Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2170: A 10-Year Retrospective Study of Inclusion Body Hepatitis in Meat-Type Chickens in Spain (2011 –2021)
Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2170: A 10-Year Retrospective Study of Inclusion Body Hepatitis in Meat-Type Chickens in Spain (2011–2021) Viruses doi: 10.3390/v13112170 Authors: Kateri Bertran Angela Blanco Noelia Antilles Miquel Nofrarías Rosa M. Valle Àlex Cobos Antonio Ramis Mar Biarnés Natàlia Majó A surge in fowl adenovirus (FAdV) causing inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) outbreaks has occurred in several countries in the last two decades. In Spain, a sharp increase in case numbers in broilers and broiler breeder pullets arose since 2011, which prompted the vaccin...
Source: Viruses - October 28, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Kateri Bertran Angela Blanco Noelia Antilles Miquel Nofrar ías Rosa M. Valle Àlex Cobos Antonio Ramis Mar Biarn és Nat àlia Majó Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2171: BtuB-Dependent Infection of the T5-like Yersinia Phage ϕR2-01
This study provides a proteogenomic characterization of a T5-type bacteriophage and identifies specific Y. enterocolitica strains sensitive to infection with possible future applications of ϕR2-01 as a food biocontrol or phage therapy agent. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - October 28, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Lotta J. Happonen Maria I. Pajunen Jin Woo Jun Mikael Skurnik Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2172: RNA Binding Proteins as Pioneer Determinants of Infection: Protective, Proviral, or Both?
scano As the first intracellular host factors that directly interact with the genomes of RNA viruses, RNA binding proteins (RBPs) have a profound impact on the outcome of an infection. Recent discoveries brought about by new methodologies have led to an unprecedented ability to peer into the earliest events between viral RNA and the RBPs that act upon them. These discoveries have sparked a re-evaluation of current paradigms surrounding RBPs and post-transcriptional gene regulation. Here, we highlight questions that have bloomed from the implementation of these novel approaches. Canonical RBPs can impact the fates of bo...
Source: Viruses - October 28, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Samantha Lisy Katherine Rothamel Manuel Ascano Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2173: The Efficacy of Disinfection on Modified Vaccinia Ankara and African Swine Fever Virus in Various Forest Soil Types
In conclusion, comparing MVAV to ASFV for efficacy screening of disinfectant solutions has revealed many similarities. Peracetic acid reduced the infectivity of both viruses independently of the soil type and the existence of a high organic soiling. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - October 28, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Franziska Tanneberger Ahmed Abd El Wahed Melina Fischer Sandra Blome Uwe Truyen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2164: IRE1-Mediated Unfolded Protein Response Promotes the Replication of Tick-Borne Flaviviruses in a Virus and Cell-Type Dependent Manner
e Steffen Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV) can cause severe neurological complications in humans, but differences in tissue tropism and pathogenicity have been described for individual virus strains. Viral protein synthesis leads to the induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) within infected cells. The IRE1 pathway has been hypothesized to support flavivirus replication by increasing protein and lipid biogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of the UPR in TBFV infection in human astrocytes, neuronal and intestinal cell lines that had been infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) strains Neudoerfl and...
Source: Viruses - October 27, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Veronika J. M. Breitkopf Gerhard Dobler Peter Claus Hassan Y. Naim Imke Steffen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2166: Construction of an Influenza D Virus with an Eight-Segmented Genome
Taisuke Horimoto Influenza D virus (IDV) may cause the bovine respiratory disease complex, which is the most common and costly disease affecting the cattle industry. Previously, we revealed that eight segments could be actively packaged in its single virion, suggesting that IDV with the seven-segmented genome shows an agnostic genome packaging mechanism. Herein, we engineered an eight-segmented recombinant IDV in which the NS1 or NS2 genes were separated from NS segment into independent segments (NS1 or NS2 segments, respectively), leading to monocistronic translation of each NS protein. We constructed two plasmids: o...
Source: Viruses - October 27, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Hiroho Ishida Shin Murakami Haruhiko Kamiki Hiromichi Matsugo Misa Katayama Wataru Sekine Kosuke Ohira Akiko Takenaka-Uema Taisuke Horimoto Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2165: Unravelling the Immunomodulatory Effects of Viral Ion Channels, towards the Treatment of Disease
son The current COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for the research community to develop a better understanding of viruses, in particular their modes of infection and replicative lifecycles, to aid in the development of novel vaccines and much needed anti-viral therapeutics. Several viruses express proteins capable of forming pores in host cellular membranes, termed “Viroporins”. They are a family of small hydrophobic proteins, with at least one amphipathic domain, which characteristically form oligomeric structures with central hydrophilic domains. Consequently, they can facilitate the transport of...
