Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 123: Update on the Transmission of Zika Virus Through Breast Milk and Breastfeeding: A Systematic Review of the Evidence
Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas Saurabh Mehta We systematically searched regional and international databases and screened 1658 non-duplicate records describing women with suspected or confirmed ZIKV infection, intending to breastfeed or give breast milk to an infant to examine the potential of mother-to-child transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) through breast milk or breastfeeding-related practices. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria and inform this analysis. These studies reported on 97 mother–children pairs who provided breast milk for ZIKV assessment. Seventeen breast milk samples from different...
Source: Viruses - January 18, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Elizabeth Centeno-Tablante Melisa Medina-Rivera Julia L. Finkelstein Heather S. Herman Pura Rayco-Solon Maria Nieves Garcia-Casal Lisa Rogers Kate Ghezzi-Kopel Mildred P. Zambrano Leal Joyce K. Andrade Velasquez Juan G. Chang Asinc Juan Pablo Pe ña-Rosas Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 125: HIV Capsid and Integration Targeting
n Integration of retroviral reverse transcripts into the chromosomes of the cells that they infect is required for efficient viral gene expression and the inheritance of viral genomes to daughter cells. Before integration can occur, retroviral reverse transcription complexes (RTCs) must access the nuclear environment where the chromosomes reside. Retroviral integration is non-random, with different types of virus-host interactions impacting where in the host chromatin integration takes place. Lentiviruses such as HIV efficiently infect interphase cells because their RTCs have evolved to usurp cellular nuclear import tr...
Source: Viruses - January 18, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Alan N. Engelman Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 126: Formation and Function of Liquid-Like Viral Factories in Negative-Sense Single-Stranded RNA Virus Infections
okai Ma Liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) represents a major physiochemical principle to organize intracellular membrane-less structures. Studies with non-segmented negative-sense (NNS) RNA viruses have uncovered a key role of LLPS in the formation of viral inclusion bodies (IBs), sites of viral protein concentration in the cytoplasm of infected cells. These studies further reveal the structural and functional complexity of viral IB factories and provide a foundation for their future research. Herein, we review the literature leading to the discovery of LLPS-driven formation of IBs in NNS RNA virus-in...
Source: Viruses - January 18, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Justin M. Su Maxwell Z. Wilson Charles E. Samuel Dzwokai Ma Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 127: Gaps in Serologic Immunity against Contemporary Swine-Origin Influenza A Viruses among Healthy Individuals in the United States
rew S. Bowman Influenza A Viruses (IAV) in domestic swine (IAV-S) are associated with sporadic zoonotic transmission at the human–animal interface. Previous pandemic IAVs originated from animals, which emphasizes the importance of characterizing human immunity against the increasingly diverse IAV-S. We analyzed serum samples from healthy human donors (n = 153) using hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) assay to assess existing serologic protection against a panel of contemporary IAV-S isolated from swine in the United States (n = 11). Age-specific seroprotection rates (SPR), which are the proportion of indiv...
Source: Viruses - January 18, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Joshua N. Lorbach Theresa Fitzgerald Carolyn Nolan Jacqueline M. Nolting John J. Treanor David J. Topham Andrew S. Bowman Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 129: Effect of Small Polyanions on In Vitro Assembly of Selected Members of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaretroviruses
ute;š Ruml Michaela Rumlová The assembly of a hexameric lattice of retroviral immature particles requires the involvement of cell factors such as proteins and small molecules. A small, negatively charged polyanionic molecule, myo-inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), was identified to stimulate the assembly of immature particles of HIV-1 and other lentiviruses. Interestingly, cryo-electron tomography analysis of the immature particles of two lentiviruses, HIV-1 and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), revealed that the IP6 binding site is similar. Based on this amino acid conservation of the IP6 interacting s...
Source: Viruses - January 18, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Al žběta Dostálková Barbora Vokat á Filip Kaufman Pavel Ulbrich Tom áš Ruml Michaela Rumlov á Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 128: Antiviral Screen against Canine Distemper Virus-Induced Membrane Fusion Activity
hilippe Plattet Canine distemper virus (CDV), a close relative of the human pathogen measles virus (MeV), is an enveloped, negative sense RNA virus that belongs to the genus Morbillivirus and causes severe diseases in dogs and other carnivores. Although the vaccination is available as a preventive measure against the disease, the occasional vaccination failure highlights the importance of therapeutic alternatives such as antivirals against CDV. The morbilliviral cell entry system relies on two interacting envelope glycoproteins: the attachment (H) and fusion (F) proteins. Here, to potentially discover novel entry inhib...
