Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5240: Precision Oncology of High-Grade Ovarian Cancer Defined through Targeted Sequencing
Conclusions: Tumours from 274 women were sequenced, including high-grade serous carcinoma (n = 252), clear cell carcinoma (n = 4), carcinosarcoma (n = 9), endometrioid carcinoma (n = 3), undifferentiated carcinoma (n = 1), and mixed tumours (n = 5). Genomic profiling did not influence histologic diagnosis. Mutations were identified in TP53, BRCA1, BRCA2, as well as additional homologous recombination repair pathway genes BARD1, ATR, CHEK2, PALB2, RAD51D, RAD50, SLX4, FANCA, RAD51C, and RAD54L. In addition, mutations in PTEN and CDKN2A were identified. Several somatic mutations with implications for germline testing were id...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sandra Wessman Beatriz Bohorquez Fuentes Therese T örngren Anders Kvist Georgia Kokaraki Hanna Menkens Elisabet Hjerpe Ythalo Hugo Tirzah Braz Petta Åke Borg Joseph W. Carlson Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5234: Intracranial M önckeberg’s Atherosclerosis Is Frequently Found in Autopsy Cases of Advanced Stage Malignancy with Cerebral Infarction
Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5234: Intracranial Mönckeberg’s Atherosclerosis Is Frequently Found in Autopsy Cases of Advanced Stage Malignancy with Cerebral Infarction Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers13205234 Authors: Chika Shichijo Keita Kai Kazuki Jinnouchi Masashi Nishihara Hideo Hara Shinichi Aishima Cerebral infarction (CI) severely affects the prognosis of patients with malignancy. The aim of the study was to compare the pathology of CI between cases with and without malignancy focusing on intracranial Mönckeberg’s atherosclerosis. Among 778 autopsy cases of craniotomy, 53 cases of &ldq...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chika Shichijo Keita Kai Kazuki Jinnouchi Masashi Nishihara Hideo Hara Shinichi Aishima Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5241: Epigenetic Modifiers as Novel Therapeutic Targets and a Systematic Review of Clinical Studies Investigating Epigenetic Inhibitors in Head and Neck Cancer
ura The survival rate of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients with the current standard of care therapy is suboptimal and is associated with long-term side effects. Novel therapeutics that will improve survival rates while minimizing treatment-related side effects are the focus of active investigation. Epigenetic modifications have been recognized as potential therapeutic targets in various cancer types, including head and neck cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the function of important epigenetic modifiers in head and neck cancer, their clinical implications and discusses results of cli...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kyunghee Burkitt Vassiliki Saloura Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5242: Genomic Sub-Classification of Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma Revealed by Distinct Mutational Signatures
rid V. Høgdall Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is characterized by dismal prognosis, partially due to its low sensitivity to standard chemotherapy regimen. It is also well-known for presenting unique molecular features in comparison to other epithelial ovarian cancer subtypes. Here, we aim to identify potential subgroups of patients in order to (1) determine their molecular features and (2) characterize their mutational signature. Furthermore, we sought to perform the investigation based on a potentially clinically relevant setting. To that end, we assessed the mutational profile and genomic instability of 5...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Douglas V. N. P. Oliveira Tine H. Schnack Tim S. Poulsen Anne P. Christiansen Claus K. H øgdall Estrid V. H øgdall Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5244: Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Treatment Modalties for Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremities
Conclusion: Multimodal treatment strategies in patients with STS of extremities lead to excellent oncological outcomes. Patients with high-risk STS had a significantly better MFS when receiving NT than patients with low-risk STS. NT was associated with a higher probability of postoperative but well-manageable complications. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Miriam Rauch Abbas Agaimy Sabine Semrau Alexander Willner Oliver Ott Rainer Fietkau Werner Hohenberger Roland S. Croner Robert Gr ützmann Katja Fechner Nikolaos Vassos Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5243: Activation of Vitamin D Receptor Pathway Enhances Differentiating Capacity in Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Mutations
Pierre Bories Christian Récher Héléna Boutzen Véronique Mansat-De Mas Lucille Stuani Jean-Emmanuel Sarry Relapses and resistance to therapeutic agents are major barriers in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. These unfavorable outcomes emphasize the need for new strategies targeting drug-resistant cells. As IDH mutations are present in the preleukemic stem cells and systematically conserved at relapse, targeting IDH mutant cells could be essential to achieve a long-term remission in the IDH mutant AML subgroup. Here, using a panel of human AML cell lines and p...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Marie Sabatier Emeline Boet Sonia Zaghdoudi Nathan Guiraud Alexis Hucteau Nathaniel Polley Guillaume Cognet Estelle Saland Laura Lauture Thomas Farge Ambrine Sahal Vera Pancaldi Emeline Chu-Van Florence Castelli Sarah Bertoli Pierre Bories Christian R éc Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5245: Occurrence of Sinonasal Intestinal-Type Adenocarcinoma and Non-Intestinal-Type Adenocarcinoma in Two Countries with Different Patterns of Wood Dust Exposure
