Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 390: Distinct Requirements for HIV-1 Accessory Proteins during Cell Coculture and Cell-Free Infection
In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the mode of transmission may determine the degree of accessory protein requirements during HIV-1 infection. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 26, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Anastasia Zotova Anastasia Atemasova Alexey Pichugin Alexander Filatov Dmitriy Mazurov Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 384: Lower Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Female Versus Male HIV-1 Infected Injecting Drug Users
Marit J. VAN GILS Understanding the factors involved in the development of broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses in natural infection can guide vaccine design aimed at eliciting protective bNAb responses. Most of the studies to identify and study the development of bNAb responses have been performed in individuals who had become infected via homo- or heterosexual HIV-1 transmission; however, the prevalence and characteristics of bNAb responses in injecting drug users (IDUs) have been underrepresented. We retrospectively studied the prevalence of bNAb responses in HIV-1 infected individuals in the Amsterdam Coh...
Source: Viruses - April 25, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Zelda EULER Tom L. VAN DEN KERKHOF Roger D. KOUYOS Damien C. TULLY Todd M. ALLEN Alexandra TRKOLA Rogier W. SANDERS Hanneke SCHUITEMAKER Marit J. VAN GILS Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 385: Screening of an FDA-Approved Drug Library with a Two-Tier System Identifies an Entry Inhibitor of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus
Dong-Yan Jin Kwok-Yung Yuen Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne bunyavirus that causes severe disease in humans with case-fatality rates of up to 30%. There are currently very limited treatment options for SFTSV infection. We conducted a drug repurposing program by establishing a two-tier test system to rapidly screen a Food and Drug Administration- (FDA)-approved drug library for drug compounds with anti-SFTSV activity in vitro. We identified five drug compounds that inhibited SFTSV replication at low micromolar concentrations, including hexachlorophene, triclosan, r...
Source: Viruses - April 25, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Shuofeng Yuan Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan Zi-Wei Ye Lei Wen Terance Gi-Wai Tsang Jianli Cao Jingjing Huang Chris Chun-Yiu Chan Kenn Ka-Heng Chik Garnet Kwan-Yue Choi Jian-Piao Cai Feifei Yin Hin Chu Mifang Liang Dong-Yan Jin Kwok-Yung Yuen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 386: Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Activates Unfolded Protein Response in Forming Ground Glass Hepatocytes of Chronic Hepatitis B
g T. Jake Liang Ground glass hepatocytes (GGHs), a histological hallmark of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, contain excessive hepatitis surface antigen (HBsAg) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is linked to unfolded protein response (UPR). The mechanism by which HBV activates UPR has not been fully defined. To investigate this, HepG2-NTCP cells and primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) were either infected with HBV or transduced with adenoviral vectors expressing replication-competent HBV genome or individual HBV genes. UPR markers were evaluated by qPCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence. Apoptos...
Source: Viruses - April 25, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Yao Li Yuchen Xia Xiaoming Cheng David E. Kleiner Stephen M. Hewitt Julia Sproch Tong Li Hui Zhuang T. Jake Liang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 387: Susceptibility of Exopalaemon carinicauda to the Infection with Shrimp Hemocyte Iridescent Virus (SHIV 20141215), a Strain of Decapod Iridescent Virus 1 (DIV1)
This study also indicated that E. carinicauda showed some degree of tolerance to the infection with DIV1 per os challenge mimicking natural pathway. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 25, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Xing Chen Liang Qiu Hailiang Wang Peizhuo Zou Xuan Dong Fuhua Li Jie Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 388: Prevalence and Diversity Analysis of Candidate Prophages to Provide An Understanding on Their Roles in Bacillus Thuringiensis
In this study, the candidate endogenous prophages (prophages) in 61 Bt chromosomes that had been deposited in GenBank database were analyzed. The results revealed that all chromosomes contained prophage regions, and 398 candidate prophage regions were predicted, including 135 putative complete prophages and 263 incomplete prophage regions. These putative complete prophages showed highly diverse genetic backgrounds. The inducibility of the prophages of ten Bt strains (4AJ1, 4BD1, HD-1, HD-29, HD-73, HD-521, BMB171, 4CC1, CT-43, and HD-1011) was tested, and the results showed that seven of the ten strains’ prop...
Source: Viruses - April 25, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Yajuan Fu Yan Wu Yihui Yuan Meiying Gao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 389: Porcine Parvovirus Infection Causes Pig Placenta Tissue Damage Involving Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1)-Induced Intrinsic ROS/Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis
This study provides a molecular basis for elucidating PPV-induced cell apoptosis and reproductive failure. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 25, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Zhang Fan Li Liang Huo Wang Zuo Cui Li Zhong Zhong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 383: Dual Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Delayed Antiviral Response of Haliotis diversicolor supertexta against Haliotid Herpesvirus-1
sani Wang Haliotid herpesvirus-1 (HaHV-1) is the first identified gastropod herpesvirus, causing a highly lethal neurologic disease of abalone species. The genome of HaHV-1 has been sequenced, but the functions of the putative genes and their roles during infection are still poorly understood. In the present study, transcriptomic profiles of Haliotis diversicolor supertexta at 0, 24 and 60 h post injection (hpi) with HaHV-1 were characterized through high-throughput RNA sequencing. A total of 448 M raw reads were obtained and assembled into 2.08 × 105 unigenes with a mean length of 1486 bp and an N50 ...
