Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2674: Direct Antiviral Treatments for Hepatitis C Virus Have Off-Target Effects of Oncologic Relevance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Conclusions: Our findings suggested the possible occurrence of off-target effects ultimately modulating cell proliferation and/or migration and potentially justified previous findings showing some instances of particularly aggressive HCC recurrence as well as reduced incidence of recurrence of HCC following treatment with DAAs. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Catia Giovannini Francesca Fornari Valentina Indio Davide Trer è Matteo Renzulli Francesco Vasuri Matteo Cescon Matteo Ravaioli Alessia Perrucci Annalisa Astolfi Fabio Piscaglia Laura Gramantieri Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2675: Deciphering the Role of Innate Immune NF- ĸB Pathway in Pancreatic Cancer
Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2675: Deciphering the Role of Innate Immune NF-ĸB Pathway in Pancreatic Cancer Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers12092675 Authors: Namrata Khurana Paarth B. Dodhiawala Ashenafi Bulle Kian-Huat Lim Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers with no effective treatment option. A predominant hallmark of PDAC is the intense fibro-inflammatory stroma which not only physically collapses vasculature but also functionally suppresses anti-tumor immunity. Constitutive and induced activation of the NF-κB transcription factors is a major mechanism that drive...
Source: Cancers - September 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Namrata Khurana Paarth B. Dodhiawala Ashenafi Bulle Kian-Huat Lim Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2677: Suppression of Tumor Growth, Metastasis, and Signaling Pathways by Reducing FOXM1 Activity in Triple Negative Breast Cancer
In this study, we test the effectiveness of a novel class of 1,1-diarylethylene FOXM1 inhibitory compounds in suppressing TNBC cell migration, invasion, and metastasis using in vitro cell culture and in vivo tumor models. We show that these compounds inhibit the motility and invasiveness of TNBC MDA-MB-231 and DT28 cells, along with reducing the expression of important epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated genes. Further, orthotopic tumor studies in NOD-SCID-gamma (NSG) mice demonstrate that these compounds reduce FOXM1 expression and suppress TNBC tumor growth as well as distant metastasis. Gene expression...
Source: Cancers - September 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Parama Dey Alexander Wang Yvonne Ziegler Sung Hoon Kim Dorraya El-Ashry John A. Katzenellenbogen Benita S. Katzenellenbogen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2676: Evaluation of the Role of ITGBL1 in Ovarian Cancer
rta Lisowska In our previous microarray study we identified two subgroups of high-grade serous ovarian cancers with distinct gene expression and survival. Among differentially expressed genes was an Integrin beta-like 1 (ITGBL1), coding for a poorly characterized protein comprised of ten EGF-like repeats. Here, we have analyzed the influence of ITGBL1 on the phenotype of ovarian cancer (OC) cells. We analyzed expression of four putative ITGBL1 mRNA isoforms in five OC cell lines. OAW42 and SKOV3, having the lowest level of any ITGBL1 mRNA, were chosen to produce ITGBL1-overexpressing variants. In these cells, abundant ...
Source: Cancers - September 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alexander Jorge Cortez Katarzyna Aleksandra Kujawa Agata Ma łgorzata Wilk Damian Robert Sojka Joanna Patrycja Syrkis Magdalena Olbryt Katarzyna Marta Lisowska Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2678: Pharmacological Treatment of Patients with Metastatic, Recurrent or Persistent Cervical Cancer Not Amenable by Surgery or Radiotherapy: State of Art and Perspectives of Clinical Research
sio Cervical cancer patients with distant or loco-regional recurrences not amenable by surgery or radiotherapy have limited treatment options, and their 5-year overall survival (OS) rates range from 5% to 16%. The purpose of this paper is to assess the results obtained with chemotherapy and biological agents in this clinical setting. Several phase II trials of different cisplatin (CDDP)-based doublets and a phase III randomized trial showing a trend in response rate, progression-free survival, and OS in favor of CDDP + paclitaxel (PTX) compared with other CDDP-based doublets have been reviewed. The factors predictive o...
Source: Cancers - September 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Angiolo Gadducci Stefania Cosio Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2679: Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage III Colon Cancer
ois In patients with stage III colon cancer (CC), adjuvant chemotherapy with the combination of oxapliplatin to a fluoropyrimidine (FOLFOX or CAPOX) is a standard of care. The duration of treatment can be reduced from 6 months to 3 months, depending on the regimen, for patients at low risk of recurrence, without loss of effectiveness and allowing a significant reduction in the risk of cumulative sensitive neuropathy. However, our capacity to identify patients that do really need this doublet adjuvant treatment remains limited. In fact, only 30% at the most will actually benefit from this adjuvant treatment, 50% of them...
