Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1942: At What Age Could Screening for Familial Retinoblastoma Be Discontinued? A Systematic Review
abius Annette C. Moll The aim of this systematic review is to assess the latest age at diagnosis for detection of familial retinoblastoma in order to evaluate at what age screening of at-risk children could be discontinued. Extended screening beyond this age would result in unnecessary patient burden and costs. However, discontinuing screening prematurely would have the adverse effect of missing tumors. We performed a literature search (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library) up until February of 2021 and systematically included studies where patients had a family history of retinoblastoma, a known age at di...
Source: Cancers - April 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Milo van Hoefen Wijsard Saskia H. Sern é Ren é H. Otten Machteld I. Bosscha Charlotte J. Dommering Armida W. Fabius Annette C. Moll Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1943: PD-L1 as a Prognostic Factor in Early-Stage Colon Carcinoma within the Immunohistochemical Molecular Subtype Classification
Conclusions. Our study suggests that PD-L1 expression is an independent prognostic factor in patients with stage II/III colon cancer. Additionally, it successfully differentiates patients with better prognosis in the CMS2/CMS3 group and may prove significant for the clinical relevance of the CMS classification. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - April 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Pablo Azcue Ignacio Enc ío David Guerrero Setas Javier Suarez Alecha Arkaitz Galbete Mar ía Mercado Ruth Vera Maria Luisa Gomez-Dorronsoro Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1944: Graves ’ Disease During Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy (A Case Series and Literature Review)
In conclusion, GD is a rare, immune-related adverse event of ICPis with an unusual course and frequent evolution to biphasic thyroiditis. In the case of ICPi-induced thyrotoxicosis in the presence of TRAb, observing the spontaneous evolution and performing a scintigraphy are useful before starting ATD treatment. Pre-existing GD is not exacerbated by ICPis and tends to evolve towards hypothyroidism. ICPi treatment can be maintained with adequate biochemical surveillance. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - April 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mathilde Peiffert Christine Cugnet-Anceau Stephane Dalle Karim Chikh Souad Assaad Emmanuel Disse G érald Raverot Fran çoise Borson-Chazot Juliette Abeillon-du Payrat Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1940: Future Perspectives on the TNM Staging for Lung Cancer
-Porta Since its conception by Pierre Denoix in the mid-20th century, the tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) classification has undergone seven revisions. The North American database managed by Clifton Mountain was used to inform the 2nd to the 6th editions, and an international database collected by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, promoted by Peter Goldstraw, was used to inform the 7th and the 8th editions. In these two latest editions, it was evident that the impact of tumor size was much greater than it was suggested in previous editions; that the amount of nodal disease had prognostic rel...
Source: Cancers - April 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ram ón Rami-Porta Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1941: Biomarker-Guided Anti-Egfr Rechallenge Therapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
diello Erika Martinelli The prognosis of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who progressed to the first and the second lines of treatment is poor. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are needed. During the last years, emerging evidence suggests that retreatment with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in the third line of mCRC patients, that have previously obtained clinical benefit by first-line therapy with anti-EGFR MAbs plus chemotherapy, could lead to prolonged survival. The rationale beyond this “rechallenge” strategy is that, after disease progressi...
Source: Cancers - April 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Davide Ciardiello Giulia Martini Vincenzo Famiglietti Stefania Napolitano Vincenzo De Falco Teresa Troiani Tiziana Pia Latiano Javier Ros Elena Elez Fernandez Pietro Paolo Vitiello Evaristo Maiello Fortunato Ciardiello Erika Martinelli Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1919: Cancer: New Needs, New Models. Is It Time for a Community Oncologist? Another Brick in the Wall
Alberto Firenze Over the last few decades, thanks to early detection, effective drugs, and personalized treatments, the natural history of cancer has radically changed. Thanks to these advances, we have observed how survival of cancer patients has increased, becoming an ever more important goal in cancer care. Effective clinical governance of survivorship care is essential to ensure a successful transition between active and post-treatment life, identifying optimization of healthcare outcomes and quality of life for patients as the primary objectives. For these reasons, potential intervention models must consider th...
