Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1110: Role of Viral Ribonucleoproteins in Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Gene Expression
rtz Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) depend on the cellular RNA-processing machineries including alternative RNA splicing and polyadenylation to coordinate HPV gene expression. HPV RNA processing is controlled by cis-regulatory RNA elements and trans-regulatory factors since the HPV splice sites are suboptimal. The definition of HPV exons and introns may differ between individual HPV mRNA species and is complicated by the fact that many HPV protein-coding sequences overlap. The formation of HPV ribonucleoproteins consisting of HPV pre-mRNAs and multiple cellular RNA-binding proteins may result in the different outcomes of...
Source: Viruses - September 30, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Naoko Kajitani Stefan Schwartz Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1111: p24G1 Encoded by Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Virus 1 Suppresses RNA Silencing and Elicits Hypersensitive Response-Like Necrosis in Nicotiana Species
u-Qin Cheng Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1) is a major pathogen associated with grapevine leafroll disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GLRaV-1 interactions with plant cells are unclear. Using Agrobacterium infiltration-mediated RNA-silencing assays, we demonstrated that GLRaV-1 p24 protein (p24G1) acts as an RNA-silencing suppressor (RSS), inhibiting local and systemic RNA silencing. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that p24G1 binds double-stranded 21-nucleotide small interfering RNA (siRNA), and that siRNA binding is required but not sufficient for its RSS activity. p24G1 ...
Source: Viruses - September 30, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Chen-Wei Zhang Qing Liu Qi Zeng Wen-Ting Huang Qi Wang Yu-Qin Cheng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1112: HBV Prevention and Treatment in Countries of Central Asia and the Caucasus
Syed Ali The countries of Central Asia and the Caucasus are linked by travel and trade, which is promoted by visa-free mobility across borders. Unfortunately, this migrant mobility has given rise to the transmission of various infections within this region. Overlaps in culture, tradition, and behavior among these countries provide opportunities to share experiences that have proven effective in controlling transmission. Here we present a review of hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence, prevention and treatment across Central Asia and the Caucasus. Overall, owing to effective measures, while HBV prevalence has been steadi...
Source: Viruses - September 30, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Daulet Amerzhanov Indira Suleimenova Salima Davlidova Zhamilya Nugmanova Syed Ali Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1113: Wild Boar as a Sylvatic Reservoir of Hepatitis E Virus in Poland: A Cross-Sectional Population Study
utka The most important wildlife species in the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are wild boars, which are also the main reservoir of the virus in a sylvatic environment. The aim of the study was a serological and molecular assessment of the prevalence of HEV infections in wild boars in Poland. In total, 470 pairs of samples (wild boar blood and livers) and 433 samples of faeces were tested. An ELISA (ID.vet, France) was used for serological analysis. For the detection of HEV RNA, real-time (RT)-qPCR was employed. The presence of specific anti-HEV IgG antibodies was found in 232 (49.4%; 95%CI: 44.7&a...
Source: Viruses - September 30, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Iwona Kozyra Artur Jab łoński Ewelina Bigoraj Artur Rze żutka Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1114: Expansion and Refinement of Deep Sequence-Coupled Biopanning Technology for Epitope-Specific Antibody Responses in Human Serum
hryn M. Frietze Identifying the specific epitopes targeted by antibodies elicited in response to infectious diseases is important for developing vaccines and diagnostics. However, techniques for broadly exploring the specificity of antibodies in a rapid manner are lacking, limiting our ability to quickly respond to emerging viruses. We previously reported a technology that couples deep sequencing technology with a bacteriophage MS2 virus-like particle (VLP) peptide display platform for identifying pathogen-specific antibody responses. Here, we describe refinements that expand the number of patient samples that can be p...
Source: Viruses - September 30, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Nikole L. Warner Alexandria C. Linville Susan B. Core Brechla Moreno Juan M. Pascale David S. Peabody Bryce Chackerian Kathryn M. Frietze Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1115: NMR Studies of Retroviral Genome Packaging
hael F. Summers Saif Yasin Nearly all retroviruses selectively package two copies of their unspliced RNA genomes from a cellular milieu that contains a substantial excess of non-viral and spliced viral RNAs. Over the past four decades, combinations of genetic experiments, phylogenetic analyses, nucleotide accessibility mapping, in silico RNA structure predictions, and biophysical experiments were employed to understand how retroviral genomes are selected for packaging. Genetic studies provided early clues regarding the protein and RNA elements required for packaging, and nucleotide accessibility mapping experiments p...
