Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 286: Multiplex Serology for Sensitive and Specific Flavivirus IgG Detection: Addition of Envelope Protein Domain III to NS1 Increases Sensitivity for Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus IgG Detection
antal Reusken Tick-borne encephalitis is a vaccine-preventable disease of concern for public health in large parts of Europe, with EU notification rates increasing since 2018. It is caused by the orthoflavivirus tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and a diagnosis of infection is mainly based on serology due to its short viremic phase, often before symptom onset. The interpretation of TBEV serology is hampered by a history of orthoflavivirus vaccination and by previous infections with related orthoflaviviruses. Here, we sought to improve TBEV sero-diagnostics using an antigen combination of in-house expressed NS1 and E...
Source: Viruses - February 13, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Coralie Valle Sandhya Shrestha Gert-Jan Godeke Marieke N. Hoogerwerf Johan Reimerink Dirk Eggink Chantal Reusken Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 287: HIV-1 Proviral Genome Engineering with CRISPR-Cas9 for Mechanistic Studies
€™Orso HIV-1 latency remains a barrier to a functional cure because of the ability of virtually silent yet inducible proviruses within reservoir cells to transcriptionally reactivate upon cell stimulation. HIV-1 reactivation occurs through the sequential action of host transcription factors (TFs) during the “host phase” and the viral TF Tat during the “viral phase”, which together facilitate the positive feedback loop required for exponential transcription, replication, and pathogenesis. The sequential action of these TFs poses a challenge to precisely delineate t...
Source: Viruses - February 13, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Usman Hyder Ashutosh Shukla Ashwini Challa Iv án D’Orso Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 282: Transcriptional Differential Analysis of Nitazoxanide-Mediated Anticanine Parvovirus Effect in F81 Cells
ngping Li Bing Yang Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a single-stranded DNA virus that can cause typical hemorrhagic enteritis, and it is one of the common canine lethal viruses. In previous studies, we screened the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)’s drug library and identified nitazoxanide (NTZ), which has anti-CPV capabilities. To investigate the potential antiviral mechanisms, we first reconfirmed the inhibitory effect of NTZ on the CPV by inoculating with different doses and treating for different lengths of time. Then, the differences in the transcription levels between the 0.1%-DMSO-treated virus group...
Source: Viruses - February 12, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Xia Su Hongzhuan Zhou Ziwei Han Fuzhou Xu Bing Xiao Jin Zhang Qi Qi Lulu Lin Huanhuan Zhang Songping Li Bing Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 283: Identification and Genome Characterization of a Novel Virus within the Genus Totivirus from Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra)
u Luping Zheng Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) is an economically significant fruit tree native to eastern Asia and widely planted in south-central China. However, studies about the viruses infecting M. rubra remain largely lacking. In the present study, we employed the metatranscriptomic method to identify viruses in M. rubra leaves exhibiting yellowing and irregular margin symptoms collected in Fuzhou, a city located in China’s Fujian province in the year 2022. As a consequence, a novel member of the genus Totivirus was identified and tentatively named “Myrica rubra associated totivirus ...
Source: Viruses - February 12, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Zhongtian Xu Yi ’nan Gao Kun Teng Huoyang Ge Xiaoqi Zhang Mengjing Wu Ruhui Li Zujian Wu Luping Zheng Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 284: Beyond Impairment of Virion Infectivity: New Activities of the Anti-HIV Host Cell Factor SERINC5
ckler Members of the serine incorporator (SERINC) protein family exert broad antiviral activity, and many viruses encode SERINC antagonists to circumvent these restrictions. Significant new insight was recently gained into the mechanisms that mediate restriction and antagonism. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the mode of action and relevance of SERINC proteins in HIV-1 infection. Particular focus will be placed on recent findings that provided important new mechanistic insights into the restriction of HIV-1 virion infectivity, including the discovery of SERINC’s lipid scramblase ...
