Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 223: Quality Assessment of Virus-Like Particles at Single Particle Level: A Comparative Study
In this study, six different biophysical methods have been assessed for the characterization of HIV-1-based VLPs produced in mammalian and insect cell platforms. Sample preparation and equipment set-up were optimized for the six strategies evaluated. Electron Microscopy (EM) disclosed the presence of several types of EVs within VLP preparations and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) resulted in the best technique to resolve the VLP ultrastructure. The use of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy (SRFM), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and flow virometry enabled the high throughput quantification ...
Source: Viruses - February 17, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Gonz ález-Domínguez Puente-Massaguer Cervera G òdia Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 222: Late-Relapsing Hepatitis after Yellow Fever
Soares Albuquerque Indiara Penido Tayrine Araujo Santos Ana Paula Dinis Ano Bom Andrea Marques Vieira da Silva Camilla Bayma Fernandes Carlos Eduardo Calzavara Erna Geessien Kroon Olindo Assis Martins-Filho Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho Betânia Paiva Drumond One patient presented hyporexia, asthenia, adynamia, and jaundice two months after acute yellow fever (YF) onset; plus laboratory tests indicating hepatic cytolysis and a rebound of alanine and aspartate transaminases, and total and direct bilirubin levels. Laboratory tests discarded autoimmune hepatitis, inflammatory or metabolic liver ...
Source: Viruses - February 17, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Izabela Maur ício Rezende Leonardo Soares Pereira Jordana Rodrigues Barbosa Fradico Marcelo Ant ônio Pascoal Xavier Pedro Augusto Alves Ana Carolina Campi-Azevedo Elaine Speziali L ívia Zignago Moreira dos Santos Natalia Soares Albuquerque Indiara Peni Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 219: Isolation of PCV3 from Perinatal and Reproductive Cases of PCV3-Associated Disease and In Vivo Characterization of PCV3 Replication in CD/CD Growing Pigs
a Luis Giménez-Lirola Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) has been identified as a putative swine pathogen with a subset of infections resulting in stillborn and mummified fetuses, encephalitis and myocarditis in perinatal, and periarteritis in growing pigs. Three PCV3 isolates were isolated from weak-born piglets or elevated stillborn and mummified fetuses. Full-length genome sequences from different passages and isolates (PCV3a1 ISU27734, PCV3a2 ISU58312, PCV3c ISU44806) were determined using metagenomics sequencing. Virus production in cell culture was confirmed by qPCR, IFA, and in situ hybridization. In vivo repl...
Source: Viruses - February 16, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Juan Mora-D íaz Pablo Pi ñeyro Huigang Shen Kent Schwartz Fabio Vannucci Ganwu Li Bailey Arruda Luis Gim énez-Lirola Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 220: The N-glycosylation of Equine Tetherin Affects Antiviral Activity by Regulating Its Subcellular Localization
In this study, we found that mutation of N-glycosylation sites resulted in an attenuation of the antiviral activity of equine tetherin (eqTHN), as well as a reduction in the expression of eqTHN at the plasma membrane (PM). In addition, eqTHN N-glycosylation mutants colocalize obviously with ER, CD63, LAMP1 and endosomes, while WT eqTHN do not. Furthermore, we also found that N-glycosylation impacts the transport of eqTHN in the cell not by affecting the endocytosis, but rather by influencing the anterograde trafficking of the protein. These results suggest that the N-glycosylation of eqTHN is important for the antiviral ac...
Source: Viruses - February 16, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Bai Wang Zhang Na Zhang Zhang Yang Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 221: Molecular Characterization and Clinical Description of Non-Polio Enteroviruses Detected in Stool Samples from HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Adults in Ghana
This study aimed to investigate the presence of enterovirus in PLHIV (people living with HIV) and HIV-negative individuals in Ghana. Stool samples from HIV-positive individuals (n = 250) and healthy blood donors (n = 102) attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana, were screened by real-time PCR for enterovirus. Molecular typing of the VP1 region was performed. Enterovirus-positive samples were tested for norovirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and cosaviruses. Twenty-six out of 250 HIV-positive subjects (10.4%) and 14 out of 102 HIV-negative individuals (13.7%) were detected enterovirus-positive, n...
Source: Viruses - February 16, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Veronica Di Cristanziano Kristina Weimer Sindy B öttcher Fred Stephen Sarfo Albert Dompreh Lucio-Garcia Cesar Elena Knops Eva Heger Maike Wirtz Rolf Kaiser Betty Norman Richard Odame Phillips Torsten Feldt Kirsten Alexandra Eberhardt Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 218: Initial Virome Characterization of the Common Cnidarian Lab Model Nematostella vectensis
Moran The role of viruses in forming a stable holobiont has been the subject of extensive research in recent years. However, many emerging model organisms still lack any data on the composition of the associated viral communities. Here, we re-analyzed seven publicly available transcriptome datasets of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, the most commonly used anthozoan lab model, and searched for viral sequences. We applied a straightforward, yet powerful approach of de novo assembly followed by homology-based virus identification and a multi-step, thorough taxonomic validation. The comparison of different ...