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Paolo Tralongo Vittorio Gebbia Sebastiano Mercadante Roberto Bordonaro Francesco Ferra ù Sandro Barni Alberto Firenze Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1920: The Role of Rituximab in the Treatment of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma
mberg Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma limited to the central nervous system. It has a poor prognosis. Consensus has been reached on the treatment of newly diagnosed patients with high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy, but whether the addition of the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab improves survival, as it does in systemic B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, remains disputed. In this review, we reflect on the available evidence of the use of rituximab in PCNSL. Whether rituximab has any beneficial effect remains uncertain. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ruben Van Dijck Jeanette K. Doorduijn Jacoline E.C. Bromberg Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1921: Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Macrophages in Cancer
api Macrophages are large phagocytic cells that can be classified as a type of white blood cell and may be either mobile or stationary in tissues. The presence of macrophages in essentially every major disease makes them attractive candidates to serve as therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers. Macrophages that are found in the microenvironment of solid tumors are referred to as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and have been shown to influence chemoresistance, immune regulation, tumor initiation and tumor growth. The imaging of TAMs through Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has the potential to provide valuab...
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Candace C. Parker Suzanne E. Lapi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1922: Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Based Combination Immunotherapy to Boost Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Cell Response in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Juan-Ramón Larrubia Thirty to fifty percent of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) display an immune class genetic signature. In this type of tumor, HCC-specific CD8 T cells carry out a key role in HCC control. Those potential reactive HCC-specific CD8 T cells recognize either HCC immunogenic neoantigens or aberrantly expressed host’s antigens, but they become progressively exhausted or deleted. These cells express the negative immunoregulatory checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) which impairs T cell receptor signaling by blocking the CD28 positive co-stimulatory signal. The pool of CD8 cells sen...
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Julia Pe ña-Asensio Henar Calvo Miguel Torralba Joaqu ín Miquel Eduardo Sanz-de-Villalobos Juan-Ram ón Larrubia Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1923: Palmitoylethanolamide Reduces Colon Cancer Cell Proliferation and Migration, Influences Tumor Cell Cycle and Exerts In Vivo Chemopreventive Effects
Borrelli Barbara Romano Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide related to the endocannabinoid anandamide. PEA exerts intestinal anti-inflammatory effects, but knowledge of its role in colon carcinogenesis is still largely fragmentary. We deepened this aspect by studying the effects of PEA (ultramicronized PEA, um-PEA) on colon cancer cell proliferation, migration and cell cycle as well as its effects in a murine model of colon cancer. Results showed that um-PEA inhibited tumor cell proliferation via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and G protein-coupled receptor 55, induced c...
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ester Pagano Tommaso Venneri Giuseppe Lucariello Donatella Cicia Vincenzo Brancaleone M. Francesca Nan ì Nunzio A. Cacciola Raffaele Capasso Angelo A. Izzo Francesca Borrelli Barbara Romano Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1924: Using the R Package Spatstat to Assess Inhibitory Effects of Microregional Hypoxia on the Infiltration of Cancers of the Head and Neck Region by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes
Conclusion: Our findings provide non-obvious but statistically rigorous evidence of inhibition of CTL infiltration into hypoxic tumor subregions of cancers of the head and neck. Importantly, these shielded sites may be the origin of tumor recurrences. We provide the methodology for the transfer of our statistical approach to similar questions. We discuss why versions of the Kcross and pcf.cross functions may be the methods of choice among the repertoire of statistical tests in Spatstat for this type of analysis. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Justus Kaufmann Christophe A. N. Biscio Peter Bankhead Stefanie Zimmer Heinz Schmidberger Ege Rubak Arnulf Mayer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1926: Current Perspectives on the Use of off the Shelf CAR-T/NK Cells for the Treatment of Cancer
all CAR T cells have revolutionised the treatment of haematological malignancies. Despite this, several obstacles still prohibit their widespread use and efficacy. One of these barriers is the use of autologous T cells as the carrier of the CAR. The individual production of CAR T cells results in large variation in the product, greater wait times for treatment and higher costs. To overcome this several novel approaches have emerged that utilise allogeneic cells, so called “off the shelf” CAR T cells. In this Review, we describe the different approaches that have been used to produce allogeneic CAR T to date...
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lauren C. Cutmore John F. Marshall Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1925: Fallopian Tube-Derived Tumor Cells Induce Testosterone Secretion from the Ovary, Increasing Epithelial Proliferation and Invasion
In this report, imaging mass spectrometry identified that testosterone is produced by the ovary when exposed to tumorigenic fallopian tube derived PTEN deficient cells. Androgen exposure increased cellular viability, proliferation, and invasion of murine cell models of healthy fallopian tube epithelium and PAX2 deficient models of the preneoplastic secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs). Proliferation and invasion induced by androgen was reversed by co-treatment with androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, bicalutamide. Furthermore, ablation of phosphorylated ERK reversed proliferation, but not invasion. Investigation of two hypera...