Source: Viruses - September 30, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Patricia S. Boyd Janae B. Brown Joshua D. Brown Jonathan Catazaro Issac Chaudry Pengfei Ding Xinmei Dong Jan Marchant Colin T. O ’Hern Karndeep Singh Canessa Swanson Michael F. Summers Saif Yasin Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1105: Releasing Intracellular NS1 from Mosquito Cells for the Detection of Dengue Virus-Infected Mosquitoes
Chun-Hong Chen Dengue virus (DENV), the pathogen that causes dengue fever, is mainly transmitted by Aedes aegypti. Surveillance of infected mosquitoes is a major component of integrated mosquito control methods for reducing the risk of vector-born disease outbreaks. However, a specialized rapid test for DENV detection in mosquitoes is not currently available. Utilizing immunoblotting, we found that the secretion of NS1 from both a DENV-infected mosquito cell line and mosquito bodies was below the detection threshold. However, when Triton X-100 was used to lyse infected mosquitoes, intracellular NS1 was released, and...
Source: Viruses - September 29, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Lie Cheng Wei-Liang Liu Hsing-Han Li Matthew P. Su Shih-Cheng Wu Hsin-Wei Chen Chao-Ying Pan Jih-Jin Tsai Chun-Hong Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1104: Interaction of Human ACE2 to Membrane-Bound SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 S Glycoproteins
ms Marzena Pazgier Andrés Finzi Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the current global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, infecting millions of people and causing hundreds of thousands of deaths. The viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 depends on an interaction between the receptor-binding domain of its trimeric spike glycoprotein and the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. A better understanding of the spike/ACE2 interaction is still required to design anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics. Here, we investigated the degree of cooperativity of ACE2 within both...
Source: Viruses - September 29, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Sai Priya Anand Yaozong Chen J érémie Prévost Romain Gasser Guillaume Beaudoin-Bussi ères Cameron F. Abrams Marzena Pazgier Andr és Finzi Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1106: Gene Therapy Applications of Non-Human Lentiviral Vectors
This article reviews non-human lentiviruses and highlights their unique characteristics regarding virology and molecular biology. The LV systems developed based on these lentiviruses, as well as their successes and shortcomings, are also discussed. As the field of gene therapy is advancing rapidly, the use of LVs uncovers further challenges and possibilities. Advances in virology and an improved understanding of lentiviral biology will aid in the creation of recombinant viral vector variants suitable for translational applications from a variety of lentiviruses. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - September 29, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Munis Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1107: A Functional K+ Channel from Tetraselmis Virus 1, a Member of the Mimiviridae
Moroni Thiel Rauh Potassium ion (K+) channels have been observed in diverse viruses that infect eukaryotic marine and freshwater algae. However, experimental evidence for functional K+ channels among these alga-infecting viruses has thus far been restricted to members of the family Phycodnaviridae, which are large, double-stranded DNA viruses within the phylum Nucleocytoviricota. Recent sequencing projects revealed that alga-infecting members of Mimiviridae, another family within this phylum, may also contain genes encoding K+ channels. Here we examine the structural features and the functional properties of put...
Source: Viruses - September 29, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Kukovetz Hertel Schvarcz Saponaro Manthey Burk Greiner Steward Van Etten Moroni Thiel Rauh Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1108: A New Approach to 3D Modeling of Inhomogeneous Populations of Viral Regulatory RNA
Lawrie Tertiary structure (3D) is the physical context of RNA regulatory activity. Retroviruses are RNA viruses that replicate through the proviral DNA intermediate transcribed by hosts. Proviral transcripts form inhomogeneous populations due to variable structural ensembles of overlapping regulatory RNA motifs in the 5′-untranslated region (UTR), which drive RNAs to be spliced or translated, and/or dimerized and packaged into virions. Genetic studies and structural techniques have provided fundamental input constraints to begin predicting HIV 3D conformations in silico. Using SimRNA and sets of experimen...
Source: Viruses - September 29, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Osmer Singh Boris-Lawrie Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1109: Overview of the Nucleic-Acid Binding Properties of the HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein in Its Different Maturation States
ffret Tisné HIV-1 Gag polyprotein orchestrates the assembly of viral particles. Its C-terminus consists of the nucleocapsid (NC) domain that interacts with nucleic acids, and p1 and p6, two unstructured regions, p6 containing the motifs to bind ALIX, the cellular ESCRT factor TSG101 and the viral protein Vpr. The processing of Gag by the viral protease subsequently liberates NCp15 (NC-p1-p6), NCp9 (NC-p1) and NCp7, NCp7 displaying the optimal chaperone activity of nucleic acids. This review focuses on the nucleic acid binding properties of the NC domain in the different maturation states during the HIV-1 vira...
