Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1531: NIgPred: Class-Specific Antibody Prediction for Linear B-Cell Epitopes Based on Heterogeneous Features and Machine-Learning Approaches
Wei Chu Upon invasion by foreign pathogens, specific antibodies can identify specific foreign antigens and disable them. As a result of this ability, antibodies can help with vaccine production and food allergen detection in patients. Many studies have focused on predicting linear B-cell epitopes, but only two prediction tools are currently available to predict the sub-type of an epitope. NIgPred was developed as a prediction tool for IgA, IgE, and IgG. NIgPred integrates various heterologous features with machine-learning approaches. Differently from previous studies, our study considered peptide-characteristic correl...
Source: Viruses - August 3, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Chi-Hua Tung Yi-Sheng Chang Kai-Po Chang Yen-Wei Chu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1532: Cell Culture Models for the Study of Hepatitis D Virus Entry and Infection
rrier Chronic hepatitis D is one of the most severe and aggressive forms of chronic viral hepatitis with a high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It results from the co-infection of the liver with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its satellite, the hepatitis D virus (HDV). Although current therapies can control HBV infection, no treatment that efficiently eliminates HDV is available and novel therapeutic strategies are needed. Although the HDV cycle is well described, the lack of simple experimental models has restricted the study of host–virus interactions, even if they represent relevant therape...
Source: Viruses - August 3, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Margaux J. Heuschkel Thomas F. Baumert Eloi R. Verrier Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1533: Inhibitors of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Identified Based on Host Interaction Partners of Viral Non-Structural Protein 3
In this study, we utilized an overexpression construct encoding HA-tagged nsP3 to identify host proteins that interact with VEEV nsP3 by mass spectrometry. Bioinformatic analyses of the putative interactors identified 42 small molecules with the potential to inhibit the host interaction targets, and thus potentially inhibit VEEV. Three inhibitors, tomatidine, citalopram HBr, and Z-VEID-FMK, reduced replication of both the TC-83 strain and the Trinidad donkey (TrD) strain of VEEV by at least 10-fold in astrocytoma, astroglial, and microglial cells. Further, these inhibitors reduced replication of the related New World (NW) ...
Source: Viruses - August 3, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Allison Bakovic Nishank Bhalla Farhang Alem Catherine Campbell Weidong Zhou Aarthi Narayanan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1534: Sir Peter Lachmann —Outstanding and Inspirational Immunologist
Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1534: Sir Peter Lachmann—Outstanding and Inspirational Immunologist Viruses doi: 10.3390/v13081534 Authors: Ian McConnell Sir Peter Lachmann was an exceptional and gifted scientist whose intellectual contributions to biomedical science have been immense.[...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - August 3, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ian McConnell Tags: Obituary Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1535: Cytomegalovirus Infection Impairs the Mobilization of Tissue-Resident Innate Lymphoid Cells into the Peripheral Blood Compartment in Response to Acute Exercise
ume Spielmann Circulating immune cell numbers and phenotypes are impacted by high-intensity acute bouts of exercise and infection history with the latent herpesviruses cytomegalovirus (CMV). In particular, CMV infection history impairs the exercise-induced mobilization of cytotoxic innate lymphoid cells 1 (ILC1) cells, also known as NK cells, in the blood. However, it remains unknown whether exercise and CMV infection modulate the mobilization of traditionally tissue-resident non-cytotoxic ILCs into the peripheral blood compartment. To address this question, 22 healthy individuals with or without CMV (20–35 years...
Source: Viruses - August 3, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Eunhan Cho Bailey Theall James Stampley Joshua Granger Neil M. Johannsen Brian A. Irving Guillaume Spielmann Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1536: Detection of Human Papillomavirus Integration in Brain Metastases from Oropharyngeal Tumors by Targeted Sequencing
In this report, we describe two patients who developed brain metastases from HNSCC. Both patient tumors had p16INK4a overexpression, suggesting these tumors were HPV+. This was confirmed after PCR, in situ hybridization, and mass spectrometry detected the presence of HPV type 16 (HPV16) DNA, RNA and protein. To further characterize the presence of HPV16, we used a target enrichment strategy on tumor DNA and RNA to isolate the viral sequences from the brain metastases. Analysis by targeted next generation sequencing revealed that both tumors had the HPV genome integrated into the host genome at known hotspots, 8q24.21 and 1...