rsiainen Henrik Wolff Sinonasal intestinal-type adenocarcinoma is strongly associated with hardwood dust exposure. Non-intestinal-type adenocarcinoma is a rarer and less well-known subtype considered not to be related with wood dust exposure. We determined the relative numbers of these two tumor types in 56 sinonasal adenocarcinoma patients in France and Finland, relating them with carefully assessed wood dust exposure histories. Diagnostic workup including immunohistochemistry for the intestinal markers CDX2 and CK20 indicated that the proportions of the two tumors differed significantly between France and Finland. ...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ilmo Leivo Reetta Holmila Dani èle Luce Torben Steiniche Michael Dictor Pirjo Heikkil ä Kirsti Husgafvel-Pursiainen Henrik Wolff Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5248: The Oncogene MYCN Modulates Glycolytic and Invasive Genes to Enhance Cell Viability and Migration in Human Retinoblastoma
Mamatha M. Reddy Retinoblastoma is usually initiated by biallelic RB1 gene inactivation. In addition, MYCN copy number alterations also contribute to RB pathogenesis. However, MYCN expression, its role in disease progression and correlation with RB histological risk factors are not well understood. We studied the expression of MYCN in enucleated RB patient specimens by immunohistochemistry. MYCN is overexpressed in RB compared to control retina. Our microarray gene expression analysis followed by qRT-PCR validation revealed that genes involved in glucose metabolism and migration are significantly downregulated in MYCN...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Swatishree Sradhanjali Padmalochan Rout Devjyoti Tripathy Swathi Kaliki Suryasnata Rath Rahul Modak Ruchi Mittal Tirumala Kumar Chowdary Mamatha M. Reddy Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5246: Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Functions as a Road-Block in Cancer Therapy
i Dey The journey of a normal resident fibroblast belonging to the tumor microenvironment (TME) from being a tumor pacifier to a tumor patron is fascinating. We introduce cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) as a crucial component of the TME. Activated-CAF partners with tumor cells and all components of TME in an established solid tumor. We briefly overview the origin, activation, markers, and overall functions of CAF with a particular reference to how different functions of CAF in an established tumor are functionally connected to the development of resistance to cancer therapy in solid tumors. We interrogate the role o...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Pradip De Jennifer Aske Nandini Dey Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5249: Landscape of Immune-Related Markers and Potential Therapeutic Targets in Soft Tissue Sarcoma
ny P. Conley Soft tissue sarcomas, depending on the subtype and grade, frequently recur and become metastatic after localized treatment. There is now great interest in applying immunotherapy to sarcomas to immuno-profile the different subtypes and immune monitor for prognosis. Our group previously showed that key immunotherapy target genes are present in sarcomas. Here, we extend our findings by demonstrating that sarcomas with a relatively high mutational load are likely to be more sensitive to immunotherapy compared to sarcomas with a lower mutation load. We also show that sarcomas with a higher mutation load are ass...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jason Roszik Lisa Maria Mustachio John A. Livingston Roman Groisberg Roberto Carmagnani Pestana Vivek Subbiah Anthony P. Conley Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5247: Antigen Presenting Cells from Tumor and Colon of Colorectal Cancer Patients Are Distinct in Activation and Functional Status, but Comparably Responsive to Activated T Cells
auml;rbrink Ulf Yrlid Although mouse models of CRC treatments have demonstrated robust immune activation, it remains unclear to what extent CRC patients’ APCs and TILs interact to fuel or quench treatment-induced immune responses. Our ex vivo characterization of tumor and adjacent colon cell suspensions suggest that contrasting environments in these tissues promoted inversed expression of T cell co-stimulatory CD80, and co-inhibitory programmed death (PD)-ligand1 (PD-L1) on intratumoral vs. colonic APCs. While putative tumor-specific CD103+CD39+CD8+ TILs expressed lower CD69 (early activation marker) and higher...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Frank Liang Azar Rezapour Louis Szeponik Samuel Als én Yvonne Wettergren Elinor Bexe Lindskog Marianne Quiding-J ärbrink Ulf Yrlid Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5250: Metabolism-Associated Epigenetic and Immunoepigenetic Reprogramming in Liver Cancer
adori Metabolic reprogramming and epigenetic changes have been characterized as hallmarks of liver cancer. Independently of etiology, oncogenic pathways as well as the availability of different energetic substrates critically influence cellular metabolism, and the resulting perturbations often cause aberrant epigenetic alterations, not only in cancer cells but also in the hepatic tumor microenvironment. Metabolic intermediates serve as crucial substrates for various epigenetic modulations, from post-translational modification of histones to DNA methylation. In turn, epigenetic changes can alter the expression of metabo...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chaofan Fan Shing Kam Pierluigi Ramadori Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5251: Lipid Droplet Accumulation Independently Predicts Poor Clinical Prognosis in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma
