Plasticity of Type I Interferon-Mediated Responses in Cancer Therapy: From Anti-tumor Immunity to Resistance
Megha Budhwani, Roberta Mazzieri, Riccardo Dolcetti (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - August 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Incidence of Pathogenic Variants in Those With a Family History of Pancreatic Cancer
Sarah K. Macklin, Pashtoon M. Kasi, Jessica L. Jackson, Stephanie L. Hines (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - August 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Estimating Survival Probabilities of Advanced Gastric Cancer Patients in the Second-Line Setting: The Gastric Life Nomogram
Conclusions: Our nomogram may be a useful tool to predict 3- or 6-month OS in Caucasian gastric cancer patients eligible for second-line therapy. Based on three easy-to-collect variables, the Gastric Life nomogram may help clinicians improve patient selection for second-line treatments and assist in clinical trial enrollment.Oncology (Source: Oncology)
Source: Oncology - August 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Endoscopic Diagnostic Support System for cT1b Colorectal Cancer Using Deep Learning
Conclusion: Quantitative diagnosis is possible using an endoscopic diagnostic support system with machine learning, without relying on the skill and experience of endoscopists. Moreover, this system could be used to objectively evaluate endoscopic diagnoses.Oncology (Source: Oncology)
Source: Oncology - August 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Successful Use of Nilotinib in the Therapy of a Patient with a Chemoresistant Relapse of BCR-ABL1-Like Phenotype Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Oncol Res Treat (Source: Oncology Research and Treatment)
Source: Oncology Research and Treatment - August 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Heterogeneity of Epigenetic and Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Marks in Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Keratin 19 Proficiency
Conclusions: K19-proficient HCC exhibited poor prognosis owing to extrahepatic recurrence, with molecular signatures differing from those in conventional cancer stem cells, providing novel insights of the heterogeneity underlying tumor development.Liver Cancer (Source: Liver Cancer)
Source: Liver Cancer - August 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The next generation of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway inhibitors in breast cancer cohorts
Publication date: Available online 21 August 2018Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on CancerAuthor(s): Michael Mc Kenna, Sarah McGarrigle, Graham P. PidgeonAbstractThe PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway plays a role in various oncogenic processes in breast cancer and key pathway aberrations have been identified which drive the different molecular subtypes. Early drugs developed targeting this pathway produced some clinical success but were hampered by pharmacokinetics, tolerability and efficacy problems. This created a need for new PI3K pathway-inhibiting drugs, which would produce more robust results allowing incor...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Reviews on Cancer - August 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Ubiquitination and SUMOylation in the chronic inflammatory tumor microenvironment
Publication date: Available online 21 August 2018Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on CancerAuthor(s): Shu Chun Chang, Jeak Ling DingAbstractCells and soluble mediators of the innate and adaptive immune systems are fundamental components of the tumor microenvironment. Nuclear factors, e.g. transcription factors (TFs) and oncoproteins/cancer suppressors, play important roles in controlling cytokine functions leading to the development, maintenance and metastasis of cancers. Studies focusing on the regulators of the pro-tumorigenic microenvironment are particularly pertinent to early diagnosis and potenti...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Reviews on Cancer - August 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The diagnostic potential of diffusion weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging in the characterization of complex ovarian lesions
Publication date: September 2018Source: The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Volume 49, Issue 3Author(s): Sally Emad-Eldin, Marie N. Grace, Manal H. Wahba, Rana M. AbdellaAbstractPurposeOur aim was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MR) in the diagnosis and characterization of complex ovarian lesions.Patients and methodsWe prospectively evaluated 59 patients with 65 complex ovarian lesions detected at US. MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5 T MRI machine. Masses were classified as benign (n = 30), borderline (n = 7) and...