Source: Viruses - April 24, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Bai Zhang Li Xin Rosani Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 382: Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) ORF3 Interactome Reveals Inhibition of Virus Replication by Cellular VPS36 Protein
In this study, we employed immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to screen for cellular interacting partners of ORF3. Gene ontology analysis of the host interactome highlighted the involvement of ORF3 in endosomal and immune signaling pathways. Among the identified ORF3-interacting proteins, the vacuolar protein-sorting-associated protein 36 (VPS36) was assessed for its role in PEDV replication. VPS36 was found to interact with ORF3 regardless of its GLUE domain. As a result of VPS36–ORF3 interaction, PEDV replication was substantially suppressed in cells overexpressing VPS36. Interestingly, the ORF3 prot...
Source: Viruses - April 24, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Challika Kaewborisuth Yodying Yingchutrakul Sittiruk Roytrakul Anan Jongkaewwattana Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 376: Culicoides Biting Midges —Underestimated Vectors for Arboviruses of Public Health and Veterinary Importance
Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 376: Culicoides Biting Midges—Underestimated Vectors for Arboviruses of Public Health and Veterinary Importance Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11040376 Authors: Franziska Sick Martin Beer Helge Kampen Kerstin Wernike Culicoides biting midges, small hematophagous dipterans, are the demonstrated or putative vectors of multiple arboviruses of veterinary and public health importance. Despite its relevance in disease spread, the ceratopogonid genus Culicoides is still a largely neglected group of species, predominantly because the major human-affecting arboviruses are considered to be transmit...
Source: Viruses - April 24, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Franziska Sick Martin Beer Helge Kampen Kerstin Wernike Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 377: Determining the Replication Kinetics and Cellular Tropism of Influenza D Virus on Primary Well-Differentiated Human Airway Epithelial Cells
Ronald Dijkman Influenza viruses are notorious pathogens that frequently cross the species barrier with often severe consequences for both animal and human health. In 2011, a novel member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, Influenza D virus (IDV), was identified in the respiratory tract of swine. Epidemiological surveys revealed that IDV is distributed worldwide among livestock and that IDV-directed antibodies are detected in humans with occupational exposure to livestock. To identify the transmission capability of IDV to humans, we determined the viral replication kinetics and cell tropism using an in vitro respiratory...
Source: Viruses - April 24, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Melle Holwerda Jenna Kelly Laura Laloli Isabel St ürmer Jasmine Portmann Hanspeter Stalder Ronald Dijkman Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 378: Hepatitis C Virus-Induced FUT8 Causes 5-FU Drug Resistance in Human Hepatoma Huh7.5.1 Cells
Xiao-Lian Zhang Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of human chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Our recent studies showed that α1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8), a key glycosyltransferase, was the most up-regulated glycosyltransferase after the HCV infection of human hepatocellular carcinoma Huh7.5.1 cells. Here, we further studied the effects and possible mechanism of FUT8 on the proliferation of HCV and chemotherapy-resistance of HCV-infected Huh7.5.1 cells. The effects of FUT8 on the proliferation and drug resistance of HCV-infected Huh7.5.1 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry anal...
Source: Viruses - April 24, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Shu Li Xiao-Yu Liu Qiu Pan Jian Wu Zhi-Hao Liu Yong Wang Min Liu Xiao-Lian Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 379: Characterization of a New Member of Alphacoronavirus with Unique Genomic Features in Rhinolophus Bats
In this study, we described a new member of alphaCoV (BtCoV/Rh/YN2012) in bats with unique genome features. Unique accessory genes, ORF4a and ORF4b were found between the spike gene and the envelope gene, while ORF8 gene was found downstream of the nucleocapsid gene. All the putative genes were further confirmed by reverse-transcription analyses. One unique gene at the 3’ end of the BtCoV/Rh/YN2012 genome, ORF9, exhibits ~30% amino acid identity to ORF7a of the SARS-related coronavirus. Functional analysis showed ORF4a protein can activate IFN-β production, whereas ORF3a can regulate NF-&...