Source: Viruses - August 3, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Brian McEllin Brian C. Searle Lisa DePledge George Sun Charles Cobbs Mohsen Karimi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1537: Active Components of Commonly Prescribed Medicines Affect Influenza A Virus –Host Cell Interaction: A Pilot Study
Conclusion: Many commonly prescribed drugs were found to modulate FLUAV–host cell interactions in silico and in vitro and could therefore affect their interplay in vivo, thus contributing to the morbidity and mortality of patients with influenza virus infections. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - August 3, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Aleksandr Ianevski Rouan Yao Eva Zusinaite Hilde Lysvand Valentyn Oksenych Tanel Tenson Magnar Bj ørås Denis Kainov Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1538: Retrospective Enhanced Bat Lyssavirus Surveillance in Germany between 2018 –2020
Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1538: Retrospective Enhanced Bat Lyssavirus Surveillance in Germany between 2018–2020 Viruses doi: 10.3390/v13081538 Authors: Antonia Klein Sten Calvelage Kore Schlottau Bernd Hoffmann Elisa Eggerbauer Thomas Müller Conrad M. Freuling Lyssaviruses are the causative agents for rabies, a zoonotic and fatal disease. Bats are the ancestral reservoir host for lyssaviruses, and at least three different lyssaviruses have been found in bats from Germany. Across Europe, novel lyssaviruses were identified in bats recently and occasional spillover infections in other mammals and ...
Source: Viruses - August 3, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Antonia Klein Sten Calvelage Kore Schlottau Bernd Hoffmann Elisa Eggerbauer Thomas M üller Conrad M. Freuling Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1530: Consequence of Histoincompatibility beyond GvH-Reaction in Cytomegalovirus Disease Associated with AllogeneicHematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Change of Paradigm
rmann Hematopoietic cell (HC) transplantation (HCT) is the last resort to cure hematopoietic malignancies that are refractory to standard therapies. Hematoablative treatment aims at wiping out tumor cells as completely as possible to avoid leukemia/lymphoma relapse. This treatment inevitably co-depletes cells of hematopoietic cell lineages, including differentiated cells that constitute the immune system. HCT reconstitutes hematopoiesis and thus, eventually, also antiviral effector cells. In cases of an unrelated donor, that is, in allogeneic HCT, HLA-matching is performed to minimize the risk of graft-versus-host reac...
Source: Viruses - August 3, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Matthias J. Reddehase Rafaela Holtappels Niels A. W. Lemmermann Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1521: Cannabis and Inflammation in HIV: A Review of Human and Animal Studies
erson Persistent inflammation occurs in people with HIV (PWH) and has many downstream adverse effects including myocardial infarction, neurocognitive impairment and death. Because the proportion of people with HIV who use cannabis is high and cannabis may be anti-inflammatory, it is important to characterize the impact of cannabis use on inflammation specifically in PWH. We performed a selective, non-exhaustive review of the literature on the effects of cannabis on inflammation in PWH. Research in this area suggests that cannabinoids are anti-inflammatory in the setting of HIV. Anti-inflammatory actions are mediated in...
Source: Viruses - August 2, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ronald J. Ellis Natalie Wilson Scott Peterson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1523: Proline to Threonine Mutation at Position 162 of NS5B of Classical Swine Fever Virus Vaccine C Strain Promoted Genome Replication and Infectious Virus Production by Facilitating Initiation of RNA Synthesis
In this study, two chimeric viruses, vC/SM3′UTR and vC/b3′UTR, with 3′UTR substitution of CSFV Shimen strain or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) NADL strain, were constructed based on the infectious cDNA clone of CSFV vaccine C strain, respectively. After virus rescue, each recombinant chimeric virus was subjected to continuous passages in PK-15 cells. The representative passaged viruses were characterized and sequenced. Serial passages resulted in generation of mutations and the passaged viruses exhibited significantly increased genomic replication efficiency and infectious virus production compared to...
Source: Viruses - August 2, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Huining Pang Ling Li Hongru Liu Zishu Pan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1522: Human Papillomavirus Related Neoplasia of the Ocular Adnexa
ard Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a large group of DNA viruses that infect the basal cells of the stratified epithelium at different anatomic locations. In the ocular adnexal region, the mucosa of the conjunctiva and the lacrimal drainage system, as well as the eyelid skin, are potential locations for HPV-related neoplasia. The role of HPV in squamous cell neoplasia of the ocular adnexa has been debated for several decades. Due to the rarity of all these tumors, large studies are not available in the scientific literature, thereby hampering the precision of the HPV prevalence estimates and the ability to conclude. N...