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jose A. Colina Katherine E. Zink Kanella Eliadis Reza Salehi Emma S. Gargus Sarah R. Wagner Kristine J. Moss Seth Baligod Kailiang Li Brenna J. Kirkpatrick Teresa K. Woodruff Benjamin K. Tsang Laura M. Sanchez Joanna E. Burdette Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1927: A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 12 Promotes Tumor Progression by Inhibiting Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Cancer
In conclusion, ADAM12 overexpression is essential for the growth and progression of CRC. Furthermore, ADAM12 knockdown reveals potent anti-tumor activity in a mouse xenograft model. Thus, ADAM12 may serve as a promising biomarker and/or therapeutic target in CRC. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Young-Lan Park Sun-Young Park Hyung-Hoon Oh Min-Woo Chung Ji-Yun Hong Ki-Hyun Kim Dae-Seong Myung Sung-Bum Cho Wan-Sik Lee Hyun-Soo Kim Young-Eun Joo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1928: Assessment of Resistance Mechanisms and Clinical Implications in Patients with KRAS Mutated-Metastatic Breast Cancer and Resistance to CDK4/6 Inhibitors
This study was conducted in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of resistance to palbociclib, and to identify biomarkers to predict who will take advantage from cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i). A total of about a thousand blood samples were collected from 106 patients with hormone receptor positive (HR+) human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib in combination with fulvestrant as the first-line metastatic therapy enrolled in this study. The genotyping of their plasma cell-free DNA was studied, including serial plasma samples. Collect...
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lucrezia Raimondi Filippo Maria Raimondi Marta Pietranera Arianna Di Rocco Laura Di Benedetto Evelina Miele Rachele Lazzeroni Giuseppe Cimino Gian Paolo Spinelli Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1930: Current Methods of Post-Translational Modification Analysis and Their Applications in Blood Cancers
039;Gorman Post-translational modifications (PTMs) add a layer of complexity to the proteome through the addition of biochemical moieties to specific residues of proteins, altering their structure, function and/or localization. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques are at the forefront of PTM analysis due to their ability to detect large numbers of modified proteins with a high level of sensitivity and specificity. The low stoichiometry of modified peptides means fractionation and enrichment techniques are often performed prior to MS to improve detection yields. Immuno-based techniques remain popular, with improvemen...
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Katie Dunphy Paul Dowling Despina Bazou Peter O ' Gorman Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1929: Prognostic Assessment in High-Grade Soft-Tissue Sarcoma Patients: A Comparison of Semantic Image Analysis and Radiomics
Conclusions: T2FS and T1FSGd-based radiomic models outperformed semantic imaging features for prognostic assessment. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jan C. Peeken Jan Neumann Rebecca Asadpour Yannik Leonhardt Joao R. Moreira Daniel S. Hippe Olena Klymenko Sarah C. Foreman Claudio E. von Schacky Matthew B. Spraker Stephanie K. Schaub Hendrik Dapper Carolin Knebel Nina A. Mayr Henry C. Woodruff Philippe Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1931: Mycosis Fungoides and S ézary Syndrome: An Integrative Review of the Pathophysiology, Molecular Drivers, and Targeted Therapy
Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1931: Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome: An Integrative Review of the Pathophysiology, Molecular Drivers, and Targeted Therapy Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers13081931 Authors: Nuria García-Díaz Miguel Ángel Piris Pablo Luis Ortiz‐Romero José Pedro Vaqué Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) constitute a heterogeneous group of diseases that affect the skin. Mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) account for the majority of these lesions and have recently been the focus of extensive translational research. This review desc...
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nuria Garc ía-Díaz Miguel Ángel Piris Pablo Luis Ortiz ‐Romero Jos é Pedro Vaqué Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1932: NTRK Fusion Genes in Thyroid Carcinomas: Clinicopathological Characteristics and Their Impacts on Prognosis
This study aimed to identify NTRK fusion-positive thyroid tumors and to correlate them with clinical and pathological data and determine their prognostic significance. The cohort consisted of 989 different TC samples. Based on the detected mutation, samples were triaged, and those that were positive for a BRAF, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, RET, RET/PTC or PAX8/PPARγ mutation were excluded from further analyses. NTRK fusion gene testing was performed in 259 cases, including 126 cases using next-generation sequencing. NTRK fusion genes were detected in 57 of 846 (6.7%) papillary thyroid carcinomas and in 2 of 10 (20.0%) poorly di...
