Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 700: Long-COVID and Post-COVID Health Complications: An Up-to-Date Review on Clinical Conditions and Their Possible Molecular Mechanisms
Khalid J Alzahrani Aristóteles Góes-Neto Vasco Azevedo Preetam Ghosh Debmalya Barh The COVID-19 pandemic has infected millions worldwide, leaving a global burden for long-term care of COVID-19 survivors. It is thus imperative to study post-COVID (i.e., short-term) and long-COVID (i.e., long-term) effects, specifically as local and systemic pathophysiological outcomes of other coronavirus-related diseases (such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)) were well-cataloged. We conducted a comprehensive review of adverse post-COVID health outcomes and ...
Source: Viruses - April 18, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Bruno Silva Silva Andrade S érgio Siqueira Wagner Rodrigues de Assis de Assis Soares Fernanda de Souza de Souza Rangel Naiane Oliveira Santos Andria dos Santos dos Santos Freitas Priscila Ribeiro da Ribeiro da Silveira Sandeep Tiwari Khalid J Alzahrani A Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 701: Virulence and Infectivity of UC, MD, and L Strains of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) in Four Populations of Columbia River Basin Chinook Salmon
This study assesses intra-specific variation in the IHNV susceptibility of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River Basin (CRB), in the northwestern United States. The virulence and infectivity of IHNV strains from three divergent virus genogroups are measured in four Chinook salmon populations, including spring-run and fall-run fish from the lower or upper regions of the CRB. Following controlled laboratory exposures, our results show that the positive control L strain had significantly higher virulence, and the UC and MD strains that predominate in the CRB had equivalently low virulence, consistent...
Source: Viruses - April 18, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Daniel G. Hernandez William Brown Kerry A. Naish Gael Kurath Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 702: Conquering the Nuclear Envelope Barriers by EBV Lytic Replication
Chen : The nuclear envelope (NE) of eukaryotic cells has a highly structural architecture, comprising double lipid-bilayer membranes, nuclear pore complexes, and an underlying nuclear lamina network. The NE structure is held in place through the membrane-bound LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex, spanning the inner and outer nuclear membranes. The NE functions as a barrier between the nucleus and cytoplasm and as a transverse scaffold for various cellular processes. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a human pathogen that infects most of the world’s population and is associated with several we...
Source: Viruses - April 18, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Lee Chen Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 703: Special Issue “Arenaviruses 2020”
Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 703: Special Issue “Arenaviruses 2020” Viruses doi: 10.3390/v13040703 Authors: Igor S. Lukashevich Juan Carlos de la Torre Rodent-borne arenaviruses have been traditionally predominantly associated with certain muroid species from Mastomys/Praomys genera (African arenaviruses) or with species that belong to murid subfamily Cricetidae (New World arenaviruses) [...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 18, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Igor S. Lukashevich Juan Carlos de la Torre Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 704: Bombyx mori Pupae Efficiently Produce Recombinant AAV2/HBoV1 Vectors with a Bombyx mori Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Expression System
eping Chen Qin Yao Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have broad application prospects in the field of gene therapy. The establishment of low-cost and large-scale manufacturing is now the general agenda for industry. The baculovirus-insect cell/larva expression system has great potential for these applications due to its scalability and predictable biosafety. To establish a more efficient production system, Bombyx mori pupae were used as a new platform and infected with recombinant Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV). The production of a chimeric recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) sero...
Source: Viruses - April 18, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Qian Yu Pengfei Chang Xiaoxuan Liu Peng L ü Qi Tang Zhongjian Guo Jianming Qiu Keping Chen Qin Yao Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 698: Replication-Competent ΔNS1 Influenza A Viruses Expressing Reporter Genes
In this report, we describe, for the first time, the generation and characterization of two replication-competent influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 H1N1 (PR8) viruses where the viral non-structural protein 1 (NS1) was substituted by the monomeric (m)Cherry fluorescent or the NanoLuc luciferase (Nluc) proteins. The ΔNS1 mCherry was able to replicate in cultured cells and in Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) deficient mice, although at a lower extent than a wild-type (WT) PR8 virus expressing the same mCherry fluorescent protein (WT mCherry). Notably, expression of either reporter gene (mCherry or...
Source: Viruses - April 17, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Aitor Nogales Michael Schotsaert Raveen Rathnasinghe Marta L. DeDiego Adolfo Garc ía-Sastre Luis Martinez-Sobrido Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 699: Genetic Characterization of a Neurovirulent West Nile Virus Variant Associated with a Fatal Great Grey Owl Infection
This study reports on a fatal case of a captive great grey owl infected with the West Nile virus (WNV) in the zoological garden Košice, eastern Slovakia (Central Europe). The tissue samples of the dead owl were used for virus isolation and genetic characterization. The novel isolate is genetically closer to Hungarian, Greek, and Bulgarian strains from the central/southern European clade of lineage 2 than to the strains previously isolated in Slovakia. Interestingly, it carries NS3-249P, a molecular virulence determinant associated with higher neurovirulence, which has not previously been observed in Slovakia. Subseq...