Source: Viruses - August 2, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ingvild Ramberg Steffen Heegaard Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1524: Astrovirus in Reunion Free-Tailed Bat (Mormopterus francoismoutoui)
Camille Lebarbenchon Astroviruses (AstVs) are RNA viruses infecting a large diversity of avian and mammalian species, including bats, livestock, and humans. We investigated AstV infection in a free-tailed bat species, Mormopterus francoismoutoui, endemic to Reunion Island. A total of 380 guano samples were collected in a maternity colony during 38 different sampling sessions, from 21 June 2016 to 4 September 2018. Each sample was tested for the presence of the AstV RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) gene using a pan-AstV semi-nested polymerase chain reaction assay. In total, 27 guano samples (7.1%) tested positive, w...
Source: Viruses - August 2, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: L éa Joffrin Axel O. G. Hoarau Erwan Lagadec Marie K öster Riana V. Ramanantsalama Patrick Mavingui Camille Lebarbenchon Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1525: The Algerian Chapter of SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: An Evolutionary, Genetic, and Epidemiological Prospect
Fawzi Derrar Ferenc Jakab To explore the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Algeria, a dataset comprising ninety-five genomes originating from SARS-CoV-2 sampled from Algeria and other countries worldwide, from 24 December 2019, through 4 March 2021, was thoroughly examined. While performing a multi-component analysis regarding the Algerian outbreak, the toolkit of phylogenetic, phylogeographic, haplotype, and genomic analysis were effectively implemented. We estimated the Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) in reference to the Algerian pandemic and highlighted the multiple introductions of the disease and the missi...
Source: Viruses - August 2, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Safia Zeghbib Bal ázs A. Somogyi Brigitta Zana G ábor Kemenesi R óbert Herczeg Fawzi Derrar Ferenc Jakab Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1527: Detection and Molecular Characterization of Two Gammaherpesviruses from Pantesco Breed Donkeys During an Outbreak of Mild Respiratory Disease
This study reports the co-infection with two GHVs in Pantesco breed donkeys, an endangered Italian donkey breed. Samples (n = 124) were collected on a breeding farm in Southern Italy from 40 donkeys, some of which were healthy or presented erosive tongue lesions and/or mild respiratory signs. Samples were analysed by using a set of nested PCRs targeting the DNA polymerase, glycoprotein B, and DNA-packaging protein genes, and sequence and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Twenty-nine donkeys (72.5%) tested positive, and the presence of Equid gammaherpesvirus 7 and asinine herpesvirus 5 was evidenced. In 11 animals, we f...
Source: Viruses - August 2, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Francesco Mira Marta Canuti Santina Di Bella Roberto Puleio Antonio Lavazza Davide Lelli Domenico Vicari Giuseppa Purpari Vincenza Cannella Gabriele Chiaramonte Giorgia Schir ò Calogero Castronovo Annalisa Guercio Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1528: Lentiviral Vectors for T Cell Engineering: Clinical Applications, Bioprocessing and Future Perspectives
This article reviews the biological principles as well as the bioprocessing of lentiviral (LV) vectors and adoptive T cell therapy. Clinical and engineering successes, shortcomings and future opportunities are also discussed. The development of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant instruments, technologies and protocols will play an essential role in the development of LV-engineered T cell therapies. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - August 2, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Roman P. Labb é Sandrine Vessillier Qasim A. Rafiq Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1529: Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia
ristian von Buchwald Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck’s disease is a rare, benign, oral condition that is associated with infection by human papillomavirus type 13, 32 or both. The whiteish to mucosal-colored, soft, papular or nodular elevated lesions in the oral cavity are normally asymptomatic but can grow to a size or at a location where treatment is needed. The diagnosis is often based on clinical presentation and histopathology, and the HPV genotype can be determined using PCR utilizing specific primers or DNA sequencing. While FEH was reported to often affect several members of the same family and...
Source: Viruses - August 2, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Simone Kloch Bendtsen Kathrine Kronberg Jakobsen Amanda-Louise Fenger Carlander Christian Gr ønhøj Christian von Buchwald Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1526: Designing Lentiviral Vectors for Gene Therapy of Genetic Diseases
lio Lentiviral vectors are the most frequently used tool to stably transfer and express genes in the context of gene therapy for monogenic diseases. The vast majority of clinical applications involves an ex vivo modality whereby lentiviral vectors are used to transduce autologous somatic cells, obtained from patients and re-delivered to patients after transduction. Examples are hematopoietic stem cells used in gene therapy for hematological or neurometabolic diseases or T cells for immunotherapy of cancer. We review the design and use of lentiviral vectors in gene therapy of monogenic diseases, with a focus on controll...