Source: Viruses - February 15, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Magda Lewandowska Yael Hazan Yehu Moran Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 217: Plant Molecular Responses to Potato Virus Y: A Continuum of Outcomes from Sensitivity and Tolerance to Resistance
tina Gruden Potato virus Y (PVY) is the most economically important virus affecting potato production. PVY manipulates the plant cell machinery in order to successfully complete the infecting cycle. On the other side, the plant activates a sophisticated multilayer immune defense response to combat viral infection. The balance between these mechanisms, depending on the plant genotype and environment, results in a specific outcome that can be resistance, sensitivity, or tolerance. In this review, we summarize and compare the current knowledge on molecular events, leading to different phenotypic outcomes in response to PV...
Source: Viruses - February 15, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Špela Baebler Anna Coll Kristina Gruden Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 211: Current Trends in Diagnostics of Viral Infections of Unknown Etiology
il Khafizov Viruses are evolving at an alarming rate, spreading and inconspicuously adapting to cutting-edge therapies. Therefore, the search for rapid, informative and reliable diagnostic methods is becoming urgent as ever. Conventional clinical tests (PCR, serology, etc.) are being continually optimized, yet provide very limited data. Could high throughput sequencing (HTS) become the future gold standard in molecular diagnostics of viral infections? Compared to conventional clinical tests, HTS is universal and more precise at profiling pathogens. Nevertheless, it has not yet been widely accepted as a diagnostic tool,...
Source: Viruses - February 14, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Daniel Kiselev Alina Matsvay Ivan Abramov Vladimir Dedkov German Shipulin Kamil Khafizov Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 212: Selective Reactivity of Anti-Japanese Encephalitis Virus NS4B Antibody Towards Different Flaviviruses
In this report, we describe a NS4B antibody against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) NS4B protein that cross-reacts with the NS4B protein of WNV but not of dengue virus (DENV). This JEV NS4B antibody not only recognizes WNV NS4B in infected cells, but also recognizes the NS4B protein expressed using transfection. It is evident from this data that the JEV NS4B antibody is specific to NS4B of WNV but not to NS4B of the four DENV serotypes. The specificity of this antibody may be due to the notable differences that exist between the amino acid sequence identity and antigenic relationships within the NS4B protein of the WNV, ...
Source: Viruses - February 14, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Pakieli H. Kaufusi Alanna C. Tseng James F. Kelley Vivek R. Nerurkar Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 213: Characterization of Adenovirus 5 E1A Exon 1 Deletion Mutants in the Viral Replicative Cycle
hus Pelka Human adenovirus infection is driven by Early region 1A (E1A) proteins, which are the first proteins expressed following the delivery of the viral genome to the cellular nucleus. E1A is responsible for reprogramming the infected cell to support virus replication alongside the activation of expression of all viral transcriptional units during the course of the infection. Although E1A has been extensively studied, most of these studies have focused on understanding the conserved region functions outside of a full infection. Here, we investigated the effects of small deletions in E1A exon 1 on the viral repli...
Source: Viruses - February 14, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Costa Akkerman Graves Crisostomo Bachus Pelka Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 214: Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) ORF3 Enhances Viral Proliferation by Inhibiting Apoptosis of Infected Cells
ng Yu Zhen Li The genomes of coronaviruses carry accessory genes known to be associated with viral virulence. The single accessory gene of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), ORF3, is dispensable for virus replication in vitro, while viral mutants carrying ORF3 truncations exhibit an attenuated phenotype of which the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of ORF3 deletion on the proliferation of PEDV in Vero cells. To this end, four recombinant porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses (PEDVs) were rescued using targeted RNA recombination, three carrying the full-length ORF3 gene from different PEDV...
Source: Viruses - February 14, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Fusheng Si Xiaoxia Hu Chenyang Wang Bingqing Chen Ruiyang Wang Shijuan Dong Ruisong Yu Zhen Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 215: Helicase of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Strain HV Reveals a Unique Structure
Feng Zhang Chen Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is prevalent throughout the world and has caused great economic losses to the swine industry. Nonstructural protein 10 (nsp10) is a superfamily 1 helicase participating in multiple processes of virus replication and one of the three most conserved proteins in nidoviruses. Here we report three high resolution crystal structures of highly pathogenic PRRSV nsp10. PRRSV nsp10 has multiple domains, including an N-terminal zinc-binding domain (ZBD), a β-barrel domain, a helicase core with two RecA-like domains, and a C-terminal do...