Source: Viruses - April 24, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Ning Wang Chuming Luo Haizhou Liu Xinglou Yang Ben Hu Wei Zhang Bei Li Yan Zhu Guangjian Zhu Xurui Shen Cheng Peng Zhengli Shi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 380: Characterization of EIAV env Quasispecies during Long-Term Passage In Vitro: Gradual Loss of Pathogenicity
Xiaojun Wang As the only widely used live lentiviral vaccine, the equine infectious anima virus (EIAV) attenuated vaccine was developed by in vitro passaging of a virulent strain for 121 generations. In our previous study, we observed that the attenuated vaccine was gradually selected under increased environmental pressure at the population level (termed a quasispecies). To further elucidate the potential correlation between viral quasispecies evolution and pathogenesis, a systematic study was performed by sequencing env using several methods. Some key mutations were identified within Env, and we observed that increas...
Source: Viruses - April 24, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Cong Liu Xue-Feng Wang Yan Wang Jie Chen Zhaohua Zhong Yuezhi Lin Xiaojun Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 381: Lack of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Transmission in Rabbits
In this study, we used rabbits to further characterize the transmission potential of MERS-CoV. In line with the presence of MERS-CoV receptor in the rabbit nasal epithelium, high levels of viral RNA were shed from the nose following virus inoculation. However, unlike MERS-CoV-infected dromedaries, these rabbits did not develop clinical manifestations including nasal discharge and did shed only limited amounts of infectious virus from the nose. Consistently, no transmission by contact or airborne routes was observed in rabbits. Our data indicate that despite relatively high viral RNA levels produced, low levels of infectiou...
Source: Viruses - April 24, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: W. Widagdo Nisreen M. A. Okba Mathilde Richard Dennis de Meulder Theo M. Bestebroer Pascal Lexmond Elmoubasher A. B. A. Farag Mohammed Al-Hajri Koert J. Stittelaar Leon de Waal Geert van Amerongen Judith M. A. van den Brand Bart L. Haagmans Sander Herfst Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 374: A Bioinformatics View of Glycan –Virus Interactions
Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 374: A Bioinformatics View of Glycan–Virus Interactions Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11040374 Authors: Le Mercier Mariethoz Lascano-Maillard Bonnardel Imberty Ricard-Blum Lisacek Evidence of the mediation of glycan molecules in the interaction between viruses and their hosts is accumulating and is now partially reflected in several online databases. Bioinformatics provides convenient and efficient means of searching, visualizing, comparing, and sometimes predicting, interactions in numerous and diverse molecular biology applications related to the -omics fields. As viromics...
Source: Viruses - April 23, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Le Mercier Mariethoz Lascano-Maillard Bonnardel Imberty Ricard-Blum Lisacek Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 375: Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies against Variable Epitopes of the M Protein of Rabies Virus
In this study, five monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), designated 3B9, 4A1, 2B11, 2C1, and 4B11, against the RABV M protein were generated using a recombinant M protein. All five mAbs reacted with the CVS-11 strain but showed no reactivity against the HEP-Flury strain in indirect immunofluorescence and western blotting. The epitope targeted by these mAbs was further identified by peptide scanning using GST-fused peptides. The 25PPYDDD30 peptide was defined as the minimal linear epitope. Alignment of amino acid sequences and phylogenetic analysis of different RABV strains indicated that the variable epitope 25PPDGDD30 is only pr...
Source: Viruses - April 23, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Liu Zhao He Wang Su Ji Chen Wang Zhou Su Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 370: A Functional Ubiquitin-Proteasome System is Required for Efficient Replication of New World Mayaro and Una Alphaviruses
In this study, we analyzed the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in MAYV and UNAV replication. Vero-E6 or HeLa cells were treated with the proteasome inhibitors MG132 or Lactacystin, and viral progeny production was quantified using a plaque assay method. In addition, the synthesis of viral proteins was analyzed by Western blot and confocal microscopy. Our results indicate that treatment with proteasome inhibitors decreases MAYV and UNAV protein synthesis, and also causes a significant dose-dependent decrease in MAYV and UNAV replication. Proteasome activity seems to be important at the early stages of MAYV rep...
Source: Viruses - April 23, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Yessica Y. Llamas-Gonz ález Dalkiria Campos Juan M. Pascale Juan Arbiza Jos é González-Santamaría Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 371: EHDV-2 Infection Prevalence Varies in Culicoides sonorensis after Feeding on Infected White-Tailed Deer over the Course of Viremia
Vey Mark G. Ruder Epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDVs) are arboviral pathogens of white-tailed deer and other wild and domestic ruminants in North America. Transmitted by various species of Culicoides, EHDVs circulate wherever competent vectors and susceptible ruminant host populations co-exist. The impact of variation in the level and duration of EHDV viremia in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Culicoides infection prevalence is not well characterized. Here we examined how infection prevalence in a confirmed North American vector of EHDV-2 (Culicoides sonorensis) varies in response to fluctuati...