Ihara Ino Nishitsuji High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is an epithelial cancer that accounts for most ovarian cancer deaths. Metabolic abnormalities such as extensive aerobic glycolysis and aberrant lipid metabolism are well-known characteristics of cancer cells. Indeed, accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs) in certain types of malignant tumors has been known for more than 50 years. Here, we investigated the correlation between LD accumulation and clinical prognosis. In 96 HGSOC patients, we found that high expression of the LD marker adipophilin was associated with poor progression-free and overall su...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Iwahashi Ikezaki Fujimoto Komohara Fujiwara Yamamoto Mizoguchi Matsubara Watanabe Matsuzaki Murata Ihara Ino Nishitsuji Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5233: Liquid Biopsy as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Tool for Women and Female Dogs with Breast Cancer
Conclusion: Liquid biopsy is useful to identify specific genetic variations at the beginning of BC manifestation and may be accompanied over the entire follow-up period, thereby supporting the clinicians in refining interventions. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jucimara Colombo Marina Gobbe Moschetta-Pinheiro Adriana Alonso Novais Bruna Ribeiro Stoppe Enrico Dumbra Bonini Francine Moraes Gon çalves Heidge Fukumasu Luiz Lehmann Coutinho Luiz Gustavo de Almeida Chuffa Debora Aparecida Pires de Campos Zuccari Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5232: Radiation-Induced Fibrotic Tumor Microenvironment Regulates Anti-Tumor Immune Response
oon-Jin Lee High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, such as neutron radiation, is considered more effective for the treatment of cancer than low LET radiation, such as X-rays. We previously reported that X-ray irradiation induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and profibrotic changes, which contributed to the radioresistance of tumors. However, this effect was attenuated in tumors of endothelial-specific Trp53-knockout mice. Herein, we report that compared to X-ray irradiation, neutron radiation therapy reduced collagen deposition and suppressed EndMT in tumors. In addition to the fewer fibrotic cha...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jae-Kyung Nam Ji-Hee Kim Min-Sik Park Eun Ho Kim Joon Kim Yoon-Jin Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5236: Small Extracellular Vesicle-Derived microRNAs Stratify Prostate Cancer Patients According to Gleason Score, Race and Associate with Survival of African American and Caucasian Men
Y. Abd Elmageed The utility of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs)-derived microRNAs (miRs) to segregate prostate cancer (PCa) patients according to tumor aggressiveness and ancestral background has not been fully investigated. Thus, we aimed to determine the diagnostic and prognostic utility of sEV-associated miRs in identifying aggressive PCa in African American (AA) and Caucasian (CA) men. Using a training cohort, miR profiling was performed on sEVs isolated from plasma of PCa patients. Top-ranked sEV-associated miRs were then validated in 150 plasma samples (75 AA and 75 CA) collected from two independent cohorts; ...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hamdy E. A. Ali Mohamed S. A. Gaballah Rofaida Gaballa Shahenda Mahgoub Zeinab A. Hassan Eman A. Toraih Bettina F. Drake Zakaria Y. Abd Elmageed Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5237: Evaluation of NAB2-STAT6 Fusion Variants and Other Molecular Alterations as Prognostic Biomarkers in a Case Series of 83 Solitary Fibrous Tumors
Juan Díaz-Martín Risk stratification of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) patients based on clinicopathological features has limited efficacy, especially in predicting late relapse or metastasis. The hallmark alteration of SFT is the gene fusion NAB2-STAT6, whose prognostic value remains controversial. As biological knowledge of this entity has increased in recent years, new molecular alterations have emerged that could be helpful to refine current risk models. Here, we evaluated NAB2-STAT6 fusion variants and other molecular alterations in a series of 83 SFTs that are enriched in progressing cases. Gene fusi...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Carmen Salguero-Aranda Paula Mart ínez-Reguera David Marcilla Enrique de Álava Juan D íaz-Martín Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5235: DARPin_9-29-Targeted Gold Nanorods Selectively Suppress HER2-Positive Tumor Growth in Mice
nder B. Kotlyar Near-infrared phototherapy has great therapeutic potential for cancer treatment. However, for efficient application, in vivo photothermal agents should demonstrate excellent stability in blood and targeted delivery to pathological tissue. Here, we demonstrated that stable bovine serum albumin-coated gold mini nanorods conjugated to a HER2-specific designed ankyrin repeat protein, DARPin_9-29, selectively accumulate in HER2-positive xenograft tumors in mice and lead to a strong reduction in the tumor size when being illuminated with near-infrared light. The results pave the way for the development of nov...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Galina M. Proshkina Elena I. Shramova Marya V. Shilova Ivan V. Zelepukin Victoria O. Shipunova Anastasia V. Ryabova Sergey M. Deyev Alexander B. Kotlyar Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5238: A Recurrent STAT5BN642H Driver Mutation in Feline Alimentary T Cell Lymphoma