Source: Viruses - October 27, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Siobhan Gargan Nigel J. Stevenson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2167: Bovine Leukaemia Virus: Current Epidemiological Circumstance and Future Prospective
Abdelfattah Selim Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus that is closely related to human T-cell leukaemia virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and -2). It causes enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), which is the most important neoplastic disease in cattle. Most BLV-infected cattle are asymptomatic, which potentiates extremely high shedding rates of the virus in many cattle populations. Approximately 30% of them show persistent lymphocytosis that has various clinical outcomes; only a small proportion of animals (less than 5%) exhibit signs of EBL. BLV causes major economic losses in the cattle industry, especially in da...
Source: Viruses - October 27, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Marawan A. Marawan Abdulaziz Alouffi Suleiman El Tokhy Sara Badawy Ihsanullah Shirani Ali Dawood Aizhen Guo Mashal M. Almutairi Fahdah Ayed Alshammari Abdelfattah Selim Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2168: Genome Characterization of Bird-Related Rhabdoviruses Circulating in Africa
In this study, we characterized seven additional and previously unclassified rhabdoviruses, which were isolated from various bird species collected in Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Based on the analysis of their genome sequences obtained by next generation sequencing, we observed a classical genomic structure, with the presence of the five canonical rhabdovirus genes, i.e., nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G), and polymerase (L). In addition, different additional open reading frames which code putative proteins of unknown function were identified, with the common presence of the...
Source: Viruses - October 27, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Dong-Sheng Luo Zhi-Jian Zhou Xing-Yi Ge Herv é Bourhy Zheng-Li Shi Marc Grandadam Laurent Dacheux Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2169: Successive Inoculations of Pigs with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 1 (PRRSV-1) and Swine H1N2 Influenza Virus Suggest a Mutual Interference between the two Viral Infections
In this study, we investigated clinical, virological and immunological outcomes of successive infections with PRRSV-1 and H1N2 swIAV. Twenty-four specific pathogen-free piglets were distributed into four groups and inoculated either with PRRSV at study day (SD) 0, or with swIAV at SD8, or with PRRSV and swIAV one week apart at SD0 and SD8, respectively, or mock-inoculated. In PRRSV/swIAV group, the clinical signs usually observed after swIAV infection were attenuated while higher levels of anti-swIAV antibodies were measured in lungs. Concurrently, PRRSV multiplication in lungs was significantly affected by swIAV infection...
Source: Viruses - October 27, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Juliette Bougon C éline Deblanc Patricia Renson St éphane Quéguiner St éphane Gorin Sophie Mah é Mireille Le Le Dimna Nicolas Barbier Fr édéric Paboeuf Ga ëlle Simon Olivier Bourry Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2158: Evaluation of the Effect of Inactivated Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Vaccine with Nano Silicon on the Phenotype and Function of Porcine Dendritic Cells
In this study, we further clarified the immune-enhancing mechanism of the inactivated TGEV vaccine with MSNs on porcine dendritic cells (DCs). Our results indicated that the inactivated TGEV vaccine with MSNs strongly enhanced the activation of the DCs. Expressions of TLR3, TLR5, TLR7, TLR9, and TLR10, cytokines IFN-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α, cytokine receptor CCR-7 of immature DCs were characterized and showed themselves to be significantly higher in the inactivated TGEV vaccine with the MSN group. In summary, the inactivated TGEV vaccine with MSNs has effects on the phenotype and function of porci...
Source: Viruses - October 26, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Lanlan Zheng Fujie Zhao Jiaxi Ru Lintao Liu Zi Wang Nianxiang Wang Xiangli Shu Zhanyong Wei Huichen Guo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2160: 2A and 2A-Like Sequences: Distribution in Different Virus Species and Applications in Biotechnology
nza 2A is an oligopeptide sequence that mediates a ribosome “skipping” effect and can mediate a co-translation cleavage of polyproteins. These sequences are widely distributed from insect to mammalian viruses and could act by accelerating adaptive capacity. These sequences have been used in many heterologous co-expression systems because they are versatile tools for cleaving proteins of biotechnological interest. In this work, we review and update the occurrence of 2A/2A-like sequences in different groups of viruses by screening the sequences available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information da...
Source: Viruses - October 26, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Juliana G. S. de Lima Daniel C. F. Lanza Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2159: The Stem-Loop I of Senecavirus A IRES Is Essential for Cap-Independent Translation Activity and Virus Recovery
n Hong Qi Li Yu Senecavirus A (SVA) is a picornavirus that causes vesicular disease in swine and the only member of the Senecavirus genus. Like in all members of Picornaviridae, the 5′ untranslated region (5’UTR) of SVA contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that initiates cap-independent translation. For example, the replacement of the IRES of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) with its relative bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) affects the viral translation efficiency and virulence. Structurally, the IRES from SVA resembles that of hepatitis C virus (HCV), a flavivirus. Given the roles of the I...