Source: Viruses - April 23, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Sandra Y. Mendiola Mary K. Mills Elin Maki Barbara S. Drolet William C. Wilson Roy Berghaus David E. Stallknecht Jonathan Breitenbach D. Scott McVey Mark G. Ruder Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 372: Identification of RUVBL1 and RUVBL2 as Novel Cellular Interactors of the Ebola Virus Nucleoprotein
Patrick Reid Ebola virus (EBOV) is a filovirus that has become a global public health threat in recent years. EBOV is the causative agent of a severe, often fatal hemorrhagic fever. A productive viral infection relies on the successful recruitment of host factors for various stages of the viral life cycle. To date, several investigations have discovered specific host-pathogen interactions for various EBOV proteins. However, relatively little is known about the EBOV nucleoprotein (NP) with regard to host interactions. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate NP-host protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Affinity puri...
Source: Viruses - April 23, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: M. Jane Morwitzer Sarah R. Tritsch Lisa H. Cazares Michael D. Ward Jonathan E. Nuss Sina Bavari St Patrick Reid Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 373: Inflammatory and Humoral Immune Response during Ebola Virus Infection in Survivor and Fatal Cases Occurred in Sierra Leone during the 2014 –2016 Outbreak in West Africa
Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 373: Inflammatory and Humoral Immune Response during Ebola Virus Infection in Survivor and Fatal Cases Occurred in Sierra Leone during the 2014–2016 Outbreak in West Africa Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11040373 Authors: Francesca Colavita Mirella Biava Concetta Castilletti Simone Lanini Rossella Miccio Gina Portella Francesco Vairo Giuseppe Ippolito Maria Rosaria Capobianchi Antonino Di Caro Eleonora Lalle Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is characterized by an excessive inflammatory response, a loss of lymphocytes and a general paralysis of the immune system, however pathophy...
Source: Viruses - April 23, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Francesca Colavita Mirella Biava Concetta Castilletti Simone Lanini Rossella Miccio Gina Portella Francesco Vairo Giuseppe Ippolito Maria Rosaria Capobianchi Antonino Di Caro Eleonora Lalle Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 367: Vector Competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) for Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype 2 Strains from Canada and Florida
In this study, we examined the rates of infection, dissemination, and transmission of two strains of EHDV-2 orally fed to the known vector, Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones. Culicoides sonorensis cohorts were fed an infectious blood meal containing EHDV-2 strains from either Alberta, Canada (Can-Alberta) or Florida (5.5 log10 PFUe/mL) and tested for the vector’s susceptibility to infection and dissemination. In addition, transmission rates of the virus were assessed and compared using capillary tube and honey card methods. Our results show that the Florida strain had higher infection and dissem...
Source: Viruses - April 22, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Bethany L. McGregor Dinesh Erram Carolina Acevedo Barry W. Alto Nathan D. Burkett-Cadena Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 368: Nitric Oxide as a Downstream Signaling Molecule in Brassinosteroid-Mediated Virus Susceptibility to Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus in Maize
Zhou Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) infection causes growth abnormalities in maize. Transcriptome sequencing was conducted to compare the global gene expression of MCMV-inoculated plants with that of mock-inoculated plants. Data analyses showed that brassinosteroid (BR)-associated genes were upregulated after MCMV infection. Exogenous 2,4-epibrassinolide (BL) or brassinazole (BRZ) applications indicated that BR pathway was involved in the susceptibility to MCMV infection. In addition, treatment of BL on maize induced the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO), and the changes of NO content played positive roles in the...
Source: Viruses - April 22, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Ning Cao Binhui Zhan Xueping Zhou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 369: Manipulation of Epithelial Differentiation by HPV Oncoproteins
e Papillomaviruses replicate and cause disease in stratified squamous epithelia. Epithelial differentiation is essential for the progression of papillomavirus replication, but differentiation is also impaired by papillomavirus-encoded proteins. The papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncoproteins partially inhibit and/or delay epithelial differentiation and some of the mechanisms by which they do so are beginning to be defined. This review will outline the key features of the relationship between HPV infection and differentiation and will summarize the data indicating that papillomaviruses alter epithelial differentiation. It wil...
Source: Viruses - April 22, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Elizabeth A. White Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 365: Activity of Selected Nucleoside Analogue ProTides against Zika Virus in Human Neural Stem Cells
Jair L. Siqueira-Neto Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging flavivirus that causes neurodevelopmental impairment to fetuses and has been linked to Guillain-Barré syndrome continues to threaten global health due to the absence of targeted prophylaxis or treatment. Nucleoside analogues are good examples of efficient anti-viral inhibitors, and prodrug strategies using phosphate masking groups (ProTides) have been employed to improve the bioavailability of ribonucleoside analogues. Here, we synthesized and tested a small library of 13 ProTides against ZIKV in human neural stem cells. Strong activity was observed ...
