medicine (ADLM) COVID-19 Immunity Study. These individuals also participa...
Source: Viruses - February 14, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Y. Victoria Zhang Attila Kumanovics Joesph Wiencek Stacy E. F. Melanson Tanzy Love Alan H. B. Wu Zhen Zhao Qing H. Meng David D. Koch Fred S. Apple Caitlin R. Ondracek Robert H. Christenson Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 291: PTEN Mediates the Silencing of Unintegrated HIV-1 DNA
In this study, we sought to characterize new host factors for the inhibition of expression from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA. A genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screening revealed the essential role of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in the silencing of unintegrated HIV-1 DNA. PTEN’s phosphatase activity negatively regulates the PI3K-Akt pathway to inhibit the transcription from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA. The knockout (KO) of PTEN or inhibition of PTEN’s phosphatase activity by point mutagenesis activates Akt by phosphorylation and enhances the transcription from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA. Inhibition ...
Source: Viruses - February 14, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: An Thanh Phan Yiping Zhu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 288: Macrophages: Key Cellular Players in HIV Infection and Pathogenesis
Serge Benichou Although cells of the myeloid lineages, including tissue macrophages and conventional dendritic cells, were rapidly recognized, in addition to CD4+ T lymphocytes, as target cells of HIV-1, their specific roles in the pathophysiology of infection were initially largely neglected. However, numerous studies performed over the past decade, both in vitro in cell culture systems and in vivo in monkey and humanized mouse animal models, led to growing evidence that macrophages play important direct and indirect roles as HIV-1 target cells and in pathogenesis. It has been recently proposed that macrophages are li...
Source: Viruses - February 13, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Marie Woottum Sen Yan Sophie Sayettat S éverine Grinberg Dominique Cathelin Nassima Bekaddour Jean-Philippe Herbeuval Serge Benichou Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 289: Genomic and Proteomic Analysis of Six Vi01-like Phages Reveals Wide Host Range and Multiple Tail Spike Proteins
lianne H. Grose Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of Gram-negative bacteria composed of many pathogens, including Salmonella and Shigella. Here, we characterize six bacteriophages that infect Enterobacteriaceae, which were isolated from wastewater plants in the Wasatch front (Utah, United States). These phages are highly similar to the Kuttervirus vB_SenM_Vi01 (Vi01), which was isolated using wastewater from Kiel, Germany. The phages vary little in genome size and are between 157 kb and 164 kb, which is consistent with the sizes of other phages in the Vi01-like phage family. These six phages were characterized throu...
Source: Viruses - February 13, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Evan B. Harris Kenneth K. K. Ewool Lucy C. Bowden Jonatan Fierro Daniel Johnson McKay Meinzer Sadie Tayler Julianne H. Grose Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 290: IE1 of Human Cytomegalovirus Inhibits Necroptotic Cell Death via Direct and Indirect Modulation of the Necrosome Complex
In this study, we identify the immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein as a key antagonist of necroptosis during HCMV infection. Infection data obtained in a necroptosis-sensitive cell culture system revealed a robust regulation of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the necrosome complex as well as the importance of IE1 expression for an effective counteraction of necroptosis. Interaction analyses unveiled an association of IE1 and RIPK3, which occurs in an RHIM-domain independent manner. We propose that this interaction manipulates the PTMs of RIPK3 by promoting its ubiquitination. Furthermore, IE1 was found to exert an i...
Source: Viruses - February 13, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Anna Theresa Heusel Sophie Rapp Thomas Stamminger Myriam Scherer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 286: Multiplex Serology for Sensitive and Specific Flavivirus IgG Detection: Addition of Envelope Protein Domain III to NS1 Increases Sensitivity for Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus IgG Detection
antal Reusken Tick-borne encephalitis is a vaccine-preventable disease of concern for public health in large parts of Europe, with EU notification rates increasing since 2018. It is caused by the orthoflavivirus tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and a diagnosis of infection is mainly based on serology due to its short viremic phase, often before symptom onset. The interpretation of TBEV serology is hampered by a history of orthoflavivirus vaccination and by previous infections with related orthoflaviviruses. Here, we sought to improve TBEV sero-diagnostics using an antigen combination of in-house expressed NS1 and E...
Source: Viruses - February 13, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Coralie Valle Sandhya Shrestha Gert-Jan Godeke Marieke N. Hoogerwerf Johan Reimerink Dirk Eggink Chantal Reusken Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 287: HIV-1 Proviral Genome Engineering with CRISPR-Cas9 for Mechanistic Studies
Orso HIV-1 latency remains a barrier to a functional cure because of the ability of virtually silent yet inducible proviruses within reservoir cells to transcriptionally reactivate upon cell stimulation. HIV-1 reactivation occurs through the sequential action of host transcription factors (TFs) during the “host phase” and the viral TF Tat during the “viral phase”, which together facilitate the positive feedback loop required for exponential transcription, replication, and pathogenesis. The sequential action of these TFs poses a challenge to precisely delineate t...
Source: Viruses - February 13, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Usman Hyder Ashutosh Shukla Ashwini Challa Iv án D’Orso Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 282: Transcriptional Differential Analysis of Nitazoxanide-Mediated Anticanine Parvovirus Effect in F81 Cells
ngping Li Bing Yang Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a single-stranded DNA virus that can cause typical hemorrhagic enteritis, and it is one of the common canine lethal viruses. In previous studies, we screened the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)’s drug library and identified nitazoxanide (NTZ), which has anti-CPV capabilities. To investigate the potential antiviral mechanisms, we first reconfirmed the inhibitory effect of NTZ on the CPV by inoculating with different doses and treating for different lengths of time. Then, the differences in the transcription levels between the 0.1%-DMSO-treated virus group...
Source: Viruses - February 12, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Xia Su Hongzhuan Zhou Ziwei Han Fuzhou Xu Bing Xiao Jin Zhang Qi Qi Lulu Lin Huanhuan Zhang Songping Li Bing Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 283: Identification and Genome Characterization of a Novel Virus within the Genus Totivirus from Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra)
u Luping Zheng Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) is an economically significant fruit tree native to eastern Asia and widely planted in south-central China. However, studies about the viruses infecting M. rubra remain largely lacking. In the present study, we employed the metatranscriptomic method to identify viruses in M. rubra leaves exhibiting yellowing and irregular margin symptoms collected in Fuzhou, a city located in China’s Fujian province in the year 2022. As a consequence, a novel member of the genus Totivirus was identified and tentatively named “Myrica rubra associated totivirus ...
Source: Viruses - February 12, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Zhongtian Xu Yi ’nan Gao Kun Teng Huoyang Ge Xiaoqi Zhang Mengjing Wu Ruhui Li Zujian Wu Luping Zheng Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 284: Beyond Impairment of Virion Infectivity: New Activities of the Anti-HIV Host Cell Factor SERINC5
ckler Members of the serine incorporator (SERINC) protein family exert broad antiviral activity, and many viruses encode SERINC antagonists to circumvent these restrictions. Significant new insight was recently gained into the mechanisms that mediate restriction and antagonism. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the mode of action and relevance of SERINC proteins in HIV-1 infection. Particular focus will be placed on recent findings that provided important new mechanistic insights into the restriction of HIV-1 virion infectivity, including the discovery of SERINC’s lipid scramblase ...
Source: Viruses - February 12, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Samy Sid Ahmed Kathrin Bajak Oliver T. Fackler Tags: Review Source Type: research