Viruses, Vol. 15, Pages 2396: Neutralization Determinants on Poxviruses
blo Smallpox was a highly contagious disease caused by the variola virus. The disease affected millions of people over thousands of years and variola virus ranked as one of the deadliest viruses in human history. The complete eradication of smallpox in 1980, a major triumph in medicine, was achieved through a global vaccination campaign using a less virulent poxvirus, vaccinia virus. Despite this success, the herd immunity established by this campaign has significantly waned, and concerns are rising about the potential reintroduction of variola virus as a biological weapon or the emergence of zoonotic poxviruses. These...
Source: Viruses - December 8, 2023 Category: Virology Authors: Vernuccio Riccardo Guardado-Calvo Pablo Tags: Review Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 15, Pages 2397: Epidemiological Insights into the Omicron Outbreak via MeltArray-Assisted Real-Time Tracking of SARS-CoV-2 Variants
This study aimed to develop a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) suitable for the real-time tracking of Omicron subvariants in clinical and wastewater samples. Plasmids containing variant-specific mutations were used to develop a MeltArray assay. After a comprehensive evaluation of both analytical and clinical performance, the established assay was used to detect Omicron variants in clinical and wastewater samples, and the results were compared with those of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). The MeltArray assay identified 14 variant-specific mutations, enabling the detect...
Source: Viruses - December 8, 2023 Category: Virology Authors: Ting Yan Rongrong Zheng Yinghui Li Siyang Sun Xiaohong Zeng Zhijiao Yue Yiqun Liao Qinghua Hu Ye Xu Qingge Li Tags: Article Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 15, Pages 2394: Virological Characteristics of Five SARS-CoV-2 Variants, Including Beta, Delta and Omicron BA.1, BA.2, BA.5
In this study, SARS-CoV-2 WIV04 (prototype) and five VOCs (Beta, Delta, Omicron BA.1, BA.2 and BA.5 variants) were inoculated in Vero cells to observe their growth activities. Apart from evaluating the environmental stability at different temperatures, residual virus titers and infectivity at different temperatures (4 &deg;C, room temperature (RT) and 37 &deg;C) were measured over 7 days. The experiment also assessed the infectivity for different incubation durations. The growth capacity assay suggested that the WIV04, Beta and Delta variants replicated efficiently in Vero cells compared with Omicron Varian...
Source: Viruses - December 8, 2023 Category: Virology Authors: Yan Zeng Fei Xia Changfu Guo Chunxia Hu Yuwei Li Xiang Wang Qin Wu Zhuo Chen Jia Lu Zejun Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 15, Pages 2395: Gene-Editing and RNA Interference in Treating Hepatitis B: A Review
Piotr Rzymski The hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to cause substantial health and economic burdens, and its target of elimination may not be reached in 2030 without further efforts in diagnostics, non-pharmaceutical prevention measures, vaccination, and treatment. Current therapeutic options in chronic HBV, based on interferons and/or nucleos(t)ide analogs, suppress the virus replication but do not eliminate the pathogen and suffer from several constraints. This paper reviews the progress on biotechnological approaches in functional and definitive HBV treatments, including gene-editing tools, i.e., zinc-finger prote...
Source: Viruses - December 8, 2023 Category: Virology Authors: Nadiia Kasianchuk Krystyna Dobrowolska Sofiia Harkava Andreea Bretcan Dorota Zar ębska-Michaluk Jerzy Jaroszewicz Robert Flisiak Piotr Rzymski Tags: Review Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 15, Pages 2391: Phylogenetic Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus Infections in a Large Belgian Cohort Using Next-Generation Sequencing of Full-Length Genomes
ke Vandamme Eric Van Wijngaerden Tim Dierckx Lize Cuypers Kristel Van Laethem The hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic in Western countries is primarily perpetuated by the sub-populations of men who have sex with men (MSM) and people who inject drugs (PWID). Understanding the dynamics of transmission in these communities is crucial for removing the remaining hurdles towards HCV elimination. We sequenced 269 annotated HCV plasma samples using probe enrichment and next-generation sequencing, obtaining 224 open reading frames of HCV (OR497849-OR498072). Maximum likelihood phylogenies were generated on the four most pr...