Source: Viruses - October 26, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Nana Wang Haiwei Wang Jiabao Shi Chen Li Xinran Liu Junhao Fan Chao Sun Craig E. Cameron Hong Qi Li Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2161: Genetic Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Variants in Mexico during the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic
In this study, we analyzed full genome sequences from 27 February 2020 to 28 February 2021 to characterize the geographical and temporal distribution of SARS-CoV-2 lineages and identify the most common circulating lineages during this period. We defined six different geographical regions with particular dynamics of lineage circulation. The Northeast and Northwest regions were the ones that exhibited the highest lineage diversity, while the Central south and South/Southeast regions presented less diversity with predominance of a certain lineage. Additionally, by late February 2021, lineage B.1.1.519 represented more than 89...
Source: Viruses - October 26, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Blanca Taboada-Ram írez Selene Z árate Pavel I ša Celia Boukadida Joel Armando V ázquez-Pérez Jos é Esteban Muñoz-Medina Jos é Ernesto Ramírez-González Andreu Comas-Garc ía Concepci ón Grajales-Muñiz Alma Rinc ón-Rubio Margarita Mat ías-Flo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2162: Structural Studies on the Shapeshifting Murine Norovirus
as J. Smith Noroviruses are responsible for almost a fifth of all cases of gastroenteritis worldwide. The calicivirus capsid is composed of 180 copies of VP1 with a molecular weight of ~58 kDa. This coat protein is divided into the N-terminus (N), the shell (S) and C-terminal protruding (P) domains. The S domain forms a shell around the viral RNA genome, while the P domains dimerize to form protrusions on the capsid surface. The P domain is subdivided into P1 and P2 subdomains, with the latter containing the binding sites for cellular receptors and neutralizing antibodies. Reviewed here are studies on murine norovirus ...
Source: Viruses - October 26, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Michael B. Sherman Alexis N. Williams Hong Q. Smith B. Montgomery Pettitt Christiane E. Wobus Thomas J. Smith Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2163: A High Rate Algal Pond Hosting a Dynamic Community of RNA Viruses
This study explores a unique site, a high-rate algal pond (HRAP), for culturing industrially microalgae, to elucidate new RNA viruses. The importance of viral-host interactions in aquatic systems are well documented, and the ever-expanding microalgae industry is no exception. As the industry becomes a more important source of sustainable plastic manufacturing, a producer of cosmetic pigments and alternative protein sources, and a means of CO2 remediation in the face of climate change, studying microalgal viruses becomes a vital practice for proactive management of microalgae cultures at the industrial level. This study pro...
Source: Viruses - October 26, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Emily E. Chase Sonia Monteil-Bouchard Ang élique Gobet Felana H. Andrianjakarivony Christelle Desnues Guillaume Blanc Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2152: Identification of Cacao Mild Mosaic Virus (CaMMV) and Cacao Yellow Vein-Banding Virus (CYVBV) in Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Germplasm
M. Dunwell Cocoa, Theobroma cacao, is an important tropical perennial crop grown widely in the humid tropics. The exchange of cocoa germplasm between germplasm collections and breeding centres is vital for varietal development. Intermediate quarantine facilities, such as the International Cocoa Quarantine Centre, Reading UK (ICQC-R) play a vital role in ensuring the transfer of germplasm whilst minimising the risk of spreading pests and diseases. Current screening procedures combine visual inspection and molecular techniques, which are effective in detecting Cocoa swollen shoot virus (CSSV), a badnavirus, which causes...
Source: Viruses - October 26, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ihsan Ullah Andrew J. Daymond Paul Hadley Michelle J. End Pathmanathan Umaharan Jim M. Dunwell Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2153: Immunogenicity of Novel Live Vaccine Based on an Artificial rHN20 Strain against Emerging Fowl Adenovirus 4
In this study, the immunogenicity of artificially rescued rHN20 was evaluated in chickens using different routes and doses as a live vaccine. The live rHN20 vaccine induced high titers of neutralizing antibodies against FAdV-4 and fully protected the immunized chickens against a lethal dose of FAdV-4. Furthermore, immunized chickens showed no clinical symptoms or histopathological changes in the FAdV-4-targeted liver, and the viral load in the tissues of immunized chickens was significantly lower than that of chickens in the challenge control group. Collectively, the live rHN20 vaccine effectively protected our sample agai...
Source: Viruses - October 26, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yu Zhang Qing Pan Rongrong Guo Aijing Liu Zhuangzhuang Xu Yulong Gao Hongyu Cui Changjun Liu Xiaole Qi Yanping Zhang Kai Li Li Gao Xiaomei Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2155: Novel Cyclovirus Species in Dogs with Hemorrhagic Gastroenteritis
Ghosh Nested PCRs with circovirus/cyclovirus pan-rep (replicase gene) primers detected eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (CRESS DNA) viruses in three (samples CN9E, CN16E and CN34) of 18 canine parvovirus-2-positive fecal samples from household dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis on the Caribbean island of Nevis. The complete genomes of CRESS DNA virus CN9E, CN16E and CN34 were determined by inverse nested PCRs. Based on (i) genome organization, (ii) location of the putative origin of replication, (iii) pairwise genome-wide sequence identities, (iv) the presence of conserved motifs in the putative ...