Source: Viruses - January 18, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Neeta Shrestha Flavio M. Gall Jonathan Vesin Marc Chambon Gerardo Turcatti Dimitrios Fotiadis Rainer Riedl Philippe Plattet Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 118: Cellular Receptors Involved in KSHV Infection
häfer The process of Kaposi’s Sarcoma Herpes Virus’ (KSHV) entry into target cells is complex and engages several viral glycoproteins which bind to a large range of host cell surface molecules. Receptors for KSHV include heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs), several integrins and Eph receptors, cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) and Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN). This diverse range of potential binding and entry sites allows KSHV to have a broad cell tropism, and entry into specific cells is dependent on the available recepto...
Source: Viruses - January 17, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Emma van der Meulen Meg Anderton Melissa J. Blumenthal Georgia Sch äfer Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 119: Respiratory Syncytial Virus G protein Sequence Variability among Isolates from St. Petersburg, Russia, during the 2013 –2014 Epidemic Season
Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 119: Respiratory Syncytial Virus G protein Sequence Variability among Isolates from St. Petersburg, Russia, during the 2013–2014 Epidemic Season Viruses doi: 10.3390/v13010119 Authors: Vera Krivitskaya Kseniya Komissarova Maria Pisareva Maria Sverlova Artem Fadeev Ekaterina Petrova Veronika Timonina Anna Sominina Daria Danilenko Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. It is actively evolving under environmental and herd immunity influences. This work presents, for the...
Source: Viruses - January 17, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Vera Krivitskaya Kseniya Komissarova Maria Pisareva Maria Sverlova Artem Fadeev Ekaterina Petrova Veronika Timonina Anna Sominina Daria Danilenko Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 120: Environmental Surveillance through Next-Generation Sequencing to Unveil the Diversity of Human Enteroviruses beyond the Reported Clinical Cases
This study provides an updated insight about EVs circulating in an important region of South America, and suggests a valuable role of wastewater-based epidemiology in predicting outbreaks before the onset of cases in the community. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 17, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Andr és Lizasoain Daiana Mir Gisella Masachessi Adri án Farías N élida Rodríguez-Osorio Mat ías Victoria Silvia Nates Rodney Colina Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 124: The Battle between Retroviruses and APOBEC3 Genes: Its Past and Present
ei Sato The APOBEC3 family of proteins in mammals consists of cellular cytosine deaminases and well-known restriction factors against retroviruses, including lentiviruses. APOBEC3 genes are highly amplified and diversified in mammals, suggesting that their evolution and diversification have been driven by conflicts with ancient viruses. At present, lentiviruses, including HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, are known to encode a viral protein called Vif to overcome the antiviral effects of the APOBEC3 proteins of their hosts. Recent studies have revealed that the acquisition of an anti-APOBEC3 ability by lentiviruses is ...
Source: Viruses - January 17, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Keiya Uriu Yusuke Kosugi Jumpei Ito Kei Sato Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 121: Quinacrine, an Antimalarial Drug with Strong Activity Inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 Viral Replication In Vitro
Armando Gamboa Domínguez Julio Sotelo Benjamín Pineda Quinacrine (Qx), a molecule used as an antimalarial, has shown anticancer, antiprion, and antiviral activity. The most relevant antiviral activities of Qx are related to its ability to raise pH in acidic organelles, diminishing viral enzymatic activity for viral cell entry, and its ability to bind to viral DNA and RNA. Moreover, Qx has been used as an immunomodulator in cutaneous lupus erythematosus and various rheumatological diseases, by inhibiting phospholipase A2 modulating the Th1/Th2 response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pote...
Source: Viruses - January 17, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: M ónica Salas Rojas Ra úl Silva Garcia Estela Bini Ver ónica Pérez de la Cruz Juan Carlos Le ón Contreras Rogelio Hern ández Pando Fernando Bastida Gonzalez Eduardo Davila-Gonzalez Mario Orozco Morales Armando Gamboa Dom ínguez Julio Sotelo Benjam Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 122: Chimeric Porcine Deltacoronaviruses with Sparrow Coronavirus Spike Protein or the Receptor-Binding Domain Infect Pigs but Lose Virulence and Intestinal Tropism
iuhong Wang Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) strain OH-FD22 infects poultry and shares high nucleotide identity with sparrow-origin deltacoronaviruses (SpDCoV) ISU73347 and HKU17 strains. We hypothesized that the spike (S) protein or receptor-binding domain (RBD) from these SpDCoVs would alter the host and tissue tropism of PDCoV. First, an infectious cDNA clone of PDCoV OH-FD22 strain (icPDCoV) was generated and used to construct chimeric icPDCoVs harboring the S protein of HKU17 (icPDCoV-SHKU17) or the RBD of ISU73347 (icPDCoV-RBDISU). To evaluate their pathogenesis, neonatal gnotobiotic pigs were inoculated orally/o...