Source: Viruses - February 14, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Tang Deng Li Yang Tian Chen Wang Wu Feng Zhang Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 216: Impact of Abiotic Stresses on Plant Virus Transmission by Aphids
er Plants regularly encounter abiotic constraints, and plant response to stress has been a focus of research for decades. Given increasing global temperatures and elevated atmospheric CO2 levels and the occurrence of water stress episodes driven by climate change, plant biochemistry, in particular, plant defence responses, may be altered significantly. Environmental factors also have a wider impact, shaping viral transmission processes that rely on a complex set of interactions between, at least, the pathogen, the vector, and the host plant. This review considers how abiotic stresses influence the transmission and spre...
Source: Viruses - February 14, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: van Munster Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 208: Alanine Substitution Inactivates Cross-Reacting Epitopes in Dengue Virus Recombinant Envelope Proteins
aviz-Aguilar Román Vidaltamayo The expansion of the habitat of mosquitoes belonging to the Aedes genus puts nearly half of the world’s population at risk of contracting dengue fever, and a significant fraction will develop its serious hemorrhagic complication, which can be fatal if not diagnosed properly and treated in a timely fashion. Although several diagnostic methods have been approved for dengue diagnostics, their applicability is limited in rural areas of developing countries by sample preparation costs and methodological requirements, as well as cross-reactivity among the different seroty...
Source: Viruses - February 13, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Viviana C. Zomosa-Signoret Karina R. Morales-Gonz ález Ana E. Estrada-Rodr íguez Ana M. Rivas-Estilla M. Cristina Dev èze-García Edgar Galaviz-Aguilar Rom án Vidaltamayo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 209: MicroRNA-7 Inhibits Rotavirus Replication by Targeting Viral NSP5 In Vivo and In Vitro
ng Sun Hongjun Li Rotavirus (RV) is the major causes of severe diarrhea in infants and young children under five years of age. There are no effective drugs for the treatment of rotavirus in addition to preventive live attenuated vaccine. Recent evidence demonstrates that microRNAs (miRNAs) can affect RNA virus replication. However, the antiviral effect of miRNAs during rotavirus replication are largely unknown. Here, we determined that miR-7 is upregulated during RV replication and that it targets the RV NSP5 (Nonstructural protein 5). Results suggested that miR-7 affected viroplasm formation and inhibited RV replica...
Source: Viruses - February 13, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Yan Zhou Linlin Chen Jing Du Xiaoqing Hu Yuping Xie Jinyuan Wu Xiaochen Lin Na Yin Maosheng Sun Hongjun Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 210: The Impact and Applications of Phages in the Food Industry and Agriculture
nderen Food security is currently a global socio‐political pressure point that is exacerbated by the everincreasing world population[...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 13, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Mahony Casey van Sinderen Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 207: High Genomic Variability in Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Obtained from Naturally Infected Horses in Pantanal, Brazil: An Endemic Region Case
llmann Araujo Jr. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a persistent lentivirus that causes equine infectious anemia (EIA). In Brazil, EIAV is endemic in the Pantanal region, and euthanasia is not mandatory in this area. All of the complete genomic sequences from field viruses are from North America, Asia, and Europe, and only proviral genomic sequences are available. Sequences from Brazilian EIAV are currently available only for gag and LTR regions. Thus, the present study aimed for the first time to sequence the entire EIAV genomic RNA in naturally infected horses from an endemic area in Brazil. RNA in plasma f...
Source: Viruses - February 12, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Malossi Fioratti Cardoso Magro Kroon Aguiar Borges Nogueira Ullmann Araujo Jr. Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 204: HIV-1 Transcription Inhibitor 1E7-03 Restores LPS-Induced Alteration of Lung Leukocytes ’ Infiltration Dynamics and Resolves Inflammation in HIV Transgenic Mice
Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 204: HIV-1 Transcription Inhibitor 1E7-03 Restores LPS-Induced Alteration of Lung Leukocytes’ Infiltration Dynamics and Resolves Inflammation in HIV Transgenic Mice Viruses doi: 10.3390/v12020204 Authors: Jerebtsova Ahmad Niu Rutagarama Nekhai Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals treated with anti-retroviral therapy often develop chronic non-infectious lung disease. To determine the mechanism of HIV-1-associated lung disease we evaluated the dynamics of lung leukocytes in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) mice with integrated HIV-1 provirus. In HIV-Tg mice, lipopoly...
Source: Viruses - February 12, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Jerebtsova Ahmad Niu Rutagarama Nekhai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 203: Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza A (H11N9) Virus Isolated from Mandarin Ducks in South Korea in 2018
ark Yeo In July 2018, a novel avian influenza virus (A/Mandarin duck/South Korea/KNU18-12/2018(H11N9)) was isolated from Mandarin ducks in South Korea. Phylogenetic and molecular analyses were conducted to characterize the genetic origins of the H11N9 strain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that eight gene segments of strain H11N9 belonged to the Eurasian lineages. Analysis of nucleotide sequence similarity of both the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes revealed the highest homology with A/duck/Kagoshima/KU57/2014 (H11N9), showing 97.70% and 98.00% nucleotide identities, respectively. Additionally, inte...