Source: Viruses - October 26, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Kerry Gainor Yashpal S. Malik Souvik Ghosh Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2156: Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses and Xenotransplantation, 2021
r Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) are integrated in the genome of all pigs, and some of them are able to infect human cells. Therefore, PERVs pose a risk for xenotransplantation, the transplantation of pig cells, tissues, or organ to humans in order to alleviate the shortage of human donor organs. Up to 2021, a huge body of knowledge about PERVs has been accumulated regarding their biology, including replication, recombination, origin, host range, and immunosuppressive properties. Until now, no PERV transmission has been observed in clinical trials transplanting pig islet cells into diabetic humans, in preclini...
Source: Viruses - October 26, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Joachim Denner Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2154: Retraction: Samaha et al. Effects of a Single Dose of Ivermectin on Viral and Clinical Outcomes in Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infected Subjects: A Pilot Clinical Trial in Lebanon. Viruses 2021, 13, 989
jeh Ali H. Eid Houssam Raad The journal retracts the article, Effects of a Single Dose of Ivermectin on Viral and Clinical Outcomes in Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infected Subjects: A Pilot Clinical Trial in Lebanon [...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - October 26, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ali A. Samaha Hussein Mouawia Mirna Fawaz Hamad Hassan Ali Salami Ali Al Bazzal Hamid Bou Saab Mohamed Al-Wakeel Ahmad Alsaabi Mohamad Chouman Mahmoud Al Moussawi Hassan Ayoub Ali Raad Ola Hajjeh Ali H. Eid Houssam Raad Tags: Retraction Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2157: CRISPR Tackles Emerging Viral Pathogens
. Beard Understanding the dynamic relationship between viral pathogens and cellular host factors is critical to furthering our knowledge of viral replication, disease mechanisms and development of anti-viral therapeutics. CRISPR genome editing technology has enhanced this understanding, by allowing identification of pro-viral and anti-viral cellular host factors for a wide range of viruses, most recently the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2. This review will discuss how CRISPR knockout and CRISPR activation genome-wide screening methods are a robust tool to investigate the viral life cycle and how other class...
Source: Viruses - October 26, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Emily N. Kirby Byron Shue Paul Q. Thomas Michael R. Beard Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2144: Ongoing Assessment of the Molecular Evolution of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Continues to Question Viral Origins
an Satya Parida Understanding the evolution of viral pathogens is critical to being able to define how viruses emerge within different landscapes. Host susceptibility, which is spread between different species and is a contributing factor to the subsequent epidemiology of a disease, is defined by virus detection and subsequent characterization. Peste des petits ruminants virus is a plague of small ruminant species that is a considerable burden to the development of sustainable agriculture across Africa and much of Asia. The virus has also had a significant impact on populations of endangered species in recent years, ...
Source: Viruses - October 25, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Mana Mahapatra Richa Pachauri Saravanan Subramaniam Ashley C. Banyard Shanmugam ChandraSekar Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan Felix Njeumi Dhanavelu Muthuchelvan Satya Parida Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2145: First Genomic Evidence of Dual African Swine Fever Virus Infection: Case Report from Recent and Historical Outbreaks in Sardinia
loisa Evangelista Annalisa Oggiano Silvia Dei Giudici African swine fever virus (ASFV) is one of the pathogens of highest concern worldwide. Despite different virus lineages co-circulating in several areas, dual infections in the same animal have been rarely observed, suggesting that ASF superinfections are infrequent events. Here we present the first genome-wide detection and analysis of two intragenotype dual ASFV infections. The dual infections have been detected in a hunted wild boar and in a pig carcass, both infected by ASFV genotype I in Sardinia in 1984 and 2018, respectively. We characterize the genetic di...
Source: Viruses - October 25, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Mariangela Stefania Fiori Luca Ferretti Matteo Floris Federica Loi Antonello Di Nardo Anna Maria Sechi Anna Ladu Graziella Puggioni Daria Sanna Fabio Scarpa Maria Luisa Sanna Maria Paola Madrau Claudia Torresi Roberto Sirica Eloisa Evangelista Annalisa Og Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2146: Respiratory Viruses in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients
mar Solid organ transplantation is often lifesaving, but does carry an increased risk of infection. Respiratory viral infections are one of the most prevalent infections, and are a cause of significant morbidity and mortality, especially among lung transplant recipients. There is also data to suggest an association with acute rejection and chronic lung allograft dysfunction in lung transplant recipients. Respiratory viral infections can appear at any time post-transplant and are usually acquired in the community. All respiratory viral infections share similar clinical manifestations and are all currently diagnosed usin...
Source: Viruses - October 25, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Roni Bitterman Deepali Kumar Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2147: Evaluating Large Spontaneous Deletions in a Bovine Cell Line Selected for Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Resistance
Tad S. Sonstegard Bovine viral diarrhea virus’s (BVDV) entry into bovine cells involves attachment of virions to cellular receptors, internalization, and pH-dependent fusion with endosomal membranes. The primary host receptor for BVDV is CD46; however, the complete set of host factors required for virus entry is unknown. The Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line is susceptible to BVDV infection, while a derivative cell line (CRIB) is resistant at the level of virus entry. We performed complete genome sequencing of each to identify genomic variation underlying the resistant phenotype with the aim of identifyi...