Source: The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine - August 21, 2018 Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research

A Radiomics Approach With CNN for Shear-Wave Elastography Breast Tumor Classification
This paper proposes a segmentation-free radiomics method to classify malignant and benign breast tumors with shear-wave elastography (SWE) data. The method is targeted to integrate the advantage of both SWE in providing important elastic with morphology information and convolutional neural network (CNN) in automatic feature extraction and accurate classification. Compared to traditional methods, the proposed method is designed to directly extract features from the dataset without the prerequisite of segmentation and manual operation. This can keep the peri-tumor information, which is lost by segmentation-based methods. Wit...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Utility of Site-Specific Biopsy for Diagnosis of Desmoplastic Malignant Mesothelioma
We present two cases of DMM, one in a 47-year-old man and the other in a 64-year-old man. From detailed pathologic findings in these two cases, we conclude that cases of DMM that cannot otherwise be diagnosed with the use of conventional pleural biopsy, may be diagnosed successfully with the use of wedge lung resection. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - August 21, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Patient Outcomes After Stent Failure for the Treatment of Acute Esophageal Perforation
ConclusionsEsophageal stent placement continues to be a safe and effective treatment for acute esophageal perforation. Patients whose perforation does not seal with initial stent placement can be treated with primary surgical repair or esophagectomy without increasing their morbidity or mortality or compromising their prognosis. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - August 21, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Postoperative Radiotherapy for Surgically Resected ypN2 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
ConclusionsPORT is not independently associated with decreased LR or improved DFS/LCSD in this patient population. Given that the predominant failure pattern was distant recurrence, future clinical trials should focus on adjuvant systemic therapies, which may decrease distant recurrences in ypN2 patients. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - August 21, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio as Predictor of Treatment Response in Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer
ConclusionsThe ΔNLR was inversely related to pathologic complete response and associated with risk of recurrence. This simple test, in concert with other clinical tools, can help identify patients with pathologic complete response. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - August 21, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Lobectomy Versus Sublobectomy in Metachronous Second Primary Lung Cancer: A Propensity Score Study
ConclusionsThis study indicates that lobectomy is still a valid choice for MSPLC. Sublobectomy has value and shows equivalency in tumors sized 2 cm or smaller. For patients with advanced disease or at high risk, additional studies are needed to explore the value of sublobectomy. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - August 21, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Successful Bronchial Replacement Using a Thoracodorsal Artery Perforator Flap
Publication date: September 2018Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 106, Issue 3Author(s): Pascal Berna, Bénédicte Toublanc, Alex FourdrainPneumonectomy is known to be associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality and may be contraindicated in patients with altered lung function. Sleeve lobectomy is a treatment option, but it may be technically impossible in cases of large bronchial involvement. Here, we describe a patient with impaired lung function and right upper lobe lung cancer that involved the intermediate bronchial trunk. The patient was treated successfully with a right upper slee...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - August 21, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Centralizing Esophagectomy to Improve Outcomes and Enhance Clinical Research: Invited Expert Review
This article reviews early efforts to centralize esophagectomy, as reported from other countries such as England, Canada, and the Netherlands, as well as the potential effect on access to care from instituting such policies in the United States.Visual Abstract (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - August 21, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Clarification Needed Regarding Anti-Topoisomerase I as a Biomarker for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Publication date: September 2018Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 106, Issue 3Author(s): Edward K.L. Chan, Luis E.C. Andrade (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - August 21, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

STEAP1 Regulates Tumorigenesis and Chemoresistance During Peritoneal Metastasis of Gastric Cancer
Yuan-Yu Wu, Jun-Nan Jiang, Xue-Dong Fang, Fu-Jian Ji (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - August 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Elevated pCO2 Affects Feeding Behavior and Acute Physiological Response of the Brown Crab Cancer pagurus
Youji Wang, Menghong Hu, Fangli Wu, Daniela Storch, Hans-Otto P örtner (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - August 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Integrated microarray meta-analysis identifies miRNA-27a as an oncogene in ovarian cancer by inhibiting FOXO1
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2018Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Zhonghao Wang, Gaili Ji, Qian Wu, Shu Feng, Yanhua Zhao, Zhongwei Cao, Chuanmin TaoAbstractAimsSurvival of ovarian cancer patients is generally poor, partly because most of them are already at an advanced stage when diagnosed. The purpose of this study was to screen prognostic miRNAs for ovarian cancer, and to explore the underlying mechanisms.Main methodsIntegrated meta-analysis of miRNA microarrays retrieved from public repositories was employed to identify clinically significant miRNAs involved in ovarian cancer. Targets of candidate miRNA ...