gl Iwan A. Burgener Alimentary lymphomas arising from T cells are rare and aggressive malignancies in humans. In comparison, they represent the most common anatomical form of lymphoma in cats. Due to the low prevalence in humans, the underlying pathomechanism for these diseases is poorly characterised, limiting experimental analysis and therapeutic exploration. To date, activating mutations of the JAK/STAT core cancer pathway and particularly the STAT5B oncoprotein have been identified in human enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma. Here, we describe a high homology of human and feline STAT3 and STAT5B proteins and ...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Matthias Kieslinger Alexander Swoboda Nina Kramer Patricia Freund Barbara Pratscher Heidi A. Neubauer Ralf Steinborn Birgitt Wolfesberger Andrea Fuchs-Baumgartinger Richard Moriggl Iwan A. Burgener Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5239: Future Perspective of Chemotherapy and Pharmacotherapy in Thymic Carcinoma
uma Thymic carcinoma is a rare cancer that arises from thymic epithelial cells. Its nature and pathology differ from that of benign thymoma, presenting a poorer prognosis. If surgically resectable, surgery alone or surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy is recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines. Metastatic and refractory thymic carcinomas require systemic pharmacotherapy. Combined carboplatin and paclitaxel, and cisplatin and anthracycline-based regimens have been shown a fair response rate and survival to provide a de facto standard of care when compared with other drugs emp...
Source: Cancers - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Rui Kitadai Yusuke Okuma Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5230: Oncomine ™ Comprehensive Assay v3 vs. Oncomine™ Comprehensive Assay Plus
In conclusion, the OCA-Plus can reflect the mutational profile of genomic variants compared with OCAv3 of 144 overlapping genes, without compromising performance. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lau K. Vestergaard Douglas N. P. Oliveira Tim S. Poulsen Claus K. H øgdall Estrid V. H øgdall Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5231: Altered Expression of Shorter p53 Family Isoforms Can Impact Melanoma Aggressiveness
Barban Neda Slade Yari Ciribilli Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. Despite the significant advances in the management of melanoma in recent decades, it still represents a challenge for clinicians. The TP53 gene, the guardian of the genome, which is altered in more than 50% of human cancers, is rarely mutated in melanoma. More recently, researchers started to appreciate the importance of shorter p53 isoforms as potential modifiers of the p53-dependent responses. We analyzed the expression of p53 and p73 isoforms both at the RNA and protein level in a panel of melanoma-derived cell lines ...
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ana Tadijan Francesca Precazzini Nikolina Han žić Martina Radi ć Nicol ò Gavioli Ignacija Vla šić Petar Ozreti ć Lia Pinto Lidija Škreblin Giulia Barban Neda Slade Yari Ciribilli Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5210: Novel Non-Immunologic Agents for Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma: A Review Article
u Thomas Systchenko Niels Moya Xavier Leleu Novel treatments are needed to address the lack of options for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Even though immunotherapy-based treatments have revolutionized the field in recent years, offering new opportunities for patients, there is still no curative therapy. Thus, non-immunologic agents, which have proven effective for decades, are still central to the treatment of multiple myeloma, especially for advanced disease. Building on their efficacy in myeloma, the development of proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs has been pursued, and ha...
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Arthur Bobin C écile Gruchet St éphanie Guidez H élène Gardeney Laly Nsiala Makunza Mathilde Vonfeld Anthony L évy Laura Cailly Florence Sabirou Thomas Systchenko Niels Moya Xavier Leleu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5212: MSC-Derived Extracellular Vesicles in Tumors and Therapy
Hass Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stroma-/stem-like cells (MSCs) as part of extracellular vesicles are considered cell-free biocompatible nanovesicles that promote repair activities of damaged tissues or organs by exhibiting low immunogenic and cytotoxic effects. Contributions to regenerative activities include wound healing, maintenance of stem cell niches, beneficial regenerative effects in various diseases, and reduction of senescence. However, the mode of action in MSC-derived exosomes strongly depends on the biological content like different regulatory microRNAs that are determined by the tissue origin of MS...
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tianjiao Luo Juliane von der Ohe Ralf Hass Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5211: The Prognostic Impact of Histology in Esophageal and Esophago-Gastric Junction Adenocarcinoma
n Domenico Raulli Riccardo Rosati Uberto Fumagalli Romario Giovanni De Manzoni Jari Räsänen Sandro Mattioli Stage significantly affects survival of esophageal and esophago-gastric junction adenocarcinomas (EA/EGJAs), however, limited evidence for the prognostic role of histologic subtypes is available. The aim of the study was to describe a morphologic approach to EA/EGJAs and assess its discriminating prognostic power. Histologic slides from 299 neoadjuvant treatment-naïve EA/EGJAs, resected in five European Centers, were retrospectively reviewed. Morphologic features were re-assessed and corr...
