Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 368: Exploring HIV Vaccine Progress in the Pre-Clinical and Clinical Setting: From History to Future Prospects
ari The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to pose a significant global health challenge, with millions of people affected and new cases emerging each year. While various treatment and prevention methods exist, including antiretroviral therapy and non-vaccine approaches, developing an effective vaccine remains the most crucial and cost-effective solution to combating the HIV epidemic. Despite significant advancements in HIV research, the HIV vaccine field has faced numerous challenges, and only one clinical trial has demonstrated a modest level of efficacy. This review delves into the history of HIV vaccines ...
Source: Viruses - February 27, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Amitinder Kaur Monica Vaccari Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 369: Antiviral and Virucidal Activities of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat & rsquo;s Claw) against the Chikungunya Virus
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 369: Antiviral and Virucidal Activities of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat’s Claw) against the Chikungunya Virus Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16030369 Authors: Raquel Curtinhas de Lima Ligia Maria Marino Valente Débora Familiar Macedo Luzia Maria de-Oliveira-Pinto Flavia Barreto dos Santos José Luiz Mazzei Antonio Carlos Siani Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes Elzinandes Leal de Azeredo Uncaria tomentosa (UT) is a medicinal plant popularly known as cat’s claw belonging to the Rubiaceae family that has been reported to display antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities. ...
Source: Viruses - February 27, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Raquel Curtinhas de Lima Ligia Maria Marino Valente D ébora Familiar Macedo Luzia Maria de-Oliveira-Pinto Flavia Barreto dos Santos Jos é Luiz Mazzei Antonio Carlos Siani Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes Elzinandes Leal de Azeredo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 360: Viroids, Satellite RNAs and Prions: Folding of Nucleic Acids and Misfolding of Proteins
siner Theodor (“Ted”) Otto Diener (* 28 February 1921 in Zürich, Switzerland; † 28 March 2023 in Beltsville, MD, USA) pioneered research on viroids while working at the Plant Virology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, in Beltsville. He coined the name viroid and defined viroids’ important features like the infectivity of naked single-stranded RNA without protein-coding capacity. During scientific meetings in the 1970s and 1980s, viroids were often discussed at conferences together with other “subviral pathogens&rd...
Source: Viruses - February 26, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Gerhard Steger Detlev Riesner Stanley B. Prusiner Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 358: Genetics of H5N1 and H5N8 High-Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated in Japan in Winter 2021 & ndash;2022
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 358: Genetics of H5N1 and H5N8 High-Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated in Japan in Winter 2021–2022 Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16030358 Authors: Junki Mine Yoshihiro Takadate Asuka Kumagai Saki Sakuma Ryota Tsunekuni Kohtaro Miyazawa Yuko Uchida In winter 2021–2022, H5N1 and H5N8 high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses (HPAIVs) caused serious outbreaks in Japan: 25 outbreaks of HPAI at poultry farms and 107 cases in wild birds or in the environment. Phylogenetic analyses divided H5 HPAIVs isolated in Japan in the winter of 2021&nda...
Source: Viruses - February 26, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Junki Mine Yoshihiro Takadate Asuka Kumagai Saki Sakuma Ryota Tsunekuni Kohtaro Miyazawa Yuko Uchida Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 359: Molecular Profile of Variants Potentially Associated with Severe Forms of COVID-19 in Amazonian Indigenous Populations
The objective of the study is to investigate genetic variants present in the genes AQP3, ARHGAP27, ELF5L, IFNAR2, LIMD1, OAS1 and UPK1A, selected due to their association with the severity of COVID-19, in a sample of indigenous people from the Brazilian Amazon in order to describe potential new and already studied variants. We performed the complete sequencing of the exome of 64 healthy indigenous people from the Brazilian Amazon. The allele frequency data of the population were compared with data from other continental populations. A total of 66 variants present in the seven genes studied were identified, including a vari...