Source: Viruses - February 12, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Tuong Nguyen Sung Park Yeo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 205: Isolation and Characterization of AbTJ, an Acinetobacter baumannii Phage, and Functional Identification of Its Receptor-Binding Modules
ang Huang A. baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen and a major cause of various community-acquired infections. Strains of this species can be resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, leaving limited therapeutic options, also lacking in methods for accurate and prompt diagnosis. In this context, AbTJ, a novel phage that infects A. baumannii MDR-TJ, was isolated and characterized, together with its two tail fiber proteins. Morphological analysis revealed that it belongs to Podoviridae family. Its host range, growth characteristics, stability under various conditions, and genomic sequence, were systematically inves...
Source: Viruses - February 12, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Xu Li Kang Bai Wang Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 206: Quantitative FRET-FLIM-BlaM to Assess the Extent of HIV-1 Fusion in Live Cells
We present a new approach that employs fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to detect Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) when using the β-lactamase (BlaM) assay. This novel approach allows comparing different populations of single cells regardless the concentration of CCF2-AM FRET reporter in each cell, and more importantly, is able to determine the relative amount of viruses internalized per cell. We have applied this approach in both reporter TZM-bl cells and primary T cell lymphocytes. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 12, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Carlon-Andres Padilla-Parra Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 197: Insights into the Functions of eIF4E-Biding Motif of VPg in Potato Virus A Infection
l;kinen The interaction between the viral protein genome-linked (VPg) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) or eIF(iso)4E of the host plays a crucial role in potyvirus infection. The VPg of potato virus A (PVA) contains the Tyr-X-X-X-X-Leu-phi (YXXXLΦ) binding motif for eIF(iso)4E. In order to investigate its role in PVA infection, we substituted the conserved tyrosine and leucine residues of the motif with alanine residues in the infectious cDNA of PVA (PVAVPgmut). PVAVPgmut RNA replicated in infiltrated leaves, but RNA accumulation remained low. Systemic infection occurred only if a reversion to wil...
Source: Viruses - February 11, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Saha M äkinen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 198: Mosquito-Independent Transmission of West Nile virus in Farmed Saltwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus)
Hall Isberg Bielefeldt-Ohmann West Nile virus, Kunjin strain (WNVKUN) is endemic in Northern Australia, but rarely causes clinical disease in humans and horses. Recently, WNVKUN genomic material was detected in cutaneous lesions of farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), but live virus could not be isolated, begging the question of the pathogenesis of these lesions. Crocodile hatchlings were experimentally infected with either 105 (n = 10) or 104 (n = 11) TCID50-doses of WNVKUN and each group co-housed with six uninfected hatchlings in a mosquito-free facility. Seven hatchlings were mock-infected and ho...
Source: Viruses - February 11, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Habarugira Moran Colmant Davis O ’Brien Hall-Mendelin McMahon Hewitson Nair Barcelon Suen Melville Hobson-Peters Hall Isberg Bielefeldt-Ohmann Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 199: An Engineered Microvirin Variant with Identical Structural Domains Potently Inhibits Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Cellular Entry
In this study, we engineered an MVN variant, LUMS1, consisting of two domains with 100% sequence identity, thereby reducing the chemical heterogeneity, which is a major factor in eliciting immunogenicity. We determined carbohydrate binding of LUMS1 through NMR chemical shift perturbation and tested its anti-HIV activity in single-round infectivity assay and its anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity in three different assays including HCVcc, HCVpp, and replicon assays. We further investigated the effect of LUMS1 on the activation of T helper (Th) and B cells through flow cytometry. LUMS1 showed binding to (1-2)mannobiose, t...
Source: Viruses - February 11, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Shahid Qadir Yang Ahmad Zahid Mirza Windisch Shahzad-ul-Hussan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 200: Oxidative Stress in Canine Histiocytic Sarcoma Cells Induced by an Infection with Canine Distemper Virus Led to a Dysregulation of HIF-1 α Downstream Pathway Resulting in a Reduced Expression of VEGF-B in vitro
Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 200: Oxidative Stress in Canine Histiocytic Sarcoma Cells Induced by an Infection with Canine Distemper Virus Led to a Dysregulation of HIF-1α Downstream Pathway Resulting in a Reduced Expression of VEGF-B in vitro Viruses doi: 10.3390/v12020200 Authors: Armando Gambini Corradi Giudice Pfankuche Brogden Attig von Köckritz-Blickwede Baumgärtner Puff Histiocytic sarcomas represent malignant tumors which require new treatment strategies. Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a promising candidate due to its oncolytic features reported in a canine histiocyti...