Source: Viruses - January 17, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Xiaoyu Niu Yixuan J. Hou Kwonil Jung Fanzhi Kong Linda J. Saif Qiuhong Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 116: Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of the Origin and Transmission Dynamics of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE Sub-Epidemic in Bulgaria
kov Yancheva Switzer HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE is the second most predominant strain in Bulgaria, yet little is known about the molecular epidemiology of its origin and transmissibility. We used a phylodynamics approach to better understand this sub-epidemic by analyzing 270 HIV-1 polymerase (pol) sequences collected from persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS between 1995 and 2019. Using network analyses at a 1.5% genetic distance threshold (d), we found a large 154-member outbreak cluster composed mostly of persons who inject drugs (PWID) that were predominantly men. At d = 0.5%, which was used to identify more recent tr...
Source: Viruses - January 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Alexiev Campbell Knyazev Pan Grigorova Dimitrova Partsuneva Gancheva Kostadinova Seguin-Devaux Elenkov Yancheva Switzer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 117: MicroRNAs for Virus Pathogenicity and Host Responses, Identified in SARS-CoV-2 Genomes, May Play Roles in Viral-Host Co-Evolution in Putative Zoonotic Host Species
-Onganer Our recent study identified seven key microRNAs (miR-8066, 5197, 3611, 3934-3p, 1307-3p, 3691-3p, 1468-5p) similar between SARS-CoV-2 and the human genome, pointing at miR-related mechanisms in viral entry and the regulatory effects on host immunity. To identify the putative roles of these miRs in zoonosis, we assessed their conservation, compared with humans, in some key wild and domestic animal carriers of zoonotic viruses, including bat, pangolin, pig, cow, rat, and chicken. Out of the seven miRs under study, miR-3611 was the most strongly conserved across all species; miR-5197 was the most conserved in pan...
Source: Viruses - January 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Lange Arisan Grant Uysal-Onganer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 115: The Pivotal Role of Viruses in the Pathogeny of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Monoclonal (Type 1) IgG K Cryoglobulinemia and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Diagnosis in the Course of a Human Metapneumovirus Infection
Conclusions: We report the unique observation in the literature of CLL transformation and hMPV infection. We provide a mini review on the pivotal role of viruses in CLL pathophysiology. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: J érémy Barben Alain Putot Anca-Maria Mihai J érémie Vovelle Patrick Manckoudia Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 114: Studies on the Efficacy, Potential Cardiotoxicity and Monkey Pharmacokinetics of GLP-26 as a Potent Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Assembly Modulator
Raymond F. Schinazi While treatment options are available for hepatitis B virus (HBV), there is currently no cure. Anti-HBV nucleoside analogs and interferon-alpha 2b rarely clear HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), requiring lifelong treatment. Recently, we identified GLP-26, a glyoxamide derivative which modulates HBV capsid assembly. The impact of GLP-26 on viral replication and integrated DNA was assessed in an HBV nude mouse model bearing HBV transfected AD38 xenografts. At day 45 post-infection, GLP-26 reduced HBV titers by 2.3–3 log10 versus infected placebo-treated mice. Combination the...
Source: Viruses - January 15, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Selwyn J. Hurwitz Noreen McBrearty Alla Arzumanyan Eugene Bichenkov Sijia Tao Leda Bassit Zhe Chen James J. Kohler Franck Amblard Mark A. Feitelson Raymond F. Schinazi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 113: Intranasal Infection of Ferrets with SARS-CoV-2 as a Model for Asymptomatic Human Infection
yan Yper Hall Hugh Simmons Alejandro Núñez Miles W. Carroll Ian H. Brown Sharon M. Brookes Ferrets were experimentally inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronavirus 2) to assess infection dynamics and host response. During the resulting subclinical infection, viral RNA was monitored between 2 and 21 days post-inoculation (dpi), and reached a peak in the upper respiratory cavity between 4 and 6 dpi. Viral genomic sequence analysis in samples from three animals identified the Y453F nucleotide substitution relative to the inoculum. Viral RNA was also det...
Source: Viruses - January 15, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Helen E. Everett Fabian Z.X. Lean Alexander M.P. Byrne Pauline M. van Diemen Shelley Rhodes Joe James Benjamin Mollett Vivien J. Coward Paul Skinner Caroline J. Warren Kevin R. Bewley Samantha Watson Shellene Hurley Kathryn A. Ryan Yper Hall Hugh Simmons Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 110: Virulence during Newcastle Disease Viruses Cross Species Adaptation
o The hypothesis that host adaptation in virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) has been accompanied by virulence modulation is reviewed here. Historical records, experimental data, and phylogenetic analyses from available GenBank sequences suggest that currently circulating NDVs emerged in the 1920–1940′s from low virulence viruses by mutation at the fusion protein cleavage site. These viruses later gave rise to multiple virulent genotypes by modulating virulence in opposite directions. Phylogenetic and pathotyping studies demonstrate that older virulent NDVs further evolved into chicken-...