Source: Viruses - April 17, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Katar ína Peňazziová Ľuboš Korytár Patrik Pastorek Juraj Pistl Diana Rus ňáková Tom áš Szemes Vikt ória Čabanová Martina Li čková Krist ína Boršová Boris Klempa Tom áš Csank Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 693: Development of an RT-LAMP Assay for the Rapid Detection of SFTS Virus
uki Sugimoto Masayuki Saijo Detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus (SFTSV) during the early phase of the disease is important for appropriate treatment, infection control, and prevention of further transmission. The reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a nucleic acid amplification method that amplifies the target sequence under isothermal conditions. Here, we developed an RT-LAMP with a novel primer/probe set targeting a conserved region of the SFTSV L segment after extraction of viral RNA (standard RT-LAMP). Both the Chinese and Japanese SFTSV strai...
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Shiori Sano Shuetsu Fukushi Souichi Yamada Shizuko Harada Hitomi Kinoshita Satoko Sugimoto Tomoki Yoshikawa Takeshi Kurosu Yuki Takamatsu Masayuki Shimojima Shoichi Toda Yuka Hamada Naoki Fujisawa Takayuki Sugimoto Masayuki Saijo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 694: New World Cactaceae Plants Harbor Diverse Geminiviruses
This study shows that the diversity of geminiviruses that infect cacti is under-sampled and that cacti harbor diverse geminiviruses. The detection of the Opuntia becurtoviruses suggests spill-over events between viruses of cultivated species and native vegetation. The threat this poses to cacti needs to be further investigated. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Rafaela S. Fontenele Andrew M. Salywon Lucas C. Majure Ilaria N. Cobb Amulya Bhaskara Jes ús A. Avalos-Calleros Gerardo R. Arg üello-Astorga Kara Schmidlin Anthony Khalifeh Kendal Smith Joshua Schreck Michael C. Lund Matias K öhler Martin F. Wojciechow Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 695: When the COVID-19 Pandemic Surges during Influenza Season: Lessons Learnt from the Sentinel Laboratory-Based Surveillance of Influenza-Like Illness in Lombardy during the 2019 –2020 Season
Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 695: When the COVID-19 Pandemic Surges during Influenza Season: Lessons Learnt from the Sentinel Laboratory-Based Surveillance of Influenza-Like Illness in Lombardy during the 2019–2020 Season Viruses doi: 10.3390/v13040695 Authors: Cristina Galli Laura Pellegrinelli Laura Bubba Valeria Primache Giovanni Anselmi Serena Delbue Lucia Signorini Sandro Binda Danilo Cereda Maria Gramegna Elena Pariani The ILI Sentinel Physicians Group This paper outlines the role of Lombardy’s regional influenza reference laboratory (Northern Italy) in the surveillance of influe...
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Cristina Galli Laura Pellegrinelli Laura Bubba Valeria Primache Giovanni Anselmi Serena Delbue Lucia Signorini Sandro Binda Danilo Cereda Maria Gramegna Elena Pariani The ILI Sentinel Physicians Group Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 696: Epidemiology and Seasonality of Childhood Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in the Tropics
ske Infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children worldwide. Understanding seasonal patterns of region-specific RSV activity is important to guide resource allocation for existing and future treatment and prevention strategies. The decades of excellent RSV surveillance data that are available from the developed countries of the world are incredibly instructive in advancing public health initiatives in those regions. With few exceptions, these developed nations are positioned geographically across temperate regions of the world. RSV surveillance acr...
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Manika Suryadevara Joseph B. Domachowske Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 697: Characteristics of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Recovered COVID-19 Subjects
This study highlights the importance of serological surveys to determine population-level immunity based on infection numbers as determined by RT-PCR. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Angela Huynh Donald M. Arnold James W. Smith Jane C. Moore Ali Zhang Zain Chagla Bart J. Harvey Hannah D. Stacey Jann C. Ang Rumi Clare Nikola Ivetic Vasudhevan T. Chetty Dawn M.E. Bowdish Matthew S. Miller John G. Kelton Ishac Nazy Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 686: Virus Infection of Aspergillus fumigatus Compromises the Fungus in Intermicrobial Competition
. Stevens Aspergillus and Pseudomonas compete in nature, and are the commonest bacterial and fungal pathogens in some clinical settings, such as the cystic fibrosis lung. Virus infections of fungi occur naturally. Effects on fungal physiology need delineation. A common reference Aspergillus fumigatus strain, long studied in two (of many) laboratories, was found infected with the AfuPmV-1 virus. One isolate was cured of virus, producing a virus-free strain. Virus from the infected strain was purified and used to re-infect three subcultures of the virus-free fungus, producing six fungal strains, otherwise isogenic. They ...