Source: Viruses - September 29, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Mouhand Pasi Catala Zargarian Belfetmi Barraud Mauffret Tisn é Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1100: Features of Nuclear Export Signals of NS2 Protein of Influenza D Virus
Jihui Ping Emerging influenza D viruses (IDVs), the newest member in the genus Orthomyxovirus family, which can infect and transmit in multiple mammalian species as its relatives the influenza A viruses (IAVs). Additional studies of biological characteristics of IDVs are needed; here, we studied the characteristics of IDV nonstructural protein 2 (NS2), which shares the lowest homology to known influenza proteins. First, we generated reassortant viruses via reverse genetics to analyze the segment compatibility and gene interchangeability between IAVs and IDVs. Next, we investigated the locations and exact sequences o...
Source: Viruses - September 29, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Lingcai Zhao Huizhi Xia Jingjin Huang Yiqing Zheng Chang Liu Juan Su Jihui Ping Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1101: Molecular Viral Diagnosis and Sanitation of Yam Genetic Resources: Implications for Safe Yam Germplasm Exchange
We report on the implementation of reliable and cost-effective PCR-based detection tools targeting eight different yam-infecting viruses. Viral indexing of the in vitro yam collection maintained by the Biological Resources Center for Tropical Plants (BRC-TP) in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) unveiled a high prevalence of potyviruses, badnaviruses, Dioscorea mosaic associated virus (DMaV) and yam asymptomatic virus 1 (YaV1) and a high level of coinfections. Infected yam accessions were subjected to a combination of thermotherapy and meristem culture. Sanitation levels were monitored using PCR-based and high-throughput sequ...
Source: Viruses - September 29, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Marie Umber Denis Filloux Suzia G élabale Rose-Marie Gomez Armelle Marais S éverine Gallet Franciane Gamiette Claudie Pavis Pierre-Yves Teycheney Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1102: Treatment with Exogenous Trypsin Expands In Vitro Cellular Tropism of the Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus
This study aims to investigate whether protease treatment can extend the tropism of other IBV strains. Here we demonstrate that the addition of exogenous trypsin during IBV propagation in cell culture results in significantly increased viral titres. Using a panel of IBV strains, exhibiting varied tropisms, the effects of spike cleavage on entry and replication were assessed by serial passage cell culture in the presence of trypsin. Replication could be maintained over serial passages, indicating that the addition of exogenous protease is sufficient to overcome the barrier to infection. Mutations were identified in both S1 ...
Source: Viruses - September 29, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Phoebe Stevenson-Leggett Sarah Keep Erica Bickerton Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1103: The Old and the New: Prospects for Non-Integrating Lentiviral Vector Technology
s Lentiviral vectors have been developed and used in multiple gene and cell therapy applications. One of their main advantages over other vectors is the ability to integrate the genetic material into the genome of the host. However, this can also be a disadvantage as it may lead to insertional mutagenesis. To address this, non-integrating lentiviral vectors (NILVs) were developed. To generate NILVs, it is possible to introduce mutations in the viral enzyme integrase and/or mutations on the viral DNA recognised by integrase (the attachment sites). NILVs are able to stably express transgenes from episomal DNA in non-divi...
Source: Viruses - September 29, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Apolonia Luis Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1096: Chicken Astrovirus (CAstV) Molecular Studies Reveal Evidence of Multiple Past Recombination Events in Sequences Originated from Clinical Samples of White Chick Syndrome (WCS) in Western Canada
In this study, we aimed to molecularly characterize 14 whole genome sequences of chicken astrovirus (CAstV) isolated from samples obtained from white chick syndrome (WCS) outbreaks in Western Canada during the period of 2014–2019. Genome sequence comparisons showed all these sequences correspond to the novel Biv group from which no confirmed representatives were published in GenBank. Molecular recombination analyses using recombination detection software (i.e., RDP5 and SimPlot) and phylogenetic analyses suggest multiple past recombination events in open reading frame (ORF)1a, ORF1b, and ORF2. Our findings su...
Source: Viruses - September 28, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Victor Palomino-Tapia Darko Mitevski Tom Inglis Frank van der Meer Emily Martin Marina Brash Chantale Provost Carl A. Gagnon Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1097: Cytokine-Targeted Therapeutics for KSHV-Associated Disease
chy Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), is linked to several human malignancies including Kaposi sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD) and recently KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS). As with other diseases that have a significant inflammatory component, current therapy for KSHV-associated disease is associated with significant off-target effects. However, recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of KSHV have produced new insight into the use of cytokines as potential...