Source: Cancers - September 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Julien Taieb Claire Gallois Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2680: MiRNA-103/107 in Primary High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer and Its Clinical Significance
Andrzej Malinowski High levels of miRNA-103/107 are associated with poor outcomes in the case of breast cancer patients. MiRNA-103/107-DICER axis may be one of the key regulators of cancer aggressiveness. MiRNA-103/107 expression levels have never been related to patients’ clinicopathological data in epithelial ovarian cancer. We aimed to assess miRNA-103/107 expression levels in high grade serous ovarian cancer tissues. Expression levels of both miRNAs were related to the clinicopathological features and survival. We also evaluated expression levels of miRNA-103/107 and DICER in selected ovarian cance...
Source: Cancers - September 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Milosz Wilczynski Michal Kielbik Daria Senderowska Tomasz Krawczyk Bozena Szymanska Magdalena Klink Jan Bie ńkiewicz Hanna Romanowicz Filip Fr ühauf Andrzej Malinowski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2662: Predicting Response to Immunotherapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
ini Immunotherapy-based combinations, driven by PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 inhibitors, has altered the treatment landscape for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Despite significant improvements in clinical outcomes, many patients do not experience deep or lasting benefits. Recent efforts to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from immunotherapy and immunotherapy-based combinations have shown promise but have not yet affected clinical practice. PD-L1 expression via immunohistochemistry (IHC) has shown promise in a few clinical trials, although variations in the IHC assays as well as the use of differen...
Source: Cancers - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Matthew D. Tucker Brian I. Rini Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2663: Combining Correlated Outcomes and Surrogate Endpoints in a Network Meta-Analysis of Colorectal Cancer Treatments
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of systemic therapies in the treatment of unresectable advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer. Predicted hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% credible intervals (CrIs) for overall survival (OS) were calculated from the odds ratio (OR) for the overall response rate and/or HR for progression-free survival using multivariate random effects (MVRE) models. We performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) of 49 articles to compare the efficacy and safety of FOLFOX/FOLFIRI±bevacizumab (Bmab)/cetuximab (Cmab)/panitumumab (Pmab), and FOLFOXIRI/CAPEOX±Bma...
Source: Cancers - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tung Hoang Jeongseon Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2664: Anti-Retroviral Protease Inhibitors Regulate Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection of Primary Oral and Cervical Epithelium
Craig Meyers Epidemiology studies suggest that Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) may be at increased risk of acquiring opportunistic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections and developing oral and cervical cancers. Effective HAART usage has improved survival but increased the risk for HPV-associated cancers. In this manuscript, we report that Protease Inhibitors (PI) treatment of three-dimensional tissues derived from primary human gingiva and cervical epithelial cells compromised cell-cell junctions within stratified epithelium and enhanced paracellula...
Source: Cancers - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Samina Alam Sreejata Chatterjee Sa Do Kang Janice Milici Jennifer Biryukov Han Chen Craig Meyers Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2665: Introduction to Special Issue of Radiology and Imaging of Cancer
rillo The increase in knowledge in oncology and the possibility of creating personalized medicine by selecting a more appropriate therapy related to the different tumor subtypes, as well as the management of patients with cancer within a multidisciplinary team has improved the clinical outcomes [...] (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Roberta Fusco Vincenza Granata Antonella Petrillo Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2666: Inflammatory Blood Markers as Prognostic and Predictive Factors in Early Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy
Conclusion: In the present study, PLR was found as an independent prognostic factor for survival, while NLR was an independent predictive factor for febrile neutropenia. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ileana Corbeau Simon Thezenas Aurelie Maran-Gonzalez Pierre-Emmanuel Colombo William Jacot Severine Guiu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2668: A Human Organoid Model of Aggressive Hepatoblastoma for Disease Modeling and Drug Testing
s Sanford Simon Hepatoblastoma is the most common childhood liver cancer. Although survival has improved significantly over the past few decades, there remains a group of children with aggressive disease who do not respond to current treatment regimens. There is a critical need for novel models to study aggressive hepatoblastoma as research to find new treatments is hampered by the small number of laboratory models of the disease. Organoids have emerged as robust models for many diseases, including cancer. We have generated and characterized a novel organoid model of aggressive hepatoblastoma directly from freshly re...