Source: Viruses - February 12, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Samy Sid Ahmed Kathrin Bajak Oliver T. Fackler Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 285: Genetic Characterization and Phylogeographic Analysis of the First H13N6 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Vega Gull in South Korea
This study identified and characterized the first isolate of the H13N6 subtype from a Vega gull (Larus vegae mongolicus) in South Korea. The amino acid sequence of hemagglutinin gene showed a low pathogenic AIV subtype and various amino acid substitutions were found in the sequence compared to the reference sequence and known H13 isolates. High sequence homology with other H13N6 isolates was found in HA, NA, PB1, and PA genes, but not for PB2, NP, M, and NS genes. Interestingly, various point amino acid mutations were found on all gene segments, and some are linked to an increased binding to human-type receptors, resistanc...
Source: Viruses - February 12, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Rochelle A. Flores Paula Leona T. Cammayo-Fletcher Binh T. Nguyen Andrea Gail M. Villavicencio Seung Yun Lee Yongwoo Son Jae-Hoon Kim Kwang Il Park Won Gi Yoo Yeung Bae Jin Wongi Min Woo H. Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 279: Bivalent VSV Vectors Mediate Rapid and Potent Protection from Andes Virus Challenge in Hamsters
nz Feldmann Orthohantaviruses may cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Andes virus (ANDV) is the only orthohantavirus associated with human–human transmission. Therefore, emergency vaccination would be a valuable public health measure to combat ANDV-derived infection clusters. Here, we utilized a promising vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccine to advance the approach for emergency applications. We compared monovalent and bivalent VSV vectors containing the Ebola virus (EBOV), glycoprotein (GP), and ANDV glycoprotein precursor (GPC) for protective eff...
Source: Viruses - February 11, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Joshua Marceau David Safronetz Cynthia Martellaro Andrea Marzi Kyle Rosenke Heinz Feldmann Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 280: Comprehensive Elucidation of the Role of L and 2A Security Proteins on Cell Death during EMCV Infection
This study is aimed at checking the role of these proteins in the choice of cell death type in three different cell lines using three mutants of EMCV lacking functional L, 2A, and both proteins together. We have found that both L and 2A are non-essential for viral replication in HeLa, BHK, and RD cell lines, as evidenced by the viability of the virus in the absence of both functional proteins. L-deficient infection led to the apoptotic death of HeLa and RD cells, and the necrotic death of BHK cells. 2A-deficient infection induced apoptosis in BHK and RD cells. Infection of HeLa cells with the 2A-deficient mutant was finali...
Source: Viruses - February 11, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Yury Ivin Anna Butusova Ekaterina Gladneva Anatoly Gmyl Aydar Ishmukhametov Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 281: Metformin Alters mRNA Expression of FOXP3, RORC, and TBX21 and Modulates Gut Microbiota in COVID-19 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
This study found that people who did not take metformin had a downregulated expression of FOXP3 by 6.62-fold, upregulated expression of RORC by 29.0-fold, and upregulated TBX21 by 1.78-fold, compared to the control group. On the other hand, metformin patients showed a 1.96-fold upregulation in FOXP3 expression compared to the control group, along with a 1.84-fold downregulation in RORC expression and an 11.4-fold downregulation in TBX21 expression. Additionally, we found a correlation with gut microbiota (F/B ratio and alpha-diversity index) and pro-inflammatory biomarkers. This novel observation of metformin&rsquo...
Source: Viruses - February 11, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Pavlo Petakh Iryna Kamyshna Valentyn Oksenych Oleksandr Kamyshnyi Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 277: Phage Display & rsquo;s Prospects for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 277: Phage Display’s Prospects for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16020277 Authors: Valery A. Petrenko Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most diagnosed cancer among men. It was observed that early diagnosis of disease is highly beneficial for the survival of cancer patients. Therefore, the extension and increasing quality of life of PC patients can be achieved by broadening the cancer screening programs that are aimed at the identification of cancer manifestation in patients at earlier stages, before they demonstrate well-understood signs of the disease. ...
Source: Viruses - February 10, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Valery A. Petrenko Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 278: Association between Statins Administration and Influenza Susceptibility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies
long Shu Caijun Sun Previous studies reported that the association between statins use and influenza infection was contradictory. A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies were performed to determine the association between statins use and influenza susceptibility. The literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, from each database’s inception to 21 May 2023. The fixed effect model and random effects model were used for data synthesis. In our study, a total of 1,472,239 statins users and 1,486,881 statins non-users from five articles were included. The poole...