Source: Viruses - October 25, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Aspen M. Workman Michael P. Heaton Dennis A. Webster Gregory P. Harhay Theodore S. Kalbfleisch Timothy P. L. Smith Shollie M. Falkenberg Daniel F. Carlson Tad S. Sonstegard Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2148: Detection of Insect-Specific Flaviviruses in Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northeastern Regions of South Africa
arietjie Venter Mosquitoes in the Aedes and Culex genera are considered the main vectors of pathogenic flaviviruses worldwide. Entomological surveillance using universal flavivirus sets of primers in mosquitoes can detect not only pathogenic viruses but also insect-specific ones. It is hypothesized that insect-specific flaviviruses, which naturally infect these mosquitoes, may influence their vector competence for zoonotic arboviruses. Here, entomological surveillance was performed between January 2014 and May 2018 in five different provinces in the northeastern parts of South Africa, with the aim of identifying circul...
Source: Viruses - October 25, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Milehna M. Guarido Kamini Govender Megan A. Riddin Maarten Schrama Erin E. Gorsich Basil D. Brooke Antonio Paulo Gouveia Almeida Marietjie Venter Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2149: Simbu Viruses ’ Infection of Livestock in Israel—A Transient Climatic Land
Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2149: Simbu Viruses’ Infection of Livestock in Israel—A Transient Climatic Land Viruses doi: 10.3390/v13112149 Authors: Jacob Brenner Adi Behar Important lessons have been learned by the Israeli veterinary community regarding Simbu serogroup viruses infections. This serogroup of viruses might cause the births of neonatal malformation in susceptible ruminant’s populations. Until 2012, only Akabane virus was connected with the births of malformed ruminants in Israel. However, serological and genomic detection tests, coupled with viral isolations, revealed that more than a s...
Source: Viruses - October 25, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jacob Brenner Adi Behar Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2150: Occupational Hantavirus Infections in Agricultural and Forestry Workers: A Systematic Review and Metanalysis
la Magnavita Hantaviruses are zoonotic pathogens that can cause serious human disorders, including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. As the main risk factor for human infections is the interaction with rodents, occupational groups such as farmers and forestry workers are reportedly at high risk, but no summary evidence has been collected to date. Therefore, we searched two different databases (PubMed and EMBASE), focusing on studies reporting the prevalence of hantaviruses in farmers and forestry workers. Data were extracted using a standardized assessment form, and results ...
Source: Viruses - October 25, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Matteo Ricc ò Simona Peruzzi Silvia Ranzieri Nicola Magnavita Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2151: COVEVOL: Natural Evolution at 6 Months of COVID-19
The objective was to describe the natural course of the disease at 6 months and to identify possible factors favoring the resurgence or persistence of these symptoms. COVEVOL is a retrospective observational descriptive study of 74 patients. All patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR from March 2020 were included. We compared a group with symptom persistence (PS group) with another group without symptom persistence (no-PS group). Fifty-three out of seventy-four patients (71.62%) described at least one persistent symptom at 6 months of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the PS group, 56.6% were women and the average age was 54.7 years...
Source: Viruses - October 25, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Louise Messin Marc Puyraveau Yousri Benabdallah Quentin Lepiller Vincent Gendrin Souheil Zayet Timoth ée Klopfenstein Lynda Toko Alix Pierron Pierre-Yves Royer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2143: Impairment of CD4+ T and Memory B Cell Responses but Normal Memory CD8+T-Cell Activation on Crohn ’s Disease after COVID-19 Vaccination: A Twin Case
This study evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses after vaccination with a two-dose schedule in a Crohn’s disease patient treated with Infliximab (10 mg/kg); we included comparisons with a monozygotic twin. The results showed that the Crohn’s disease’s twin (twin 2) had no antibody detection and reduced activation of CD4+ T cell responses, unlike the twin without the autoimmune disease (twin 1). Twin 2 developed antigen-specific central memory CD8+ T-cells and IFNγ production after the second dose of COVID-19 vaccination, similar to twin 1. These findings elucidated the role of...