Source: Viruses - September 28, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Nedaa Alomari Jennifer Totonchy Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1098: Experimental Infection and Genetic Characterization of Two Different Capripox Virus Isolates in Small Ruminants
ernd Hoffmann Capripox viruses, with their members “lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV)”, “goatpox virus (GTPV)” and “sheeppox virus (SPPV)”, are described as the most serious pox diseases of production animals. A GTPV isolate and a SPPV isolate were sequenced in a combined approach using nanopore MinION sequencing to obtain long reads and Illumina high throughput sequencing for short precise reads to gain full-length high-quality genome sequences. Concomitantly, sheep and goats were inoculated with SPPV and GTPV strains, respectively. Duri...
Source: Viruses - September 28, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Janika Wolff Jacqueline King Tom Moritz Anne Pohlmann Donata Hoffmann Martin Beer Bernd Hoffmann Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1099: Exposure of Horses in Israel to West Nile Virus and Usutu Virus
Amir Steinman West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are arboviruses transmitted by mosquito vectors. Whereas WNV is endemic in Israel, the Middle East, Europe, and in the Americas, data regarding the prevalence of USUV in the Middle East is limited. While both viruses share similar reservoirs and vectors, exposure of horses in the area to USUV have never been assessed. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence and co-exposure of WNV and USUV in horses in Israel. A total of 327 serum samples from healthy unvaccinated horses in Israel collected in 2018 were tested for neutralizing antibodies again...
Source: Viruses - September 28, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Gili Schvartz Sharon Tirosh-Levy Oran Erester Roni Shenhar Hadas Levy Barbara Bazanow Boris Gelman Amir Steinman Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1093: Thapsigargin at Non-Cytotoxic Levels Induces a Potent Host Antiviral Response that Blocks Influenza A Virus Replication
iu Kin-Chow Chang Influenza A virus is a major global pathogen of humans, and there is an unmet need for effective antivirals. Current antivirals against influenza A virus directly target the virus and are vulnerable to mutational resistance. Harnessing an effective host antiviral response is an attractive alternative. We show that brief exposure to low, non-toxic doses of thapsigargin (TG), an inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ ATPase pump, promptly elicits an extended antiviral state that dramatically blocks influenza A virus production. Crucially, oral administration of TG protected mice...
Source: Viruses - September 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Leah V. Goulding Jiayun Yang Zhimin Jiang Hongyu Zhang Daniel Lea Richard D. Emes Tania Dottorini Juan Pu Jinhua Liu Kin-Chow Chang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1094: The Spillover of African Swine Fever in Western Poland Revealed Its Estimated Origin on the Basis of O174L, K145R, MGF 505-5R and IGR I73R/I329L Genomic Sequences
owski The African swine fever epidemic occurred in Poland at the beginning of 2014 and, up to date, the disease has been spreading mainly in the eastern part of the country. Unexpectedly, in November 2019 an infected wild boar case was confirmed in Lubuskie voivodship in western Poland. During the following weeks, several dozen African swine fever virus (ASFV)-positive animals were notified in the neighboring area, causing severe concern regarding further spread of the disease to the mostly pig-dense region in Poland, namely, Wielkopolskie voivodship. Moreover, almost a year after, several infected wild boar cases were...
Source: Viruses - September 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Natalia Mazur-Panasiuk Marek Walczak Ma łgorzata Juszkiewicz Grzegorz Wo źniakowski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1095: Host Immune Response Driving SARS-CoV-2 Evolution
o-Wei Wei The transmission and evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are of paramount importance in controlling and combating the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Currently, over 15,000 SARS-CoV-2 single mutations have been recorded, which have a great impact on the development of diagnostics, vaccines, antibody therapies, and drugs. However, little is known about SARS-CoV-2’s evolutionary characteristics and general trend. In this work, we present a comprehensive genotyping analysis of existing SARS-CoV-2 mutations. We reveal that host immune response via ...
Source: Viruses - September 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Rui Wang Yuta Hozumi Yong-Hui Zheng Changchuan Yin Guo-Wei Wei Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1086: Intercellular Transmission of Naked Viruses through Extracellular Vesicles: Focus on Polyomaviruses
e Brochot Extracellular vesicles have recently emerged as a novel mode of viral transmission exploited by naked viruses to exit host cells through a nonlytic pathway. Extracellular vesicles can allow multiple viral particles to collectively traffic in and out of cells, thus enhancing the viral fitness and diversifying the transmission routes while evading the immune system. This has been shown for several RNA viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae, Hepeviridae, Reoviridae, and Caliciviridae families; however, recent studies also demonstrated that the BK and JC viruses, two DNA viruses that belong to the Polyomavirid...