Source: Viruses - February 11, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Armando Gambini Corradi Giudice Pfankuche Brogden Attig von K öckritz-Blickwede Baumg ärtner Puff Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 201: Generation of Simian Rotavirus Reassortants with VP4- and VP7-Encoding Genome Segments from Human Strains Circulating in Africa Using Reverse Genetics
;Neill Johne Human rotavirus A (RVA) causes acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. The broad use of two vaccines, which are based on RVA strains from Europe and North America, significantly reduced rotavirus disease burden worldwide. However, a lower vaccine effectiveness is recorded in some regions of the world, such as sub-Saharan Africa, where diverse RVA strains are circulating. Here, a plasmid-based reverse genetics system was used to generate simian RVA reassortants with VP4 and VP7 proteins derived from African human RVA strains not previously adapted to cell culture. We were able to rescue 1/3 ...
Source: Viruses - February 11, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Falkenhagen Patzina-Mehling Gadicherla Strydom O ’Neill Johne Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 202: Reconstruction and Characterization of Full-Length Begomovirus and Alphasatellite Genomes Infecting Pepper through Metagenomics
This study characterized the diversity of begomovirus and alphasatellite species infecting pepper in NWA using a metagenomic approach. Using RCA-NGS (rolling circle amplification-next generation sequencing), 19 full-length begomovirus genomes (DNA-A and DNA-B) and one alphasatellite were assembled. This ecogenomic approach revealed six begomoviruses in single infections: soybean blistering mosaic virus (SbBMV), tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV), tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV), tomato dwarf leaf virus (ToDfLV), sida golden mosaic Brazil virus (SiGMBRV), and a new proposed species, named pepper blistering leaf virus...
Source: Viruses - February 11, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Ver ónica A. Bornancini Jos é M. Irazoqui Ceferino R. Flores Carlos G. Vaghi Medina Ariel F. Amadio Paola M. L ópez Lambertini Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 193: Comparison of CRISPR and Marker-Based Methods for the Engineering of Phage T7
Jaramillo Millard With the recent rise in interest in using lytic bacteriophages as therapeutic agents, there is an urgent requirement to understand their fundamental biology to enable the engineering of their genomes. Current methods of phage engineering rely on homologous recombination, followed by a system of selection to identify recombinant phages. For bacteriophage T7, the host genes cmk or trxA have been used as a selection mechanism along with both type I and II CRISPR systems to select against wild-type phage and enrich for the desired mutant. Here, we systematically compare all three systems; we show that ...
Source: Viruses - February 10, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Grigonyte Harrison MacDonald Montero-Blay Tridgett Duncan Sagona Constantinidou Jaramillo Millard Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 194: Potential Maternal and Infant Outcomes from (Wuhan) Coronavirus 2019-nCoV Infecting Pregnant Women: Lessons from SARS, MERS, and Other Human Coronavirus Infections
aham In early December 2019 a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown cause was identified in Wuhan, a city of 11 million persons in the People’s Republic of China. Further investigation revealed these cases to result from infection with a newly identified coronavirus, termed the 2019-nCoV. The infection moved rapidly through China, spread to Thailand and Japan, extended into adjacent countries through infected persons travelling by air, eventually reaching multiple countries and continents. Similar to such other coronaviruses as those causing the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute ...
Source: Viruses - February 10, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Schwartz Graham Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 195: A Conserved Carboxylesterase Inhibits Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) Accumulation in Nicotiana benthamiana Plants
Wong A carboxylesterase (CXE) or carboxylic-ester hydrolase is an enzyme that catalyzes carboxylic ester and water into alcohol and carboxylate. In plants, CXEs have been implicated in defense, development, and secondary metabolism. We discovered a new CXE gene in Nicotiana benthamiana that is related to virus resistance. The transcriptional level of NbCXE expression was significantly increased after Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection. Transient over-expression of NbCXE inhibited TMV accumulation in N. benthamiana plants. Conversely, when the NbCXE gene was silenced with a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based gene silenc...
Source: Viruses - February 10, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Guo Wong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 196: Changes in the Transmission Dynamic of Chikungunya Virus in Southeastern Senegal
er Dia Sall Malvy In Senegal, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is maintained in a sylvatic cycle and causes sporadic cases or small outbreaks in rural areas. However, little is known about the influence of the environment on its transmission. To address the question, 120 villages were randomly selected in the Kedougou region of southeastern Senegal. In each selected village, 10 persons by randomly selected household were sampled and tested for specific anti-CHIKV IgG antibodies by ELISA. We investigated the association of CHIKV seroprevalence with environmental variables using logistic regression analysis and the spa...