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Roberto Fiocca Luca Mastracci Marialuisa Lugaresi Federica Grillo Antonietta D ’Errico Deborah Malvi Paola Spaggiari Anna Tomezzoli Luca Albarello Ari Ristim äki Luca Bottiglieri Elena Bonora Kausilia K. Krishnadath Gian Domenico Raulli Riccardo Rosati Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5215: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Cohort Trial Assessing the Prevalence of MTHFR Polymorphisms and the Influence of Diet on Platinum Resistance in Ovarian Cancer Patients
Schloss Ovarian cancer has the lowest survival rate in gynaecologic malignancies with a 5-year survival rate of 43%. Platinum resistance is one of the main drivers of ovarian cancer mortality, of which aberrant methylation has been cited as a significant contributor. Understanding the essential role of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase enzyme (MTHFR) on DNA synthesis and repair, and how nutrient status can vastly affect its performance, led to the investigation of MTHFR status and dietary influence on platinum response in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Twenty-five adult female patients who completed fi...
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Caitlin Phillips-Chavez Jermaine Coward Michael Watson Janet Schloss Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5217: Uncommon Variants of Mature T-Cell Lymphomas (MTCLs): Imaging and Histopathologic and Clinical Features with Updates from the Fourth Edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms
atthew F. Covington Understanding the pathogenesis and molecular biology of malignant lymphomas is challenging, given the complex nature and incongruity of these disorders. The classification of lymphoma is continually evolving to account for advances in clinical, pathological, molecular biology and cytogenetic aspects, which impact our understanding of these disorders. The latest fourth edition of the WHO classification of lymphoid malignancies was released in 2016 to account for these changes. Additionally, unlike B-cell lymphomas (BCL), T-cell lymphomas (TCL) are uncommon, and may be sporadically experienced in clin...
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ahmed Ebada Salem Yehia H. Zaki Gamal El-Hussieny Khaled I. ElNoueam Akram M. Shaaban Bhasker Rao Koppula Ming Yang Mohamed Salama Khaled M. Elsayes Matthew F. Covington Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5216: Molecular Targets for Gastric Cancer Treatment and Future Perspectives from a Clinical and Translational Point of View
. Hacker Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Systemic treatment comprising chemotherapy and targeted therapy is the standard of care in advanced/metastatic gastric cancer. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinomas by the TCGA Consortium and ACRG has resulted in the definition of distinct molecular subtypes. These efforts have in parallel built a basis for the development of novel molecularly stratified treatment approaches. Based on this molecular characterization, an increasing number of specific genomic alterations can potentially serve as treatment targets. Conseque...
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Justus K örfer Florian Lordick Ulrich T. Hacker Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5213: Sarcomas: New Biomarkers and Therapeutic Strategies
a Bone and soft tissue sarcoma (STS) are heterogeneous diseases comprised of various molecular and histologic subtypes [...] (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tomoki Nakamura Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5218: Cardiac Toxicity Associated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Systematic Review
We present here a review of the current research on immune checkpoint inhibitors, their associated cardiotoxicities, the timing of presentation of these conditions, lab tests and histology for each condition, and finally the treatment of patients with cardiotoxicity. We observe a positive skew in the onset of presentation, which is significant for the treating physician. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Walid Shalata Amjad Abu-salman Rachel Steckbeck Binil Mathew Jacob Ismaell Massalha Alexander Yakobson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5214: Identification of Biochemical and Molecular Markers of Early Aging in Childhood Cancer Survivors
In conclusion, our study identified some biochemical and molecular alterations possibly contributing to the pathophysiology of aging and metabolic deficiencies in CCS. These results identify new targets for pharmacological interventions to restore mitochondrial function, slowing down the aging-associated pathologies in CCS. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Silvia Ravera Tiziana Vigliarolo Silvia Bruno Fabio Morandi Danilo Marimpietri Federica Sabatini Monica Dagnino Andrea Petretto Martina Bartolucci Monica Muraca Eleonora Biasin Riccardo Haupt Marco Zecca Franca Fagioli Daniela Cilloni Marina Podest à Fra Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5219: Mutational Characterization of Cutaneous Melanoma Supports Divergent Pathways Model for Melanoma Development
This study has used a custom gene panel and bioinformatics tools to investigate the potential molecular differences in a thoroughly characterized cohort of 119 melanoma patients belonging to nevogenic and CSD groups. We found that the nevogenic melanomas had a restricted set of mutations, with the prominently mutated gene being BRAF. The CSD melanomas, in contrast, showed mutations in a diverse group of genes that included NF1, ROS1, GNA11, and RAC1. We thus provide evidence that nevogenic and CSD melanomas constitute different biological entities and highlight the need to explore new targeted therapies. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: David Mill án-Esteban Mar ía Peña-Chilet Zaida Garc ía-Casado Esperanza Manrique-Silva Celia Requena Jos é Bañuls Jose Antonio L ópez-Guerrero Aranzazu Rodr íguez-Hernández V íctor Traves Joaqu ín Dopazo Amaya Vir ós Rajiv Kumar Eduardo Nagore Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5220: Selection of a Nuclease-Resistant RNA Aptamer Targeting CD19