Source: Viruses - September 26, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Francois Helle Lynda Handala Marine Bentz Gilles Duverlie Etienne Brochot Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1087: Network Controllability-Based Prioritization of Candidates for SARS-CoV-2 Drug Repositioning
ker In a short time, the COVID-19 pandemic has left the world with over 25 million cases and staggering death tolls that are still rising. Treatments for SARS-CoV-2 infection are desperately needed as there are currently no approved drug therapies. With limited knowledge of viral mechanisms, a network controllability method of prioritizing existing drugs for repurposing efforts is optimal for quickly moving through the drug approval pipeline using limited, available, virus-specific data. Based on network topology and controllability, 16 proteins involved in translation, cellular transport, cellular stress, and host imm...
Source: Viruses - September 26, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Emily E. Ackerman Jason E. Shoemaker Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1088: HIF-1 α Modulates Core Metabolism and Virus Replication in Primary Airway Epithelial Cells Infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1088: HIF-1α Modulates Core Metabolism and Virus Replication in Primary Airway Epithelial Cells Infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Viruses doi: 10.3390/v12101088 Authors: Dorothea R. Morris Yue Qu Anurodh Agrawal Roberto P. Garofalo Antonella Casola Metabolic reprogramming of host cells is key to the foundation of a successful viral infection. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) mediate oxygen utilization by regulating cellular metabolism and redox homeostasis. Under normoxic conditions, HIF proteins are synthesized and subsequently degraded following ubiquitination to allo...
Source: Viruses - September 26, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Dorothea R. Morris Yue Qu Anurodh Agrawal Roberto P. Garofalo Antonella Casola Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1089: Host Gene Regulation by Transposable Elements: The New, the Old and the Ugly
Rowe The human genome has been under selective pressure to evolve in response to emerging pathogens and other environmental challenges. Genome evolution includes the acquisition of new genes or new isoforms of genes and changes to gene expression patterns. One source of genome innovation is from transposable elements (TEs), which carry their own promoters, enhancers and open reading frames and can act as ‘controlling elements’ for our own genes. TEs include LINE-1 elements, which can retrotranspose intracellularly and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) that represent remnants of past retroviral...
Source: Viruses - September 26, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Rocio Enriquez-Gasca Poppy A. Gould Helen M. Rowe Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1090: Delayed by Design: Role of Suboptimal Signal Peptidase Processing of Viral Structural Protein Precursors in Flaviviridae Virus Assembly
yung Yi The Flaviviridae virus family is classified into four different genera, including flavivirus, hepacivirus, pegivirus, and pestivirus, which cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans and other mammals, including ruminants and pigs. These are enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses sharing a similar genome organization and replication scheme with certain unique features that differentiate them. All viruses in this family express a single polyprotein that encodes structural and nonstructural proteins at the N- and C-terminal regions, respectively. In general, the host signal peptidase cleaves the structur...
Source: Viruses - September 26, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Nabeel Alzahrani Ming-Jhan Wu Saravanabalaji Shanmugam MinKyung Yi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1091: Phages in Anaerobic Systems
J. Vives Since the discovery of phages in 1915, these viruses have been studied mostly in aerobic systems, or without considering the availability of oxygen as a variable that may affect the interaction between the virus and its host. However, with such great abundance of anaerobic environments on the planet, the effect that a lack of oxygen can have on the phage-bacteria relationship is an important consideration. There are few studies on obligate anaerobes that investigate the role of anoxia in causing infection. In the case of facultative anaerobes, it is a well-known fact that their shifting from an aerobic environ...
Source: Viruses - September 26, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Santiago Hern ández Martha J. Vives Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1092: Potential Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Therapeutics That Target the Post-Entry Stages of the Viral Life Cycle: A Comprehensive Review
Kar The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to challenge health care systems around the world. Scientists and pharmaceutical companies have promptly responded by advancing potential therapeutics into clinical trials at an exponential rate. Initial encouraging results have been realized using remdesivir and dexamethasone. Yet, the research continues so as to identify better clinically relevant therapeutics that act either as prophylactics to prevent the infection or as treatments to limit the severity of COVID-19 and substantially decrease the mortality rate. Previously, we reviewed the potential ther...
Source: Viruses - September 26, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Rami A. Al-Horani Srabani Kar Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1076: The Protective Effect of Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Matrix against Phage Predation
In this study, the previously characterized S. epidermidis-specific Sepunavirus phiIBB-SEP1 (SEP1), which has a broad spectrum and high activity against planktonic cells, was evaluated concerning its efficacy against S. epidermidis biofilms. The in vitro biofilm killing assays demonstrated a reduced activity of the phage. To understand the underlying factors impairing SEP1 inefficacy against biofilms, this phage was tested against distinct planktonic and biofilm-derived bacterial populations. Interestingly, SEP1 was able to lyse planktonic cells in different physiological states, suggesting that the inefficacy for biofilm ...