Source: Viruses - December 8, 2023 Category: Virology Authors: Kasper T. Christensen Florian Pierard David Bonsall Rory Bowden Eleanor Barnes Eric Florence M. Azim Ansari Dung Nguyen Mariateresa de Cesare Frederik Nevens Geert Robaeys Yoeri Schrooten Dana Busschots Peter Simmonds Anne-Mieke Vandamme Eric Van Wijngaer Tags: Article Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 15, Pages 2392: Emerging Microbes, Infections, and Spillovers: Charting a Path Forward
vi Kant In an age defined by rapid globalization and unprecedented technological advancements, the field of infectious diseases stands at the intersection of complex challenges and promising opportunities [...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - December 8, 2023 Category: Virology Authors: Maciej Grzybek Laura Kakkola Tarja Sironen Ravi Kant Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 15, Pages 2393: Dynamics and Conformations of a Full-Length CRESS-DNA Replicase
This study sets the basis of further MD studies aimed at obtaining a chemical understanding of how Rep uses nucleotide binding and hydrolysis to translocate ssDNA. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - December 8, 2023 Category: Virology Authors: Elvira Tarasova Reza Khayat Tags: Article Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 15, Pages 2388: First Detection and Molecular Characterization of Novel Variant Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (Genotype A2dB1b) in Egypt
o Hesham Sultan Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an immunosuppressive disease causing significant damage to the poultry industry worldwide. Its etiological agent is infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a highly resistant RNA virus whose genetic variability considerably affects disease manifestation, diagnosis and control, primarily pursued by vaccination. In Egypt, very virulent strains (genotype A3B2), responsible for typical IBD signs and lesions and high mortality, have historically prevailed. The present molecular survey, however, suggests that a major epidemiological shift might be occurring in the country....
Source: Viruses - December 7, 2023 Category: Virology Authors: Matteo Legnardi Francesca Poletto Shaimaa Talaat Karim Selim Mahmoud K. Moawad Giovanni Franzo Claudia Maria Tucciarone Mattia Cecchinato Hesham Sultan Tags: Article Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 15, Pages 2389: Red and Blue Light Induce Soybean Resistance to Soybean Mosaic Virus Infection through the Coordination of Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid Defense Pathways
Wenyu Yang Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) seriously harms soybean quality and yield. In order to understand the effect of a heterogeneous light environment on the disease resistance of intercropped soybeans, we simulated three kinds of light environments to learn the effects of white light, blue light, and far-red light on the SMV resistance of soybeans. The results showed that compared with the control, SMV-infected soybeans showed dwarfing and enhanced defense. The symptoms of leaves under red and blue light were less severe than those under white light, the virus content of infected plants was about 90% lower than unde...
Source: Viruses - December 7, 2023 Category: Virology Authors: Jing Shang Siqi Zhang Junbo Du Wenming Wang Kai Li Wenyu Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 15, Pages 2390: IFITM1 and IFITM3 Proteins Inhibit the Infectivity of Progeny HIV-1 without Disrupting Envelope Glycoprotein Clusters
Melikyan Human interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins inhibit the fusion of a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses, both when expressed in target cells and when present in infected cells. Upon expression in infected cells, IFITMs incorporate into progeny virions and reduce their infectivity by a poorly understood mechanism. Since only a few envelope glycoproteins (Envs) are present on HIV-1 particles, and Env clustering has been proposed to be essential for optimal infectivity, we asked if IFITM protein incorporation modulates HIV-1 Env clustering. The incorporation of two members of the IFITM family, IFITM1...
Source: Viruses - December 7, 2023 Category: Virology Authors: Smita Verma Yen-Cheng Chen Mariana Marin Scott E. Gillespie Gregory B. Melikyan Tags: Article Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 15, Pages 2387: Smoking, Alcohol Intake and Torque Teno Virus in Stable Kidney Transplant Recipients
Stephan J. L. Bakker Torque Teno Virus (TTV) is a non-pathogenic virus that is highly prevalent among kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Its circulating load is associated with an immunological status in KTR and is considered a promising tool for guiding immunosuppression. To allow for optimal guidance, it is important to identify other determinants of TTV load. We aimed to investigate the potential association of smoking and alcohol intake with TTV load. For this cross-sectional study, serum TTV load was measured using PCR in stable kidney transplant recipients at &ge;1 year after transplantation, and smo...