We describe a 2′-fluoro pyrimidine modified aptamer, named B85.T2, which specifically binds to CD19 and shows an exquisite stability in human serum. The aptamer showed an estimated dissociation constant (KD) of 49.9 ± 13 nM on purified human recombinant CD19 (rhCD19) glycoprotein, a good binding activity on human B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells expressing CD19, and also an effective and rapid cell internalisation, thus representing a promising molecule for CD19 targeting, as well as for the development of new B-cell malignancy-targeted therapies. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Carla L. Esposito Katrien Van Roosbroeck Gianluca Santamaria Deborah Rotoli Annamaria Sandomenico William G. Wierda Alessandra Ferrajoli Menotti Ruvo George A. Calin Vittorio de Franciscis Silvia Catuogno Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5221: Comprehensive Analysis of VEGFR2 Expression in HPV-Positive and -Negative OPSCC Reveals Differing VEGFR2 Expression Patterns
ssmann Christian U. Huebbers VEGF signaling regulated by the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) plays a decisive role in tumor angiogenesis, initiation and progression in several tumors including HNSCC. However, the impact of HPV-status on the expression of VEGFR2 in OPSCC has not yet been investigated, although HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 induce VEGF-expression. In a series of 56 OPSCC with known HPV-status, VEGFR2 expression patterns were analyzed both in blood vessels from tumor-free and tumor-containing regions and within tumor cells by immunohistochemistry using densitometry. Differences in su...
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Senem Uzun Y üksel Korkmaz Nora Wuerdemann Christoph Arolt Behrus Puladi Oliver G. Siefer Hanife G. D önmez Martin Hufbauer Baki Akg ül Jens P. Klussmann Christian U. Huebbers Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5222: FDG-PET/CT in Lymphoma: Where Do We Go Now?
anoun 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is an essential part of the management of patients with lymphoma at staging and response evaluation. Efforts to standardize PET acquisition and reporting, including the 5-point Deauville scale, have enabled PET to become a surrogate for treatment success or failure in common lymphoma subtypes. This review summarizes the key clinical-trial evidence that supports PET-directed personalized approaches in lymphoma but also points out the potential place of innovative PET/CT metrics or new radiopharmaceuticals in the futu...
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yassine Al Tabaa Clement Bailly Salim Kanoun Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5223: Primary Mediastinal and Testicular Germ Cell Tumors in Adolescents and Adults: A Comparison of Genomic Alterations and Clinical Implications
Ugo De Giorgi Mediastinal germ cell tumors (MGCTs) share histologic, molecular and biomarkers features with testicular GCTs; however, nonseminomatous MGCTs are usually more aggressive and have poorer prognosis than nonseminomatous TGCTs. Most nonseminomatous MGCT cases show early resistance to platinum-based therapies and seldom have been associated with the onset of one or more concomitant somatic malignancies, in particular myeloid neoplasms with recent findings supporting a common, shared genetic precursor with the primary MGCT. Genomic, transcriptomic and epigenetic features of testicular GCTs have been extensive...
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Milena Urbini Giuseppe Schepisi Sara Bleve Alessandra Virga Caterina Gianni Giorgia Gurioli Paola Ulivi Ugo De Giorgi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5224: Role of Pancreatic Stellate Cell-Derived Exosomes in Pancreatic Cancer-Related Diabetes: A Novel Hypothesis
Minoti V. Apte Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating condition characterised by vague symptomatology and delayed diagnosis. About 30% of PDAC patients report a history of new onset diabetes, usually diagnosed within 3 years prior to the diagnosis of cancer. Thus, new onset diabetes, which is also known as pancreatic cancer-related diabetes (PCRD), could be a harbinger of PDAC. Diabetes is driven by progressive β cell loss/dysfunction and insulin resistance, two key features that are also found in PCRD. Experimental studies suggest that PDAC cell-derived exosomes carry factors that are detriment...
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chamini J. Perera Marco Falasca Suresh T. Chari Jerry R. Greenfield Zhihong Xu Romano C. Pirola Jeremy S. Wilson Minoti V. Apte Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5225: Currently Used Laboratory Methodologies for Assays Detecting PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2 and Soluble PD-L1 in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer
keun Song Approximately 20% of breast cancer (BC) patients suffer from distant metastasis. The incidence and prevalence rates of metastatic BC have increased annually. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are an emerging area of treatment, especially for metastatic patients with poor outcomes. Several antibody drugs have been developed and approved for companion testing of the programmed death protine-1 (PD-1) axis. We reviewed currently used laboratory methodologies for assays determining PD-1 axis to provide a comprehensive understanding of principles, advantages, and drawbacks involved in their implementation. The most comm...