Source: Viruses - September 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Lu ís D. R. Melo Gra ça Pinto Fernando Oliveira Diana Vilas-Boas Carina Almeida Sanna Sillankorva Nuno Cerca Joana Azeredo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1077: Macrophage Tropism in Pathogenic HIV-1 and SIV Infections
oseph Most myeloid lineage cells express the receptor and coreceptors that make them susceptible to infection by primate lentiviruses (SIVs and HIVs). However, macrophages are the only myeloid lineage cell commonly infected by SIVs and/or HIVs. The frequency of infected macrophages varies greatly across specific host and virus combinations as well as disease states, with infection rates being greatest in pathogenic SIV infections of non-natural hosts (i.e., Asian nonhuman primates (Asian NHPs)) and late in untreated HIV-1 infection. In contrast, macrophages from natural SIV hosts (i.e., African NHPs) are largely resist...
Source: Viruses - September 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Matthew Moeser Joshua R. Nielsen Sarah B. Joseph Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1078: Twelve Children with Varicella Vaccine Meningitis: Neuropathogenesis of Reactivated Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine Virus
ose Varicella vaccine is a live attenuated varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Like its parental strain called VZV pOka, the vaccine virus vOka retains some neurotropic properties. To better understand vOka neuropathogenesis, we reassessed 12 published cases of vOka meningitis that occurred in once-immunized and twice-immunized children, all of whom had bouts of herpes zoster preceding the central nervous system infection. Eight of the 12 meningitis cases occurred in children who had received only one immunization. There was no pattern to the time interval between varicella vaccination and the onset of herpes zoster with men...
Source: Viruses - September 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Ethan H. Heusel Charles Grose Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1079: Regulation of Expression and Latency in BLV and HTLV
. Douville Human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) belong to the Deltaretrovirus genus. HTLV-1 is the etiologic agent of the highly aggressive and currently incurable cancer adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and a neurological disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). BLV causes neoplastic proliferation of B cells in cattle: enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL). Despite the severity of these conditions, infection by HTLV-1 and BLV appear in most cases clinically asymptomatic. These viruses can undergo latency in their hosts. The silencing of proviral gene exp...
Source: Viruses - September 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Aneta Pluta Juan P. Jaworski Ren ée N. Douville Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1080: Atypical Porcine Pestivirus Circulation and Molecular Evolution within an Affected Swine Herd
In conclusion, farms can have circulation of APPV for years, and massive testing and removal of infected animals are not sufficient to clear the virus from affected farms. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - September 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Alba Folgueiras-Gonz ález Robin van den Braak Bartjan Simmelink Martin Deijs Lia van der Hoek Ad de Groof Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1081: Molecular Characterization of Dengue Type 2 Outbreak in Pacific Islands Countries and Territories, 2017 –2020
Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1081: Molecular Characterization of Dengue Type 2 Outbreak in Pacific Islands Countries and Territories, 2017–2020 Viruses doi: 10.3390/v12101081 Authors: Catherine Inizan Olivia O’Connor George Worwor Talica Cabemaiwai Jean-Claude Grignon Dominique Girault Marine Minier Matthieu Prot Valentine Ballan George Junior Pakoa Jean-Paul Grangeon Philippe Guyant Christelle Lepers Daniel Faktaufon Aalisha Sahukhan Onofre Edwin Merilles Ann-Claire Gourinat Etienne Simon-Lorière Myrielle Dupont-Rouzeyrol Dengue virus (DENV) serotype-2 was detected...
Source: Viruses - September 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Catherine Inizan Olivia O ’Connor George Worwor Talica Cabemaiwai Jean-Claude Grignon Dominique Girault Marine Minier Matthieu Prot Valentine Ballan George Junior Pakoa Jean-Paul Grangeon Philippe Guyant Christelle Lepers Daniel Faktaufon Aalisha Sahukh Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1083: Neurological Development, Epilepsy, and the Pharmacotherapy Approach in Children with Congenital Zika Syndrome: Results from a Two-Year Follow-up Study
rton Falcão de Oliveira Clinical outcomes related to congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) include microcephaly accompanied by specific brain injuries. Among several CZS outcomes that have been described, epilepsy and motor impairments are present in most cases. Pharmacological treatment for seizures resulting from epilepsy is performed with anticonvulsant drugs, which in the long term are related to impairments in the child’s neuropsychomotor development. Here, we describe the results from a two-year follow-up of a cohort of children diagnosed with CZS related to the growth of the head circumference and ...
