Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 230: Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic and Lockdown on the HRSV Circulation: Experience of Three Spoke Hospitals in Northern Italy
In conclusion, an increase in HRSV cases after the Pandemic has been demonstrated with an anticipated peak, while no differences were recorded in severity. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 1, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Francesca Parola Adalberto Brach del Prever Virginia Deut Giulia Costagliola Carla Guidi Neftj Ragusa Antonella Tuscano Fabio Timeus Massimo Berger Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 231: Saikosaponin B2, Punicalin, and Punicalagin in Vitro Block Cellular Entry of Feline Herpesvirus-1
Zhi-Hua Qin In the realm of clinical practice, nucleoside analogs are the prevailing antiviral drugs employed to combat feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) infections. However, these drugs, initially formulated for herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, operate through a singular mechanism and are susceptible to the emergence of drug resistance. These challenges underscore the imperative to innovate and develop alternative antiviral medications featuring unique mechanisms of action, such as viral entry inhibitors. This research endeavors to address this pressing need. Utilizing Bio-layer interferometry (BLI), we meticulously ...
Source: Viruses - February 1, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Bin Liu Xiao-Qian Jiao Xu-Feng Dong Pei Guo Shu-Bai Wang Zhi-Hua Qin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 232: An Engineered M13 Filamentous Nanoparticle as an Antigen Carrier for a Malignant Melanoma Immunotherapeutic Strategy
rej Cör Bacteriophages, prokaryotic viruses, hold great potential in genetic engineering to open up new avenues for vaccine development. Our study aimed to establish engineered M13 bacteriophages expressing MAGE-A1 tumor peptides as a vaccine for melanoma treatment. Through in vivo experiments, we sought to assess their ability to induce robust immune responses. Using phage display technology, we engineered two M13 bacteriophages expressing MAGE-A1 peptides as fusion proteins with either pVIII or pIIII coat proteins. Mice were intraperitoneally vaccinated three times, two weeks apart, using two different engineered ba...
Source: Viruses - February 1, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Nu ša Brišar Katja Šuster Simona Kranjc Brezar Robert Vidmar Marko Fonovi ć Andrej C ör Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 233: Isolation and Characterization of Yunnan Variants of the Pseudorabies Virus and Their Pathogenicity in Rats
g Yu Xianghua Shu Porcine pseudorabies has long existed in China and is a serious threat to the Chinese farming industry. To understand the prevalence and genetic variation of the porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV) and its pathogenicity in Yunnan Province, China, we collected 560 serum samples across seven Yunnan Province regions from 2020 to 2021 and detected anti-gE antibodies in these samples. Sixty-one clinical tissue samples were also collected from pigs with suspected PRV that were vaccinated with Bartha-K61. PRV-gE antibodies were found in 29.6% (166/560) of the serum samples. The PRV positivity rate in clinical...
Source: Viruses - February 1, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Chunlian Song Hua Ye Xue Zhang Yalun Zhang Yonghui Li Jun Yao Lin Gao Shanqiang Wang Yougeng Yu Xianghua Shu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 234: The C4 Protein of TbLCYnV Promotes SnRK1 & beta;2 Degradation Via the Autophagy Pathway to Enhance Viral Infection in N. benthamiana
In this study, we validated the interaction between the C4 protein encoded by tobacco leaf curl Yunnan virus (TbLCYnV) and the regulatory subunit β of Nicotiana benthamiana SnRK1, i.e., NbSnRK1 β2, and identified that the Asp22 of C4 is critical for TbLCYnV C4–NbSnRK1 β2 interactions. NbSnRK1 β2 silencing in N. benthamiana enhances susceptibility to TbLCYnV infection. Plants infected with viral mutant TbLCYnV (C4D22A), which contains the mutant version C4 (D22A) that is incapable of interacting with NbSnRK1 β2, display milder symptoms and lower ...
Source: Viruses - February 1, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Xinquan Li Min Zhao Wanyi Yang Xueping Zhou Yan Xie Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 229: A Canadian Survey of Research on HIV-1 Latency & mdash;Where Are We Now and Where Are We Heading?
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 229: A Canadian Survey of Research on HIV-1 Latency—Where Are We Now and Where Are We Heading? Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16020229 Authors: Ana Luiza Abdalla Gabriel Guajardo-Contreras Andrew J. Mouland Worldwide, almost 40 million people are currently living with HIV-1. The implementation of cART inhibits HIV-1 replication and reduces viremia but fails to eliminate HIV-1 from latently infected cells. These cells are considered viral reservoirs from which HIV-1 rebounds if cART is interrupted. Several efforts have been made to identify these cells and their niches. There has been li...
Source: Viruses - February 1, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Ana Luiza Abdalla Gabriel Guajardo-Contreras Andrew J. Mouland Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 228: Unveiling CRESS DNA Virus Diversity in Oysters by Virome
This study’s findings provide a basis for further research on the biological and ecological roles of viruses in oysters and their environment. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 31, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Peng Zhu Chang Liu Guang-Feng Liu Hong Liu Ke-Ming Xie Hong-Sai Zhang Xin Xu Jian Xiao Jing-Zhe Jiang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 216: The Mathematical Modeling of the Host & ndash;Virus Interaction in Dengue Virus Infection: A Quantitative Study
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 216: The Mathematical Modeling of the Host–Virus Interaction in Dengue Virus Infection: A Quantitative Study Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16020216 Authors: Zhaobin Xu Hongmei Zhang Dongying Yang Dongqing Wei Jacques Demongeot Qiangcheng Zeng Infectious diseases, such as Dengue fever, pose a significant public health threat. Developing a reliable mathematical model plays a crucial role in quantitatively elucidating the kinetic characteristics of antibody–virus interactions. By integrating previous models and incorporating the antibody dynamic theory, we have constru...