Source: Viruses - April 20, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Jean A. Bernatchez Michael Coste Sungjun Beck Grace A. Wells Lucas A. Luna Alex E. Clark Zhe Zhu David Hecht Jeremy N. Rich Christal D. Sohl Byron W. Purse Jair L. Siqueira-Neto Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 366: Evaluation of Phage Therapy in the Context of Enterococcus faecalis and Its Associated Diseases
Ross Hill Bacteriophages (phages) or bacterial viruses have been proposed as natural antimicrobial agents to fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with human infections. Enterococcus faecalis is a gut commensal, which is occasionally found in the mouth and vaginal tract, and does not usually cause clinical problems. However, it can spread to other areas of the body and cause life-threatening infections, such as septicemia, endocarditis, or meningitis, in immunocompromised hosts. Although E. faecalis phage cocktails are not commercially available within the EU or USA, there is an accumulated eviden...
Source: Viruses - April 20, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Bolocan Upadrasta Bettio Clooney Draper Ross Hill Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 362: Twenty-Five Years of Structural Parvovirology
dje-McKenna Parvoviruses, infecting vertebrates and invertebrates, are a family of single-stranded DNA viruses with small, non-enveloped capsids with T = 1 icosahedral symmetry. A quarter of a century after the first parvovirus capsid structure was published, approximately 100 additional structures have been analyzed. This first structure was that of Canine Parvovirus, and it initiated the practice of structure-to-function correlation for the family. Despite high diversity in the capsid viral protein (VP) sequence, the structural topologies of all parvoviral capsids are conserved. However, surface loops inserted betwee...
Source: Viruses - April 20, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Mietzsch P énzes Agbandje-McKenna Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 364: Periplasmic Nanobody-APEX2 Fusions Enable Facile Visualization of Ebola, Marburg, and M ĕnglà virus Nucleoproteins, Alluding to Similar Antigenic Landscapes among Marburgvirus and Dianlovirus
Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 364: Periplasmic Nanobody-APEX2 Fusions Enable Facile Visualization of Ebola, Marburg, and Mĕnglà virus Nucleoproteins, Alluding to Similar Antigenic Landscapes among Marburgvirus and Dianlovirus Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11040364 Authors: Laura J. Sherwood Andrew Hayhurst We explore evolved soybean ascorbate peroxidase (APEX2) as a reporter when fused to the C-termini of llama nanobodies (single-domain antibodies, sdAb; variable domains of heavy chain-only antibodies, VHH) targeted to the E. coli periplasm. Periplasmic expression preserves authentic antibody N-termini, intra-domain di...
Source: Viruses - April 20, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Laura J. Sherwood Andrew Hayhurst Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 363: Identification of a Novel Gammaherpesvirus in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)
le Ryan M. Troyer Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) infect many animal species and are associated with lymphoproliferative disorders in some. Previously, we identified several novel GHVs in North American felids; however, a GHV had never been identified in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis). We, therefore, hypothesized the existence of an unidentified GHV in lynx. Using degenerate nested and subsequently virus-specific PCR, we amplified and sequenced 3.4 kb of DNA from a novel GHV in lynx, which we named Lynx canadensis gammaherpesvirus 1 (LcaGHV1). Phylogenetic analysis determined that LcaGHV1 is a distinct GHV species belonging...
Source: Viruses - April 20, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Liam D. Hendrikse Ankita Kambli Caroline Kayko Marta Canuti Bruce Rodrigues Brian Stevens Jennifer Vashon Andrew S. Lang David B. Needle Ryan M. Troyer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 359: Feline Foamy Virus is Highly Prevalent in Free-Ranging Puma concolor from Colorado, Florida and Southern California
In this study, we screened sera from 348 individual pumas from Colorado, Southern California and Florida for FFV exposure by assessing sero-reactivity using an FFV anti-Gag ELISA. We documented a sero-prevalence of 78.6% across all sampled subpopulations, representing 69.1% in Southern California, 77.3% in Colorado, and 83.5% in Florida. Age was a significant risk factor for FFV infection when analyzing the combined populations. This high prevalence in geographically distinct populations reveals widespread exposure of puma to FFV and suggests efficient shedding and transmission in wild populations. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 19, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Sarah R. Kechejian Nick Dannemiller Simona Kraberger Carmen Ledesma-Feliciano Jennifer Malmberg Melody Roelke Parker Mark Cunningham Roy McBride Seth P. D. Riley Winston T. Vickers Ken Logan Mat Alldredge Kevin Crooks Martin L öchelt Scott Carver Sue Van Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 360: First Evidence of Antibodies Against Lloviu Virus in Schreiber ’s Bent-Winged Insectivorous Bats Demonstrate a Wide Circulation of the Virus in Spain
We examined the seroprevalence of LLOV in potentially exposed Schreiber’s Bent-winged bats (n = 60), common serotine bats (n = 10) as controls, and humans (n = 22) using an immunoblot assay. We found antibodies against LLOV GP2 in all of Schreiber’s Bent-winged bats serum pools, but not in any of the common serotine bats and human pools tested. To confirm this seroreactivity, 52 serums were individually tested using Domain Programmable Arrays (DPA), a phage display based-system serology technique for profiling filovirus epitopes. A serological signature against different LLOV proteins was obtain...