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Barbora Pekova Vlasta Sykorova Karolina Mastnikova Eliska Vaclavikova Jitka Moravcova Petr Vlcek Petr Lastuvka Milos Taudy Rami Katra Petr Bavor Daniela Kodetova Martin Chovanec Jana Drozenova Jaromir Astl Petr Hrabal Josef Vcelak Bela Bendlova Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1933: Iatrogenic Ocular Surface Diseases Occurring during and/or after Different Treatments for Ocular Tumours
l;phael Rothschild The ocular surface represents a finely regulated system that allows the protection of the eye. It is particularly susceptible to different treatments for intraocular tumours, such as uveal melanoma and conjunctival cancers. Traditionally, the management of ocular tumours depends on the characteristics of the lesion, and is based on a combination of selective surgery, topical chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy delivered through different mechanisms (e.g., charged-particle radiotherapy or brachytherapy). Possible complications involving the ocular surface range from transient dry eye disease or keratiti...
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Giuseppe Giannaccare Federico Bernabei Martina Angi Marco Pellegrini Antonio Maestri Vito Romano Vincenzo Scorcia Pierre-R äphael Rothschild Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1935: CD80 Expression on Tumor Cells Alters Tumor Microenvironment and Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy by CTLA-4 Blockade
Smahel Cluster of differentiation (CD) 80 is mainly expressed in immune cells but can also be found in several types of cancer cells. This molecule may either activate or inhibit immune reactions. Here, we determined the immunosuppressive role of CD80 in the tumor microenvironment by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deactivation of the corresponding gene in the mouse oncogenic TC-1 cell line. The tumor cells with deactivated CD80 (TC-1/dCD80-1) were more immunogenic than parental cells and induced tumors that gained sensitivity to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) blockade, as compared with the TC-1 cells. In vivo depleti...
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Julie Vackova Ingrid Polakova Shweta Dilip Johari Michal Smahel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1934: Cannabinoid Receptor Type-2 in B Cells Is Associated with Tumor Immunity in Melanoma
h Mirjam Schenk Agents targeting the endocannabinoid system (ECS) have gained attention as potential cancer treatments. Given recent evidence that cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) regulates lymphocyte development and inflammation, we performed studies on CB2R in the immune response against melanoma. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data revealed a strong positive correlation between CB2R expression and survival, as well as B cell infiltration in human melanoma. In a murine melanoma model, CB2R expression reduced the growth of melanoma as well as the B cell frequencies in the tumor microenvironment (TME), compa...
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Thomas Gruber Steve Robatel Mirela Kremenovic Lukas B äriswyl J ürg Gertsch Mirjam Schenk Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1936: Multicenter Analysis of Treatment Outcomes for Systemic Therapy in Well Differentiated Grade 3 Neuroendocrine Tumors (NET G3)
In conclusion, NET G3 with FOLFOX showed the highest ORR, and with TEM/CAP showed the longest PFS. Further prospective evaluation of the optimal therapeutic strategy for this tumor entity is needed. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Leonidas Apostolidis Arianna Dal Buono Elettra Merola Henning Jann Dirk J äger Bertram Wiedenmann Eva Caroline Winkler Marianne Pavel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1937: New Therapeutic Strategies for Lung Cancer
ifano Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 27% of all cancer-related deaths worldwide, thus representing a major health problem [...] (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Philippe Icard Diane Damotte Marco Alifano Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1938: Prospective Comparison of 18-FDG PET/CT and Whole-Body MRI with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Evaluation of Treatment Response of Multiple Myeloma Patients Eligible for Autologous Stem Cell Transplant
é Gerald Marit To compare the prognostic values of 18-FDG PET/CT (FDG-PET) and Whole-Body MRI with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (WB-DW-MRI) in the evaluation of treatment response of Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients eligible for ASCT. Thirty patients with newly diagnosed MM prospectively underwent FDG-PET and WB-DW-MRI at baseline, after induction chemotherapy and after ASCT. Response on WB-DW-MRI was evaluated with the MY-RADS criteria. FDG-PET was considered positive if residual uptake was superior to liver uptake. Imaging results were not used for treatment modification. The impact of imaging results on PFS was...
