Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 185: SARS-CoV-2 Specific Nanobodies Neutralize Different Variants of Concern and Reduce Virus Load in the Brain of h-ACE2 Transgenic Mice
e Porier John Anthony Muller Albert Jonathan Auguste Lijuan Yuan Andrés Wigdorovitz Viviana Gladys Parreño Lorena Itat Ibañez Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a significant need to develop antivirals and vaccines to combat the disease. In this work, we developed llama-derived nanobodies (Nbs) directed against the receptor binding domain (RBD) and other domains of the Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2. Most of the Nbs with neutralizing properties were directed to RBD and were able to block S-2P/ACE2 interaction. Three neutralizing Nbs recognized the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the...
Source: Viruses - January 25, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Mar ía Florencia Pavan Marina Bok Rafael Betanzos San Juan Juan Pablo Malito Gisela Ariana Marcoppido Diego Rafael Franco Daniela Ayelen Militelo Juan Manuel Schammas Sara Elizabeth Bari William Stone Krisangel L ópez Danielle LaBrie Porier John Anthony Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 186: Factors Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Fully Vaccinated Nursing Home Residents and Workers
iente-Rodríguez Luisa M. Villar Primitivo Ramos Rafael Cantón Alfonso J. Cruz-Jentoft Juan Carlos Galán Persons living or working in nursing homes faced a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections during the pandemic, resulting in heightened morbidity and mortality among older adults despite robust vaccination efforts. This prospective study evaluated the humoral and cellular immunity in fully vaccinated residents and workers from two nursing homes in Madrid, Spain, from 2020 to 2021. Measurements of IgG levels were conducted in August 2020 (pre-vaccination) and June and September 2021 (post-vaccination), along...
Source: Viruses - January 25, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Jes ús Mateos-Nozal Mario Rodr íguez-Domínguez Jes ús San Román Francisco Javier Candel Noelia Villarrubia Nuria P érez-Panizo Esther Segura Juan Manuel Cu ñarro Manuel V. Mej ía Ramírez-Arellano Rafael Rodr íguez-Ramos Roberto Pariente-Rodr íg Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 177: Causes and Consequences of Coronavirus Spike Protein Variability
rchhoff Coronaviruses are a large family of enveloped RNA viruses found in numerous animal species. They are well known for their ability to cross species barriers and have been transmitted from bats or intermediate hosts to humans on several occasions. Four of the seven human coronaviruses (hCoVs) are responsible for approximately 20% of common colds (hCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, -HKU1). Two others (SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV) cause severe and frequently lethal respiratory syndromes but have only spread to very limited extents in the human population. In contrast the most recent human hCoV, SARS-CoV-2, while exhibiting inter...
Source: Viruses - January 25, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Fabian Zech Christoph Jung Timo Jacob Frank Kirchhoff Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 179: Nipah Virus: A Multidimensional Update
Pueyo Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging zoonotic paramyxovirus to which is attributed numerous high mortality outbreaks in South and South-East Asia; Bangladesh’s Nipah belt accounts for the vast majority of human outbreaks, reporting regular viral emergency events. The natural reservoir of NiV is the Pteropus bat species, which covers a wide geographical distribution extending over Asia, Oceania, and Africa. Occasionally, human outbreaks have required the presence of an intermediate amplification mammal host between bat and humans. However, in Bangladesh, the viral transmission occurs directly from bat to...
Source: Viruses - January 25, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Javier Faus-Cotino Gabriel Reina Javier Pueyo Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 178: Tribute to Dr. Judith G. Levin (1934 & ndash;2023)
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 178: Tribute to Dr. Judith G. Levin (1934–2023) Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16020178 Authors: Karin Musier-Forsyth Alan Rein Eric O. Freed Dr. Judith G. Levin passed away in Teaneck, NJ, USA, on 8 December 2023 [...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 25, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Karin Musier-Forsyth Alan Rein Eric O. Freed Tags: Obituary Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 180: Seroepidemiology of Human Parvovirus B19 Infection among the Population of Vojvodina, Serbia, over a 16-Year Period (2008 & ndash;2023)
This study aimed to estimate the serological status and dynamic changes in the prevalence of Parvovirus B19 (PVB19) antibodies within the general population residing in the northern part of the Republic of Serbia (Province of Vojvodina) during a 16-year period. Serum samples were analyzed for Human PVB19-specific IgM and IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Throughout the study period, the overall seroprevalence was 49.51%. Approximately 10% of patients exhibited a serologic profile positive for PVB19 IgM antibodies. Notably, seroprevalence varied significantly, ranging from 9.12% in the pediatri...