Source: Viruses - September 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Maria Eulina Quili ão Fabio Antonio Venancio Lisany Krug Mareto Sahra de Almeida Metzker Ana Isabel do Nascimento Daniele Cristina Vitorelli-Venancio Cl áudia Du Bocage Santos-Pinto Everton Falc ão de Oliveira Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1082: Construction of Stable Reporter Flaviviruses and Their Applications
Shi Flaviviruses are significant human pathogens that cause frequent emerging and reemerging epidemics around the world. Better molecular tools for studying, diagnosing, and treating these diseases are needed. Reporter viruses represent potent tools to fill this gap but have been hindered by genetic instability. Recent advances have overcome these hurdles, opening the way for increased use of stable reporter flaviviruses to diagnose infections, screen and study antiviral compounds, and serve as potential vaccine vectors. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - September 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Coleman Baker Pei-Yong Shi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1084: FUT2, Secretor Status and FUT3 Polymorphisms of Children with Acute Diarrhea Infected with Rotavirus and Norovirus in Brazil
acques Le Pendu Liliana Cruz Spano Host susceptibility according to human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) is widely known for norovirus infection, but is less described for rotavirus. Due to the variable HBGA polymorphism among populations, we aimed to evaluate the association between HBGA phenotypes (ABH, Lewis and secretor status) and susceptibility to rotavirus and norovirus symptomatic infection, and the polymorphisms of FUT2 and FUT3, of children from southeastern Brazil. Paired fecal-buccal specimens from 272 children with acute diarrhea were used to determine rotavirus/norovirus genotypes and HBGAs phenotyp...
Source: Viruses - September 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Marco Andr é Loureiro Tonini D ébora Maria Pires Gonçalves Barreira Luciana Bueno de Freitas Santolin Lays Paula Bondi Volpini Jos é Paulo Gagliardi Leite B éatrice Le Moullac-Vaidye Jacques Le Pendu Liliana Cruz Spano Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1085: Characterization of Avian Influenza Virus H10 –H12 Subtypes Isolated from Wild Birds in Shanghai, China from 2016 to 2019
In this study, 12 AIV isolates of H10–H12 subtypes were identified via routine surveillance of wild birds in Shanghai, China from 2016 to 2019, including two H10, three H11 and seven H12 isolates. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the genomic segments of the 12 isolates are highly diverse. These 12 isolates are closely related to those in the Eurasian lineage and share a high degree of sequence identity with those from wild birds and domestic ducks in countries in the East Asian–Australasian Flyway, including Japan, Korea, Bangladesh, Vietnam and China. However, parts of the genom...
Source: Viruses - September 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Ling Tang Wangjun Tang Le Ming Jianming Gu Kai Qian Xiaofang Li Tianhou Wang Guimei He Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1073: Meta-Transcriptomic Discovery of a Divergent Circovirus and a Chaphamaparvovirus in Captive Reptiles with Proliferative Respiratory Syndrome
This study expands our understanding of viral diversity in captive reptiles. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - September 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Wei-Shan Chang Ci-Xiu Li Jane Hall John-Sebastian Eden Timothy H. Hyndman Edward C. Holmes Karrie Rose Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1075: Binding Mechanism Elucidation of the Acute Respiratory Disease Causing Agent Adenovirus of Serotype 7 to Desmoglein-2
Emilie Vassal-Stermann The study of viruses causing acute respiratory distress syndromes (ARDS) is more essential than ever at a time when a virus can create a global pandemic in a matter of weeks. Among human adenoviruses, adenovirus of serotype 7 (HAdV7) is one of the most virulent serotypes. This virus regularly re-emerges in Asia and has just been the cause of several deaths in the United States. A critical step of the virus life cycle is the attachment of the knob domain of the fiber (HAd7K) to the cellular receptor desmoglein-2 (DSG2). Complexes between the fiber knob and two extracellular domains of DSG2 have...
Source: Viruses - September 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Marc-Andr é Hograindleur Gregory Effantin Daphna Fenel Caroline Mas Andr é Lieber Guy Schoehn Pascal Fender Emilie Vassal-Stermann Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1074: Imaging-Based Reporter Systems to Define CVB-Induced Membrane Remodeling in Living Cells
Coyne Enteroviruses manipulate host membranes to form replication organelles, which concentrate viral and host factors to allow for efficient replication. However, this process has not been well-studied in living cells throughout the course of infection. To define the dynamic process of enterovirus membrane remodeling of major secretory pathway organelles, we have developed plasmid-based reporter systems that utilize viral protease-dependent release of a nuclear-localized fluorescent protein from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane during infection, while retaining organelle-specific fluorescent protein markers suc...
Source: Viruses - September 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Nicholas J. Lennemann Azia S. Evans Carolyn B. Coyne Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1069: Solid-State NMR for Studying the Structure and Dynamics of Viral Assemblies
öckmann Structural virology reveals the architecture underlying infection. While notably electron microscopy images have provided an atomic view on viruses which profoundly changed our understanding of these assemblies incapable of independent life, spectroscopic techniques like NMR enter the field with their strengths in detailed conformational analysis and investigation of dynamic behavior. Typically, the large assemblies represented by viral particles fall in the regime of biological high-resolution solid-state NMR, able to follow with high sensitivity the path of the viral proteins through their interactions a...