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Hasan Nazik Ioly Kotta-Loizou Gabriele Sass Robert H. A. Coutts David A. Stevens Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 685: Identification of Novel Antiviral Compounds Targeting Entry of Hantaviruses
This study provides potential therapeutics against emerging virus infection, and highlights the importance of drug repurposing. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jennifer Mayor Giulia Torriani Olivier Engler Sylvia Rothenberger Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 687: Zika Brazilian Cohorts (ZBC) Consortium: Protocol for an Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis of Congenital Zika Syndrome after Maternal Exposure during Pregnancy
The objective is to estimate the absolute risk of congenital Zika manifestations and to characterize the full spectrum and natural history of the manifestations of congenital Zika in children with and without microcephaly. This protocol describes the assembly of the Consortium and protocol for the Individual Participant Data Meta-analyses (IPD Meta-analyses). The findings will address knowledge gaps and inform public policies related to Zika virus. The large harmonized dataset and joint analyses will facilitate more precise estimates of the absolute risk of congenital Zika manifestations among Zika virus-infected pregnanci...
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Maria Alecrim Melania Amorim Thalia Ara újo Patr ícia Brasil Elizabeth Brickley Marcia Castilho Bernadete Coelho Ant ônio Cunha Geraldo Duarte C ássia Estofolete Ricardo Gurgel Juliana Herrero-Silva Cristina Hofer Aline Lopes Celina Martelli Adriana M Tags: Study Protocol Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 688: From Player to Pawn: Viral Avirulence Factors Involved in Plant Immunity
g In the plant immune system, according to the ‘gene-for-gene’ model, a resistance (R) gene product in the plant specifically surveils a corresponding effector protein functioning as an avirulence (Avr) gene product. This system differs from other plant–pathogen interaction systems, in which plant R genes recognize a single type of gene or gene family because almost all virus genes with distinct structures and functions can also interact with R genes as Avr determinants. Thus, research conducted on viral Avr-R systems can provide a novel understanding of Avr and R gene product interactions and identif...
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Changjun Huang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 689: Adaptive Evolution of New Variants of Dengue Virus Serotype 1 Genotype V Circulating in the Brazilian Amazon
In this study, plasma samples (n = 824) from individuals with symptoms consistent with an arboviral febrile illness were analyzed to identity the molecular epidemiological dynamics of DENV circulating in the Brazilian state of Amapá. Twelve DENV type 1 (DENV-1) genomes were identified, which were phylogenetically related to the BR4 lineage of genotype V. Phylodynamics analysis suggested that DENV-1 BR-4 was introduced into Amapá around early 2010, possibly from other states in northern Brazil. We also found unique amino acids substitutions in the DENV-1 envelope and NS5 protein sequences in the Amapá i...
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Geovani de Oliveira Ribeiro Danielle Elise Gill Edcelha Soares D ’Athaide Ribeiro Fred Julio Costa Monteiro Vanessa S. Morais Roberta Marcatti Marlisson Octavio da S. Rego Emerson Luiz Lima Ara újo Steven S. Witkin Fabiola Villanova Xutao Deng Ester Ce Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 690: Isolation, Identification, and Genomic Analysis of a Novel Reovirus from Healthy Grass Carp and Its Dynamic Proliferation In Vitro and In Vivo
ia Yuding Fan A new grass carp reovirus (GCRV), healthy grass carp reovirus (HGCRV), was isolated from grass carp in 2019. Its complete genome sequence was determined and contained 11 dsRNAs with a total size of 23,688 bp and 57.2 mol% G+C content, encoding 12 proteins. All segments had conserved 5’ and 3’ termini. Sequence comparisons showed that HGCRV was closely related to GCRV-873 (GCRV-I; 69.57–96.71% protein sequence identity) but shared only 22.65–45.85% and 23.37–43.39% identities with GCRV-HZ08 and Hubei grass carp disease reovirus (HGDRV), respectively. RNA-dependent RNA-polyme...
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ke Zhang Wenzhi Liu Yiqun Li Yong Zhou Yan Meng Lingbing Zeng Vikram N. Vakharia Yuding Fan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 691: Recombinant Pseudorabies Virus with TK/gE Gene Deletion and Flt3L Co-Expression Enhances the Innate and Adaptive Immune Response via Activating Dendritic Cells
In this study, we used an emerging PRV strain, HNX, as the parental strain to construct a recombinant PRV with TK/gE gene deletion and Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) expression, named HNX-TK−/gE−-Flt3L. HNX-TK−/gE−-Flt3L enhanced the maturation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. Significantly more activated DCs were detected in HNX-TK−/gE−-Flt3L-immunized mice compared with those immunized with HNX-TK−/gE−. Subsequently, a remarkable increase of neutralizing antibodies, gB-specific IgG antibodies, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) was observ...