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Charles Mesguich Val érie Latrabe Cyrille Hulin Axelle Lascaux Laurence Bordenave Elif Hindi é Gerald Marit Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1939: Age- and Intravenous Methotrexate-Associated Leukoencephalopathy and Its Neurological Impact in Pediatric Patients with Lymphoblastic Leukemia
This study suggests leukoencephalopathy frequently occurs in both symptomatic and asymptomatic leukemia patients. Younger children and patients treated with higher cumulative IV-MTX doses might need more regular screening for early detection and follow-up of associated sequelae. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ilona Rijmenams Daan Moechars Anne Uyttebroeck Ahmed Radwan Jeroen Blommaert Sabine Deprez Stefan Sunaert Heidi Segers C éline R. Gillebert Jurgen Lemiere Charlotte Sleurs Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1912: Alternative Vascularization Mechanisms in Tumor Resistance to Therapy
letti Blood vessels in tumors are formed through a variety of different mechanisms, each generating vessels with peculiar structural, molecular, and functional properties. This heterogeneity has a major impact on tumor response or resistance to antineoplastic therapies and is now emerging as a promising target for strategies to prevent drug resistance and improve the distribution and efficacy of antineoplastic treatments. This review presents evidence of how different mechanisms of tumor vessel formation (vasculogenesis, glomeruloid proliferation, intussusceptive angiogenesis, vasculogenic mimicry, and vessel co-option...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dorina Belotti Denise Pinessi Giulia Taraboletti Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1914: Mitochondrial Control of Genomic Instability in Cancer
We describe recent studies elucidating mitochondrial responses to DNA damage as well as the direct contribution of mitochondria to favor the accumulation of DNA alterations. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Massimo Bonora Sonia Missiroli Mariasole Perrone Francesco Fiorica Paolo Pinton Carlotta Giorgi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1913: Prognostic Value of the Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio before and after Radiotherapy for Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma
This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of NLR before and after RT for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). This retrospective study analyzed 40 patients with ATC who received RT with available complete blood cell count data from November 1995 through May 2020 at Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Korea). Patients were classified into two groups according to the NLR before and after RT. The median overall survival (OS) was 8.9 months (range, 3.5–18.2) in the low NLR group (<3.47) and 5.2 months (range, 2.7–7.5) months in the high NLR group (≥3.47). The association between NLR and OS was also ob...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jiyun Park Jun Park Jung Hee Shin Young Lyun Oh Hyun Ae Jung Man Ki Chung Jun-Ho Choe Yong Chan Ahn Sun Wook Kim Jae Hoon Chung Tae Hyuk Kim Jae Myoung Noh Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1916: Targeting Post-Translational Modifications of the p73 Protein: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy for Tumors
ahmoud Alhosin The tumor suppressor p73 is a member of the p53 family and is expressed as different isoforms with opposing properties. The TAp73 isoforms act as tumor suppressors and have pro-apoptotic effects, whereas the ΔNp73 isoforms lack the N-terminus transactivation domain and behave as oncogenes. The TAp73 protein has a high degree of similarity with both p53 function and structure, and it induces the regulation of various genes involved in the cell cycle and apoptosis. Unlike those of the p53 gene, the mutations in the p73 gene are very rare in tumors. Cancer cells have developed several mechanisms to in...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ziad Omran Mahmood H. Dalhat Omeima Abdullah Mohammed Kaleem Salman Hosawi Fahd A Al-Abbasi Wei Wu Hani Choudhry Mahmoud Alhosin Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1915: Home-Based Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Interventions in Cancer Patients and Survivors: A Systematic Review
Janikova Cancer is a chronic disease requiring long-term treatment. Exercise interventions are increasingly being recognized as an important part of treatment and supportive cancer care for patients and survivors. Previous reviews have evaluated the benefits of exercise interventions in populations of patients under supervision at a center, but none have explored the possibilities of a home-based (HB) approach in exercise during cancer rehabilitation and the period immediately following the end of cancer treatment. The aim of this descriptive systematic review was to identify the literature focusing on the health effe...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ladislav Batalik Petr Winnige Filip Dosbaba Daniela Vlazna Andrea Janikova Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1918: A Network Pharmacological Approach to Reveal the Pharmacological Targets and Its Associated Biological Mechanisms of Prunetin-5-O-Glucoside against Gastric Cancer