Source: Viruses - January 25, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Vladimir Vukovi ć Aleksandra Pati ć Mioljub Risti ć Gordana Kova čević Ivana Hrnjakovi ć Cvjetković Vladimir Petrovi ć Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 173: Antiviral Defence Mechanisms during Early Mammalian Development
acias The type-I interferon (IFN) response constitutes the major innate immune pathway against viruses in mammals. Despite its critical importance for antiviral defence, this pathway is inactive during early embryonic development. There seems to be an incompatibility between the IFN response and pluripotency, the ability of embryonic cells to develop into any cell type of an adult organism. Instead, pluripotent cells employ alternative ways to defend against viruses that are typically associated with safeguard mechanisms against transposable elements. The absence of an inducible IFN response in pluripotent cells and th...
Source: Viruses - January 24, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Felix Mueller Jeroen Witteveldt Sara Macias Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 174: Histone H1.2 Inhibited EMCV Replication through Enhancing MDA5-Mediated IFN- & beta; Signaling Pathway
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 174: Histone H1.2 Inhibited EMCV Replication through Enhancing MDA5-Mediated IFN-β Signaling Pathway Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16020174 Authors: Yangran Song Huixia Li Ruiya Lian Xueer Dou Shasha Li Jingying Xie Xiangrong Li Ruofei Feng Zhiqiang Li Histone H1.2 is a member of the linker histone family, which plays extensive and crucial roles not only in the regulation of chromatin dynamics, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis, but also in viral diseases and innate immunity response. Recently, it was discovered that H1.2 regulates interferon-β and inhibits influen...
Source: Viruses - January 24, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Yangran Song Huixia Li Ruiya Lian Xueer Dou Shasha Li Jingying Xie Xiangrong Li Ruofei Feng Zhiqiang Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 175: Isolation of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype 10 from Culicoides tainanus and Associated Infections in Livestock in Yunnan, China
hang Jinglin Wang Two strains of viruses, JC13C644 and JC13C673, were isolated from Culicoides tainanus collected in Jiangcheng County, Yunnan Province, situated along the border area shared by China, Laos, and Vietnam. JC13C644 and JC13C673 viruses can cause cytopathic effect (CPE) in mammalian cells BHK21 and Vero cells, and cause morbidity and mortality in suckling mice 48 h after intracerebral inoculation. Whole-genome sequencing was performed, yielding complete sequences for all 10 segments from Seg-1 (3942nt) to Seg-10 (810nt). Phylogenetic analysis of the sub-core-shell (T2) showed that the JC13C644 and JC13C6...
Source: Viruses - January 24, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Yuwen He Jinxin Meng Nan Li Zhao Li Dongmei Wang Meiling Kou Zhenxing Yang Yunhui Li Laxi Zhang Jinglin Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 176: Assessing the Risk of Dengue Virus Local Transmission: Study on Vector Competence of Italian Aedes albopictus
In this study, we evaluated the vector competence of two Italian populations of Ae. albopictus compared to an Ae. aegypti lab colony. We performed experimental infections using a DENV-1 strain that is phylogenetically close to the strain responsible for the 2020 Italian autochthonous outbreak. Our results showed that local Ae. albopictus is susceptible to infection and is able to transmit the virus, confirming the relevant risk of possible outbreaks starting from an imported case. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 24, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Claudia Fortuna Francesco Severini Giulia Marsili Luciano Toma Antonello Amendola Giulietta Venturi Claudio Argentini Francesca Casale Ilaria Bernardini Daniela Boccolini Cristiano Fiorentini Hapuarachchige Chanditha Hapuarachchi Fabrizio Montarsi Marco D Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 171: Updated Insights into the Phylogenetics, Phylodynamics, and Genetic Diversity of Nipah Virus (NiV)
In this study, we conducted Bayesian phylogenetic analysis on all available NiV complete genomes, including partial N-gene NiV sequences (≥1000 bp) in public databases since the first human case, registered in 1998. We observed the distribution of genomes into three main clades corresponding to the genotypes Malaysia, Bangladesh and India, with the Malaysian clade being the oldest in evolutionary terms. The Bayesian skyline plot showed a recent increase in the viral population size since 2019. Protein analysis showed the presence of specific protein families (Hendra_C) in bats that might keep the infection in an...