Source: Viruses - February 26, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Rita de C ássia Calderaro Coelho Carlliane Lima e Lins Pinto Martins Lucas Favacho Pastana Juliana Carla Gomes Rodrigues Kaio Evandro Cardoso Aguiar Amanda de Nazar é Cohen-Paes Laura Patr ícia Albarello Gellen Francisco Cezar Aquino de Moraes Maria Cl Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 356: Editorial for SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 Topical Collection
n A previously unknown coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was isolated in Wuhan, China in December 2019, from a patient with a respiratory disease linked to potential contact with wild animals [...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 25, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Luis Martinez-Sobrido Fernando Almaz án Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 354: Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab: Still a Valid Prophylaxis against COVID-19 New Variants?
Conclusions: Tixagevimab/cilgavimab efficacy wanes against novel subvariants. This underscores the critical need for ongoing adaptation and vigilance in prophylactic strategies to effectively counter the dynamic and unpredictable nature of the COVID-19 pandemic. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 25, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Anna Gidari Samuele Sabbatini Sabrina Bastianelli Sara Pierucci Chiara Busti Elisabetta Svizzeretto Andrea Tommasi Carlo Pallotto Elisabetta Schiaroli Daniela Francisci Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 355: Identification of Mycoviruses in the Pathogens of Fragrant Pear Valsa Canker from Xinjiang in China
In this study, 199 isolates were obtained from diseased branches of fragrant pear in the main production areas of Xinjiang. Among them, 134 belonged to Valsa spp., identified using morphological and molecular biological techniques, in which V. mali was the dominant species. The mycoviruses in Valsa spp. were further identified using metatranscriptomic sequencing and RT-PCR. The results revealed that a total of seven mycoviruses were identified, belonging to Botourmiaviridae, Endornaviridae, Fusariviridae, Hypoviridae, Mitoviridae, and Narnaviridae, among which Phomopsis longicolla hypovirus (PlHV) was dominant in all the s...
Source: Viruses - February 25, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Chenguang Zhang Xiaoya Zheng Zhanjiang Tie Hui Xi Mai Shi Yanjun Ma Wenbin Chen Yingjie Mi Rui Yang Sifeng Zhao Xuekun Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 357: Wild Bird-Origin H6N2 Influenza Virus Acquires Enhanced Pathogenicity after Single Passage in Mice
This study demonstrated that the H6N2 subtype wild bird-origin AIV easily acquired the mammalian adaptation. The monitoring and evaluation of H6 wild bird-origin AIV should be strengthened. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 25, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Siqi Tang Bing Han Chaofan Su Hailing Li Shiyuchen Zhao Haoyu Leng Yali Feng Ying Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 352: Cordycepin Inhibits Enterovirus A71 Replication and Protects Host Cell from Virus-Induced Cytotoxicity through Adenosine Action Pathway
In this study, the potency and role of cordycepin treatment on EV-A71 infection were investigated. Results demonstrated that cordycepin treatment significantly reduced the viral load and viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) level in EV-A71-infected Vero cells. In addition, EV-A71-mediated cytotoxicity was significantly inhibited in the presence of cordycepin in a dose-dependent manner. The protective effect can also be extended to Caco-2 intestinal cells, as evidenced by the higher median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) values in the cordycepin-treated groups. Furthermore, cordycepin inhibited EV-A71 replication by acting ...
Source: Viruses - February 24, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Yi-Ping Lee Chun-Keung Yu Tak-Wah Wong Li-Ching Chen Bu-Miin Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 353: Cross-Species Transmission Potential of H4 Avian Influenza Viruses in China: Epidemiological and Evolutionary Study
an Wang Yuelong Shu H4 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been widely detected in live poultry markets in China. However, the potential public health impact of H4 AIVs remains largely uncertain. Here, we fully analyzed the distribution and phylogenetic relationship of H4 AIVs in China. We obtained 31 isolates of H4 viruses in China during 2009–2022 through surveillance in poultry-associated environments, such as live poultry markets and poultry farms. Genomic sequence analysis together with publicly available data revealed that frequent reassortment and introduction of H4 AIV from wild birds to poultry...