Source: Viruses - April 19, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Eva Ram írez de Arellano Mariano Sanchez-Lockhart Maria J. Perteguer Maggie Bartlett Marta Ortiz Pamela Campioli Ana Hern ández Jeanette Gonzalez Karla Garcia Manolo Ramos Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Clavero Antonio Tenorio M ª Paz Sánchez-Seco F élix Gon Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 361: Mycoviruses: Past, Present, and Future
ou Approximately a year ago, when I accepted the offer to act as a Guest Editor for the Special Issue ‘Mycoviruses’ organised by the MDPI journal Viruses, I dared not expect that ‘Mycoviruses’ would include such a large number of manuscripts [...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 19, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Kotta-Loizou Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 357: Reassessment of Viroid RNA Cytosine Methylation Status at the Single Nucleotide Level
Beatriz Navarro Composed of a few hundreds of nucleotides, viroids are infectious, circular, non-protein coding RNAs able to usurp plant cellular enzymes and molecular machineries to replicate and move in their hosts. Several secondary and tertiary RNA structural motifs have been implicated in the viroid infectious cycle, but whether modified nucleotides, such as 5C-methylcytosine (m5C), also play a role has not been deeply investigated so far. Here, the possible existence of m5C in both RNA polarity strands of potato spindle tuber viroid and avocado sunblotch viroid -which are representative members of the nucleus-...
Source: Viruses - April 18, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Francesco Di Serio Enza Maria Torchetti Jos é-Antonio Daròs Beatriz Navarro Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 358: Distribution and Phylogeny of Erythrocytic Necrosis Virus (ENV) in Salmon Suggests Marine Origin
Curtis A. Suttle Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) affects over 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. However, the distribution and strain variation of its viral causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), has not been well characterized within Pacific salmon. Here, metatranscriptomic sequencing of Chinook salmon revealed that ENV infecting salmon was closely related to ENV from Pacific herring, with inferred amino-acid sequences from Chinook salmon being 99% identical to those reported for herring. Sequence analysis also revealed 89 protein-encoding seque...
Source: Viruses - April 18, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Veronica A. Pagowski Gideon J. Mordecai Kristina M. Miller Angela D. Schulze Karia H. Kaukinen Tobi J. Ming Shaorong Li Amy K. Teffer Amy Tabata Curtis A. Suttle Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 353: Experimental Vertical Transmission of Chikungunya Virus by Brazilian and Florida Aedes Albopictus Populations
ra Barry W. Alto Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a vector-borne alphavirus transmitted by the bites of mosquitoes, specifically infected, female mosquitoes of the invasive Aedes species. In nature, CHIKV can be maintained by vertical transmission, a phenomenon that relates to the transfer of CHIKV from the infected parent to their offspring within the ovary or during oviposition. In the present study, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine vertical transmission with Ae. albopictus populations from Brazil and Florida. Parental Ae. albopictus females were orally infected with the emergent Asian genotype of CHIKV...
Source: Viruses - April 17, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Nildimar Alves Hon ório Keenan Wiggins Bradley Eastmond Daniel Cardoso Portela C âmara Barry W. Alto Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 354: Description of a Natural Infection with Decapod Iridescent Virus 1 in Farmed Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii
g Jie Huang Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a valuable freshwater prawn in Asian aquaculture. In recent years, a new symptom that was generally called “white head” has caused high mortality in M. rosenbergii farms in China. Samples of M. rosenbergii, M. nipponense, Procambarus clarkii, M. superbum, Penaeus vannamei, and Cladocera from a farm suffering from white head in Jiangsu Province were collected and analyzed in this study. Pathogen detection showed that all samples were positive for Decapod iridescent virus 1 (DIV1). Histopathological examination revealed dark eosinophilic inclusions an...
Source: Viruses - April 17, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Liang Qiu Xing Chen Ruo-Heng Zhao Chen Li Wen Gao Qing-Li Zhang Jie Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 355: Surveys in the Chrysanthemum Production Areas of Brazil and Colombia Reveal That Weeds Are Potential Reservoirs of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid
nio Daròs Marcelo Eiras The stunting disease, incited by chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd), has become a serious problem in chrysanthemum production areas worldwide. Here we identified 46 weed species from chrysanthemum fields in two producing regions of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The mechanical inoculation of these weeds with a Brazilian CSVd isolate revealed that this viroid was able to infect 17 of these species, in addition to chrysanthemum, tomato and potato. Plants of Oxalis latifolia and chrysanthemum naturally infected with CSVd were found in chrysanthemum fields in Colombia, which ...