Source: Viruses - February 10, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Fan Wu Congcong Wang Shunran Li Ying Ye Mingting Cui Yajie Liu Shiqiang Jiang Jun Qian Jianhui Yuan Yuelong Shu Caijun Sun Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 276: Genomic Analyses of Major SARS-CoV-2 Variants Predicting Multiple Regions of Pathogenic and Transmissive Importance
We report the identification of two codon sites in the orf8 and N genes demonstrating such evidence with real-world impacts on pathogenicity and transmissivity. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 10, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Steven W. Brugger Julianne H. Grose Craig H. Decker Brett E. Pickett Mary F. Davis Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 273: Acellular Human Amniotic Fluid-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Novel Anti-Inflammatory Therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 Infection
In this study, we evaluated acellular human amniotic fluid (acAF) containing extracellular vesicles (hAF-EVs) as a potential non-toxic and safe biologic for immunomodulation during COVID-19. Our in vitro results showed that acAF significantly reduced inflammatory cytokine production in TLR2/4/7 and SARS-CoV-2 structural protein-stimulated mouse macrophages. Importantly, an intraperitoneal administration of acAF reduced morbidity and mortality in SARS-CoV-2-infected mice. A detailed examination of SARS-CoV-2-infected lungs revealed that the increased protection in acAF-treated mice was associated with reduced viral titers a...
Source: Viruses - February 9, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Debarati Chanda Tania Del Rivero Roshan Ghimire Sunil More Maria Ines Mitrani Michael A. Bellio Rudragouda Channappanavar Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 274: Phylogenetics, Epidemiology and Temporal Patterns of Dengue Virus in Araraquara, S & atilde;o Paulo State
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 274: Phylogenetics, Epidemiology and Temporal Patterns of Dengue Virus in Araraquara, São Paulo State Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16020274 Authors: Caio Santos de Souza Giovana Santos Caleiro Ingra Morales Claro Jaqueline Goes de Jesus ThaĂ­s Moura Coletti Camila Alves Maia da Silva Ă‚ngela Aparecida Costa Marta Inenami Andreia C. Ribeiro Alvina Clara Felix Anderson Vicente de Paula Walter M. Figueiredo Expedito JosĂ© de Albuquerque Luna Ester C. Sabino Camila M. Romano Dengue virus (DENV) is a prominent arbovirus with global spread, causing approximately 390...
Source: Viruses - February 9, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Caio Santos de Souza Giovana Santos Caleiro Ingra Morales Claro Jaqueline Goes de Jesus Tha Ă­s Moura Coletti Camila Alves Maia da Silva Ă‚ngela Aparecida Costa Marta Inenami Andreia C. Ribeiro Alvina Clara Felix Anderson Vicente de Paula Walter M. Figuei Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 275: Inflammatory Polymorphisms (IL-6 rs1800796, IL-10 rs1800896, TNF- & alpha; rs1800629, and IFITM3 rs12252) Are Not Associated with Post-COVID Symptoms in Previously Hospitalized COVID-19 Survivors
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 275: Inflammatory Polymorphisms (IL-6 rs1800796, IL-10 rs1800896, TNF-α rs1800629, and IFITM3 rs12252) Are Not Associated with Post-COVID Symptoms in Previously Hospitalized COVID-19 Survivors Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16020275 Authors: CĂ©sar Fernández-de-las-Peñas Gema DĂ­az-Gil Antonio Gil-Crujera Stella M. GĂłmez-Sánchez Silvia Ambite-Quesada Juan Torres-Macho Pablo Ryan-Murua Ana I. Franco-Moreno Oscar J. Pellicer-Valero Lars Arendt-Nielsen Rocco Giordano The aim of this study was to identify the association between four selected inflammatory polymorphisms w...
Source: Viruses - February 9, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: C ésar Fernández-de-las-Peñas Gema D íaz-Gil Antonio Gil-Crujera Stella M. G ómez-Sánchez Silvia Ambite-Quesada Juan Torres-Macho Pablo Ryan-Murua Ana I. Franco-Moreno Oscar J. Pellicer-Valero Lars Arendt-Nielsen Rocco Giordano Tags: Article Source Type: research