Gon Sup Kim Gastric cancer (GC) is an aggressive malignancy with increased mortality rate and low treatment options. Increasing evidence suggests that network pharmacology will be a novel method for identifying the systemic mechanism of therapeutic compounds in diseases like cancer. The current study aimed to use a network pharmacology approach to establish the predictive targets of prunetin-5-O-glucoside (PG) against gastric cancer and elucidate its biological mechanisms. Primarily, genes associated with the pathogenesis of GC was identified from the DiGeNET database and targets of PG was obtained from the Swiss tar...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Preethi Vetrivel Rajeswari Murugesan Pritam Bhagwan Bhosale Sang Eun Ha Hun Hwan Kim Jeong Doo Heo Gon Sup Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1917: Novel Nomograms-Based Prediction Models for Patients with Primary Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcomas Resections
Conclusions: Some important parameters could be used to predict the outcome of individual UPS patients such as mitotic age, rates, surgical margin, and invasive depth. We developed two accurate and practicable nomograms that could predict 3- and 5-year OS and TTR for UPS patients, which could be involved in the modern medical decision-making process. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Qiaowei Lin Qiuyi Huang Qifeng Wang Wangjun Yan Yangbai Sun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1889: A Monte Carlo Determination of Dose and Range Uncertainties for Preclinical Studies with a Proton Beam
iot Grégory Delpon Sophie Chiavassa Proton therapy (PRT) is an irradiation technique that aims at limiting normal tissue damage while maintaining the tumor response. To study its specificities, the ARRONAX cyclotron is currently developing a preclinical structure compatible with biological experiments. A prerequisite is to identify and control uncertainties on the ARRONAX beamline, which can lead to significant biases in the observed biological results and dose–response relationships, as for any facility. This paper summarizes and quantifies the impact of uncertainty on proton range, absorbed dose, and...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Arthur Bongrand Charbel Koumeir Daphn ée Villoing Arnaud Guertin Ferid Haddad Vincent M étivier Freddy Poirier Vincent Potiron No ël Servagent St éphane Supiot Gr égory Delpon Sophie Chiavassa Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1890: Potential Therapeutic Significance of Laminin in Head and Neck Squamous Carcinomas
Palumbo Júnior Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are among the most common and lethal tumors worldwide, occurring mostly in oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx tissues. The squamous epithelia homeostasis is supported by the extracellular matrix (ECM), and alterations in this compartment are crucial for cancer development and progression. Laminin is a fundamental component of ECM, where it represents one of the main components of basement membrane (BM), and data supporting its contribution to HNSCC genesis and progression has been vastly explored in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Laminin subtypes ...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nathalia Meireles Da Costa F ábio A. Mendes Bruno Pontes Luiz Eurico Nasciutti Luis Felipe Ribeiro Pinto Antonio Palumbo J únior Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1891: Tumor Solid Stress: Assessment with MR Elastography under Compression of Patient-Derived Hepatocellular Carcinomas and Cholangiocarcinomas Xenografted in Mice
Bernard E. Van Beers Malignant tumors have abnormal biomechanical characteristics, including high viscoelasticity, solid stress, and interstitial fluid pressure. Magnetic resonance (MR) elastography is increasingly used to non-invasively assess tissue viscoelasticity. However, solid stress and interstitial fluid pressure measurements are performed with invasive methods. We studied the feasibility and potential role of MR elastography at basal state and under controlled compression in assessing altered biomechanical features of malignant liver tumors. MR elastography was performed in mice with patient-derived, subcutane...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gwena ël Pagé Marion Tardieu Jean-Luc Gennisson Laurent Besret Philippe Garteiser Bernard E. Van Beers Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1892: Ginsenoside Rh1 Induces MCF-7 Cell Apoptosis and Autophagic Cell Death through ROS-Mediated Akt Signaling
Sun Heo Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. Ginsenosides exhibit anticancer activity against various cancer cells. However, the effects of ginsenoside Rh1 on BC and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we investigated the anticancer effects of Rh1 on human BC MCF-7 and HCC1428 cells and the underlying signaling pathways. The anticancer effects of Rh1 in vitro were evaluated using sulforhodamine B (SRB), 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), clonogenic assay, propidium iodide (PI)/Hoechst staining, Western blotting, flow cyto...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Diem Thi Ngoc Huynh Yujin Jin Chang-Seon Myung Kyung-Sun Heo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1893: Management of Synchronous Extrathoracic Oligometastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
id R. Jones Gaetano Rocco Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 35 to 40% of newly diagnosed cases of NSCLC. The oligometastatic state—≤5 extrathoracic metastatic lesions in ≤3 organs—is present in ~25% of patients with stage IV disease and is associated with markedly improved outcomes. We retrospectively identified patients with extrathoracic oligometastatic NSCLC who underwent primary tumor resection at our institution from 2000 to 2018. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Factors associated with EFS and OS were...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gregory D. Jones Harry B. Lengel Meier Hsu Kay See Tan Raul Caso Amanda Ghanie James G. Connolly Manjit S. Bains Valerie W. Rusch James Huang Bernard J. Park Daniel R. Gomez David R. Jones Gaetano Rocco Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1894: The Screen Project: Guided Direct-To-Consumer Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer Susceptibility in Canada