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Seri Jeong Nuri Lee Min-Jeong Park Kibum Jeon Wonkeun Song Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5226: Characterization of Microtubule Destabilizing Drugs: A Quantitative Cell-Based Assay That Bridges the Gap between Tubulin Based- and Cytotoxicity Assays
Conclusions: These assays gave complementary results. Additionally, we found that the drugs’ effect on in vitro tubulin polymerization is not completely predictive of their relative cytotoxicity. Their effect on the cellular microtubule content, however, is closely related to their effect on cell viability. In conclusion, the assay we have recently developed can bridge the gap between in vitro tubulin assays and cell viability assays. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Marie-Catherine Laisne Sophie Michallet Laurence Lafanech ère Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5228: Combining Hypermethylated RASSF1A Detection Using ddPCR with miR-371a-3p Testing: An Improved Panel of Liquid Biopsy Biomarkers for Testicular Germ Cell Tumor Patients
We describe a novel droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) method for quantitatively assessing RASSF1AM in liquid biopsies. Both miR-371a-3p (sensitivity = 85.7%) and RASSF1AM (sensitivity = 86.7%) outperformed the combination of AFP and HCG (sensitivity = 65.5%) for TGCT diagnosis. RASSF1AM detected 88% of teratomas. In this representative cohort, 14 cases were negative for miR-371a-3p, all of which were detected by RASSF1AM, resulting in a combined sensitivity of 100%. We have described a highly sensitive and specific panel of biomarkers for TGCT patients, to be validated in the context of patient follow-up an...
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jo ão Lobo Lieke M. J. van Zogchel Mohammed G. Nuru Ad J. M. Gillis C. Ellen van der Schoot Godelieve A. M. Tytgat Leendert H. J. Looijenga Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5227: Natural History and Treatment Strategies of Advanced PEComas: A Systematic Review
ine Gantzer PEComas is a family of rare mesenchymal tumors. This systematic review aims to better understand the natural history of advanced PEComas. After a search on the PubMed database and main oncology meeting libraries according to the PRISMA guidelines, 88 articles reported in the English literature were included. Data on clinical and histological features, treatments and outcomes were collected. To identify risk factors, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Seven cohorts of patients and 124 individual patients were identified. Focusing on case reports, most patients were metastatic, and the media...
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Agathe Bourgmayer Simon Nannini Paul Bonjean Jean-Emmanuel Kurtz Gabriel G. Malouf Justine Gantzer Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5229: Metabolomic Profiling in Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients: News and Views
Conclusions: In RCC patients, the PI3K/Akt signaling is still the most effective targetable pathway. Targeting other metabolic pathways such as c-Met, GSH, and HDAC appears to be a promising approach and deserve further insights. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - October 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gaetano Aurilio Matteo Santoni Francesco Massari Alessia Cimadamore Alessandro Rizzo Veronica Mollica Elena Verri Nicola Battelli Rodolfo Montironi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5205: FOXA1: A Pioneer of Nuclear Receptor Action in Breast Cancer
Keri The pioneering function of FOXA1 establishes estrogen-responsive transcriptomes in luminal breast cancer. Dysregulated FOXA1 chromatin occupancy through focal amplification, mutation, or cofactor recruitment modulates estrogen receptor (ER) transcriptional programs and drives endocrine-resistant disease. However, ER is not the sole nuclear receptor (NR) expressed in breast cancers, nor is it the only NR for which FOXA1 serves as a licensing factor. Receptors for androgens, glucocorticoids, and progesterone are also found in the majority of breast cancers, and their functions are also impacted by FOXA1. These NRs ...
Source: Cancers - October 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Darcie D. Seachrist Lindsey J. Anstine Ruth A. Keri Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5204: Second-Generation Jak2 Inhibitors for Advanced Prostate Cancer: Are We Ready for Clinical Development?
ari Marja T. Nevalainen Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for metastatic and high-risk prostate cancer (PC) inhibits growth pathways driven by the androgen receptor (AR). Over time, ADT leads to the emergence of lethal castrate-resistant PC (CRPC), which is consistently caused by an acquired ability of tumors to re-activate AR. This has led to the development of second-generation anti-androgens that more effectively antagonize AR, such as enzalutamide (ENZ). However, the resistance of CRPC to ENZ develops rapidly. Studies utilizing preclinical models of PC have established that inhibition of the Jak2-Stat5 signaling...