Source: Life Sciences - August 21, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Pickering emulsions stabilized nanocellulosic-based nanoparticles for coumarin and curcumin nanoencapsulations: In vitro release, anticancer and antimicrobial activities
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2018Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Fahanwi Asabuwa Ngwabebhoh, Sevinc Ilkar Erdagi, Ufuk YildizABSTRACTCoumarin and curcumin have a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer but hindered therapeutic applications due to low stability and poor solubility in water. The main objective of the current study was to overcome these drawbacks via improved bioavailability by nanoencapsulated emulsions. Pickering emulsion (PE) via oil-in-water approach were stabilized by aminated nanocellulose ...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - August 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Antineoplastic effect of pectic polysaccharides from green sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) on mammary tumor cells in vivo and in vitro
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2018Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Eliana Rezende Adami, Claudia Rita Corso, Natalia Mulinari Turin-Oliveira, Claudia Martins Galindo, Letícia Milani, Maria Caroline Stipp, Georgia Erdmann do Nascimento, Andressa Chequin, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade, Rosangela Locatelli Dittrich, José Ederaldo Queiroz-Telles, Giseli Klassen, Edneia A.S. Ramos, Lucimara M.C. Cordeiro, Alexandra AccoABSTRACTThe present study investigated the antineoplastic effects of pectic polysaccharides that were extracted from green sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum ...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - August 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cyclin D1 overexpression induces global transcriptional downregulation in lymphoid neoplasms
Cyclin D1 is an oncogene frequently overexpressed in human cancers that has a dual function as cell cycle and transcriptional regulator, although the latter is widely unexplored. Here, we investigated the transcriptional role of cyclin D1 in lymphoid tumor cells with cyclin D1 oncogenic overexpression. Cyclin D1 showed widespread binding to the promoters of most actively transcribed genes, and the promoter occupancy positively correlated with the transcriptional output of targeted genes. Despite this association, the overexpression of cyclin D1 in lymphoid cells led to a global transcriptional downmodulation that was propo...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - August 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Robert Albero, Anna Enjuanes, Santiago Demajo, Giancarlo Castellano, Magda Pinyol, Noelia García, Cristina Capdevila, Guillem Clot, Helena Suárez-Cisneros, Mariko Shimada, Kennosuke Karube, Mónica López-Guerra, Dolors Colomer, Sílvia Beà, José Igna Source Type: research

Mitochondrial reprogramming via ATP5H loss promotes multimodal cancer therapy resistance
The host immune system plays a pivotal role in the emergence of tumor cells that are refractory to multiple clinical interventions including immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which the immune system triggers cross-resistance to these interventions. By examining the biological changes in murine and tumor cells subjected to sequential rounds of in vitro or in vivo immune selection via cognate cytotoxic T lymphocytes, we found that multimodality resistance arises through a core metabolic reprogramming pathway instigated by epigenetic loss of the ATP synthase subunit A...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - August 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kwon-Ho Song, Jae-Hoon Kim, Young-Ho Lee, Hyun Cheol Bae, Hyo-Jung Lee, Seon Rang Woo, Se Jin Oh, Kyung-Mi Lee, Cassian Yee, Bo Wook Kim, Hanbyoul Cho, Eun Joo Chung, Joon-Yong Chung, Stephen M. Hewitt, Tae-Wook Chung, Ki-Tae Ha, Young-Ki Bae, Chih-Ping M Source Type: research

Polymerase-mediated ultramutagenesis in mice produces diverse cancers with high mutational load
We describe what we believe to be a novel approach to mutagenesis and cancer studies based on the DNA polymerase ε (POLE) ultramutator phenotype recently described in human cancers, in which a single amino acid substitution (most commonly P286R) in the proofreading domain results in error-prone DNA replication. We engineered a conditional PoleP286R allele in mice. PoleP286R/+ embryonic fibroblasts exhibited a striking mutator phenotype and immortalized more efficiently. PoleP286R/+ mice were born at Mendelian ratios but rapidly developed lethal cancers of diverse lineages, yielding the most cancer-prone monoallelic...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - August 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hao-Dong Li, Ileana Cuevas, Musi Zhang, Changzheng Lu, Md Maksudul Alam, Yang-Xin Fu, M. James You, Esra A. Akbay, He Zhang, Diego H. Castrillon Source Type: research