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Lun Yao Qiao Hu Siqi Chen Tong Zhou Xuexiang Yu Hailong Ma Ahmed. H. Ghonaim Hao Wu Qi Sun Shengxian Fan Qigai He Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 692: NLRP3-Inflammasome Inhibition during Respiratory Virus Infection Abrogates Lung Immunopathology and Long-Term Airway Disease Development
W. Lukacs Wendy Fonseca Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects most infants by two years of age. It can cause severe disease leading to an increased risk of developing asthma later in life. Previously, our group has shown that RSV infection in mice and infants promotes IL-1β production. Here, we characterized the role of NLRP3-Inflammasome activation during RSV infection in adult mice and neonates. We observed that the inhibition of NLRP3 activation using the small molecule inhibitor, MCC950, or in genetically modified NLRP3 knockout (Nlrp3−/−) mice during in vivo RSV infection led to decreased l...
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Carrie-Anne Malinczak Charles F. Schuler Angela J. Duran Andrew J. Rasky Mohamed M. Mire Gabriel N úñez Nicholas W. Lukacs Wendy Fonseca Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 678: The Intersection of Age and Influenza Severity: Utility of Ferrets for Dissecting the Age-Dependent Immune Responses and Relevance to Age-Specific Vaccine Development
n A. Kelvin Many factors impact the host response to influenza virus infection and vaccination. Ferrets have been an indispensable reagent for influenza virus research for almost one hundred years. One of the most significant and well-known factors affecting human disease after infection is host age. Another significant factor is the virus, as strain-specific disease severity is well known. Studying age-related impacts on viral infection and vaccination outcomes requires an animal model that reflects both the physiological and immunological changes that occur with human aging, and sensitivity to differentially virulent...
Source: Viruses - April 15, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Melissa Rioux Magen E. Francis Cynthia L. Swan Anni Ge Andrea Kroeker Alyson A. Kelvin Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 679: A New Strain of Virus Discovered in China Specific to the Parasitic Mite Varroa destructor Poses a Potential Threat to Honey Bees
This study led to the identification of a new Chinese strain of Varroa destructor virus-2 (VDV-2), which is a member of the Iflaviridae family and was previously reported to be specific to Varroa mites. A subsequent epidemiological investigation of Chinese strain of VDV-2 (VDV-2-China) showed that the virus was highly prevalent among Varroa populations and was not identified in any of the adult workers from both A. mellifera and A.cerana colonies distributed in six provinces in China, clearly indicating that VDV-2-China is predominantly a Varroa-adapted virus. While A. mellifera worker pupae exposed to less than two Varroa...
Source: Viruses - April 15, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Gongwen Chen Shuai Wang Shuo Jia Ye Feng Fuliang Hu Yanping Chen Huoqing Zheng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 677: Changes in Subcellular Localization of Host Proteins Induced by Plant Viruses
arcia-Ruiz Viruses are dependent on host factors at all parts of the infection cycle, such as translation, genome replication, encapsidation, and cell-to-cell and systemic movement. RNA viruses replicate their genome in compartments associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, chloroplasts, and mitochondria or peroxisome membranes. In contrast, DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus. Viral infection causes changes in plant gene expression and in the subcellular localization of some host proteins. These changes may support or inhibit virus accumulation and spread. Here, we review host proteins that change their subcellular ...
Source: Viruses - April 15, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Rosalba Rodriguez-Pe ña Kaoutar El Mounadi Hernan Garcia-Ruiz Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 680: The Advantages and Challenges of Using Endolysins in a Clinical Setting
in Hill Antibiotic-resistant pathogens are increasingly more prevalent and problematic. Traditional antibiotics are no longer a viable option for dealing with these multidrug-resistant microbes and so new approaches are needed. Bacteriophage-derived proteins such as endolysins could offer one effective solution. Endolysins are bacteriophage-encoded peptidoglycan hydrolases that act to lyse bacterial cells by targeting their cell’s wall, particularly in Gram-positive bacteria due to their naturally exposed peptidoglycan layer. These lytic enzymes have received much interest from the scientific community in recent ...
Source: Viruses - April 15, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ellen Murray Lorraine A. Draper R. Paul Ross Colin Hill Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 681: Clinical Manifestations and Epigenetic Regulation of Oral Herpesvirus Infections
lt Toth The oral cavity is often the first site where viruses interact with the human body. The oral epithelium is a major site of viral entry, replication and spread to other cell types, where chronic infection can be established. In addition, saliva has been shown as a primary route of person-to-person transmission for many viruses. From a clinical perspective, viral infection can lead to several oral manifestations, ranging from common intraoral lesions to tumors. Despite the clinical and biological relevance of initial oral infection, little is known about the mechanism of regulation of the viral life cycle in the ...