Source: Viruses - April 17, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Danielle Gobatto Lucas Ara újo de Oliveira Daniel Andrade de Siqueira Franco Nubia Vel ásquez Jos é-Antonio Daròs Marcelo Eiras Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 356: Discovery and Characterization of Novel Bat Coronavirus Lineages from Kazakhstan
In this study, bat guano was collected from bat caves in three different sites of southern Kazakhstan that tested positive for coronaviruses. Our phylogenetic reconstruction indicates these are novel bat coronaviruses that belong to the genus Alphacoronavirus. In addition, two distinct lineages of Kazakhstan bat coronaviruses were detected. Both lineages are closely related to bat coronaviruses from China, France, Spain, and South Africa, suggesting that co-circulation of coronaviruses is common in multiple bat species with overlapping geographical distributions. Our study highlights the need for collaborative efforts in u...
Source: Viruses - April 17, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Mendenhall Kerimbayev Strochkov Sultankulova Kopeyev Su Smith Orynbayev Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 351: Mitovirus and Mitochondrial Coding Sequences from Basal Fungus Entomophthora muscae
In this study, we made use of public transcriptome data to identify and characterize eight new species of mitoviruses associated with several different E. muscae isolates. Mitoviruses are simple RNA viruses that replicate in host mitochondria and are frequently found in more phylogenetically apical fungi (members of subphylum Glomeromyoctina, phylum Mucoromycota, phylum Basidiomycota and phylum Ascomycota) as well as in plants. E. muscae is the first fungus from phylum Zoopagomycota, and thereby the most phylogenetically basal fungus, found to harbor mitoviruses to date. Multiple UGA (Trp) codons are found not only in each...
Source: Viruses - April 17, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Max L. Nibert Humberto J. Debat Austin R. Manny Igor V. Grigoriev Henrik H. De Fine Licht Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 352: Phage Therapy Regulation: From Night to Dawn
r After decades of disregard in the Western world, phage therapy is witnessing a return of interest. However, the pharmaceutical legislation that has since been implemented is basically designed for regulating industrially-made pharmaceuticals, devoid of any patient customization and intended for large-scale distribution. Accordingly, the resulting regulatory framework is hardly reconcilable with the concept of sustainable phage therapy, involving tailor-made medicinal products in the global perspective of both evolutionary and personalized medicine. The repeated appeal for a dedicated regulatory framework has not been...
Source: Viruses - April 17, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Alan Fauconnier Tags: Opinion Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 346: Influenza Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase: Yin –Yang Proteins Coevolving to Thwart Immunity
Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 346: Influenza Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase: Yin–Yang Proteins Coevolving to Thwart Immunity Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11040346 Authors: Ivan Kosik Jonathan W. Yewdell Influenza A virions possess two surface glycoproteins—the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA)—which exert opposite functions. HA attaches virions to cells by binding to terminal sialic acid residues on glycoproteins/glycolipids to initiate the infectious cycle, while NA cleaves terminal sialic acids, releasing virions to complete the infectious cycle. Antibodies specific for HA or NA ca...
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Ivan Kosik Jonathan W. Yewdell Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 347: Dynamics of Bacterial and Viral Communities in Paddy Soil with Irrigation and Urea Application
Hui Xu Viruses are ubiquitous in natural systems. By influencing bacterial abundance (BA) and community structure through lysis-lysogenic conversion, viruses are involved in various ecological processes. In agricultural management, nitrogen addition and irrigation should be considered as important factors that can modify soil viral dynamics but have been ignored. In our study, short-term dynamics of autochthonous soil viral and bacterial abundance and diversity after irrigation and urea application were examined in a long-term experimental paddy field. Urea addition delayed the emergence of peak viral abundance for ...
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Yuting Li Hao Sun Weichao Yang Guanxiong Chen Hui Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 348: Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 Subtype G in the Russian Federation
Shipulin Vadim Pokrovsky Although HIV-1 subtype A has predominated in Russia since the end of the 20th century, other viral variants also circulate in this country. The dramatic outbreak of HIV-1 subtype G in 1988-1990 represents the origin of this variant spreading in Russia. However, full genome sequencing of the nosocomial viral variant and an analysis of the current circulating variants have not been conducted. We performed near full-length genome sequencing and phylogenetic and recombination analyses of 11 samples; the samples were determined to be subtype G based on an analysis of the pol region. Three samples...
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Anastasia Murzakova Dmitry Kireev Pavel Baryshev Alexey Lopatukhin Ekaterina Serova Andrey Shemshura Sergey Saukhat Dmitry Kolpakov Anna Matuzkova Alexander Suladze Marina Nosik Vladimir Eremin German Shipulin Vadim Pokrovsky Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 349: Impact of Amyloid Polymorphism on Prion-Chaperone Interactions in Yeast
Hines Yeast prions are protein-based genetic elements found in the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most of which are amyloid aggregates that propagate by fragmentation and spreading of small, self-templating pieces called propagons. Fragmentation is carried out by molecular chaperones, specifically Hsp104, Hsp70, and Hsp40. Like other amyloid-forming proteins, amyloid-based yeast prions exhibit structural polymorphisms, termed “strains” in mammalian systems and “variants” in yeast, which demonstrate diverse phenotypes and chaperone requiremen...