Source: Viruses - October 24, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Fabiana Gil Melga ço Tamiris Azamor Livia Melo Villar Ana Paula Dinis Ano Bom Juliana Gil Melga ço Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2142: Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV) Outbreak in a Show Stallion Population
Conclusions: acute clinical signs, acute phase detection of antigen via (PCR) nasal swabs or (EDTA) blood, and seroconversion support the idea of transmission via seminal fluids into the respiratory tract(s) of others. This outbreak highlights EAV’s horizontal transmission via the respiratory tract. This route should be considered in a chronic-persistently infected herd, when seronegative animals are added to the group. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - October 24, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Christiane Otzdorff Julia Beckmann Lutz S. Goehring Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2140: A Comprehensive Coordinator Supported Hepatitis C Virus Testing and Linkage to Treatment Program at Kaiser Permanente Mid-Atlantic States
l Horberg Since 2020, the US Preventive Services Taskforce has recommended expanding hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening to include ages 18−79, in addition to baby boomers (born 1945−1965) and those at-risk for hepatitis C virus. This retrospective cohort analysis compared patients (18 years and above) tested for HCV through usual care versus a coordinator-supported program (HCV pathway) during 2015−2018 within Kaiser Permanente Mid-Atlantic States (KPMAS). In total, 131,176 patients were tested through the HCV pathway and 128,311 through usual care (non-standardized testing). Of those tested, 1.6% (HCV...
Source: Viruses - October 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Mary Cabell Jonas Kevin Rubenstein Eric Watson Sundeep Basra Michael Horberg Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2141: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a Dog in Connecticut in February 2021
We report the first detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a 3-month-old dog in Connecticut that died suddenly and was submitted to the state veterinary diagnostic laboratory for postmortem examination. Viral RNA was detected in multiple organs of the dog by reverse transcription real time-PCR (RT-qPCR). Negative and positive sense strands of viral RNA were visualized by in situ hybridization using RNAscope technology. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the hCoV-19/USA/CT-CVMDL-Dog-1/2021 (CT_Dog/2021) virus were conducted to identify the origin and lineage of the ...
Source: Viruses - October 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Dong-Hun Lee Zeinab H. Helal Junwon Kim Amelia Hunt Alyza Barbieri Natalie Tocco Salvatore Frasca Kirklyn Kerr Ji-Yeon Hyeon David H. Chung Guillermo Risatti Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2139: Association of Hepatitis C Virus Replication with the Catecholamine Biosynthetic Pathway
lacopoulou Niki Vassilaki A bidirectional negative relationship between Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and gene expression of the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) was previously shown in the liver and attributed at least to an association of DDC with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Here, we report that the biosynthesis and uptake of catecholamines restrict HCV replication in hepatocytes, while HCV has developed ways to reduce catecholamine production. By employing gene silencing, chemical inhibition or induction of the catecholamine biosynthetic and metabolic enzymes and transpo...
Source: Viruses - October 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: George Mpekoulis Vassilina Tsopela Georgios Panos Vasilei οs Siozos Katerina I. Kalliampakou Efseveia Frakolaki Constantinos D. Sideris Alice G. Vassiliou Diamantis C. Sideris Dido Vassilacopoulou Niki Vassilaki Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2133: Dynamics of Viral Shedding and Symptoms in Patients with Asymptomatic or Mild COVID-19
In conclusion, symptomatic patients have a high infectivity with high symptom scores during the early disease course and gradually lose infectivity depending on the symptom. Conversely, asymptomatic patients exhibit a rapid decrease in viral load with the loss of infectivity, despite a similar viral load during the early disease course. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - October 22, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Seongman Bae Ji Yeun Kim So Yun Lim Heedo Park Hye Hee Cha Ji-Soo Kwon Mi Hyun Suh Hyun Jung Lee Joon Seo Lim Jiwon Jung Min Jae Kim Yong Pil Chong Sang-Oh Lee Sang-Ho Choi Yang Soo Kim Ho Young Lee Sohyun Lee Man-Seong Park Sung-Han Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2135: A Sex-Stratified Analysis of Monocyte Phenotypes Associated with HIV Infection in Uganda
hris T. Longenecker Women with HIV may experience higher rates of non-AIDS comorbidities compared to men with HIV, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated sex-related differences in the effects of HIV on monocyte phenotypes within the Ugandan Study of HIV effects on the Myocardium and Atherosclerosis (mUTIMA). Of 133 participants who provided blood for flow cytometry assays, 86 (65%) were women and 91 (68%) were persons living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral therapy. The median age was 57 (interquartile range, 52–63) years. PLWH exhibited a lower proportion of circulating CD14+CD1...
Source: Viruses - October 22, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Moises A. Huaman Manuel G. Feria Cissy Kityo Sophie Nalukwago Rashidah Nazzinda David A. Zidar Markella V. Zanni Mark J. Siedner Steven K. Grinspoon Chris T. Longenecker Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2134: Species-Specific Inhibition of Necroptosis by HCMV UL36
ram Brune Viral infection activates cellular antiviral defenses including programmed cell death (PCD). Many viruses, particularly those of the Herpesviridae family, encode cell death inhibitors that antagonize different forms of PCD. While some viral inhibitors are broadly active in cells of different species, others have species-specific functions, probably reflecting the co-evolution of the herpesviruses with their respective hosts. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) protein UL36 is a dual cell death pathway inhibitor. It blocks death receptor-dependent apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-8 activation, and necroptosis by bindi...