Source: Viruses - April 15, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Natalie Atyeo Michelle D. Rodriguez Bernadett Papp Zsolt Toth Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 682: A Duplex Fluorescent Microsphere Immunoassay for Detection of Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Antibodies in Cattle Sera
We describe the development and validation of a duplex fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) to simultaneously detect and differentiate antibodies to BTV and EHDV in a single bovine serum sample. Performance of the duplex FMIA for detection and differentiation of BTV and EHDV serogroup antibodies was comparable, with higher sensitivity than commercially available single-plex competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISA) for detection of each virus antibody separately. The FMIA adds to the currently available diagnostic tools for hemorrhagic orbiviral diseases in cattle as a sensitive, specific assay, with th...
Source: Viruses - April 15, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Barbara S. Drolet Lindsey M. Reister-Hendricks Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 683: Feline Morbillivirus Infection in Domestic Cats: What Have We Learned So Far?
Lorusso Feline morbillivirus (FeMV) was identified for the first time in stray cats in 2012 in Hong Kong and, since its discovery, it was reported in domestic cats worldwide. Although a potential association between FeMV infection and tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) has been suggested, this has not been proven, and the subject remains controversial. TIN is the most frequent histopathological finding in the context of feline chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is one of the major clinical pathologies in feline medicine. FeMV research has mainly focused on defining the epidemiology, the role of FeMV in the development...
Source: Viruses - April 15, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Eliana De Luca Giuseppe Andrea Sautto Paolo Emidio Crisi Alessio Lorusso Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 684: Five Antigen Tests for SARS-CoV-2: Virus Viability Matters
a Roman Prymula Antigen testing for SARS-CoV-2 (AGT) is generally considered inferior to RT-PCR testing in terms of sensitivity. However, little is known about the infectiousness of RT-PCR positive patients who pass undetected by AGT. In a screening setting for mildly symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with high COVID-19 prevalence (30–40%), 1141 patients were tested using one of five AGTs and RT-PCR. Where the results differed, virus viability in the samples was tested on cell culture (CV-1 cells). The test battery included AGTs by JOYSBIO, Assure Tech, SD Biosensor, VivaChek Biotech and NDFOS. Sensitivities...
Source: Viruses - April 15, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Miroslav Homza Hana Zelena Jaroslav Janosek Hana Tomaskova Eduard Jezo Alena Kloudova Jakub Mrazek Zdenek Svagera Roman Prymula Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 675: Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1 Modulates the CD63 Interactome
G. Meckes Tetraspanin CD63 is a cluster of cell surface proteins with four transmembrane domains; it is associated with tetraspanin-enriched microdomains and typically localizes to late endosomes and lysosomes. CD63 plays an important role in the cellular trafficking of different proteins, EV cargo sorting, and vesicle formation. We have previously shown that CD63 is important in LMP1 trafficking to EVs, and this also affects LMP1-mediated intracellular signaling including MAPK/ERK, NF-κB, and mTOR activation. Using the BioID method combined with mass spectrometry, we sought to define the broad CD63 interactome a...
Source: Viruses - April 15, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Mujeeb Cheerathodi Dingani Nkosi Allaura S. Cone Sara B. York David G. Meckes Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 676: Genetic Characterisation and Comparison of Three Human Coronaviruses (HKU1, OC43, 229E) from Patients and Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) from Cattle with Respiratory Disease in Slovenia
Ivan Toplak Coronaviruses (CoV) are widely distributed pathogens of human and animals and can cause mild or severe respiratory and gastrointestinal disease. Antigenic and genetic similarity of some CoVs within the Betacoronavirus genus is evident. Therefore, for the first time in Slovenia, we investigated the genetic diversity of partial 390-nucleotides of RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase gene (RdRp) for 66 human (HCoV) and 24 bovine CoV (BCoV) positive samples, collected between 2010 and 2016 from human patients and cattle with respiratory disease. The characterized CoV strains belong to four different clusters, in thr...
Source: Viruses - April 15, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Monika Jev šnik Virant Danijela Černe Miroslav Petrovec Tomislav Paller Ivan Toplak Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 671: Characterization of a Novel Group of Listeria Phages That Target Serotype 4b Listeria monocytogenes
G. Denes Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b strains are the most prevalent clinical isolates and are widely found in food processing environments. Bacteriophages are natural viral predators of bacteria and are a promising biocontrol agent for L. monocytogenes. The aims of this study were to characterize phages that specifically infect serotype 4b strains and to assess their ability to inhibit the growth of serotype 4b strains. Out of 120 wild Listeria phages, nine phages were selected based on their strong lytic activity against the model serotype 4b strain F2365. These nine phages can be divided into two groups based...