Source: Viruses - February 10, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Sow Nikolay Faye Cauchemez Cano Diallo Faye Sadio Ndiaye Weaver Dia Sall Malvy Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 192: TSPphg Lysin from the Extremophilic Thermus Bacteriophage TSP4 as a Potential Antimicrobial Agent against Both Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Pathogenic Bacteria
Xiong Deng Lin New strategies against antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens are urgently needed but are not within reach. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of TSPphg, a novel phage lysin identified from extremophilic Thermus phage TSP4 by sequencing its whole genome. By breaking down the bacterial cells, TSPphg is able to cause bacteria destruction and has shown bactericidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, especially antibiotic-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, in which the complete elimination and highest reduction in bacteria...
Source: Viruses - February 9, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Wang Ji Li Zhang Peng Hai Zhang Ci Li Xiong Deng Lin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 191: Benzodiazepines Drive Alteration of Chromatin at the Integrated HIV-1 LTR
o Zachary Klase Antiretroviral therapy (ART) lowers human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load to undetectable levels, but does not eliminate the latent reservoir. One of the factors controlling the latent reservoir is transcriptional silencing of the integrated HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR). The molecular mechanisms that control HIV-1 transcription are not completely understood. We have previously shown that RUNX1, a host transcription factor, may play a role in the establishment and maintenance of HIV-1 latency. Prior work has demonstrated that inhibition of RUNX1 by the benzodiazepine (BDZ) Ro5-3335...
Source: Viruses - February 9, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Weam Elbezanti Angel Lin Alexis Schirling Alexandria Jackson Matthew Marshall Rachel Van Duyne Frank Maldarelli Luca Sardo Zachary Klase Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 187: Antibody-Mediated Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection Downregulates the Production of Interferon- α and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Porcine Alveolar Macrophages via Fc Gamma Receptor I and III
In conclusion, our studies suggested that ADE downregulated the production of IFN-α and TNF-α in porcine AMs maybe via FcγRI and FcγRIII, thereby leading to enhanced PRRSV infection. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 8, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Zhang Li Sun Kong Xu Xia Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 188: Reduce and Control: A Combinatorial Strategy for Achieving Sustained HIV Remissions in the Absence of Antiretroviral Therapy
Greene Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) indefinitely persists, despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), within a small pool of latently infected cells. These cells often display markers of immunologic memory and harbor both replication-competent and -incompetent proviruses at approximately a 1:100 ratio. Although complete HIV eradication is a highly desirable goal, this likely represents a bridge too far for our current and foreseeable technologies. A more tractable goal involves engineering a sustained viral remission in the absence of ART––a “functional cure.&a...
Source: Viruses - February 8, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Schwarzer Gramatica Greene Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 189: New Insights into the Susceptibility of Immunocompetent Mice to Usutu Virus
rie Garigliany Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that shares many similarities with the closely related West Nile virus (WNV) in terms of ecology and clinical manifestations. Initially distributed in Africa, USUV emerged in Italy in 1996 and managed to co-circulate with WNV in many European countries in a similar mosquito–bird life cycle. The rapid geographic spread of USUV, the seasonal mass mortalities it causes in the European avifauna, and the increasing number of infections with neurological disease both in healthy and immunocompromised humans has stimulated interest in infection stud...
Source: Viruses - February 8, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Emna Benzarti Micha ël Sarlet Mathieu Franssen Daniel Desmecht Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit Mutien-Marie Garigliany Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 190: Nanoscale Structure Determination of Murray Valley Encephalitis and Powassan Virus Non-Coding RNAs
In this study, the 5’ and 3’ terminal regions of Murray Valley encephalitis virus and Powassan virus were examined using biophysical and computational modeling methods. First, we used size exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifuge methods to investigate the purity of in-vitro transcribed RNAs. Next, we employed small-angle X-ray scattering techniques to study solution conformation and low-resolution structures of these RNAs, which suggest that the 3’ terminal regions are highly extended as compared to the 5’ terminal regions for both viruses. Using compu...
Source: Viruses - February 8, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Mrozowich Henrickson Demeler Patel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 186: Identifying Age Cohorts Responsible for Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Transmission among Sheep, Goats, and Cattle in Northern Tanzania
eland Bjørnstad Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a contagious disease of high morbidity and mortality in global sheep and goat populations. To better control this disease and inform eradication strategies, an improved understanding of how PPRV transmission risk varies by age is needed. Our study used a piece-wise catalytic model to estimate the age-specific force of infection (FOI, per capita infection rate of susceptible hosts) among sheep, goats, and cattle from a cross-sectional serosurvey dataset collected in 2016 in Tanzania. Apparent seroprevalence increased with age, reaching 53.6%, 46.8%...