Source: Viruses - January 24, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Gabriel Montenegro de Campos Eleonora Cella Simone Kashima Luiz Carlos J únior Alcântara Sandra Coccuzzo Sampaio Maria Carolina Elias Marta Giovanetti Svetoslav Nanev Slavov Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 172: Detection and Genome Sequencing of Lumpy Skin Disease Viruses in Wildlife Game Species in South Africa
This report describes the characterization of lumpy skin disease virus belonging to cluster 1.2, from field samples from springbok, impala (Aepyceros melampus) and a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in South Africa using PCR, Sanger and whole genome sequencing. Most of these samples were submitted from wild animals in nature reserves or game parks, indicating that the disease is not restricted to captive-bred animals on game farms or zoological gardens. The potential role of wildlife species in the transmission and maintenance of LSDV is further discussed and requires continuing investigation, as the virus and disease may ...
Source: Viruses - January 24, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Antoinette van Schalkwyk Pravesh Kara Robert D. Last Marco Romito David B. Wallace Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 169: Selected Milestones in Antiviral Drug Development
q This review article will describe the (wide) variety of approaches that I envisaged to develop a specific therapy for viral infections: (i) interferon and its inducers, (ii) HSV, VZV and CMV inhibitors, (iii) NRTIs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), NtRTIs (nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors) and NNRTIs (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors) as HIV inhibitors, (iv) NtRTIs as HBV inhibitors, and finally, (v) the transition of an HIV inhibitor to a stem cell mobilizer, as exemplified by AMD-3100 (Mozobil®). (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 23, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Erik De Clercq Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 170: Molecular Amplification and Cell Culturing Efficiency for Enteroviruses & rsquo; Detection in Cerebrospinal Fluids of Algerian Patients Suffering from Meningitis
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 170: Molecular Amplification and Cell Culturing Efficiency for Enteroviruses’ Detection in Cerebrospinal Fluids of Algerian Patients Suffering from Meningitis Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16020170 Authors: Abdelwahab Rai Zohra Ammi Dahbia Leila Anes-Boulahbal Aymen Amin Assadi Abdeltif Amrane Oussama Baaloudj Lotfi Mouni Enteroviruses (EVs) represent a major cause of viral meningitis, being responsible for nearly 1 billion infections each year worldwide. Several techniques were developed to obtain better diagnostic results of EV infections. Herein, we evaluated the efficiency ...
Source: Viruses - January 23, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Abdelwahab Rai Zohra Ammi Dahbia Leila Anes-Boulahbal Aymen Amin Assadi Abdeltif Amrane Oussama Baaloudj Lotfi Mouni Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 168: In Vitro Combinatorial Activity of Direct Acting Antivirals and Monoclonal Antibodies against the Ancestral B.1 and BQ.1.1 SARS-CoV-2 Viral Variants
Ilaria Vicenti Combination antiviral therapy may be helpful in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, no clinical trial data are available, and combined use of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) and monoclonal antibodies (mAb) has been reported only anecdotally. To assess the cooperative effects of dual drug combinations in vitro, we used a VERO E6 cell-based in vitro system with the ancestral B.1 or the highly divergent BQ.1.1 virus to test pairwise combinations of the licensed DAA, including nirmatrelvir (NRM), remdesivir (RDV) and the active metabolite of molnupiravir (EIDD-1931) as well the combination of RD...
Source: Viruses - January 23, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Lia Fiaschi Camilla Biba Ilenia Varasi Niccol ò Bartolini Chiara Paletti Federica Giammarino Francesco Saladini Maurizio Zazzi Ilaria Vicenti Tags: Article Source Type: research