Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1112: Deletion of African Swine Fever Virus Histone-like Protein, A104R from the Georgia Isolate Drastically Reduces Virus Virulence in Domestic Pigs
We report here that deletion of the ASFV gene A104R, a virus histone-like protein, from the genome of the highly virulent ASFV-Georgia2010 (ASFV-G) strain induces a clear decrease in virus virulence when experimentally inoculated in domestic swine. A recombinant virus lacking the A104R gene, ASFV-G-∆A104R, was developed to assess the role of the A104R gene in disease production in swine. Domestic pigs were intramuscularly inoculated with 102 HAD50 of ASFV-G-∆A104R, and compared with animals that received a similar dose of virulent ASFV-G. While all ASFV-G inoculated animals developed a fatal for...
Source: Viruses - May 22, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Elizabeth Ramirez-Medina Elizabeth A. Vuono Sarah Pruitt Ayushi Rai Nallely Espinoza Alyssa Valladares Ediane Silva Lauro Velazquez-Salinas Manuel V. Borca Douglas P. Gladue Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1111: Time to Revise the WHO Categories for Severe Rabies Virus Exposures & ndash;Category IV?
Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1111: Time to Revise the WHO Categories for Severe Rabies Virus Exposures–Category IV? Viruses doi: 10.3390/v14051111 Authors: Stephen J. Scholand Beatriz P. Quiambao Charles E. Rupprecht Rabies is a devastating disease and affects millions of people globally, yet it is preventable with appropriate and timely postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). The current WHO exposure categories (Categories I, II, and III) need revision, with a special Category IV for severe exposures. Rare cases of PEP failure have occurred in severe bites to the head and neck. Multiple factors, including route, ...
Source: Viruses - May 22, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Stephen J. Scholand Beatriz P. Quiambao Charles E. Rupprecht Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1106: Evidence of Infection with Zoonotic Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses in Saltwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Northern Australia
efeldt-Ohmann The risk of flavivirus infections among the crocodilian species was not recognised until West Nile virus (WNV) was introduced into the Americas. The first outbreaks caused death and substantial economic losses in the alligator farming industry. Several other WNV disease episodes have been reported in crocodilians in other parts of the world, including Australia and Africa. Considering that WNV shares vectors with other flaviviruses, crocodilians are highly likely to also be exposed to flaviviruses other than WNV. A serological survey for flaviviral infections was conducted on saltwater crocodiles (Crocody...
Source: Viruses - May 21, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Gervais Habarugira Jasmin Moran Jessica J. Harrison Sally R. Isberg Jody Hobson-Peters Roy A. Hall Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1107: Type I and Type II Interferon Antagonism Strategies Used by Paramyxoviridae: Previous and New Discoveries, in Comparison
Sastre Paramyxoviridae is a viral family within the order of Mononegavirales; they are negative single-strand RNA viruses that can cause significant diseases in both humans and animals. In order to replicate, paramyxoviruses–as any other viruses–have to bypass an important protective mechanism developed by the host’s cells: the defensive line driven by interferon. Once the viruses are recognized, the cells start the production of type I and type III interferons, which leads to the activation of hundreds of genes, many of which encode proteins with the specific function to reduc...
Source: Viruses - May 21, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Giuseppe Pisanelli Ugo Pagnini Giuseppe Iovane Adolfo Garc ía-Sastre Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1108: An Inspiring Journey of Hope and Persistence: Life Lessons with Fran & ccedil;oise Barr & eacute;-Sinoussi
Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1108: An Inspiring Journey of Hope and Persistence: Life Lessons with Françoise Barré-Sinoussi Viruses doi: 10.3390/v14051108 Authors: Kiho Tanaka Paula M. Cevaal Rachel D. Pascoe Three early-career female virologists sat down with a distinguished Nobel laureate to discuss two pandemics, 39 years apart [...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - May 21, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Kiho Tanaka Paula M. Cevaal Rachel D. Pascoe Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1109: Advances in Bovine Coronavirus Epidemiology
o Sun Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a causative agent of enteric and respiratory disease in cattle. BCoV has also been reported to cause a variety of animal diseases and is closely related to human coronaviruses, which has attracted extensive attention from both cattle farmers and researchers. However, there are few comprehensive epidemiological reviews, and key information regarding the effect of S-gene differences on tissue tendency and potential cross-species transmission remain unclear. In this review, we summarize BCoV epidemiology, including the transmission, infection-associated factors, co-infection, pathogenici...
Source: Viruses - May 21, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Qinghe Zhu Bin Li Dongbo Sun Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1110: Porcine Intestinal Organoids: Overview of the State of the Art
aobo Xiao The intestinal tract is a crucial part of the body for growth and development, and its dysregulation can cause several diseases. The lack of appropriate in vitro models hampers the development of effective preventions and treatments against these intestinal tract diseases. Intestinal organoids are three-dimensional (3D) polarized structures composed of different types of cells capable of self-organization and self-renewal, resembling their organ of origin in architecture and function. Porcine intestinal organoids (PIOs) have been cultured and are used widely in agricultural, veterinary, and biomedical researc...
Source: Viruses - May 21, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Panpan Ma Puxian Fang Tianze Ren Liurong Fang Shaobo Xiao Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1105: A Therapeutically Active Minibody Exhibits an Antiviral Activity in Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza-Infected Mice via Direct Hydrolysis of Viral RNAs
In this study, we examined 3D8 scFv’s antiviral activity in vitro on three different H1N1 influenza strains, one Oseltamivir-resistant (A/Korea/2785/2009pdm) strain, and two Oseltamivir-sensitive (A/PuertoRico/8/1934 and A/X-31) strains. Interestingly, the 3D8 scFv directly digested viral RNAs in the ribonucleoprotein complex. scFv’s reduction of influenza viral RNA including viral genomic RNA, complementary RNA, and messenger RNA during influenza A infection cycles indicated that this minibody targets all types of viral RNAs during the early, intermediate, and late stages of the virus&r...