Source: Viruses - January 15, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Claudio L. Afonso Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 111: Structure-Based Modeling of Complement C4 Mediated Neutralization of Adenovirus
art Adenovirus (AdV) infection elicits a strong immune response with the production of neutralizing antibodies and opsonization by complement and coagulation factors. One anti-hexon neutralizing antibody, called 9C12, is known to activate the complement cascade, resulting in the deposition of complement component C4b on the capsid, and the neutralization of the virus. The mechanism of AdV neutralization by C4b is independent of downstream complement proteins and involves the blockage of the release of protein VI, which is required for viral escape from the endosome. To investigate the structural basis underlying how C4...
Source: Viruses - January 15, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Corey C. Emerson Phoebe L. Stewart Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 112: Obstetric Outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Asymptomatic Pregnant Women
rez Perez Judit Canet Rodriguez Ana Villalba Yarza Olga Nieto Velasco Pablo del Barrio Fernandez Carmen Orizales Lago Beatriz Marcos Puig Begoña Muñoz Abellana Laura Fuentes Ricoy Agueda Rodriguez Vicente Maria Janeiro Freire Macarena Alferez Alvarez-Mallo Cristina Casanova Pedraz Onofre Alomar Mateu Cristina Lesmes Heredia Juan Wizner de Alva Alma Posadas San Juan Montserrat Macia Badia Cristina Alvarez Colomo Antonio Sanchez Muñoz Laia Pratcorona Alicart Ruben Alonso Saiz Monica Lopez Rodriguez Maria Barbancho Lopez Marta Meca Casbas Oscar Vaquerizo R...
Source: Viruses - January 15, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Monica Cruz-Lemini Elena Ferriols Perez Maria de la Cruz Conty Africa Ca ño Aguilar Maria Encinas Pardilla Pilar Prats Rodr íguez Marta Muner Hernando Laura Forcen Acebal Pilar Pintado Recarte Maria Medina Mallen Noelia Perez Perez Judit Canet Rodriguez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 108: Antiviral Compounds for Blocking Arboviral Transmission in Mosquitoes
los Mosquito-borne arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as the dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are important human pathogens that are responsible for significant global morbidity and mortality. The recent emergence and re-emergence of mosquito-borne viral diseases (MBVDs) highlight the urgent need for safe and effective vaccines, therapeutics, and vector-control approaches to prevent MBVD outbreaks. In nature, arboviruses circulate between vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors; therefore, disrupting the virus lifecycle in mosquitoes is a major approach for combating MBVDs. S...
Source: Viruses - January 14, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Shengzhang Dong George Dimopoulos Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 109: Domains and Functions of Spike Protein in Sars-Cov-2 in the Context of Vaccine Design
a The spike protein in SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-2-S) interacts with the human ACE2 receptor to gain entry into a cell to initiate infection. Both Pfizer/BioNTech’s BNT162b2 and Moderna’s mRNA-1273 vaccine candidates are based on stabilized mRNA encoding prefusion SARS-2-S that can be produced after the mRNA is delivered into the human cell and translated. SARS-2-S is cleaved into S1 and S2 subunits, with S1 serving the function of receptor-binding and S2 serving the function of membrane fusion. Here, I dissect in detail the various domains of SARS-2-S and their functions discovered through a variety...
Source: Viruses - January 14, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Xuhua Xia Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 107: The Full Region of N-Terminal in Polymerase of IBDV Plays an Important Role in Viral Replication and Pathogenicity: Either Partial Region or Single Amino Acid V4I Substitution Does Not Completely Lead to the Virus Attenuation to Three-Yellow Chickens
This study demonstrated that the full region of the N-terminal of polymerase plays an important role in viral replication and pathogenicity, but the substitutions of its partial region or a single residual do not completely lead to the virus attenuation to Three-Yellow chickens, although that significantly reduces its pathogenicity. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 14, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Weiwei Wang Yu Huang Zhonghua Ji Guo Chen Yan Zhang Yuanzheng Qiao Mengya Shi Min Li Teng Huang Tianchao Wei Meilan Mo Xiumiao He Ping Wei Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 101: Completion of the AAV Structural Atlas: Serotype Capsid Structures Reveals Clade-Specific Features
This study reports the remaining capsid structures of AAV7, AAV11, AAV12, and AAV13 determined by cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction to 2.96, 2.86, 2.54, and 2.76 Å resolution, respectively. These structures complete the structural atlas of the AAV serotype capsids. AAV7 represents the first clade D capsid structure; AAV11 and AAV12 are of a currently unassigned clade that would include AAV4; and AAV13 represents the first AAV2-AAV3 hybrid clade C capsid structure. These newly determined capsid structures all exhibit the AAV capsid features including 5-fold channels, 3-fold pr...