Source: Viruses - February 7, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Herzog de Glanville Willett Cattadori Kapur Hudson Buza Swai Cleaveland Bj ørnstad Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 184: Flavonoids as Antiviral Agents for Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71)
Poh Flavonoids are natural biomolecules that are known to be effective antivirals. These biomolecules can act at different stages of viral infection, particularly at the molecular level to inhibit viral growth. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), a non-enveloped RNA virus, is one of the causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which is prevalent in Asia. Despite much effort, no clinically approved antiviral treatment is available for children suffering from HFMD. Flavonoids from plants serve as a vast reservoir of therapeutically active constituents that have been explored as potential antiviral candidates again...
Source: Viruses - February 6, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Lalani Poh Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 185: Advantages and Prospects of Tag/Catcher Mediated Antigen Display on Capsid-Like Particle-Based Vaccines
r Sander Capsid-like particles (CLPs) are multimeric, repetitive assemblies of recombinant viral capsid proteins, which are highly immunogenic due to their structural similarity to wild-type viruses. CLPs can be used as molecular scaffolds to enable the presentation of soluble vaccine antigens in a similar structural format, which can significantly increase the immunogenicity of the antigen. CLP-based antigen display can be obtained by various genetic and modular conjugation methods. However, these vary in their versatility as well as efficiency in achieving an immunogenic antigen display. Here, we make a comparativ...
Source: Viruses - February 6, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Aves Goks øyr Sander Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 183: Genomic Characterization and Phylogenetic Classification of Bovine Coronaviruses Through Whole Genome Sequence Analysis
This study aimed to better understand the genomic characterization and evolutionary dynamics of BCoV via comparative sequence and phylogenetic analyses through whole genome sequence analysis using 67 BCoV isolates collected throughout Japan from 2006 to 2017. On comparing the genomic sequences of the 67 BCoVs, genetic variations were detected in 5 of 10 open reading frames (ORFs) in the BCoV genome. Phylogenetic analysis using whole genomes from the 67 Japanese BCoV isolates in addition to those from 16 reference BCoV strains, revealed the existence of two major genotypes (classical and US wild ruminant genotypes). All Jap...
Source: Viruses - February 6, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Suzuki Otake Uchimoto Hasebe Goto Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 178: The Serological Prevalence of Rabies Virus-Neutralizing Antibodies in the Bat Population on the Caribbean Island of Trinidad
Oura Carrington : Rabies virus (RABV) is the only lyssavirus known to be present within the Caribbean. The island of Trinidad, is richly diverse in chiropteran fauna and endemic for bat-transmitted rabies with low RABV isolation rates observed in this population. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in light of spatio-temporal and bat demographic factors to infer the extent of natural exposure to RABV in the Trinidadian bat population. RVNA titers were determined by the RABV micro-neutralization test on 383 bat samples representing 21 species, comprising 30.9% o...
Source: Viruses - February 5, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Seetahal Greenberg Satheshkumar Sanchez-Vazquez Legall Singh Ramkissoon Schountz Munster Oura Carrington Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 179: Norovirus Seroprevalence among Adults in the United States: Analysis of NHANES Serum Specimens from 1999 –2000 and 2003–2004
This study used a nationally representative serum bank to estimate the seroprevalence to five norovirus genotypes including three GII variants: GI.1 Norwalk, GI.4, GII.3, GII.4 US95/96, GII.4 Farmington Hills, GII.4 New Orleans, and GIV.1 in the USA population (aged 16 to 49 years). Changes in seroprevalence to the three norovirus GII.4 variants between 1999 and 2000, as well as 2003 and 2004, were measured to examine the role of population immunity in the emergence of pandemic GII.4 noroviruses. The overall population-adjusted seroprevalence to any norovirus was 90.0% (1999 to 2000) and 95.9% (2003 to 2004). Seroprevalenc...
Source: Viruses - February 5, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Kirby Kienast Zhu Barton Anderson Sizemore Vinje Moe Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 180: Genetic and Biological Diversity of Porcine Sapeloviruses Prevailing in Zambia
In this study, we investigated the prevalence of PSV infection in Zambia and characterized the isolated PSVs genetically and biologically. We screened 147 fecal samples collected in 2018 and found that the prevalences of PSV infection in suckling pigs and fattening pigs were high (36.2% and 94.0%, respectively). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Zambian PSVs were divided into three different lineages (Lineages 1–3) in the clade consisting of Chinese strains. The Zambian PSVs belonging to Lineages 2 and 3 replicated more efficiently than those belonging to Lineage 1 in Vero E6 and BHK cells. Bioinformati...