Source: Viruses - September 24, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Lauriane Lecoq Marie-Laure Fogeron Beat H. Meier Michael Nassal Anja B öckmann Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1070: Structure and Function of the T4 Spackle Protein Gp61.3
r G. Leiman The bacteriophage T4 genome contains two genes that code for proteins with lysozyme activity—e and 5. Gene e encodes the well-known T4 lysozyme (commonly called T4L) that functions to break the peptidoglycan layer late in the infection cycle, which is required for liberating newly assembled phage progeny. Gene product 5 (gp5) is the tail-associated lysozyme, a component of the phage particle. It forms a spike at the tip of the tail tube and functions to pierce the outer membrane of the Escherichia coli host cell after the phage has attached to the cell surface. Gp5 contains a T4L-like lysozyme...
Source: Viruses - September 24, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Shuji Kanamaru Kazuya Uchida Mai Nemoto Alec Fraser Fumio Arisaka Petr G. Leiman Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1071: Mutation of N-glycosylation Sites in Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) Envelope Proteins Attenuate the Virus in Cell Culture
In conclusion, the substitution in the N-linked glycosylation site in E2 attenuated SAV3 in cell culture. The findings could be useful for immunization strategies using live attenuated vaccines and testing in fish will be desirable to study the clone’s properties in vivo. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - September 24, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Ida Aksnes Turhan Markussen Stine Braaen Espen Rimstad Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1072: Regulation of Polyomavirus Transcription by Viral and Cellular Factors
You Polyomavirus infection is widespread in the human population. This family of viruses normally maintains latent infection within the host cell but can cause a range of human pathologies, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Among several known pathogenic human polyomaviruses, JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) has the potential to cause the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML); BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) can cause nephropathy in kidney transplant recipients, and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is associated with a highly aggressive form of skin cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). While ...
Source: Viruses - September 24, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: June F. Yang Jianxin You Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1066: Comment: Mis-Genotyping of Some Hepatitis D Virus Genotype 2 and 5 Sequences Using HDVdb
Caroline Scholtès Evidence that Hepatitis D virus (HDV) genotype is involved in HDV infection pathogenesis is increasing. Indeed, HDV genotypes have been shown to be linked to different outcomes in terms of liver fibrosis and treatment response. Herein, we show that the promising HDVdb genotyping tool available online can lead to wrong genotyping results. The current HDVdb algorithm should be carefully considered as a “beta-version” and warrants algorithm core corrections, as soon as possible, for an optimal and beneficial use. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - September 23, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Caroline Charre Fr édéric le Gal Paul D ény Caroline Scholt ès Tags: Comment Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1068: Genome Analysis of a Novel Clade b Betabaculovirus Isolated from the Legume Pest Matsumuraeses phaseoli (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
In this study, using next-generation sequencing, we report the complete genome of MaphGV. MaphGV genome comprises a double-stranded DNA of 116,875 bp, with 37.18% GC content. It has 128 hypothetical open reading frames (ORFs). Among them, 38 are baculovirus core genes, 18 are lepidopteran baculovirus conserved genes, and 5 are unique to Baculoviridae. MaphGV has one baculovirus repeat ORF (bro) and three inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (iap), including a newfound iap-6. We found two atypical baculoviral homologous regions (hrs) and four direct repeats (drs) in the MaphGV genome. Based on phylogenetic analysis, MaphGV belo...
Source: Viruses - September 23, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Ruihao Shu Qian Meng Lin Miao Hongbin Liang Jun Chen Yuan Xu Luqiang Cheng Wenyi Jin Qilian Qin Huan Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 1065: Genome Sequence and Characterization of Five Bacteriophages Infecting Streptomyces Coelicolor and Streptomyces Venezuelae: Alderaan, Coruscant, Dagobah, Endor1 and Endor2
ia Frunzke Streptomyces are well-known antibiotic producers, also characterized by a complex morphological differentiation. Streptomyces, like all bacteria, are confronted with the constant threat of phage predation, which in turn shapes bacterial evolution. However, despite significant sequencing efforts recently, relatively few phages infecting Streptomyces have been characterized compared to other genera. Here, we present the isolation and characterization of five novel Streptomyces phages. All five phages belong to the Siphoviridae family, based on their morphology as determined by transmission electron microscopy....
Source: Viruses - September 23, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: A ël Hardy Vikas Sharma Larissa Kever Julia Frunzke Tags: Article Source Type: research