Source: Cancers - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: James A. Saltsman William J. Hammond Nicole J. C. Narayan David Requena Helmuth Gehart Gadi Lalazar Michael P. LaQuaglia Hans Clevers Sanford Simon Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2669: Modification of the Histone Landscape with JAK Inhibition in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
nces McMullin Dysregulation of epigenetic processes is increasingly understood to play a role in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Ruxolitinib, a JAK/STAT inhibitor, has proved a useful addition to the therapeutic arsenal for these disorders, but has limited disease modifying activity. We determined the effect of JAK inhibition on the histone landscape of MPN cells in cell line models of MPNs and validated using samples from the MAJIC randomised clinical trial of ruxolitinib in polycythaemia vera and essential thrombocythaemia. We demonstrated an epigenetic modifying effect of ruxolitinib using a...
Source: Cancers - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Graeme Greenfield Suzanne McPherson James Smith Adam Mead Claire Harrison Ken Mills Mary Frances McMullin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2670: Comment on: Jilkova, Z.M.; et al. “Predictive Factors for Response to PD-1/PD-L1 Checkpoint Inhibition in the Field of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current Status and Challenges” Cancers 2019, 11, 1554
Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2670: Comment on: Jilkova, Z.M.; et al. “Predictive Factors for Response to PD-1/PD-L1 Checkpoint Inhibition in the Field of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current Status and Challenges” Cancers 2019, 11, 1554 Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers12092670 Authors: Anna Dunnigan I read with interest the article ‘Predictive Factors for Response to PD-1/PD-L1 Checkpoint Inhibition in the Field of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current Status and Challenges’ [...] (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Anna Dunnigan Tags: Comment Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2667: EVI1 in Leukemia and Solid Tumors
ang The EVI1 gene encodes for a transcription factor with two zinc finger domains and is transcriptionally activated in a subset of myeloid leukemias. In leukemia, the transcriptional activation of EVI1 usually results from chromosomal rearrangements. Besides leukemia, EVI1 has also been linked to solid tumors including breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer and colon cancer. The MDS1/EVI1 gene is encoded by the same locus as EVI1. While EVI1 functions as a transcription repressor, MDS1/EVI1 acts as a transcription activator. The fusion protein encoded by the AML1/MDS1/EVI1 chimeric gene, resulting from chromosomal...
Source: Cancers - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Beiyuan Liang Jing Wang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2671: Zoledronic Acid Abrogates Restraint Stress-Induced Macrophage Infiltration, PDGF-AA Expression, and Ovarian Cancer Growth
Guillermo N. Armaiz-Pena Multiple studies suggest that chronic stress accelerates the growth of existing tumors by activating the sympathetic nervous system. Data suggest that sustained adrenergic signaling can induce tumor growth, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and macrophage infiltration. Our goal was to study the role of adrenergic-stimulated macrophages in ovarian cancer biology. Cytokine arrays were used to assess the effect of adrenergic stimulation in pro-tumoral cytokine networks. An orthotopic model of ovarian cancer was used to assess the in vivo effect of daily restraint stress on tumor growth and ...
Source: Cancers - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Claudia B. Colon-Echevarria Tatiana Ortiz Lizette Maldonado Melanie J. Hidalgo-Vargas Jaileene P érez-Morales Alexandra N. Aquino-Acevedo Roberto Herrera-Noriega Margarita Bonilla-Claudio Eida M. Castro Guillermo N. Armaiz-Pena Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2672: The Pancreatic Microbiome Is Associated with Carcinogenesis and Worse Prognosis in Males and Smokers
Weg M. Ongkeko An intra-pancreatic microbiota was recently discovered in several prominent studies. Since pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide, and the intratumor microbiome was found to be a significant contributor to carcinogenesis in other cancers, this study aims to characterize the PAAD microbiome and elucidate how it may be associated with PAAD prognosis. We further explored the association between the intra-pancreatic microbiome and smoking and gender, which are both risk factors for PAAD. RNA-sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to infer microb...