Hgf/Met activation mediates resistance to BRAF inhibition in murine anaplastic thyroid cancers
Anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) have a high prevalence of BRAF and TP53 mutations. A trial of vemurafenib in nonmelanoma BRAFV600E-mutant cancers showed significant, although short-lived, responses in ATCs, indicating that these virulent tumors remain addicted to BRAF despite their high mutation burden. To explore the mechanisms mediating acquired resistance to BRAF blockade, we generated mice with thyroid-specific deletion of p53 and dox-dependent expression of BRAFV600E, 50% of which developed ATCs after dox treatment. Upon dox withdrawal there was complete regression in all mice, although recurrences were later det...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - August 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jeffrey A. Knauf, Kathleen A. Luckett, Kuen-Yuan Chen, Francesca Voza, Nicholas D. Socci, Ronald Ghossein, James A. Fagin Source Type: research

Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of tin (IV) oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells
This study warrants further research to explore the genotoxicity of SnO2 NPs in different types of cancer cells.Graphical abstract (Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces)
Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces - August 21, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Astaxanthin-alpha tocopherol nanoemulsion formulation by emulsification methods: Investigation on anticancer, wound healing, and antibacterial effects
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2018Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: BiointerfacesAuthor(s): Shanmugapriya Karuppusamy, Hyejin Kim, Periaswamy Sivagnanam Saravana, Byung-Soo Chun, Hyun Wook KangAbstractEmulsion-based delivery systems have been fabricated and developed to increase the bioavailability of astaxanthin and alpha-tocopherol as active compounds for various biomedical applications. Astaxanthin-alpha tocopherol nanoemulsion (ATNE) is well known for its potential 6.to 6.30 effect. The current study investigated ATNE by spontaneous (SENE) and ultrasonication emulsification (USNE) methods to optimally fab...
Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces - August 21, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Dual blockade of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 by a novel peptide abrogates VEGF-driven angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis through PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK1/2 pathway
ConclusionThe dual specificity of VGB for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, through which the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways can be abrogated and, subsequently, angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis are inhibited.General significance.This study demonstrated that simultaneous blockade of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 downstream cascades is an effective means for treatment of various angiogenic disorders, especially cancer. (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects)
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects - August 21, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Multimodal highly fluorescent-magnetic nanoplatform to target transferrin receptors in cancer cells
ConclusionsThe prepared BNPs-Tf hold great promise as an effective and specific multimodal, highly fluorescent-magnetic, nanoplatform for fluorescence analyses and T2-weighted images.General significance.This study developed an attractive and versatile multimodal nanoplatform that has potential to be applied in a variety of in vitro and in vivo studies, addressing biological processes, diagnostic, and therapeutics. Moreover, this work opens new possibilities for designing other efficient multimodal nanosystems, considering other biomolecules in their composition able to provide them important functional properties.Graphica...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects - August 21, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Factors Influencing Prostate Specific Antigen Testing in the United States
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017Source: Urology PracticeAuthor(s): Nicolas von Landenberg, Matthew Mossanen, Ye Wang, Jesse D. Sammon, Nawar Hanna, Philipp Gild, Joachim Noldus, Florian Roghmann, Mani Menon, Adam S. Kibel, Maxine Sun, Steven L. Chang, Quoc-Dien TrinhAbstractIntroductionGiven the ongoing controversies regarding its benefit, prostate specific antigen based prostate cancer screening should be offered with patient preferences in mind. Understanding subsets of men who may or may not choose prostate specific antigen screening and their associated characteristics may allow more efficient care an...