Source: Viruses - April 14, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yaxiong Song Tracey L. Peters Daniel W. Bryan Lauren K. Hudson Thomas G. Denes Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 672: Egyptian Fruit Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) Were Resistant to Experimental Inoculation with Avian-Origin Influenza A Virus of Subtype H9N2, But Are Susceptible to Experimental Infection with Bat-Borne H9N2 Virus
In conclusion, Egyptian fruit bats are most likely not susceptible to the avian H9N2 subtype, but can be infected with fruit bat-derived H9N2. H9-specific sero-reactivities in fruit bats in the field are therefore more likely the result of contact with a bat-adapted H9N2 strain. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 14, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Nico Joel Halwe Marco Gorka Bernd Hoffmann Melanie Rissmann Angele Breithaupt Martin Schwemmle Martin Beer Ahmed Kandeil Mohamed A. Ali Ghazi Kayali Donata Hoffmann Anne Balkema-Buschmann Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 673: Household Cases Suggest That Cats Belonging to Owners with COVID-19 Have a Limited Role in Virus Transmission
In this study, we monitored five cats for viral shedding daily. Each cat was confined with its COVID-19 positive owners in separate households. Low loads of viral nucleic acid were found in two cats, but only one developed anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, which suggests that cats have a limited role in COVID-19 epidemiology. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 14, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Pierre Bessi ère Maxime Fusade-Boyer Mathilda Walch Laetitia L èbre Jessie Brun Guillaume Croville S éverine Boullier Marie-Christine Cadiergues Jean-Luc Gu érin Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 674: Transcriptional Landscape of Vero E6 Cells During Early Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome Coronavirus Infection
g Cao Hao Zhang Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a newly emerged and highly pathogenic virus that is associated with fatal diarrhea disease in piglets, causing significant economic losses to the pig industry. At present, the research on the pathogenicity and molecular mechanisms of host-virus interactions of SADS-CoV are limited and remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the global gene expression profiles of SADS-CoV-infected Vero E6 cells at 12, 18, and 24 h post-infection (hpi) using the RNA-sequencing. As a result, a total of 3324 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identifie...
Source: Viruses - April 14, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Siying Zeng Ouyang Peng Ruipu Sun Qiuping Xu Fangyu Hu Yan Zhao Chunyi Xue Yongchang Cao Hao Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 667: Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Strategies and Nucleoside Analogues
onnac The emergence or re-emergence of viruses with epidemic and/or pandemic potential, such as Ebola, Zika, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 1 and 2 (SARS and SARS-CoV-2) viruses, or new strains of influenza represents significant human health threats due to the absence of available treatments. Vaccines represent a key answer to control these viruses. However, in the case of a public health emergency, vaccine development, safety, and partial efficacy concerns may hinder their prompt deployment. Thus, developing broad-spectrum antiviral molecules for a fast resp...
Source: Viruses - April 13, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Robert J. Geraghty Matthew T. Aliota Laurent F. Bonnac Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 668: Top-Down and Bottom-Up Proteomics Methods to Study RNA Virus Biology
tro Scaturro RNA viruses cause a wide range of human diseases that are associated with high mortality and morbidity. In the past decades, the rise of genetic-based screening methods and high-throughput sequencing approaches allowed the uncovering of unique and elusive aspects of RNA virus replication and pathogenesis at an unprecedented scale. However, viruses often hijack critical host functions or trigger pathological dysfunctions, perturbing cellular proteostasis, macromolecular complex organization or stoichiometry, and post-translational modifications. Such effects require the monitoring of proteins and proteoform...
Source: Viruses - April 13, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yogy Simanjuntak Kira Schamoni-Kast Alice Gr ün Charlotte Uetrecht Pietro Scaturro Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 669: Is the ZIKV Congenital Syndrome and Microcephaly Due to Syndemism with Latent Virus Coinfection?
Grayo The emergence of the Zika virus (ZIKV) mirrors its evolutionary nature and, thus, its ability to grow in diversity or complexity (i.e., related to genome, host response, environment changes, tropism, and pathogenicity), leading to it recently joining the circle of closed congenital pathogens. The causal relation of ZIKV to microcephaly is still a much-debated issue. The identification of outbreak foci being in certain endemic urban areas characterized by a high-density population emphasizes that mixed infections might spearhead the recent appearance of a wide range of diseases that were initially attributed to Z...