Source: Viruses - December 6, 2023 Category: Virology Authors: Caecilia S. E. Doorenbos Jip Jonker Jiasi Hao Edmund J. Gore Daan Kremer Tim J. Knobbe Anoek A. E. de Joode Jan Stephan F. Sanders Olivier Thaunat Hubert G. M. Niesters Coretta C. Van Leer-Buter Stephan J. L. Bakker Tags: Article Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 15, Pages 2385: Is the Central Nervous System Reservoir a Hurdle for an HIV Cure?
her Power There is currently no cure for HIV infection although adherence to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses replication of the virus in blood, increases CD4+ T-cell counts, reverses immunodeficiency, and increases life expectancy. Despite these substantial advances, ART is a lifelong treatment for people with HIV (PWH) and upon cessation or interruption, the virus quickly rebounds in plasma and anatomic sites, including the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in disease progression. With recent advances in quantifying viral burden, detection of genetically intact viral genomes, and isolation of r...
Source: Viruses - December 5, 2023 Category: Virology Authors: Nazanin Mohammadzadeh Nicolas Chomont Jerome Estaquier Eric A. Cohen Christopher Power Tags: Review Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 15, Pages 2386: Maternal COVID-19 Serological Changes & mdash;Comparison between Seroconversion Rate in First and Third Trimesters of Pregnancy and Subsequent Obstetric Complications: A Cohort Study
Viruses, Vol. 15, Pages 2386: Maternal COVID-19 Serological Changes—Comparison between Seroconversion Rate in First and Third Trimesters of Pregnancy and Subsequent Obstetric Complications: A Cohort Study Viruses doi: 10.3390/v15122386 Authors: Maria N. Rayo Adriana Aquise Irene Fernandez-Buhigas Lorena Gonzalez-Gea Coral Garcia-Gonzalez Mirian Sanchez-Tudela Miguel Rodriguez-Fernandez Diego Tuñon-Le Poultel Belen Santacruz Maria M. Gil Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to respiratory diseases. We aimed to study seroconversion rates during pregnancy in a cohort of consecutive pre...
Source: Viruses - December 5, 2023 Category: Virology Authors: Maria N. Rayo Adriana Aquise Irene Fernandez-Buhigas Lorena Gonzalez-Gea Coral Garcia-Gonzalez Mirian Sanchez-Tudela Miguel Rodriguez-Fernandez Diego Tu ñon-Le Poultel Belen Santacruz Maria M. Gil Tags: Article Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 15, Pages 2383: State-of-the-Art Virology Research in Norway
and Norway is situated in a remote and sparsely inhabited part of the world with about 5 [...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - December 5, 2023 Category: Virology Authors: Christine Hanssen Rinaldo Morten Tryland Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 15, Pages 2384: Tobacco Mild Green Mosaic Virus (TMGMV) Isolates from Different Plant Families Show No Evidence of Differential Adaptation to Their Host of Origin
a-Arenal The relevance of tobamoviruses to crop production is increasing due to new emergences, which cannot be understood without knowledge of the tobamovirus host range and host specificity. Recent analyses of tobamovirus occurrence in different plant communities have shown unsuspectedly large host ranges. This was the case of the tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV), which previously was most associated with solanaceous hosts. We addressed two hypotheses concerning TMGMV host range evolution: (i) ecological fitting, rather than genome evolution, determines TMGMV host range, and (ii) isolates are adapted to the ho...
Source: Viruses - December 5, 2023 Category: Virology Authors: Rafael de Andr és-Torán Laura Guidoum Adrian D. Zamfir Miguel Ángel Mora Santiago Moreno-V ázquez Fernando Garc ía-Arenal Tags: Article Source Type: research