Source: Viruses - January 13, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Mario Mietzsch Ariana Jose Paul Chipman Nilakshee Bhattacharya Nadia Daneshparvar Robert McKenna Mavis Agbandje-McKenna Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 102: An Advanced Protocol for the Quantification of Marine Sediment Viruses via Flow Cytometry
ald Pan Viruses are highly abundant, diverse, and active components of marine environments. Flow cytometry has helped to increase the understanding of their impact on shaping microbial communities and biogeochemical cycles in the pelagic zone. However, to date, flow cytometric quantification of sediment viruses is still hindered by interference from the sediment matrix. Here, we developed a protocol for the enumeration of marine sediment viruses by flow cytometry based on separation of viruses from sediment particles using a Nycodenz density gradient. Results indicated that there was sufficient removal of background in...
Source: Viruses - January 13, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Mara Elena Heinrichs Daniele De Corte Bert Engelen Donald Pan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 104: Enteric Viruses and Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Gaël Belliot Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), is a multifactorial disease in which dietary, genetic, immunological, and microbial factors are at play. The role of enteric viruses in IBD remains only partially explored. To date, epidemiological studies have not fully described the role of enteric viruses in inflammatory flare-ups, especially that of human noroviruses and rotaviruses, which are the main causative agents of viral gastroenteritis. Genome-wide association studies have demonstrated the association between IBD, polymorphisms of t...
Source: Viruses - January 13, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Georges Tarris Alexis de Rougemont Ma ëva Charkaoui Christophe Michiels Laurent Martin Ga ël Belliot Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 103: Surveillance and Genetic Characterization of Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Subgenotype V.3 in Indigenous Chickens from Backyard Poultry Farms and Live Bird Markets in Kenya
This study reveals the widespread prevalence of vNDVs in Kenyan backyard poultry, the central role of LBMs in the dispersal and possibly generation of new virus variants, and the need for robust molecular epidemiological surveillance in poultry and non-poultry avian species. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 13, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Henry M. Kariithi Helena L. Ferreira Catharine N. Welch Leonard O. Ateya Auleria A. Apopo Richard Zoller Jeremy D. Volkening Dawn Williams-Coplin Darren J. Parris Tim L. Olivier Dana Goldenberg Yatinder S. Binepal Sonia M. Hernandez Claudio L. Afonso Davi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 105: The Unique, the Known, and the Unknown of Spumaretrovirus Assembly
Löchelt Within the family of Retroviridae, foamy viruses (FVs) are unique and unconventional with respect to many aspects in their molecular biology, including assembly and release of enveloped viral particles. Both components of the minimal assembly and release machinery, Gag and Env, display significant differences in their molecular structures and functions compared to the other retroviruses. This led to the placement of FVs into a separate subfamily, the Spumaretrovirinae. Here, we describe the molecular differences in FV Gag and Env, as well as Pol, which is translated as a separate protein and not in an ort...
Source: Viruses - January 13, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Dirk Lindemann Sylvia H ütter Guochao Wei Martin L öchelt Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 106: Systematic Search for SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Inhibitors for Drug Repurposing: Ethacrynic Acid as a Potential Drug
In this study we present systematic and integrative antiviral drug repurposing effort aimed at identifying, among the drugs already authorized for clinical use, some active inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. The most important result of this analysis is the demonstration that ethacrynic acid, a powerful diuretic, is revealed to be an effective inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 main protease. Even with all the necessary cautions, given the particular nature of this drug, these data can be the starting point for the development of an effective therapeutic strategy against SARS-CoV-2. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 13, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Camilla Isgr ò Anna Maria Sardanelli Luigi Leonardo Palese Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 99: Canine Distemper Outbreaks in Wild Carnivores in Northern Italy
This study investigated the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV) infections in wild carnivores in Lombardy, relating to the different circulating genotypes. From 2018 to 2020, foxes, badgers, and martens collected during passive surveillance were subjected to necropsy and histological examination, showing classical signs and microscopic lesions related to CDV. Pools of viscera from each animal were analysed by molecular methods and immunoelectron microscopy. Total prevalences of 39.7%, 52.6%, and 14.3% were recorded in foxes, badgers, and stone martens, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequences ob...
Source: Viruses - January 13, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Tiziana Trogu Sabrina Canziani Sara Salvato Alessandro Bianchi Irene Bertoletti Lucia Rita Gibelli Giovanni Loris Alborali Ilaria Barbieri Alessandra Gaffuri Giovanni Sala Enrica Sozzi Davide Lelli Antonio Lavazza Ana Moreno Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 100: Molecular Epidemiology of Enterovirus in Children with Central Nervous System Infections
nasios Michos Limited recent molecular epidemiology data are available for pediatric Central Nervous System (CNS) infections in Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of enterovirus (EV) involved in CNS infections in children. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from children (0–16 years) with suspected meningitis–encephalitis (ME) who were hospitalized in the largest pediatric hospital of Greece from October 2017 to September 2020 was initially tested for 14 common pathogens using the multiplex PCR FilmArray® ME Panel (FA-ME). CSF samples positive for ...