Source: Viruses - April 13, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Sol ène Grayo Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 670: Molecular Characterization and Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients and Solid Organ Transplant Recipients
This study demonstrates higher HEV seroprevalence in the risk group compared to healthy control individuals without confidence interval overlap. The high level of genetic homology between human and animal strains in Lithuania and the capacity of locally isolated strains to infect cells of non-human origin suggests its potential for zoonotic transmission. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 13, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Juozas Grigas Maria Montoya Evelina Simkute Marius Buitkus Ruta Zagrabskaite Arnoldas Pautienius Dainius Razukevicius Laimas Virginijus Jonaitis Gediminas Kiudelis Jurgita Skieceviciene Ruta Vaiciuniene Asta Stankuviene Inga Arune Bumblyte Juozas Kupcinsk Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 662: Induction of Plant Resistance in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) against Tomato Spotted Wilt Orthotospovirus through Foliar Application of dsRNA
R. Pappu Thrips-transmitted tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (TSWV) continues to be a constraint to peanut, pepper, tobacco, and tomato production in Georgia and elsewhere. TSWV is being managed by an integrated disease management strategy that includes a combination of cultural practices, vector management, and growing virus-resistant varieties where available. We used a non-transgenic strategy to induce RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated resistance in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants against TSWV. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules for the NSs (silencing suppressor) and N (nucleoprotein) genes were produced by...
Source: Viruses - April 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Naga Charan Konakalla Sudeep Bag Anushi Suwaneththiya Deraniyagala Albert K. Culbreath Hanu R. Pappu Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 663: Structural Characterization of a Minimal Antibody against Human APOBEC3B
euben S. Harris Hideki Aihara APOBEC3B (A3B) is one of seven human APOBEC3 DNA cytosine deaminases that restrict viral infections as part of the overall innate immune response, but it also plays a major role in tumor evolution by mutating genomic DNA. Given the importance of A3B as a restriction factor of viral infections and as a driver of multiple human cancers, selective antibodies against A3B are highly desirable for its specific detection in various research and possibly diagnostic applications. Here, we describe a high-affinity minimal antibody, designated 5G7, obtained via a phage display screening against the...
Source: Viruses - April 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Heng Tang Özlem Demir Fredy Kurniawan William L. Brown Ke Shi Nicholas H. Moeller Michael A. Carpenter Christopher Belica Kayo Orellana Guocheng Du Aaron M. LeBeau Rommie E. Amaro Reuben S. Harris Hideki Aihara Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 665: Immunological Responses to Seoul Orthohantavirus in Experimentally and Naturally Infected Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus)
awa Kumiko Yoshimatsu To clarify the mechanism of Seoul orthohantavirus (SEOV) persistence, we compared the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to SEOV in experimentally and naturally infected brown rats. Rats that were experimentally infected by the intraperitoneal route showed transient immunoglobulin M (IgM) production, followed by an increased anti-SEOV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response and maturation of IgG avidity. The level of SEOV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) peaked at 6 days after inoculation and the viral genome disappeared from serum. In contrast, naturally infected brown rats simu...
Source: Viruses - April 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Shumpei P. Yasuda Kenta Shimizu Takaaki Koma Nguyen Thuy Hoa Mai Quynh Le Zhuoxing Wei Devinda S. Muthusinghe Sithumini M. W. Lokupathirage Futoshi Hasebe Tetsu Yamashiro Jiro Arikawa Kumiko Yoshimatsu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 664: Genotyping and Molecular Characterization of Classical Swine Fever Virus Isolated in China during 2016 –2018
In conclusion, the new isolates showed molecular variations and antigenic alterations, which provide evidence for the emergence of vaccine-escaping mutants and emphasize the need of updated strategies for CSF control. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Madiha Fatima Yuzi Luo Li Zhang Peng-Ying Wang Hao Song Yanhui Fu Yongfeng Li Yuan Sun Su Li Yun-Juan Bao Hua-Ji Qiu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 666: Hepatitis D Virus Entry Inhibitors Based on Repurposing Intestinal Bile Acid Reabsorption Inhibitors
In conclusion, repurposing of compounds from the BARI class as novel HBV/HDV entry inhibitors seems possible and even enables certain virus selectivity based on structure-activity relationships. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Michael Kirstgen Kira Alessandra Alicia Theresa Lowjaga Simon Franz M üller Nora Goldmann Felix Lehmann Dieter Glebe Karl-Heinz Baringhaus Joachim Geyer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 661: SARS-CoV-2 Reinfection in a Healthcare Worker Despite the Presence of Detectable Neutralizing Antibodies
We report about a SARS-CoV-2 reinfection with a genetically distinct SARS-CoV-2 variant in an immunocompetent female healthcare worker that has led to a mild disease course. No obvious viral escape mutations were observed in the second virus variant. The infectious virus was shed from the patient during the second infection episode despite the presence of neutralizing antibodies in her blood. Our data indicate that a moderate immune response after the first infection, but not a viral escape, did allow for reinfection and live virus shedding. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Thomas Theo Brehm Susanne Pfefferle Ronald von Possel Robin Kobbe Dominik N örz Stefan Schmiedel Adam Grundhoff Flaminia Olearo Petra Emmerich Alexis Robitaille Thomas G ünther Platon Braun Gabriele Andersen Johannes K. Knobloch Marylyn M. Addo Ansgar W Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 658: Understanding the Central Nervous System Symptoms of Rotavirus: A Qualitative Review
bom This qualitative review on rotavirus infection and its complications in the central nervous system (CNS) aims to understand the gut–brain mechanisms that give rise to CNS driven symptoms such as vomiting, fever, feelings of sickness, convulsions, encephalitis, and encephalopathy. There is substantial evidence to indicate the involvement of the gut–brain axis in symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea. The underlying mechanisms are, however, not rotavirus specific, they represent evolutionarily conserved survival mechanisms for protection against pathogen entry and invasion. The reviewed studies show that...