Source: Viruses - February 5, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Hayato Harima Masahiro Kajihara Edgar Simulundu Eugene Bwalya Yongjin Qiu Mao Isono Kosuke Okuya Gabriel Gonzalez Junya Yamagishi Bernard M. Hang ’ombe Hirofumi Sawa Aaron S. Mweene Ayato Takada Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 181: DEAD-Box Helicases: Sensors, Regulators, and Effectors for Antiviral Defense
erry DEAD-box helicases are a large family of conserved RNA-binding proteins that belong to the broader group of cellular DExD/H helicases. Members of the DEAD-box helicase family have roles throughout cellular RNA metabolism from biogenesis to decay. Moreover, there is emerging evidence that cellular RNA helicases, including DEAD-box helicases, play roles in the recognition of foreign nucleic acids and the modulation of viral infection. As intracellular parasites, viruses must evade detection by innate immune sensing mechanisms and degradation by cellular machinery while also manipulating host cell processes to facili...
Source: Viruses - February 5, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Taschuk Cherry Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 182: In Search of Covariates of HIV-1 Subtype B Spread in the United States —A Cautionary Tale of Large-Scale Bayesian Phylogeography
Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 182: In Search of Covariates of HIV-1 Subtype B Spread in the United States—A Cautionary Tale of Large-Scale Bayesian Phylogeography Viruses doi: 10.3390/v12020182 Authors: Samuel L. Hong Simon Dellicour Bram Vrancken Marc A. Suchard Michael T. Pyne David R. Hillyard Philippe Lemey Guy Baele Infections with HIV-1 group M subtype B viruses account for the majority of the HIV epidemic in the Western world. Phylogeographic studies have placed the introduction of subtype B in the United States in New York around 1970, where it grew into a major source of spread. Currently, it...
Source: Viruses - February 5, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Samuel L. Hong Simon Dellicour Bram Vrancken Marc A. Suchard Michael T. Pyne David R. Hillyard Philippe Lemey Guy Baele Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 177: Antiviral Ranpirnase TMR-001 Inhibits Rabies Virus Release and Cell-to-Cell Infection In Vitro
son Christina L. Hutson Currently, no rabies virus-specific antiviral drugs are available. Ranpirnase has strong antitumor and antiviral properties associated with its ribonuclease activity. TMR-001, a proprietary bulk drug substance solution of ranpirnase, was evaluated against rabies virus in three cell types: mouse neuroblastoma, BSR (baby hamster kidney cells), and bat primary fibroblast cells. When TMR-001 was added to cell monolayers 24 h preinfection, rabies virus release was inhibited for all cell types at three time points postinfection. TMR-001 treatment simultaneous with infection and 24 h postinfection ef...
Source: Viruses - February 5, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Todd G. Smith Felix R. Jackson Clint N. Morgan William C. Carson Brock E. Martin Nadia Gallardo-Romero James A. Ellison Lauren Greenberg Thomas Hodge Luis Squiquera Jamie Sulley Victoria A. Olson Christina L. Hutson Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 173: The Susceptibility of Human Melanoma Cells to Infection with the Leningrad-16 Vaccine Strain of Measles Virus
In this study, the oncolytic potential of the attenuated vaccine strain Leningrad-16 (L-16) of MV was evaluated in a panel of human metastatic melanoma cell lines. The L-16 measles virus was shown to replicate within melanoma cells mediating direct cell killing of tumor cells, although all melanoma cell lines varied in regard to their ability to respond to L-16 MV infection, as revealed by the different pattern of the Interferon Stimulated Gene expression, cytokine release and mechanisms of cell death. Furthermore, the statistically significant L-16 measles virus related tumor growth inhibition was demonstrated in a melano...
Source: Viruses - February 4, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Ammour Ryabaya Shchetinina Prokofeva Gavrilova Khochenkov Vorobyev Faizuloev Shohin Zverev Svitich Nasedkina Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 174: ABCE1 Acts as a Positive Regulator of Exogenous RNA Decay
itade Hoshino The 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)/RNase L system protects hosts against pathogenic viruses through cleavage of the exogenous single-stranded RNA. In this system, an evolutionally conserved RNA quality control factor Dom34 (known as Pelota (Pelo) in higher eukaryotes) forms a surveillance complex with RNase L to recognize and eliminate the exogenous RNA in a manner dependent on translation. Here, we newly identified that ATP-binding cassette sub-family E member 1 (ABCE1), which is also known as RNase L inhibitor (RLI), is involved in the regulation of exogenous RNA de...
Source: Viruses - February 4, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Nogimori Ogami Oishi Goda Hosoda Kitamura Kitade Hoshino Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 175: Impact of the Interaction of Hepatitis B Virus with Mitochondria and Associated Proteins
Ueda Around 350 million people are living with hepatitis B virus (HBV), which can lead to death due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Various antiviral drugs/nucleot(s)ide analogues are currently used to reduce or arrest the replication of this virus. However, many studies have reported that nucleot(s)ide analogue-resistant HBV is circulating. Cellular signaling pathways could be one of the targets against the viral replication. Several studies reported that viral proteins interacted with mitochondrial proteins and localized in the mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell. And a recent study sh...
Source: Viruses - February 4, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Hossain Akter Ohsaki Ueda Tags: Review Source Type: research