mad R. Akbari There is limited information of the outcomes of direct-to-consumer testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. The Screen Project was initiated in 2017 to offer BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic screening to all Canadians over the age of 18 who wish to know their mutation status. Patients enrolled in the study from 2017 to 2019 and were followed for one year after the receipt of a genetic test result. Study subjects registered online and were sent a saliva sample kit, which was shipped to the reference laboratory. Pre-test genetic counselling and counselling for mutation-negative subjects was optional and at the individ...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Steven A. Narod Nicole Gojska Ping Sun Angelina Tryon Joanne Kotsopoulos Kelly Metcalfe Mohammad R. Akbari Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1895: Current Intraoperative Imaging Techniques to Improve Surgical Resection of Laryngeal Cancer: A Systematic Review
illing Stijn Keereweer Laryngeal cancer is a prevalent head and neck malignancy, with poor prognosis and low survival rates for patients with advanced disease. Treatment consists of unimodal therapy through surgery or radiotherapy in early staged tumors, while advanced stage tumors are generally treated with multimodal chemoradiotherapy or (total) laryngectomy followed by radiotherapy. Still, the recurrence rate for advanced laryngeal cancer is between 25 and 50%. In order to improve surgical resection of laryngeal cancer and reduce local recurrence rates, various intraoperative optical imaging techniques have been i...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lorraine J. Lauwerends Hidde A. Galema Jos é A. U. Hardillo Aniel Sewnaik Dominiek Monserez Pieter B. A. A. van Driel Cornelis Verhoef Robert J. Baatenburg de Jong Denise E. Hilling Stijn Keereweer Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1897: 3D Whole-Brain Imaging Approaches to Study Brain Tumors
can Although our understanding of the two-dimensional state of brain tumors has greatly expanded, relatively little is known about their spatial structures. The interactions between tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) occur in a three-dimensional (3D) space. This volumetric distribution is important for elucidating tumor biology and predicting and monitoring response to therapy. While static 2D imaging modalities have been critical to our understanding of these tumors, studies using 3D imaging modalities are needed to understand how malignant cells co-opt the host brain. Here we summarize the preclinical u...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Julian Taranda Sevin Turcan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1896: Cancer Nanopharmaceuticals: Physicochemical Characterization and In Vitro/In Vivo Applications
Souto Ryszard Słomski Physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, and biopharmaceutical characterization tools play a key role in the assessment of nanopharmaceuticals’ potential imaging analysis and for site-specific delivery of anti-cancers to neoplastic cells/tissues. If diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches are combined in one single nanoparticle, a new platform called nanotheragnostics is generated. Several analytical technologies allow us to characterize nanopharmaceuticals and nanoparticles and their properties so that they can be properly used in cancer therapy. This paper describes the role of multifuncti...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Aleksandra Zieli ńska Marlena Szalata Adam Gorczy ński Jacek Karczewski Piotr Eder Patr ícia Severino Jos é M. Cabeda Eliana B. Souto Ryszard S łomski Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1899: IDO1-Targeted Therapy Does Not Control Disease Development in the E µ-TCL1 Mouse Model of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1899: IDO1-Targeted Therapy Does Not Control Disease Development in the Eµ-TCL1 Mouse Model of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers13081899 Authors: Selcen Öztürk Verena Kalter Philipp M. Roessner Murat Sunbul Martina Seiffert Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), a tryptophan (Trp)-catabolizing enzyme producing metabolites such as kynurenine (Kyn), is expressed by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and associated with cancer immune escape. IDO1-expressing monocytic MDSCs were shown to accumulate in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Selcen Öztürk Verena Kalter Philipp M. Roessner Murat Sunbul Martina Seiffert Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1902: Radiotherapy with Intensity-Modulated (IMRT) Techniques in the Treatment of Anal Carcinoma (RAINSTORM): A Multicenter Study on Behalf of AIRO (Italian Association of Radiotherapy and Clinical Oncology) Gastrointestinal Study Group
chetto Osti Alessandra Gonnelli Gianpiero Catalano Patrizia Pittoni Giovani Battista Ivaldi Alessandra Galardi Marco Lupattelli Maria Elena Rosetto Rita Marina Niespolo Alessandra Guido Oreste Durante Gabriella Macchia Fernando Munoz Badr El khouzai Maria Rosaria Lucido Annamaria Porreca Marta Di Nicola Maria Antonietta Gambacorta Vittorio Donato Domenico Genovesi A multi-institutional retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the pattern of care and clinical outcomes of anal cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques. In a cohort of 987 pat...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Luciana Caravatta Giovanna Mantello Francesca Valvo Pierfrancesco Franco Lucrezia Gasparini Consuelo Rosa Najla Slim Stefania Manfrida Francesca De Felice Marianna A. Gerardi Stefano Vagge Marco Krengli Elisa Palazzari Maria Falchetto Osti Alessandra Gonn Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1903: Circular RNA in Chemonaive Lymph Node Negative Colon Cancer Patients