Source: Viruses - October 22, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Elena Muscolino Claudia Castiglioni Renke Brixel Giada Frascaroli Wolfram Brune Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2136: Identification and Genetic Characterization of Viral Pathogens in Ruminant Gestation Abnormalities, Israel, 2015 –2019
In conclusion, it was shown that various viruses are involved in abnormal courses of pregnancy in ruminants in Israel. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - October 22, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Natalia Golender Velizar Bumbarov Anita Kovtunenko Dan David Marisol Guini-Rubinstein Asaf Sol Martin Beer Avi Eldar Kerstin Wernike Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2137: Abnormal Blood Coagulation and Kidney Damage in Aged Hamsters Infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2
In this study, we investigated and compared blood coagulation abnormalities and tissue damage between male Syrian hamsters of 9 (young) and over 36 (aged) weeks old after intranasal infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite similar levels of viral replication and inflammatory responses in the lungs of both age groups, aged but not young hamsters showed significant prolongation of prothrombin time and prominent acute kidney damage. Moreover, aged hamsters demonstrated increased intravascular coagulation time-dependently in the lungs, suggesting that consumption of coagulation facto...
Source: Viruses - October 22, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Marumi Ohno Michihito Sasaki Yasuko Orba Toshiki Sekiya Md. Abdul Masum Osamu Ichii Tatsuya Sawamura Akemi Kakino Yasuhiko Suzuki Hiroshi Kida Hirofumi Sawa Masashi Shingai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2138: Severe Stunting Symptoms upon Nepovirus Infection Are Reminiscent of a Chronic Hypersensitive-like Response in a Perennial Woody Fruit Crop
Corinne Schmitt-Keichinger Virus infection of plants can result in various degrees of detrimental impacts and disparate symptom types and severities. Although great strides have been made in our understanding of the virus–host interactions in herbaceous model plants, the mechanisms underlying symptom development are poorly understood in perennial fruit crops. Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) causes variable symptoms in most vineyards worldwide. To better understand GFLV-grapevine interactions in relation to symptom development, field and greenhouse trials were conducted with a grapevine genotype that exhibits disti...
Source: Viruses - October 22, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Isabelle R. Martin Emmanuelle Vigne Amandine Velt Jean-Michel Hily Shahinez Garcia Raymonde Baltenweck V éronique Komar Camille Rustenholz Philippe Hugueney Olivier Lemaire Corinne Schmitt-Keichinger Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2127: Clusters of SARS-CoV-2 Lineage B.1.1.7 Infection after Vaccination with Adenovirus-Vectored and Inactivated Vaccines
This study aimed to explore the factors associated with B.1.1.7 VOC infection in the context of vaccination. On March 2021, we detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in nasopharyngeal samples from 14 of 22 individuals vaccinated with a single-dose of ChAdOx1 (outbreak A, n = 26), and 22 of 42 of individuals with two doses of the CoronaVac vaccine (outbreak B, n = 52) for breakthrough infection rates for ChAdOx1 of 63.6% and 52.4% for CoronaVac. The outbreaks were caused by two independent clusters of the B.1.1.7 VOC. The serum of PCR-positive symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals had ~1.8–3.4-fold more neutralizing capacity a...
Source: Viruses - October 22, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: William M. de Souza St éfanie P. Muraro Gabriela F. Souza Mariene R. Amorim Renata Sesti-Costa Luciana S. Mofatto Julia Forato Priscilla P. Barbosa Daniel A. Toledo-Teixeira Karina Bispo-dos-Santos Pierina L. Parise Natalia S. Brunetti Joselia C. O. More Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2128: PICO Questions and DELPHI Methodology for the Management of Venous Thromboembolism Associated with COVID-19
The objective was to reach a consensus among multidisciplinary VTE experts providing answers to those PICO questions. Seven PICO questions regarding patients with COVID-19 responded with a broad consensus: 1. It is recommended to avoid pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in most COVID-19 patients not requiring hospital admission; 2. In most hospitalized patients for COVID-19 who are receiving oral anticoagulants before admission, it is recommended to replace them by low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) at therapeutic doses; 3. Thromboprophylaxis with LMWH at standard doses is suggested for COVID-19 patients admitted to a con...
Source: Viruses - October 22, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Antoni Riera-Mestre Luis Jara-Palomares Ram ón Lecumberri Javier Trujillo-Santos Enric Grau Angeles Blanco-Molina Ana Piera Carbonell Sonia Jim énez Manuel Fr ías Vargas Mari Fuset Sergi Bellmunt-Montoya Manuel Monreal David Jim énez on behalf of the Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2129: The Intriguing Conundrum of a Nonconserved Multifunctional Protein of Citrus Tristeza Virus That Interacts with a Viral Long Non-Coding RNA
In this study, we found that p33, a unique viral protein that performs multiple functions in the virus infection cycle, specifically binds LMT1, both in vivo and in vitro. These results were obtained through the expression of p33 under the context of the wild type virus infection or along with a mutant CTV variant that does not produce LMT1 as well as via ectopic co-expression of p33 with LMT1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves followed by RNA immunoprecipitation and rapid amplification of cDNA ends assays. Further experiments in which a recombinant p33 protein and an in vitro transcribed full-length LMT1 RNA or its truncated...