Source: Viruses - August 2, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Valentina Poletti Fulvio Mavilio Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1519: Cytomegalovirus Serostatus and Functional Impairment in Liver Transplant Recipients in the Current Era
Conclusions: D+ or R+ liver transplant recipients had lower functional status and higher risk of deaths due to infections. Future studies are warranted to examine the mechanistic basis of these findings in the setting of transplantation. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - August 1, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Nina Singh Marilyn M. Wagener Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1520: A Pigeon-Derived Sub-Genotype XXI.1.2 Newcastle Disease Virus from Bangladesh Induces High Mortality in Chickens
This study reports the velogenic nature for domestic chickens of a pigeon-derived NDV isolate of sub-genotype XXI.1.2. Our findings show that not all pigeon-derived viruses are of low virulence for chickens and highlight the importance of biologically evaluating the pathogenicity of NDV isolated from pigeons. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - August 1, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Mohammed Nooruzzaman Lalita Rani Barman Tanjin Tamanna Mumu Emdadul Haque Chowdhury Kiril M. Dimitrov Mohammad Rafiqul Islam Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1511: The Interplay between Bluetongue Virus Infections and Adaptive Immunity
We present some unpublished data showing that BTV infection also affects other T cell populations such as CD4+ T-cells or γδ T-cells, as well as B-cell numbers in the periphery. This review also discusses how BTV evades these adaptive immune mechanisms so that it can be transmitted back to the arthropod host. Understanding the interaction of BTV with immunity could ultimately define the correlates of protection with immune mechanisms that would improve our knowledge of ruminant immunology. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - July 31, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Daniel Rodr íguez-Martín Andr és Louloudes-Lázaro Miguel Avia Ver ónica Martín Jos é M. Rojas Noem í Sevilla Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1512: Suppression of DC-SIGN and gH Reveals Complex, Subset-Specific Mechanisms for KSHV Entry in Primary B Lymphocytes
In this study, we assess the contributions of KSHV glycoprotein H (gH) and the cellular receptor DC-SIGN to KSHV infection in tonsil-derived B lymphocytes. Our results show that (1) neither KSHV-gH nor DC-SIGN are essential for entry into any B cell subset, (2) DC-SIGN does play a role in KSHV entry into tonsil-derived B cells, but in all B cell subtypes alternative entry mechanisms exist, (3) KSHV-gH can participate in KSHV entry into centrocytes via a DC-SIGN independent entry mechanism, and (4) in the absence of KSHV-gH, DC-SIGN is required for KSHV entry into centrocytes. Our results provide a first glimpse into the co...
Source: Viruses - July 31, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Nancy Palmerin Farizeh Aalam Romina Nabiee Murali Muniraju Javier Gordon Ogembo Jennifer Totonchy Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1513: Epidemiology and Seasonality of Endemic Human Coronaviruses in South African and Zambian Children: A Case-Control Pneumonia Study
Shabir A. Madhi Endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) are capable of causing a range of diseases from the common cold to pneumonia. We evaluated the epidemiology and seasonality of endemic HCoVs in children hospitalized with clinical pneumonia and among community controls living in countries with a high HIV burden, namely South Africa and Zambia, between August 2011 to October 2013. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected from all cases and controls and tested for endemic HCoV species and 12 other respiratory viruses using a multiplex real-time PCR assay. We found that the likelihood of detecting endemic HCoV sp...
Source: Viruses - July 31, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Vicky L. Baillie David P. Moore Azwifarwi Mathunjwa Daniel E. Park Donald M. Thea Geoffrey Kwenda Lawrence Mwananyanda Shabir A. Madhi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1515: Challenging the Existing Model of the Hexameric HIV-1 Gag Lattice and MA Shell Superstructure: Implications for Viral Entry
-Palacios Despite type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) being discovered in the early 1980s, significant knowledge gaps remain in our understanding of the superstructure of the HIV-1 matrix (MA) shell. Current viral assembly models assume that the MA shell originates via recruitment of group-specific antigen (Gag) polyproteins into a hexagonal lattice but fails to resolve and explain lattice overlapping that occurs when the membrane is folded into a spherical/ellipsoidal shape. It further fails to address how the shell recruits, interacts with and encompasses the viral spike envelope (Env) glycoproteins. These En...