Source: Cancers - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jaideep Chakladar Selena Z. Kuo Grant Castaneda Wei Tse Li Aditi Gnanasekar Michael Andrew Yu Eric Y. Chang Xiao Qi Wang Weg M. Ongkeko Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2673: Reply to Comment on “Jilkova, Z.M.; et al. Predictive Factors for Response to PD-1/PD-L1 Checkpoint Inhibition in the Field of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current Status and Challenges” Cancers 2019, 11, 1554
Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2673: Reply to Comment on “Jilkova, Z.M.; et al. Predictive Factors for Response to PD-1/PD-L1 Checkpoint Inhibition in the Field of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current Status and Challenges” Cancers 2019, 11, 1554 Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers12092673 Authors: Macek Jilkova Aspord Decaens We appreciate the comments made on our review paper focused on possible predictive factors for responses to PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors in the field of hepatocellular carcinoma [...] (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Macek Jilkova Aspord Decaens Tags: Reply Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2659: NK-Cell-Mediated Targeting of Various Solid Tumors Using a B7-H3 Tri-Specific Killer Engager In Vitro and In Vivo
S. Miller Martin Felices We improved the bispecific antibody platform that primarily engages natural killer (NK) cells to kill cancer cells through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by adding IL-15 as a crosslinker that expands and self-sustains the effector NK cell population. The overall goal was to target B7-H3, an established marker predominantly expressed on cancer cells and minimally expressed on normal cells, and prove that it could target cancer cells in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo. The tri-specific killer engager (TriKETM) was assembled by DNA shuffling and ligation using DNA encodi...
Source: Cancers - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Daniel A. Vallera Soldano Ferrone Behiye Kodal Peter Hinderlie Laura Bendzick Brianna Ettestad Caroline Hallstrom Nicholas A. Zorko Arpit Rao Naomi Fujioka Charles J. Ryan Melissa A. Geller Jeffrey S. Miller Martin Felices Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2660: Signal Transduction Pathway Activity in High-Grade, Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Reveals a More Favorable Prognosis in Tumors with Low PI3K and High NF- κB Pathway Activity: A Novel Approach to a Long-Standing Enigma
Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2660: Signal Transduction Pathway Activity in High-Grade, Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Reveals a More Favorable Prognosis in Tumors with Low PI3K and High NF-κB Pathway Activity: A Novel Approach to a Long-Standing Enigma Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers12092660 Authors: Laura van Lieshout Anja van de Stolpe Phyllis van der Ploeg David Bowtell Joanne de Hullu Jurgen Piek We investigated signal transduction pathway (STP) activity in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) in relation to progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). We made use of signal transduction pa...
Source: Cancers - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Laura van Lieshout Anja van de Stolpe Phyllis van der Ploeg David Bowtell Joanne de Hullu Jurgen Piek Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2661: Mitosis in Cancer Cell Increases Immune Resistance via High Expression of HLA-G and PD-L1
In conclusion, the cancer cell can escape from immune cells in division stage that suggests the impact of mitosis index for cancer immunotherapy. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Matti Ullah Warda Aoudjeghout Cynthia Pimpie Marc Pocard Massoud Mirshahi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2651: Cellular and Molecular Progression of Prostate Cancer: Models for Basic and Preclinical Research
ratap Singh We have witnessed noteworthy progress in our understanding of prostate cancer over the past decades. This basic knowledge has been translated into efficient diagnostic and treatment approaches leading to the improvement in patient survival. However, the molecular pathogenesis of prostate cancer appears to be complex, and histological findings often do not provide an accurate assessment of disease aggressiveness and future course. Moreover, we also witness tremendous racial disparity in prostate cancer incidence and clinical outcomes necessitating a deeper understanding of molecular and mechanistic bases of ...
Source: Cancers - September 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sirin Saranyutanon Sachin Kumar Deshmukh Santanu Dasgupta Sachin Pai Seema Singh Ajay Pratap Singh Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2652: Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts: Versatile Players in the Tumor Microenvironment
T. Ting Matteo Ligorio Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are indispensable architects of the tumor microenvironment. They perform the essential functions of extracellular matrix deposition, stromal remodeling, tumor vasculature modulation, modification of tumor metabolism, and participation in crosstalk between cancer and immune cells. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the principal differences between normal fibroblasts and CAFs, the origin of CAFs, their functions, and ultimately, highlight the intimate connection of CAFs to virtually all of the hallmarks of cancer. We address the remarkab...