Source: Viruses - October 22, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Sung-Hwan Kang Vicken Aknadibossian Laxmi Kharel Shachinthaka D. Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage Ying Wang Svetlana Y. Folimonova Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2130: Evaluating RNA Structural Flexibility: Viruses Lead the Way
enyon Our understanding of RNA structure has lagged behind that of proteins and most other biological polymers, largely because of its ability to adopt multiple, and often very different, functional conformations within a single molecule. Flexibility and multifunctionality appear to be its hallmarks. Conventional biochemical and biophysical techniques all have limitations in solving RNA structure and to address this in recent years we have seen the emergence of a wide diversity of techniques applied to RNA structural analysis and an accompanying appreciation of its ubiquity and versatility. Viral RNA is a particularly ...
Source: Viruses - October 22, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Connor W. Fairman Andrew M. L. Lever Julia C. Kenyon Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2131: Repeated MDA5 Gene Loss in Birds: An Evolutionary Perspective
ří Hejnar Michal Vinkler Daniel Elleder Two key cytosolic receptors belonging to the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family sense the viral RNA-derived danger signals: RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5). Their activation establishes an antiviral state by downstream signaling that ultimately activates interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). While in rare cases RIG-I gene loss has been detected in mammalian and avian species, most notably in the chicken, MDA5 pseudogenization has only been detected once in mammals. We have screened over a hundred publicly ava...
Source: Viruses - October 22, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Veronika Krchl íková Tom áš Hron Martin T ěšický Tao Li Ji ří Hejnar Michal Vinkler Daniel Elleder Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2132: Current Understanding of the Innate Control of Toll-Like Receptors in Response to SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Lee The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, threatens the entire world. It has affected every aspect of life and increased the burden on both healthcare and socioeconomic systems. Current studies have revealed that excessive inflammatory immune responses are responsible for the severity of COVID-19, which suggests that anti-inflammatory drugs may be promising therapeutic treatments. However, there are currently a limited number of approved therapeutics for COVID-19. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize microbial co...
Source: Viruses - October 22, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Hi Eun Jung Heung Kyu Lee Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2119: Insertion of Exogenous Genes within the ORF1a Coding Region of Porcine Astrovirus
Weijian Huang A tagged or reporter astrovirus can be a valuable tool for the analysis of various aspects of the virus life cycle, and to aid in the development of genetically engineered astroviruses as vectors. Here, transposon-mediated insertion mutagenesis was used to insert a 15-nucleotide (nt) sequence into random sites of open reading frame 1a (ORF1a) based on an infectious full-length cDNA clone of porcine astrovirus (PAstV). Five sites in the predicted coiled-coil structures (CC), genome-linked protein (VPg), and hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1a of the PAstV genome were identified that could tolerate random...
Source: Viruses - October 21, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yanjie Du Teng Liu Yifeng Qin Qinting Dong Ying Chen Kang Ouyang Zuzhang Wei Weijian Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2118: Natural Phytochemicals, Luteolin and Isoginkgetin, Inhibit 3C Protease and Infection of FMDV, In Silico and In Vitro
Lekcharoensuk Foot-and-mouth-disease virus (FMDV) is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals resulting in economic losses worldwide. The 3C protease (3Cpro) is the main protease essential in the picornavirus life cycle, which is an attractive antiviral target. Here, we used computer-aided virtual screening to filter potential anti-FMDV agents from the natural phytochemical compound libraries. The top 23 filtered compounds were examined for anti-FMDV activities by a cell-based assay, two of which possessed antiviral effects. In the viral and post-viral entry experiments, luteolin ...
Source: Viruses - October 21, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Sirin Theerawatanasirikul Nattarat Thangthamniyom Chih-Jung Kuo Ploypailin Semkum Nantawan Phecharat Penpitcha Chankeeree Porntippa Lekcharoensuk Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 2120: PHIDA: A High Throughput Turbidimetric Data Analytic Tool to Compare Host Range Profiles of Bacteriophages Isolated Using Different Enrichment Methods
In this study, phages against three bacterial genera were isolated using three different enrichment methods. Host range profiles of the isolated phages were quantitatively determined using a high throughput turbidimetric protocol and the data were analyzed with an accessible analytic tool “PHIDA”. Using this tool, the host ranges of 9 Listeria, 14 Salmonella, and 20 Pseudomonas phages isolated with different enrichment methods were quantitatively compared. A high variability in the host range index (HRi) ranging from 0.86–0.63, 0.07–0.24, and 0.00–0.67 for Listeria, Salmonella, and Pseudomonas...
Source: Viruses - October 21, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Carlos E. Martinez-Soto Stevan Cuci ć Janet T. Lin Sarah Kirst El Sayed Mahmoud Cezar M. Khursigara Hany Anany Tags: Article Source Type: research