Source: Viruses - July 31, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Joy Ramielle L. Santos Weijie Sun Tarana A. Mangukia Eduardo Reyes-Serratos Marcelo Marcet-Palacios Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1514: Characterization of a Lineage C.36 SARS-CoV-2 Isolate with Reduced Susceptibility to Neutralization Circulating in Lombardy, Italy
We report the isolation and molecular characterization of a SARS-CoV-2 strain, belonging to a lineage (C.36) not previously associated with concerning traits, which shows decreased susceptibility to vaccine sera neutralization. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - July 31, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Matteo Castelli Andreina Baj Elena Criscuolo Roberto Ferrarese Roberta A. Diotti Michela Sampaolo Federica Novazzi Daniela Dalla Gasperina Daniele Focosi Davide Ferrari Massimo Locatelli Massimo Clementi Nicola Clementi Fabrizio Maggi Nicasio Mancini Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1516: Challenges of Rabies Serology: Defining Context of Interpretation
e The case fatality rate of rabies, nearly 100%, is one of the most unique characteristic of this ancient virus infection. The crucial role rabies virus neutralizing antibody plays in protection is both well established and explanation of why rabies serology is important. Various laboratory methods can and have been used but serum neutralization methods have long been the gold standard due to the ability to measure function (neutralization), however these methods can be difficult to perform for several reasons. Assays such as enzyme linked absorbance assays (ELISA), indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) and more recentl...
Source: Viruses - July 31, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Susan M. Moore Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1517: Specific Recognition of a Stem-Loop RNA Structure by the Alphavirus Capsid Protein
elian Alphaviruses are small enveloped viruses with positive-sense RNA genomes. During infection, the alphavirus capsid protein (Cp) selectively packages and assembles with the viral genomic RNA to form the nucleocapsid core, a process critical to the production of infectious virus. Prior studies of the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) showed that packaging and assembly are promoted by Cp binding to multiple high affinity sites on the genomic RNA. Here, we developed an in vitro Cp binding assay based on fluorescently labeled RNA oligos. We used this assay to explore the RNA sequence and structure requirements for ...
Source: Viruses - July 31, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Rebecca S. Brown Lisa Kim Margaret Kielian Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1518: One-Year Outcomes after Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in Teenagers with and without Significant Liver Fibrosis —A Case Series Report
Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1518: One-Year Outcomes after Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in Teenagers with and without Significant Liver Fibrosis—A Case Series Report Viruses doi: 10.3390/v13081518 Authors: Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak Anna Dobrzeniecka Magdalena Marczyńska One-year outcomes after therapy with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) in children with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) presenting with and without significant liver fibrosis were analyzed. We included patients aged 12–17 years treated with LDV/SOF, presenting with significant fibrosis (F ≥ 2 on the METAVIR scale) in t...
Source: Viruses - July 31, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Maria Pokorska- Śpiewak Anna Dobrzeniecka Magdalena Marczy ńska Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1509: Common Themes in Zoonotic Spillover and Disease Emergence: Lessons Learned from Bat- and Rodent-Borne RNA Viruses
Colleen B. Jonsson Rodents (order Rodentia), followed by bats (order Chiroptera), comprise the largest percentage of living mammals on earth. Thus, it is not surprising that these two orders account for many of the reservoirs of the zoonotic RNA viruses discovered to date. The spillover of these viruses from wildlife to human do not typically result in pandemics but rather geographically confined outbreaks of human infection and disease. While limited geographically, these viruses cause thousands of cases of human disease each year. In this review, we focus on three questions regarding zoonotic viruses that originate ...
Source: Viruses - July 31, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Evan P. Williams Briana M. Spruill-Harrell Mariah K. Taylor Jasper Lee Ashley V. Nywening Zemin Yang Jacob H. Nichols Jeremy V. Camp Robert D. Owen Colleen B. Jonsson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1510: Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Cat with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
phy Diego G. Diel Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), has claimed millions of human lives worldwide since the emergence of the zoonotic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China in December 2019. Notably, most severe and fatal SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans have been associated with underlying clinical conditions, including diabetes, hypertension and heart diseases. Here, we describe a case of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in a domestic cat (Felis catus) that presented with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a chronic heart condition that has been described as a comorbidity of COVID-19 in hu...
Source: Viruses - July 31, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Francisco R. Carvallo Mathias Martins Lok R. Joshi Leonardo C. Caserta Patrick K. Mitchell Thomas Cecere Sandy Hancock Erin L. Goodrich Julia Murphy Diego G. Diel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1500: Clinically Important Phleboviruses and Their Detection in Human Samples
hes The detection of phleboviruses (family: Phenuiviridae) in human samples is challenged by the overall diversity and genetic complexity of clinically relevant strains, their predominantly nondescript clinical associations, and a related lack of awareness among some clinicians and laboratorians. Here, we seek to inform the detection of human phlebovirus infections by providing a brief introduction to clinically relevant phleboviruses, as well as key targets and approaches for their detection. Given the diversity of pathogens within the genus, this report focuses on diagnostic attributes that are generally shared among...