Source: Viruses - January 13, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Lamprini Posnakoglou Elizabeth-Barbara Tatsi Panagiota Chatzichristou Tania Siahanidou Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein Vasiliki Syriopoulou Athanasios Michos Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 98: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Viruses in 2020
e Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Viruses maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Viruses Editorial Office Viruses Editorial Office Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 98: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Viruses in 2020
e Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Viruses maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers[...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Viruses Editorial Office Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 93: Identification of a New HIV-1 BC Intersubtype Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF108_BC) in Spain
ia De la Peña Sofía Ibarra Gustavo Cilla José Antonio Iribarren Ana Martínez-Sapiña Michael M. Thomson The extraordinary genetic variability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M has led to the identification of 10 subtypes, 102 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and numerous unique recombinant forms. Among CRFs, 11 derived from subtypes B and C have been identified in China, Brazil, and Italy. Here we identify a new HIV-1 CRF_BC in Northern Spain. Originally, a phylogenetic cluster of 15 viruses of subtype C in protease-reverse transcriptase was identifie...
Source: Viruses - January 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Javier E. Ca ñada Elena Delgado Horacio Gil M ónica Sánchez Sonia Benito Elena Garc ía-Bodas Carmen G ómez-González Andr és Canut-Blasco Joseba Portu-Zapirain Ester S áez de Adana Mireia De la Pe ña Sof ía Ibarra Gustavo Cilla Jos é Antonio Iri Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 94: Recognize Yourself —Innate Sensing of Non-LTR Retrotransposons
We describe the role of known pattern recognition receptors in nucleic acid sensing of LINE-1 and Alu and the possible consequences for autoimmune diseases. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Justine Lagisquet Kilian Zuber Thomas Gramberg Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 95: Whole-Genome Analyses Identifies Multiple Reassortant Rotavirus Strains in Rwanda Post-Vaccine Introduction
utesa Martin M. Nyaga Children in low-and middle-income countries, including Rwanda, experience a greater burden of rotavirus disease relative to developed countries. Evolutionary mechanisms leading to multiple reassortant rotavirus strains have been documented over time which influence the diversity and evolutionary dynamics of novel rotaviruses. Comprehensive rotavirus whole-genome analysis was conducted on 158 rotavirus group A (RVA) samples collected pre- and post-vaccine introduction in children less than five years in Rwanda. Of these RVA positive samples, five strains with the genotype constellations G4P[4]-I1...
Source: Viruses - January 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Sebotsana Rasebotsa Jeannine Uwimana Milton T. Mogotsi Kebareng Rakau Nonkululeko B. Magagula Mapaseka L. Seheri Jason M. Mwenda M. Jeffrey Mphahlele Saheed Sabiu Richard Mihigo Leon Mutesa Martin M. Nyaga Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 96: Activation of an Effective Immune Response after Yellow Fever Vaccination Is Associated with the Genetic Background and Early Response of IFN- γ and CLEC5A
Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 96: Activation of an Effective Immune Response after Yellow Fever Vaccination Is Associated with the Genetic Background and Early Response of IFN-γ and CLEC5A Viruses doi: 10.3390/v13010096 Authors: Tamiris Azamor Andréa Marques Vieira da Silva Juliana Gil Melgaço Ana Paula dos Santos Caroline Xavier-Carvalho Lucia Elena Alvarado-Arnez Leonardo Ribeiro Batista-Silva Denise Cristina de Souza Matos Camilla Bayma Sotiris Missailidis Ana Paula Dinis Ano Bom Milton Ozorio Moraes Patrícia Cristina da Costa Neves The yellow fever vaccine (YF17DD) i...
Source: Viruses - January 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Tamiris Azamor Andr éa Marques Vieira da Silva Juliana Gil Melga ço Ana Paula dos Santos Caroline Xavier-Carvalho Lucia Elena Alvarado-Arnez Leonardo Ribeiro Batista-Silva Denise Cristina de Souza Matos Camilla Bayma Sotiris Missailidis Ana Paula Dinis Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 97: In Vitro Infection with Hepatitis B Virus Using Differentiated Human Serum Culture of Huh7.5-NTCP Cells without Requiring Dimethyl Sulfoxide
We report here a hepatoma cell culture system that does not require dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for HBV infection. We overexpressed NTCP in Huh7.5 cells and allowed these cells to differentiate in a medium supplemented with human serum (HS) instead of fetal bovine serum (FBS). We show that human serum culture enhanced HBV infection in Huh7.5-NTCP cells, e.g., in HS cultures, HBV pgRNA levels were increased by as much as 200-fold in comparison with FBS cultures and 19-fold in comparison with FBS+DMSO cultures. Human serum culture increased levels of hepatocyte differentiation markers, such as albumin secretion, in Huh7.5-NTCP...