Source: Viruses - January 31, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Zhaobin Xu Hongmei Zhang Dongying Yang Dongqing Wei Jacques Demongeot Qiangcheng Zeng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 215: The Potential of Usnic-Acid-Based Thiazolo-Thiophenes as Inhibitors of the Main Protease of SARS-CoV-2 Viruses
Oleg V. Pyankov Nariman F. Salakhutdinov Mikhail V. Khvostov Although the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 viruses is officially over, the search for new effective agents with activity against a wide range of coronaviruses is still an important task for medical chemists and virologists. We synthesized a series of thiazolo-thiophenes based on (+)- and (−)-usnic acid and studied their ability to inhibit the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. Substances containing unsubstituted thiophene groups or methyl- or bromo-substituted thiophene moieties showed moderate activity. Derivatives containing nitro subs...
Source: Viruses - January 31, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Olga I. Yarovaya Aleksandr S. Filimonov Dmitriy S. Baev Sophia S. Borisevich Anna V. Zaykovskaya Varvara Yu. Chirkova Mariya K. Marenina Yulia V. Meshkova Svetlana V. Belenkaya Dmitriy N. Shcherbakov Maxim A. Gureev Olga A. Luzina Oleg V. Pyankov Nariman Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 219: Examining Chronic Inflammation, Immune Metabolism, and T Cell Dysfunction in HIV Infection
ie Zhen Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection remains a significant challenge to global public health. Despite advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART), which has transformed HIV infection from a fatal disease into a manageable chronic condition, a definitive cure remains elusive. One of the key features of HIV infection is chronic immune activation and inflammation, which are strongly associated with, and predictive of, HIV disease progression, even in patients successfully treated with suppressive ART. Chronic inflammation is characterized by persistent inflammation, immune cell metabolic dysregulation...
Source: Viruses - January 31, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Wenli Mu Vaibhavi Patankar Scott Kitchen Anjie Zhen Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 218: Medicinal Plants against Viral Infections: A Review of Metabolomics Evidence for the Antiviral Properties and Potentials in Plant Sources
ots Most plants have developed unique mechanisms to cope with harsh environmental conditions to compensate for their lack of mobility. A key part of their coping mechanisms is the synthesis of secondary metabolites. In addition to their role in plants’ defense against pathogens, they also possess therapeutic properties against diseases, and their use by humans predates written history. Viruses are a unique class of submicroscopic agents, incapable of independent existence outside a living host. Pathogenic viruses continue to pose a significant threat to global health, leading to innumerable fatalities on ...
Source: Viruses - January 31, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Wilson Bamise Adeosun Du Toit Loots Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 222: Mosquitoes from Europe Are Able to Transmit Snowshoe Hare Virus
Anna Heitmann Snowshoe hare virus (SSHV) is a zoonotic arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) circulating in colder areas of the Northern Hemisphere. SSHV is maintained in an enzootic cycle between small mammals and mosquitoes, assumably of the genera Aedes and Culiseta. Symptoms of SSHV human infection can range from asymptomatic to severe neuroinvasive disease. Studies on SSHV transmission are limited, and there is no information available on whether mosquitoes of the genus Culex are able to transmit SSHV. Therefore, we investigated six mosquito species via salivation assay for their vector competence. We demonstrated tha...
Source: Viruses - January 31, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Stephanie Jansen Patrick H öller Michelle Helms Unchana Lange Norbert Becker Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit Renke L ühken Anna Heitmann Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 220: Respiratory and Gut Microbiome Modification during Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection: A Systematic Review
Conclusions: The respiratory tract and gut microbiome changed in patients with RSV infection. Further research with a well-organized longitudinal design is warranted to clarify the impact of microbiome alterations on disease pathogenesis. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 31, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Kazuma Yagi Nicholas W. Lukacs Gary B. Huffnagle Hideo Kato Nobuhiro Asai Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 221: Enzootic Circulation, Massive Gull Mortality and Poultry Outbreaks during the 2022/2023 High-Pathogenicity Avian Influenza H5N1 Season in the Czech Republic
Sedlák In 2022/2023, Europe experienced its third consecutive season of high-pathogenicity avian influenza. During this period, the Czech Republic was again severely affected. For the first time, the number of culled birds approached one million, which was three times higher than in previous seasons. In parallel to the outbreaks in poultry, mass die-offs of gulls were also observed. In the present study, we performed whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 137 H5N1 strains collected in the Czech Republic in 2022/2023 (94.6% of all outbreaks or locations). The analysis revealed four distinct genotypes: AB...
Source: Viruses - January 31, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Alexander Nagy Martina Star á Lenka Černíková Eli ška Kličková Ond řej Horák Lada Hofmannov á Kamil Sedl ák Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 223: Stabilization of the Metastable Pre-Fusion Conformation of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein through N-Linked Glycosylation of the S2 Subunit
This study revealed the critical roles of N-glycans in S protein maturation and stability, information that has implications for the design of vaccines and antiviral strategies. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 31, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Fuwen Zan Yao Zhou Ting Chen Yahan Chen Zhixia Mu Zhaohui Qian Xiuyuan Ou Tags: Article Source Type: research