Source: Viruses - July 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Amy J. Lambert Holly R. Hughes Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1501: Resistance Evaluation of Dominant Varieties against Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus in Southern China
In this study, we evaluated the resistance of 10 dominant rice varieties from southern China, where the virus overwinters and accumulates as a source of early spring reinfection, against this virus by artificial inoculation. The results showed that in all tested varieties there was no immune resistance, but there were differences in the infection rate, with incidence rates from 21% to 90.7%, and in symptom severity, with plant weight loss from 66.71% to 91.20% and height loss from 34.1% to 65.06%. Additionally, and valuably, the virus titer and the insect vector virus acquisition potency from diseased plants were significa...
Source: Viruses - July 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Shunkang Zhou Yaling Zhao Zhenyi Liang Ruifeng Wu Biao Chen Tong Zhang Xin Yang Guohui Zhou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1502: BK Polyomavirus —Biology, Genomic Variation and Diagnosis
Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1502: BK Polyomavirus—Biology, Genomic Variation and Diagnosis Viruses doi: 10.3390/v13081502 Authors: Jacek Furmaga Marek Kowalczyk Tomasz Zapolski Olga Furmaga Leszek Krakowski Grzegorz Rudzki Andrzej Jaroszyński Andrzej Jakubczak The BK polyomavirus (BKPyV), a representative of the family Polyomaviridae, is widespread in the human population. While the virus does not cause significant clinical symptoms in immunocompetent individuals, it is activated in cases of immune deficiency, both pharmacological and pathological. Infection with the BKPyV is of particular importan...
Source: Viruses - July 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jacek Furmaga Marek Kowalczyk Tomasz Zapolski Olga Furmaga Leszek Krakowski Grzegorz Rudzki Andrzej Jaroszy ński Andrzej Jakubczak Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1503: Rapid and Robust Continuous Purification of High-Titer Hepatitis B Virus for In Vitro and In Vivo Applications
ike Protzer Available treatments for hepatitis B can control the virus but are rarely curative. This led to a global initiative to design new curative therapies for the 257 million patients affected. Discovery and development of these new therapies is contingent upon functional in vitro and in vivo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection models. However, low titer and impurity of conventional HBV stocks reduce significance of in vitro infections and moreover limit challenge doses in current in vivo models. Therefore, there is a critical need for a robust, simple and reproducible protocol to generate high-purity and high-tite...
Source: Viruses - July 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jochen M. Wettengel Bianca Linden Knud Esser Michael Laue Benjamin J. Burwitz Ulrike Protzer Tags: Protocol Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1504: Intravirion DNA Can Access the Space Occupied by the Bacteriophage P22 Ejection Proteins
In this report we show that when these proteins are missing from the virion, a longer than normal DNA molecule is encapsidated by the P22 headful DNA packaging machinery. Thus, the ejection proteins occupy positions within the virion that can be occupied by packaged DNA when they are absent. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - July 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Justin C. Leavitt Eddie B. Gilcrease Brianna M. Woodbury Carolyn M. Teschke Sherwood R. Casjens Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1505: Modified-Live Feline Calicivirus Vaccination Reduces Viral RNA Loads, Duration of RNAemia, and the Severity of Clinical Signs after Heterologous Feline Calicivirus Challenge
In conclusion, FCV vaccination was beneficial for protecting cats from severe clinical signs, reducing viral loads and inflammation after FCV challenge. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - July 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Andrea M. Spiri Barbara Riond Martina Stirn Marilisa Novacco Marina L. Meli Felicitas S. Boretti Imogen Herbert Margaret J. Hosie Regina Hofmann-Lehmann Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1506: Intravenous, Intratracheal, and Intranasal Inoculation of Swine with SARS-CoV-2
Diego G. Diel Since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the susceptibility of animals and their potential to act as reservoirs or intermediate hosts for the virus has been of significant interest. Pigs are susceptible to multiple coronaviruses and have been used as an animal model for other human infectious diseases. Research groups have experimentally challenged swine with human SARS-CoV-2 isolates with results suggesting limited to no viral replication. For this study, a SARS-CoV-2 isolate obtained from a tiger which is identical to human SARS-CoV-2 isolates detected in New ...
Source: Viruses - July 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Alexandra Buckley Shollie Falkenberg Mathias Martins Melissa Laverack Mitchell V. Palmer Kelly Lager Diego G. Diel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1507: Animal Coronavirus Diseases: Parallels with COVID-19 in Humans
Hsueh Ooi Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus in humans, has expanded globally over the past year. COVID-19 remains an important subject of intensive research owing to its huge impact on economic and public health globally. Based on historical archives, the first coronavirus-related disease recorded was possibly animal-related, a case of feline infectious peritonitis described as early as 1912. Despite over a century of documented coronaviruses in animals, the global animal industry still suffers from outbreaks. Knowledge ...