Source: Cancers - October 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Paul Beinhoff Lavannya Sabharwal Vindhya Udhane Cristina Maranto Peter S. LaViolette Kenneth M. Jacobsohn Susan Tsai Kenneth A. Iczkowski Liang Wang William A Hall Scott M. Dehm Deepak Kilari Marja T. Nevalainen Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5206: The Key Differences between Human Papillomavirus-Positive and -Negative Head and Neck Cancers: Biological and Clinical Implications
n Pyeon Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a unique malignancy associated with two distinct risk factors: exposure to typical carcinogens and infection of human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV encodes the potent oncoproteins E6 and E7, which bypass many important oncogenic processes and result in cancer development. In contrast, HPV-negative HNSCC is developed through multiple mutations in diverse oncogenic driver genes. While the risk factors associated with HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCCs are discrete, HNSCC patients still show highly complex molecular signatures, immune infiltrations, and treatment resp...
Source: Cancers - October 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Steven F. Powell Lexi Vu William C. Spanos Dohun Pyeon Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5207: Improved Immunotherapy Efficacy by Vascular Modulation
Muñoz-Félix Several strategies have been developed to modulate the tumour vasculature for cancer therapy including anti-angiogenesis and vascular normalisation. Vasculature modulation results in changes to the tumour microenvironment including oxygenation and immune cell infiltration, therefore lending itself to combination with cancer therapy. The development of immunotherapies has led to significant improvements in cancer treatment. Particularly promising are immune checkpoint blockade and CAR T cell therapies, which use antibodies against negative regulators of T cell activation and T cells reprogramm...
Source: Cancers - October 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Emma L. Newport Ana Rita Pedrosa Alexandra Njegic Kairbaan M. Hodivala-Dilke Jos é M. Muñoz-Félix Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5208: Landscape of 4D Cell Interaction in Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas
er M. Bohle Lorenz Thurner Martin-Leo Hansmann Profound knowledge exists about the clinical, morphologic, genomic, and transcriptomic characteristics of most lymphoma entities. However, information is currently lacking on the dynamic behavior of malignant lymphomas. This pilot study aimed to gain insight into the motility of malignant lymphomas and bystander cells in 20 human lymph nodes. Generally, B cells were faster under reactive conditions compared with B cells in malignant lymphomas. In contrast, PD1-positive T cells did not show systematic differences in velocity between reactive and neoplastic conditions in...
Source: Cancers - October 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sylvia Hartmann Sonja Scharf Yvonne Steiner Andreas G. Loth Emmanuel Donnadieu Nadine Flinner Viola Poeschel Stephanie Angel Moritz Bewarder Julia Bein Uta Brunnberg Alessandro Bozzato Bernhard Schick Stephan Stilgenbauer Rainer M. Bohle Lorenz Thurner Ma Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5209: ARRDC4 and UBXN1: Novel Target Genes Correlated with Prostate Cancer Gleason Score
Byun To investigate potential markers of the prostate cancer (PCa) Gleason score (GS), genetic arrays in 841 PCa patients were conducted followed by functional validation in PCa cell lines. A total of 841 PCa patients who received radical prostatectomy (RP) from November 2003 to July 2019 were enrolled. HumanExome BeadChip 12v1-1 (Illumina, Inc.; San Diego, CA, USA) exomic arrays were performed on RP tissue samples. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios to generate estimates of the relative risk of pathologic GS (≥8); SNPs with the highest association were selected and validated using ...
Source: Cancers - October 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jong Jin Oh Jin-Nyoung Ho Seok-Soo Byun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5203: Re-Expression of Poly/Oligo-Sialylated Adhesion Molecules on the Surface of Tumor Cells Disrupts Their Interaction with Immune-Effector Cells and Contributes to Pathophysiological Immune Escape
We describe the processes, which modulate the interaction between sialylated carrier glycoproteins and their ligands, and illustrate that sialic acids could be targets of novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of cancer and immune diseases. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - October 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mostafa Jarahian Faroogh Marofi Marwah Suliman Maashi Mahnaz Ghaebi Abdolrahman Khezri Martin R. Berger Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5188: Basal Cell Carcinoma Treated with High Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy —Early Evaluation of Clinical and Dermoscopic Patterns during Irradiation
Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5188: Basal Cell Carcinoma Treated with High Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy—Early Evaluation of Clinical and Dermoscopic Patterns during Irradiation Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers13205188 Authors: Tomasz Krzysztofiak Grażyna Kamińska-Winciorek Andrzej Tukiendorf Magdalena Suchorzepka Piotr Wojcieszek Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent malignancy of the Caucasian population. Dermoscopy is an established diagnostic method providing the bridge between clinical and pathological examination. Surface skin high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is an organ sparing treatment me...
Source: Cancers - October 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tomasz Krzysztofiak Gra żyna Kamińska-Winciorek Andrzej Tukiendorf Magdalena Suchorzepka Piotr Wojcieszek Tags: Article Source Type: research