Source: Viruses - February 24, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Shuxia Lin Ye Zhang Jiaying Yang Lei Yang Xiyan Li Hong Bo Jia Liu Min Tan Wenfei Zhu Dayan Wang Yuelong Shu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 350: Negevirus Piura Suppresses Zika Virus Replication in Mosquito Cells
reen T. Long We investigated the interaction between the insect-specific virus, Piura virus (PIUV), and the arbovirus Zika virus (ZIKV) in Aedes albopictus cells. We performed coinfection experiments in C6/36 cells. Piura virus (Cor 33 strain, Colombia) and ZIKV (PRVABC58 strain, Puerto Rico) were co-inoculated into C6/36 cells using two multiplicity of infection (MOI) combinations: 0.1 for both viruses and 1.0 for ZIKV, 0.1 for PIUV. Wells were infected in triplicate with either PIUV and ZIKV coinfection, ZIKV-only, or PIUV-only. Mock infected cells served as control wells. The cell suspension was collected daily 7 da...
Source: Viruses - February 24, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Val éria L. Carvalho Dhani Prakoso Erika R. Schwarz Tracey D. Logan Bruno Tardelli Diniz Nunes Sarah E. Beachboard Maureen T. Long Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 351: Risk of Severe COVID-19-Related Outcomes among Patients with Cirrhosis: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Canada
Naveed Z. Janjua We assessed the association between cirrhosis and severe COVID-19-related outcomes among people with laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 infection in British Columbia, Canada. We used data from the British Columbia (BC) COVID-19 Cohort, a population-based cohort that integrates data on all individuals tested for COVID-19, with data on hospitalizations, medical visits, emergency room visits, prescription drugs, chronic conditions, and deaths in the Canadian province of BC. We included all individuals aged ≥18 who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain rea...
Source: Viruses - February 24, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: H éctor Alexander Velásquez García Prince A. Adu Ada Okonkwo-Dappa Jean Damascene Makuza Georgine Cua Mawuena Binka James Wilton Hind Sbihi Naveed Z. Janjua Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 348: HBcAb Positivity as a Risk Factor for Missing HIV RNA Undetectability after the 3TC+DTG Switch
In this study, a comparison analysis was conducted between HBcAb-positive and -negative PLWH regarding HIV-RNA suppression, considering: (1): Target Not Detected (TND) < 20 cp/mL; (2) Target Detected (TD) < 20 cp/mL; and (3) Detectable > 20 cp/mL and <50 cp/mL and >50 copies/mL. A total of 267 patients on 2DR with 3TC-DTG were included. In comparison to HBcAb-negative, HBcAb-positive patients were older (45 years [35–54]) and had a lower CD4+ nadir (248 vs. 349 cells/mmc, p = 0.007). No difference in the maintenance of virological suppression was present ...
Source: Viruses - February 23, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Vincenzo Malagnino Tiziana Mulas Elisabetta Teti Monica Basso Mario Giobbia Nicholas Geremia Giuliana Battagin Yasmine Abi Aad Jean-Paul Vincensini Marco Iannetta Saverio Giuseppe Parisi Loredana Sarmati Karine Lacombe Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 349: Identification of a Potential Entry-Fusion Complex Based on Sequence Homology of African Swine Fever and Vaccinia Virus
In this study, we explored the possibility of an analogous ASFV EFC by identifying ten candidate proteins exhibiting structural similarities with VACV EFC proteins. This could reveal key functions of these ASFV proteins, drawing attention to shared features between the two virus families, suggesting the potential existence of an ASFV entry-fusion complex. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 23, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Jes ús Urquiza Miguel Ángel Cuesta-Geijo Isabel Garc ía-Dorival Óscar Fernández Ana del Puerto Jos é Fernando Díaz Covadonga Alonso Tags: Article Source Type: research