This study represents a showcase of the potential clinical utility of circRNAs for prognostic stratification in patients with stage I–II colon cancer and demonstrated that high diversity in circRNAs is associated with favorable DFS. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Inge van den Berg Marcel Smid Robert R. J. Coebergh van den Braak Carolien H. M. van Deurzen Vanja de Weerd John A. Foekens Jan N. M. IJzermans John W. M. Martens Saskia M. Wilting Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1901: Immunotherapy Combined with Metronomic Dosing: An Effective Approach for the Treatment of NSCLC
Tamvakopoulos Pioneering studies on tumor and immune cell interactions have highlighted immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) as revolutionizing interventions for the management of NSCLC, typically combined with traditional MTD chemotherapies, which usually lead to toxicities and resistance to treatment. Alternatively, MTR chemotherapy is based on the daily low dose administration of chemotherapeutics, preventing tumor growth indirectly by targeting the tumor microenvironment. The effects of MTR administration of an oral prodrug of gemcitabine (OralGem), alone or with anti-PD1, were evaluated. Relevant in vitro and in vi...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Eleni Skavatsou Maria Semitekolou Ioannis Morianos Theodoros Karampelas Nikolaos Lougiakis Georgina Xanthou Constantin Tamvakopoulos Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1898: Targeting the Sphingosine Kinase/Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Signaling Axis in Drug Discovery for Cancer Therapy
iyaz Hassan Sphingolipid metabolites have emerged as critical players in the regulation of various physiological processes. Ceramide and sphingosine induce cell growth arrest and apoptosis, whereas sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) promotes cell proliferation and survival. Here, we present an overview of sphingolipid metabolism and the compartmentalization of various sphingolipid metabolites. In addition, the sphingolipid rheostat, a fine metabolic balance between ceramide and S1P, is discussed. Sphingosine kinase (SphK) catalyzes the synthesis of S1P from sphingosine and modulates several cellular processes and is found t...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Preeti Gupta Aaliya Taiyab Afzal Hussain Mohamed F. Alajmi Asimul Islam Md. Imtaiyaz Hassan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1904: Hypoxia-Driven HIF-1 α Activation Reprograms Pre-Activated NK Cells towards Highly Potent Effector Phenotypes via ERK/STAT3 Pathways
Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1904: Hypoxia-Driven HIF-1α Activation Reprograms Pre-Activated NK Cells towards Highly Potent Effector Phenotypes via ERK/STAT3 Pathways Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers13081904 Authors: Seon Ah Lim Yunwon Moon Min Hwa Shin Tae-Jin Kim Sehyun Chae Cassian Yee Daehee Hwang Hyunsung Park Kyung-Mi Lee NK cells are the predominant innate lymphocyte subsets specialized to kill malignant tumor cells. In patients with advanced cancer, hypoxic stress shapes NK cells toward tumor-resistant and immunosuppressive phenotypes, hence a strategy to restore NK function is critical for suc...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Seon Ah Lim Yunwon Moon Min Hwa Shin Tae-Jin Kim Sehyun Chae Cassian Yee Daehee Hwang Hyunsung Park Kyung-Mi Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1900: Histopathologic, Genetic and Molecular Characterization of Endometrial Cancer Racial Disparity
enbrook In contrast to the decline in incidence and mortality of most other cancers, these rates are rising for endometrial cancer. Black women with endometrial cancer have earlier diagnosis, more aggressive histology, advanced stage and worse outcomes compared with their White counterparts. Socioeconomic status, a higher incidence of aggressive histology, and comorbid conditions are known factors leading to racial disparity in patients with endometrial cancer; nevertheless, they do not account for the entire racial disparity; which emphasizes the roles of molecular, histopathological and genetic factors. We performed ...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Pouya Javadian Christina Washington Shylet Mukasa Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1905: Contemporary Neoadjuvant Therapies for High-Risk Melanoma: A Systematic Review
Carolyn Nessim Despite advances in adjuvant immuno- and targeted therapies, the risk of relapse for stage III melanoma remains high. With 43 active entries on clinicaltrials.gov (8 July 2020), there is a surge of interest in the role of contemporary therapies in the neoadjuvant setting. We conducted a systematic review of trials performed in the last decade evaluating neoadjuvant targeted, immuno- or intralesional therapy for resectable stage III or IV melanoma. Database searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were conducted from inception to 13 February 2020. Two reviewers ...
Source: Cancers - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kerianne Boulva Sameer Apte Ashley Yu Alexandre Tran Risa Shorr Xinni Song Michael Ong Carolyn Nessim Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research