Source: Viruses - January 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Connie Le Reshma Sirajee Rineke Steenbergen Michael A. Joyce William R. Addison D. Lorne Tyrrell Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 92: Analysis of the Immune Responses in the Ileum of Gnotobiotic Pigs Infected with the Recombinant GII.p12_GII.3 Human Norovirus by mRNA Sequencing
In this study, we investigated the host immune response and possible mechanisms involved in virus evasion in the ileum of gnotobiotic pigs infected with HuNoV by RNA-Seq. HuNoV was detected in the feces, blood, and tissues of the jejunum, ileum, colon, mesenteric lymph node, and spleen of pigs infected with HuNoV. In analysis of mRNA sequencing, expression of anti-viral protein genes such as OAS1, MX1, and MX2 were largely decreased, whereas type I IFN was increased in pigs infected with HuNoV. In addition, expression of TNF and associated anti-inflammatory cytokine genes such as IL10 was increased in HuNoV-infected pigs. ...
Source: Viruses - January 11, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Byung-Joo Park Hee-Seop Ahn Sang-Hoon Han Hyeon-Jeong Go Dong-Hwi Kim Changsun Choi Soontag Jung Jinjong Myoung Joong-Bok Lee Seung-Yong Park Chang-Seon Song Sang-Won Lee Hoon-Taek Lee In-Soo Choi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 88: Seroprevalence of Toscana Virus and Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus in European Bat Colonies Measured Using a Neutralization Test
rdi Serra-Cobo Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV) and Sicilian phlebovirus (SFSV) are endemic in the Mediterranean area where they are transmitted to humans by infected sandflies. Vertebrates of several species have been postulated to act as reservoirs of these viruses, but convincing evidence is still awaited. Among them, bats have been suggested, however documented evidence is lacking. Here we tested a total of 329 bats belonging to eight species collected from twelve localities in southern Spain for the presence of neutralizing antibodies specific to TOSV and SFSV. Positive sera were detected in Schreiber’s lo...
Source: Viruses - January 11, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Nazli Ayhan Marc L ópez-Roig Abir Monastiri Remi N. Charrel Jordi Serra-Cobo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 89: Characterization of Yersinia pestis Phage Lytic Activity in Human Whole Blood for the Selection of Efficient Therapeutic Phages
inberger-Levy The global increase in multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria has led to growing interest in bacteriophage (“phage”) therapy. Therapeutic phages are usually selected based on their ability to infect and lyse target bacteria, using in vitro assays. In these assays, phage infection is determined using target bacteria grown in standard commercial rich media, while evaluation of the actual therapeutic activity requires the presence of human blood. In the present work, we characterized the ability of two different Yersinia pestis lytic phages (ϕA1122 and PST) to infect and k...
Source: Viruses - January 11, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Sarit Moses Yaron Vagima Avital Tidhar Moshe Aftalion Emanuelle Mamroud Shahar Rotem Ida Steinberger-Levy Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 90: The Fatty Acid Lipid Metabolism Nexus in COVID-19
eri Enteric symptomology seen in early-stage severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-2003 and COVID-19 is evidence of virus replication occurring in the intestine, liver and pancreas. Aberrant lipid metabolism in morbidly obese individuals adversely affects the COVID-19 immune response and increases disease severity. Such observations are in line with the importance of lipid metabolism in COVID-19, and point to the gut as a site for intervention as well as a therapeutic target in treating the disease. Formation of complex lipid membranes and palmitoylation of coronavirus proteins are essential during viral replication...
Source: Viruses - January 11, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jerome E. Tanner Caroline Alfieri Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 91: Zika Virus Infection Leads to Demyelination and Axonal Injury in Mature CNS Cultures
n C. Barnett Alain Kohl Understanding how Zika virus (Flaviviridae; ZIKV) affects neural cells is paramount in comprehending pathologies associated with infection. Whilst the effects of ZIKV in neural development are well documented, impact on the adult nervous system remains obscure. Here, we investigated the effects of ZIKV infection in established mature myelinated central nervous system (CNS) cultures. Infection incurred damage to myelinated fibers, with ZIKV-positive cells appearing when myelin damage was first detected as well as axonal pathology, suggesting the latter was a consequence of oligodendroglia infec...
Source: Viruses - January 11, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Verena Schultz Stephanie L. Cumberworth Quan Gu Natasha Johnson Claire L. Donald George A. McCanney Jennifer A. Barrie Ana Da Silva Filipe Christopher Linington Hugh J. Willison Julia M. Edgar Susan C. Barnett Alain Kohl Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 87: Chlorovirus PBCV-1 Multidomain Protein A111/114R Has Three Glycosyltransferase Functions Involved in the Synthesis of Atypical N-Glycans
tro Etten The structures of the four N-linked glycans from the prototype chlorovirus PBCV-1 major capsid protein do not resemble any other glycans in the three domains of life. All known chloroviruses and antigenic variants (or mutants) share a unique conserved central glycan core consisting of five sugars, except for antigenic mutant virus P1L6, which has four of the five sugars. A combination of genetic and structural analyses indicates that the protein coded by PBCV-1 gene a111/114r, conserved in all chloroviruses, is a glycosyltransferase with three putative domains of approximately 300 amino acids each. Here, i...