Source: Viruses - July 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Lin Chan Ooi Chiou Hoang Hsueh Ooi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1508: Chemiluminescence Immunoassay Based Serological Immunoassays for Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibodies in COVID-19 Convalescent Patients and Vaccinated Population
In this study, four rapid methods (ACE2-RBD inhibition assay, S1-IgG detection, RBD-IgG detection, and N-IgG detection) were established and evaluated based on chemiluminescence technology. For the first time, a broadly neutralizing antibody with high affinity was used as a standard for the quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralizing antibodies in human sera. Sera from COVID-19 convalescent patients (N = 119), vaccinated donors (N = 86), and healthy donors (N = 299) confirmed by microneutralization test (MNT) were used to evaluate the above methods. The result showed that the ACE2-RBD inhibition assay calcul...
Source: Viruses - July 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Qiangling Yin Yecheng Zhang Lijun Lian Yuanyuan Qu Wei Wu Zhen Chen Rongjuan Pei Tingyou Chen Lina Sun Chuan Li Aqian Li Jiandong Li Dexin Li Shiwen Wang Wuxiang Guan Mifang Liang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1492: Molecular Epidemiology and Characterization of Picobirnavirus in Wild Deer and Cattle from Australia: Evidence of Genogroup I and II in the Upper Respiratory Tract
We report here PBV detection in wild deer and cattle from southeastern Australia. Through metagenomics, the presence of PBV genogroups I (GI) and II (GII) were detected in deer serum and plasma. Molecular epidemiology studies targeting the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene were performed in a wide range of specimens (serum, faeces, spleen, lung, nasal swabs, and trachea) collected from wild deer and cattle, with PCR amplification obtained in all specimen types except lung and spleen. Our results reveal the predominance of GI and concomitant detection of both genogroups in wild deer and cattle. In concordance with o...
Source: Viruses - July 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jose L. Huaman Carlo Pacioni Subir Sarker Mark Doyle David M. Forsyth Anthony Pople Jordan O. Hampton Teresa G. Carvalho Karla J. Helbig Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1493: Nonhuman Adenoviral Vector-Based Platforms and Their Utility in Designing Next Generation of Vaccines for Infectious Diseases
Mittal Several human adenoviral (Ad) vectors have been developed for vaccine delivery owing to their numerous advantages, including the feasibility of different vector designs, the robustness of elicited immune responses, safety, and scalability. To expand the repertoire of Ad vectors for receptor usage and circumvention of Ad vector immunity, the use of less prevalent human Ad types or nonhuman Ads were explored for vector design. Notably, many nonhuman Ad vectors have shown great promise in preclinical and clinical studies as vectors for vaccine delivery. This review describes the key features of several nonhuman Ad...
Source: Viruses - July 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Marwa Alhashimi Ahmed Elkashif Ekramy E. Sayedahmed Suresh K. Mittal Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1494: Computational and Rational Design of Single-Chain Antibody against Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus for Modifying Its Specificity
In this study, a 2.2-fold increase in the affinity of single-chain antibody sc14D5 to D3 proteins of the Siberian and European subtypes of the virus was achieved using rational design and computational modeling. This improvement can be further enhanced in the case of the bivalent binding of the full-length chimeric antibody containing the identified mutation. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - July 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ivan K. Baykov Pavel Y. Desyukevich Ekaterina E. Mikhaylova Olga M. Kurchenko Nina V. Tikunova Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1495: Crystal Structure of a Retroviral Polyprotein: Prototype Foamy Virus Protease-Reverse Transcriptase (PR-RT)
hes Eddy Arnold In most cases, proteolytic processing of the retroviral Pol portion of the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor produces protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase (IN). However, foamy viruses (FVs) express Pol separately from Gag and, when Pol is processed, only the IN domain is released. Here, we report a 2.9 Å resolution crystal structure of the mature PR-RT from prototype FV (PFV) that can carry out both proteolytic processing and reverse transcription but is in a configuration not competent for proteolytic or polymerase activity. PFV PR-RT is monomeric and the architecture of PFV PR ...
Source: Viruses - July 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jerry Joe E. K. Harrison Steve Tuske Kalyan Das Francesc X. Ruiz Joseph D. Bauman Paul L. Boyer Jeffrey J. DeStefano Stephen H. Hughes Eddy Arnold Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1496: Emerging Viral Pathogens in Sturgeon Aquaculture in Poland: Focus on Herpesviruses and Mimivirus Detection
Reichert Recently, Poland has become a leading producer of sturgeon meat and caviar in Europe and is one of the largest in the world. The growing importance of this branch of aquaculture means that diseases of these fish, especially viral ones, are becoming the object of interest for ichthyopathologists. In recent years, there have been increasing reports of health problems in the dynamically developing sturgeon farming. The greatest risk appears to be emerging infectious diseases that are caused by viruses and that can become a serious threat to the development of the aquaculture industry and the success of sturgeon r...