Source: Viruses - April 11, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Arash Hellysaz Marie Hagbom Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 659: Melatonin Inhibits Dengue Virus Infection via the Sirtuin 1-Mediated Interferon Pathway
In this study, we set forth to investigate the effect of melatonin, which is a natural hormone with multiple pharmacological functions, against DENV infection. Treatment with subtoxic doses of melatonin dose-dependently inhibited DENV production. Cross-protection across serotypes and various cell types was also observed. Time-of-addition assay suggested that melatonin exerts its influence during the post-entry step of viral infection. The antiviral activity of melatonin partly originates from activation of the sirtuin pathway since co-treatment with melatonin and the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) inhibitor reversed the effect of melat...
Source: Viruses - April 11, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Atthapan Morchang Shilu Malakar Kanchanaphan Poonudom Sansanee Noisakran Pa-thai Yenchitsomanus Thawornchai Limjindaporn Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 660: A Productive Expression Platform Derived from Host-Restricted Eilat Virus: Its Extensive Validation and Novel Strategy
ung Kim Most alphaviruses are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect a wide range of insects and vertebrates. However, Eilat virus (EILV) is defective for infecting vertebrate cells at multiple levels of the viral life cycle. This host-restriction property renders EILV an attractive expression platform since it is not infectious for vertebrates and therefore provides a highly advantageous safety profile. Here, we investigated the feasibility of versatile EILV-based expression vectors. By replacing the structural genes of EILV with those of other alphaviruses, we generated seven different chimeras. These chimeras were rea...
Source: Viruses - April 11, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Lu Tan Yiwen Zhang Xingxing Wang Dal Young Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 653: Comparison of Throat Washings, Nasopharyngeal Swabs and Oropharyngeal Swabs for Detection of SARS-CoV-2
This study compares throat washings (TW), nasopharyngeal swabs (NS) and oropharyngeal swabs (OS). A total of 102 samples from 34 adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were analysed by RT-qPCR with absolute quantification. The median concentrations and diagnostic sensitivities were 5.8×104 copies/mL, 85% (NS), 1.4×104, 79% (OS) and 4.3×103, 85% (TW). Concentration differences were significant between NS and TW (P = 0.019). Saliva (SA) was available from 21 patients (median 3.4×103). OS and TW can be considered for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics, although with slightly lower concentrations. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 10, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Florian Hitzenbichler Stilla Bauernfeind Bernd Salzberger Barbara Schmidt J ürgen J. Wenzel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 654: Role of Myeloid Cells in Oncolytic Reovirus-Based Cancer Therapy
Gujar Oncolytic reovirus preferentially targets and kills cancer cells via the process of oncolysis, and additionally drives clinically favorable antitumor T cell responses that form protective immunological memory against cancer relapse. This two-prong attack by reovirus on cancers constitutes the foundation of its use as an anticancer oncolytic agent. Unfortunately, the efficacy of these reovirus-driven antitumor effects is influenced by the highly suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). In particular, the myeloid cell populations (e.g., myeloid-derived suppressive cells and tumor-associated macrophages) of highly...
Source: Viruses - April 10, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Kumar Giacomantonio Gujar Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 655: SARS-CoV-2 Serum Neutralization Assay: A Traditional Tool for a Brand-New Virus
INMI COVID-19 Laboratory Team INMI COVID-19 Laboratory Team SARS-CoV-2 serum neutralization assay represents the gold standard for assessing antibody-mediated protection in naturally infected and vaccinated individuals. In the present study, 662 serum samples collected from February 2020 to January 2021 from acute and convalescent COVID-19 patients were tested to determine neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers using a microneutralization test (MNT) for live SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgA, and IgM directed against different viral antigens were measured by high-throughput automated platforms. We observed hig...
Source: Viruses - April 10, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Giulia Matusali Francesca Colavita Daniele Lapa Silvia Meschi Licia Bordi Pierluca Piselli Roberta Gagliardini Angela Corpolongo Emanuele Nicastri Andrea Antinori Giuseppe Ippolito Maria Rosaria Capobianchi Concetta Castilletti INMI COVID-19 Laboratory Te Tags: Article Source Type: research