Source: Urology Practice - August 21, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Re: Robot-assisted Radical Cystectomy Versus Open Radical Cystectomy in Patients with Bladder Cancer (RAZOR): An Open-label, Randomised, Phase 3, Non-inferiority Trial
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2018Source: European UrologyAuthor(s): Gianluca Giannarini, Alessandro Crestani, Vincenzo Ficarra (Source: European Urology)
Source: European Urology - August 21, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation of the spleen in a four-year-old with anemia
We present a sixth case of SANT in a four-year-old boy who presented with chronic anemia and elevated inflammatory markers. The relative variability in case presentation and the clinical concern for malignancy, warrant further disease characterization and discussion of management. (Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports - August 21, 2018 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

OncoKidsSM: A Comprehensive Next-Generation Sequencing Panel for Pediatric Malignancies
We describe the validation of this panel using a large cohort of 192 unique clinical samples that included a wide range of tumor types and alterations. Robust performance was observed for analytical sensitivity, reproducibility, and limit of detection studies. The results from this study support the use of OncoKidsSM for routine clinical testing of a wide variety of pediatric malignancies. (Source: The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics)
Source: The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics - August 21, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The role of long non-coding RNA AFAP1-AS1 in human malignant tumors
ConclusionsA series of studies provide detailed information to understand lncRNA AFAP1-AS1 role in various human cancers. LncRNA AFAP1-AS1 is an oncogene in tumors that have been studied so far, and it may act as a useful tumor biomarker and therapeutic target. (Source: Pathology Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - August 21, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for head and neck cancer: cost-effectiveness analysis
CONCLUSIONS: IMRT was considered cost-effective from the perspective of the Brazilian public health system.RESUMO INTRODU ÇÃO: Foi realizada uma análise de custo-efetividade da radioterapia com intensidade modulada de feixe (IMRT) comparada com a radioterapia conformada para pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço (CCP) no contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). MÉTODOS: Foi elaborado um modelo de Markov p ara comparar os custos médicos diretos e os desfechos de saúde relacionados à qualidade de vida do paciente pós-intervenç...
Source: Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira - August 21, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

ALBI grade as a new player in hepatocellular carcinoma
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2018Source: Journal of the Chinese Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Teh-Ia Huo (Source: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association - August 21, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Immunological-based approaches for cancer therapy
The immunologic landscape of tumors has been continuously unveiled, providing a new look at the interactions between cancer cells and the immune system. Emerging tumor cells are constantly eliminated by the immune system, but some cells establish a long-term equilibrium phase leading to tumor immunoediting and, eventually, evasion. During this process, tumor cells tend to acquire more mutations. Bearing a high mutation burden leads to a greater number of neoantigens with the potential to initiate an immune response. Although many tumors evoke an immune response, tumor clearance by the immune system does not occur due to a ...
Source: Clinics - August 21, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Homologous recombination deficiency in ovarian cancer: a review of its epidemiology and management
Ovarian cancer patients with homologous recombination deficiencies exhibit specific clinical behaviors, and improved responses to treatments, such as platinum-based chemotherapy and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, have been observed. Germline mutations in the BRCA 1/2 genes are the most well-known mechanisms of homologous recombination deficiency. However, other mechanisms, such as germline and somatic mutations in other homologous recombination genes and epigenetic modifications, have also been implicated in homologous recombination deficiency. The epidemiology and implications of these other mechanisms ne...
Source: Clinics - August 21, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Improving adenoviral vectors and strategies for prostate cancer gene therapy
Gene therapy has been evaluated for the treatment of prostate cancer and includes the application of adenoviral vectors encoding a suicide gene or oncolytic adenoviruses that may be armed with a functional transgene. In parallel, versions of adenoviral vector expressing the p53 gene (Ad-p53) have been tested as treatments for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer. Although Ad-p53 gene therapy has yielded some interesting results when applied to prostate cancer, it has not been widely explored, perhaps due to current limitations of the approach. To achieve better functionality, improvements in...
Source: Clinics - August 21, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Marine drugs for cancer: surfacing biotechnological innovations from the oceans
This review will discuss the contributions of marine natural molecules, a source only recently found to have pharmaceutical prospects, to the development of anticancer drugs. Of the seven clinically utilized compounds with a marine origin, four are used for the treatment of cancer. The development of these drugs has afforded valuable knowledge and crucial insights to meet the most common challenges in this endeavor, such as toxicity and supply. In this context, the development of these compounds will be discussed herein to illustrate, with successful examples provided by cytarabine, trabectedin, eribulin and brentuximab ve...