Source: Viruses - July 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Magdalena Stachnik Marek Matras Ewa Borzym Joanna Maj-Paluch Micha ł Reichert Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1497: Diversity of Coronaviruses in Wild Representatives of the Aves Class in Poland
a The revealed prevalence of coronaviruses in wild bird populations in Poland was 4.15% and the main reservoirs were birds from orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, with a prevalence of 3.51% and 5.59%, respectively. Gammacoronaviruses were detected more often than deltacoronaviruses, with detection rates of 3.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Gammacoronaviruses were detected in birds belonging to six orders, including Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Columbiformes, Galliformes, Gruiformes, and Passeriformes, indicating a relatively wide host range. Interestingly, this was the only coronavirus detected in Anseriformes (3.5...
Source: Viruses - July 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Katarzyna Doma ńska-Blicharz Justyna Mi łek-Krupa Anna Piku ła Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1498: Intranasal Administration of a Monoclonal Neutralizing Antibody Protects Mice against SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Cai Fei Han David Young Guangwei Yang Marek Widera Manuel Koch Anke Werner Lennart Kämper Nico Becker Michael S. Marlow Markus Eickmann Sandra Ciesek Felix Schiele Florian Klein Stephan Becker Despite the recent availability of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there is an urgent need for specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. Monoclonal neutralizing antibodies are an important drug class in the global fight against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic due to their ability to convey immediate protection and their potential to be used as both prophylactic a...
Source: Viruses - July 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Sandro Halwe Alexandra Kupke Kanika Vanshylla Falk Liberta Henning Gruell Matthias Zehner Cornelius Rohde Verena Kr ähling Michelle Gellhorn Serra Christoph Kreer Michael Kl üver Lucie Sauerhering J örg Schmidt Zheng Cai Fei Han David Young Guangwei Ya Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1499: Exosome-Based Vaccines: Pros and Cons in the World of Animal Health
Portillo Due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and new and more complex diseases that affect livestock animal health and food security, the control of epidemics has become a top priority worldwide. Vaccination represents the most important and cost-effective measure to control infectious diseases in animal health, but it represents only 23% of the total global animal health market, highlighting the need to develop new vaccines. A recent strategy in animal health vaccination is the use of extracellular vesicles (EVs), lipid bilayer nanovesicles produced by almost all living cells, including both prokaryotes and ...
Source: Viruses - July 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Montaner-Tarbes Fraile Montoya Del Portillo Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1485: Retraction: Messina et al. Rationale and Criteria for a COVID-19 Model Framework. Viruses 2021, 13, 1309
e The journal retracts the 6 July 2021 article [1] [...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - July 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Viruses Editorial Office Viruses Editorial Office Tags: Retraction Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1486: Compartmentalization of Resistance-Associated Substitutions in HIV/HCV-Infected Patients: Possible Correlation with Infecting HCV Genotype
na Bagaglio Resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) may exist prior to treatment and contribute to the failure of treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). As the major site of HCV replication, naturally occurring variants with RASs may segregate into the liver. In the present study, we performed viral population sequencing to retrospectively investigate the NS3 and NS5A RAS profiles in 34 HIV/HCV coinfected patients naïve to anti-HCV treatment who underwent diagnostic liver biopsy between 2000 and 2006 and had liver and plasma samples available. Sixteen were infected by HCV genotype (GT) 1a, 11 by GT3a, ...
Source: Viruses - July 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Giulia Morsica Riccardo Vercesi Hamid Hasson Emanuela Messina Caterina Uberti-Foppa Sabrina Bagaglio Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1487: Localization of SARS-CoV-2 Capping Enzymes Revealed by an Antibody against the nsp10 Subunit
oura Martin Klima Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease-19 pandemic. One of the key components of the coronavirus replication complex are the RNA methyltransferases (MTases), RNA-modifying enzymes crucial for RNA cap formation. Recently, the structure of the 2’-O MTase has become available; however, its biological characterization within the infected cells remains largely elusive. Here, we report a novel monoclonal antibody directed against the SARS-CoV-2 non-structural protein nsp10, a subunit of both the 2’-O RNA and N7 MTase prote...
Source: Viruses - July 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Vladimira Horova Barbora Landova Jan Hodek Karel Chalupsky Petra Krafcikova Dominika Chalupska Vojtech Duchoslav Jan Weber Evzen Boura Martin Klima Tags: Article Source Type: research