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Andrea N. Killian Sarah C. Miller Justin K. Hines Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 350: Whole-Genome Analysis of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Prevalent in Japanese Women with or without Cervical Lesions
i Matsumoto Iwao Kukimoto Recent large-scale genomics studies of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have shown a high level of genomic variability of HPV16, the most prevalent genotype in HPV-associated malignancies, and provided new insights into the biological and clinical relevance of its genetic variations in cervical cancer development. Here, we performed deep sequencing analyses of the viral genome to explore genetic variations of HPV16 that are prevalent in Japan. A total of 100 complete genome sequences of HPV16 were determined from cervical specimens collected from Japanese women with cervical intraepithelial neo...
Source: Viruses - April 16, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Yusuke Hirose Mamiko Onuki Yuri Tenjimbayashi Mayuko Yamaguchi-Naka Seiichiro Mori Nobutaka Tasaka Toyomi Satoh Tohru Morisada Takashi Iwata Tohru Kiyono Takashi Mimura Akihiko Sekizawa Koji Matsumoto Iwao Kukimoto Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 345: Suppression of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase 6 Favors the Accumulation of Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid in Nicotiana Benthamiana
In this study, the role of RdR6 in the defense against viroid infection was examined by knock-down of RdR6 followed by potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) infection. The suppression of RdR6 expression increased the plant’s growth, as was illustrated by the plant’s increased height. PSTVd infection of RdR6 compromised plants resulted in an approximately three-fold increase in the accumulation of viroid RNA as compared to that seen in control plants. Additionally, RNA gel blot assay revealed an increase in the number of viroids derived small RNAs in RdR6 suppressed plants as compared to control pl...
Source: Viruses - April 14, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Charith Raj Adkar-Purushothama Jean-Pierre Perreault Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 344: RNAi-Mediated Down-Regulation of Dicer-Like 2 and 4 Changes the Response of ‘Moneymaker’ Tomato to Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid Infection from Tolerance to Lethal Systemic Necrosis, Accompanied by Up-Regulation of miR398, 398a-3p and Production of Excessive Amount of Reactive Oxygen Species
Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 344: RNAi-Mediated Down-Regulation of Dicer-Like 2 and 4 Changes the Response of ‘Moneymaker’ Tomato to Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid Infection from Tolerance to Lethal Systemic Necrosis, Accompanied by Up-Regulation of miR398, 398a-3p and Production of Excessive Amount of Reactive Oxygen Species Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11040344 Authors: Takahiro Suzuki Sho Ikeda Atsushi Kasai Akito Taneda Misato Fujibayashi Kohei Sugawara Maki Okuta Hayato Maeda Teruo Sano To examine the role of RNA silencing in plant defenses against viroids, a Dicer-like 2 and 4 (DCL2&4...
Source: Viruses - April 13, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Takahiro Suzuki Sho Ikeda Atsushi Kasai Akito Taneda Misato Fujibayashi Kohei Sugawara Maki Okuta Hayato Maeda Teruo Sano Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 343: Current State of Compassionate Phage Therapy
This article serves both to synopsize cPT publications to date and to discuss currently available phage sources for cPT. As the antibiotic resistance crisis continues to grow and the future of phage therapy clinical trials remains undetermined, cPT represents a possibility for bridging the gap between current treatment failures and future approved alternatives. Streamlining the process of cPT will help to ensure high quality, therapeutically-beneficial, and safe treatment. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 12, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: McCallin Sacher Zheng Chan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 342: Epidemiology of Norovirus Outbreaks Reported to the Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System, China, 2014 –2017
Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 342: Epidemiology of Norovirus Outbreaks Reported to the Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System, China, 2014–2017 Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11040342 Authors: Yiyao Lian Shuyu Wu Li Luo Bin Lv Qiaohong Liao Zhongjie Li Jeanette J. Rainey Aron J. Hall Lu Ran We conducted a retrospective analysis of norovirus outbreaks reported to the National Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System (PHEESS) in China from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2017. We reviewed all acute gastroenteritis outbreaks (n = 692) submitted to PHEESS to identify the frequency, seasonalit...
Source: Viruses - April 11, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Yiyao Lian Shuyu Wu Li Luo Bin Lv Qiaohong Liao Zhongjie Li Jeanette J. Rainey Aron J. Hall Lu Ran Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 341: Norovirus Infections and Disease in Lower-Middle- and Low-Income Countries, 1997 –2018
This study reviews the norovirus prevalence, epidemiology, and genotype diversity in lower-middle-income countries (LMIC) and in low-income countries (LIC). PubMed was searched up to 14 January 2019 for norovirus studies from all LIC and LMIC (World Bank Classification). Studies that tested gastroenteritis cases and/or asymptomatic controls for norovirus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were included. Sixty-four studies, the majority on children <5 years of age, were identified, and 14% (95% confidence interval; CI 14–15, 5158/36,288) of the gastroenteritis patients and 8...
Source: Viruses - April 10, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Janet Mans Tags: Review Source Type: research