Source: Clinics - August 21, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Carcinoid syndrome: update on the pathophysiology and treatment
Approximately 30-40% of patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors present with carcinoid syndrome, which is a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with the secretion of several humoral factors. Carcinoid syndrome significantly and negatively affects patients ’ quality of life; increases costs compared with the costs of nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumors; and results in changes in patients ’ lifestyle, such as diet, work, physical activity and social life. For several decades, patients with neuroendocrine tumors and carcinoid syndrome have been treated with somatostatin analogues as the first-line ...
Source: Clinics - August 21, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Epidemiology and biology of cutaneous human papillomavirus
Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) include β - and γ -HPVs, in addition to a small fraction of α -HPVs. β -HPVs were first isolated from patients with the rare genetic disorder Epidermodysplasia verruciformis, and they are associated with the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer at sun-exposed skin sites in these individuals. Organ transplant recipients also have greater susceptibility to β -HPV infection of the skin and an increased risk of developing nonmelanoma skin cancer. In both immunosuppressed and immunocompromised individuals, cutaneous HPVs are ubiquitously disseminated throughou...
Source: Clinics - August 21, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Eicosanoids and cancer
Eicosanoids are 20-carbon bioactive lipids derived from the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which can modulate various biological processes including cell proliferation, adhesion and migration, angiogenesis, vascular permeability and inflammatory responses. In recent years, studies have shown the importance of eicosanoids in the control of physiological and pathological processes associated with several diseases, including cancer. The polyunsaturated fatty acid predominantly metabolized to generate 2-series eicosanoids is arachidonic acid, which is the major n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid found in animal fat and...
Source: Clinics - August 21, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Alterations in metabolic pathways in gastric epithelial cells infected with Helicobacter pylori
In this study, AGS human gastric carcinoma cells were infected with CagA-positive H. pylori strain ATCC43504, and then the metabolites in the AGS cells after the 2-, 6- and 12-h infections were analyzed by GC/MS-based metabolomic analysis. Among 67 metabolites detected, 11 metabolites were significantly altered by the H. pylori infection. The metabolite profiles of H. pylori-infected AGS cells were evaluated on the basis of metabolite pathways, and it was found that glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and amino acid metabolism displayed characteristic changes in the H. pylori-infected AGS cells. At 2 h post-infec...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - August 21, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

TERTp mutation is associated with a shorter progression free survival in patients with aggressive histology subtypes of follicular-cell derived thyroid carcinoma
ConclusionsTERTp mutation appears be an indicator of both persistence and progression of structural disease after initial therapy in aggressive variants of TCDFC, and associates with a shorter progression free survival regardless of the therapy employed. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - August 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Assessing the utility of preoperative serum thyroglobulin in differentiated thyroid cancer: a retrospective cohort study
AbstractPurposeSerum thyroglobulin (TG) is used to monitor for recurrence or progression of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The role of preoperative TG measurement is more ambiguous, yet still being used in some centers. We aimed to determine whether preoperative TG correlates with disease stage or metastatic burden.MethodsA retrospective review of patients with TG measured before thyroidectomy was conducted. Data collected included demographics, preoperative TG, pathology, and cancer stage. Associations between preoperative TG levels and size of largest malignant nodule, thyroid gland size, stage of cancer, and prese...
Source: Endocrine - August 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Patients ’ knowledge about the outcomes of thyroid biopsy: a patient survey
ConclusionsAfter undergoing thyroid biopsy, a high proportion of well-educated patients remained unaware of their risk for thyroid cancer, potential outcomes, and downstream consequences of their biopsy. This quality gap raises the possibility that informed consent procedures that meet legal standards may leave patients undergoing thyroid biopsy paradoxically uninformed. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - August 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Survival of aggressive variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients under 55 years old: a SEER population-based retrospective analysis
AbstractBackgroundPatients younger than 55 years of age with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) have excellent survival. Diffuse sclerosing variant (DSV) and tall cell variant (TCV) of PTC are associated with aggressiveness; the survival of patients
Source: Endocrine - August 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research