Source: Viruses - January 10, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Noel Notaro Speciale Duncan Castro Etten Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 83: HCMV-Mediated Interference of Bortezomib-Induced Apoptosis in Colon Carcinoma Cell Line Caco-2
cher Elke Bogner Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been implicated in the development of human malignancies, for instance in colon cancer. Proteasome inhibitors were developed for cancer therapy and have also been shown to influence HCMV infection. The aim of this study was to investigate if proteasome inhibitors have therapeutic potential for colon carcinoma and how this is influenced by HCMV infection. We show by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry that the colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 is susceptible to HCMV infection. Growth curve analysis as well as protein expression kinetics and quantitative genome analysi...
Source: Viruses - January 9, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Heike H ärtel Janine Thei ß Mohammed O. Abdelaziz Martin J. Raftery Gabriele Pecher Elke Bogner Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 84: Overexpression of the Bacteriophage T4 motB Gene Alters H-NS Dependent Repression of Specific Host DNA
h M. Hinton The bacteriophage T4 early gene product MotB binds tightly but nonspecifically to DNA, copurifies with the host Nucleoid Associated Protein (NAP) H-NS in the presence of DNA and improves T4 fitness. However, the T4 transcriptome is not significantly affected by a motB knockdown. Here we have investigated the phylogeny of MotB and its predicted domains, how MotB and H-NS together interact with DNA, and how heterologous overexpression of motB impacts host gene expression. We find that motB is highly conserved among Tevenvirinae. Although the MotB sequence has no homology to proteins of known function, predict...
Source: Viruses - January 9, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jennifer Patterson-West Chin-Hsien Tai Bokyung Son Meng-Lun Hsieh James R. Iben Deborah M. Hinton Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 85: Mixed Effects of Habitat Degradation and Resources on Hantaviruses in Sympatric Wild Rodent Reservoirs within a Neotropical Forest
Colleen B. Jonsson Understanding the ecology of rodent-borne hantaviruses is critical to assessing the risk of spillover to humans. Longitudinal surveys have suggested that hantaviral prevalence in a given host population is tightly linked to rodent ecology and correlates with changes in the species composition of a rodent community over time and/or habitat composition. We tested two hypotheses to identify whether resource addition and/or habitat composition may affect hantavirus prevalence among two sympatric reservoir hosts in a neotropical forest: (i) increased food resources will alter the rodent community and th...
Source: Viruses - January 9, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jeremy V. Camp Briana Spruill-Harrell Robert D. Owen Carles Sol à-Riera Evan P. Williams Gillian Eastwood Aubrey M. Sawyer Colleen B. Jonsson Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 86: Ginkgolic Acid Inhibits Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Skin Infection and Prevents Zosteriform Spread in Mice
en Borenstein Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes a lifelong latent infection with an estimated global prevalence of 66%. Primary and recurrent HSV infections are characterized by a tingling sensation, followed by an eruption of vesicles, which can cause painful erosions. Commonly used antiviral drugs against HSV infection are nucleoside analogues including acyclovir (ACV), famciclovir, and valacyclovir. Although these nucleoside analogues reduce morbidity and mortality in immunocompetent individuals, ACV-resistant HSV strains (ACVR-HSV) have been isolated from immunocompromised patients. Thus, ACVR-HSV infectio...
Source: Viruses - January 9, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Maimoona S. Bhutta Oren Shechter Elisa S. Gallo Stephen D. Martin Esther Jones Gustavo F. Doncel Ronen Borenstein Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 82: Transcriptomic Analysis of Respiratory Tissue and Cell Line Models to Examine Glycosylation Machinery during SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Joshi Glycosylation, being the most abundant post-translational modification, plays a profound role affecting expression, localization and function of proteins and macromolecules in immune response to infection. Presented are the findings of a transcriptomic analysis performed using high-throughput functional genomics data from public repository to examine the altered transcription of the human glycosylation machinery in response to SARS-CoV-2 stimulus and infection. In addition to the conventional in silico functional enrichment analysis methods we also present results from the manual analysis of biomedical literature...
Source: Viruses - January 8, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Anup Oommen Stephen Cunningham Lokesh Joshi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 76: Jumping Ahead with Sleeping Beauty: Mechanistic Insights into Cut-and-Paste Transposition
;n Ivics Sleeping Beauty (SB) is a transposon system that has been widely used as a genetic engineering tool. Central to the development of any transposon as a research tool is the ability to integrate a foreign piece of DNA into the cellular genome. Driven by the need for efficient transposon-based gene vector systems, extensive studies have largely elucidated the molecular actors and actions taking place during SB transposition. Close transposon relatives and other recombination enzymes, including retroviral integrases, have served as useful models to infer functional information relevant to SB. Recently obtained str...
Source: Viruses - January 8, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Matthias T. Ochmann Zolt án Ivics Tags: Review Source Type: research