Source: Viruses - May 21, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Yongjun Lee Phuong Thi Hoang Dongjun Kim Ramadhani Qurrota Ayun Quynh Xuan Thi Luong Kyungho Na Taehyun Kim Yeonsu Oh Won-Keun Kim Sukchan Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1101: Cranberry Pomace Extract Exerts Antiviral Activity against Zika and Dengue Virus at Safe Doses for Adult Zebrafish
In conclusion, polyphenol-rich agrifood byproducts such as berry extracts are a promising source of safe and naturally derived nutraceutical antivirals that target medically important pathogens. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - May 20, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Laura Tamkut ė Juliano G. Haddad Nicolas Diotel Philippe Despr ès Petras Rimantas Venskutonis Chaker El Kalamouni Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1100: Climate Anomalies and Spillover of Bat-Borne Viral Diseases in the Asia & ndash;Pacific Region and the Arabian Peninsula
In this study, we investigated the potential association between climate factors and anomalies, including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and land surface temperature anomalies, as well as the emergence and spillover events of bat-borne viral diseases in humans and livestock in the Asia–Pacific region and the Arabian Peninsula. Our findings from time series analyses, logistic regression models, and structural equation modelling revealed that the spillover patterns of the Nipah virus in Bangladesh and the Hendra virus in Australia were differently impacted by climate variability and with dif...
Source: Viruses - May 20, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Alice Latinne Serge Morand Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1103: In Silico Evaluation of Paxlovid & rsquo;s Pharmacometrics for SARS-CoV-2: A Multiscale Approach
Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1103: In Silico Evaluation of Paxlovid’s Pharmacometrics for SARS-CoV-2: A Multiscale Approach Viruses doi: 10.3390/v14051103 Authors: Ferenc A. Bartha Nóra Juhász Sadegh Marzban Renji Han Gergely Röst Paxlovid is a promising, orally bioavailable novel drug for SARS-CoV-2 with excellent safety profiles. Our main goal here is to explore the pharmacometric features of this new antiviral. To provide a detailed assessment of Paxlovid, we propose a hybrid multiscale mathematical approach. We demonstrate that the results of the present in silico evaluation match the clinical e...
Source: Viruses - May 20, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Ferenc A. Bartha N óra Juhász Sadegh Marzban Renji Han Gergely R öst Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1104: Differential Transmission of Old and New World Begomoviruses by Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) Cryptic Species of Bemisia tabaci
This study compared the transmission efficiency of one Old-World (OW) and two New-World (NW) begomoviruses prevalent in the southeastern United States, viz.., tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and sida golden mosaic virus (SiGMV) between B. tabaci MEAM1 and B. tabaci MED. Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 efficiently transmitted TYLCV, CuLCrV, or SiGMV, whereas B. tabaci MED only transmitted TYLCV. Percent acquisition and retention of OW TYLCV following a 72 h acquisition access period was significantly higher for B. tabaci MED than B. tabaci MEAM1. In contrast, B. tabaci MEAM1 acquired and re...
Source: Viruses - May 20, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Gautam Mugerwa Buck Dutta Coolong Adkins Srinivasan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1102: Evaluation of Vector Competence of Ixodes Ticks for Kemerovo Virus
Moutailler Tick-borne viruses are responsible for various symptoms in humans and animals, ranging from simple fever to neurological disorders or haemorrhagic fevers. The Kemerovo virus (KEMV) is a tick-borne orbivirus, and it has been suspected to be responsible for human encephalitis cases in Russia and central Europe. It has been isolated from Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus ticks. In a previous study, we assessed the vector competence of I. ricinus larvae from Slovakia for KEMV, using an artificial feeding system. In the current study, we used the same system to infect different tick population/species, inclu...
Source: Viruses - May 20, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Camille Victoire Mign é H élène Braga de Seixas Aur élie Heckmann Cl émence Galon Fauziah Mohd Jaafar Baptiste Monsion Houssam Attoui Sara Moutailler Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1098: Proof of Proficiency of Decentralized Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Diagnostics in Germany
aumer A proficiency test was performed to verify that the regional veterinary laboratories in Germany can provide reliable foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) diagnostics. Overall, 24 samples were to be analyzed for FMDV-specific nucleic acids by real-time RT-PCR, and 16 samples had to be tested by ELISA for antibodies against non-structural proteins of FMDV. For both methods, a range of dilutions of the original materials (inactivated FMDV vaccine or convalescent serum from infected animals, respectively) was prepared, and negative samples were included as well. All 23 participating laboratories were able to detect FM...
Source: Viruses - May 20, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Hanna Keck Bernd Hoffmann Michael Eschbaumer Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 14, Pages 1099: A GoldenBraid-Compatible Virus-Based Vector System for Transient Expression of Heterologous Proteins in Plant
mar Kundu We have developed a Potato virus X (PVX)-based vector system compatible with the GoldenBraid 2.0 (GB) cloning strategy to transiently express heterologous proteins or peptides in plants for biotechnological purposes. This vector system consists of three domestication vectors carrying three GB parts—the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35 promoter with PVX upstream of the second subgenomic promoter of the PVX coat protein (PVX CP SGP), nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator with PVX downstream of the first PVX CP SGP and the gene of interest (GOI). The full-length PVX clone carrying the sequence encod...
Source: Viruses - May 20, 2022 Category: Virology Authors: Helena Plchov á Tom áš Moravec Noemi Čeřovská Zuzana Pobo řilová Jakub Du šek Kate řina Kratochvílová Old řich Navrátil Jiban Kumar Kundu Tags: Communication Source Type: research