Source: Cancers - September 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Debolina Ganguly Raghav Chandra John Karalis Martha Teke Todd Aguilera Ravikanth Maddipati Megan B. Wachsmann Dario Ghersi Giulia Siravegna Herbert J. Zeh III Rolf Brekken David T. Ting Matteo Ligorio Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2653: Classifying Lung Neuroendocrine Neoplasms through MicroRNA Sequence Data Mining
en Neil Renwick Lung neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) can be challenging to classify due to subtle histologic differences between pathological types. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that are valuable markers in many neoplastic diseases. To evaluate miRNAs as classificatory markers for lung NENs, we generated comprehensive miRNA expression profiles from 14 typical carcinoid (TC), 15 atypical carcinoid (AC), 11 small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), and 15 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) samples, through barcoded small RNA sequencing. Following sequence annotation and data preprocessing, we randomly as...
Source: Cancers - September 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Justin J. M. Wong Paula S. Ginter Kathrin Tyryshkin Xiaojing Yang Jina Nanayakkara Zier Zhou Thomas Tuschl Yao-Tseng Chen Neil Renwick Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2654: Analysis of Bone Scans in Various Tumor Entities Using a Deep-Learning-Based Artificial Neural Network Algorithm —Evaluation of Diagnostic Performance
Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2654: Analysis of Bone Scans in Various Tumor Entities Using a Deep-Learning-Based Artificial Neural Network Algorithm—Evaluation of Diagnostic Performance Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers12092654 Authors: Jan Wuestemann Sebastian Hupfeld Dennis Kupitz Philipp Genseke Simone Schenke Maciej Pech Michael C. Kreissl Oliver S. Grosser The bone scan index (BSI), initially introduced for metastatic prostate cancer, quantifies the osseous tumor load from planar bone scans. Following the basic idea of radiomics, this method incorporates specific deep-learning techniques (artificial n...
Source: Cancers - September 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jan Wuestemann Sebastian Hupfeld Dennis Kupitz Philipp Genseke Simone Schenke Maciej Pech Michael C. Kreissl Oliver S. Grosser Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2655: FUCCI Real-Time Cell-Cycle Imaging as a Guide for Designing Improved Cancer Therapy: A Review of Innovative Strategies to Target Quiescent Chemo-Resistant Cancer Cells
. Hoffman Progress in chemotherapy of solid cancer has been tragically slow due, in large part, to the chemoresistance of quiescent cancer cells in tumors. The fluorescence ubiquitination cell-cycle indicator (FUCCI) was developed in 2008 by Miyawaki et al., which color-codes the phases of the cell cycle in real-time. FUCCI utilizes genes linked to different color fluorescent reporters that are only expressed in specific phases of the cell cycle and can, thereby, image the phases of the cell cycle in real-time. Intravital real-time FUCCI imaging within tumors has demonstrated that an established tumor comprises a major...
Source: Cancers - September 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shuya Yano Hiroshi Tazawa Shunsuke Kagawa Toshiyoshi Fujiwara Robert M. Hoffman Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2656: Complete Remission of Mouse Melanoma after Temporally Fractionated Microbeam Radiotherapy
Conclusions: Temporally fractionating MRT with lower peak doses not only maintained tumour control, but also increased the efficacy of this technique. These results demonstrate that the solution to making MRT more clinically feasible is to irradiate with several fractions of intersecting arrays with lower peak doses. This provides alternatives to synchrotron sources where future microbeam radiotherapy could be delivered with less intense radiation sources. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cristian Fernandez-Palomo Verdiana Trappetti Marine Potez Paolo Pellicioli Michael Krisch Jean Laissue Valentin Djonov Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2657: Prognostic Impact of Stromal Immune Infiltration Before and After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy (NAC) in Triple Negative Inflammatory Breast Cancers (TNIBC) Treated with Dose-Dense Dose-Intense NAC
rveriat Marc Espié Anne De Roquancourt Anne-Sophie Hamy Sylvie Giacchetti Inflammatory breast cancers are very aggressive, and among them, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the worst prognosis. While many studies have investigated the association between tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) before neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and outcome in TNBC, the impact of post-NAC TIL and TIL variation in triple negative inflammatory breast cancer (TNIBC) outcome is unknown. Between January 2010 to December 2018, all patients with TNIBC seen at the breast disease unit (Saint-Louis Hospital) were treated wit...
Source: Cancers - September 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Luca Campedel Paul Blanc-Durand Asker Bin Asker Jacqueline Lehmann-Che Caroline Cuvier Cedric De Bazelaire Luis Teixeira Stephanie Becourt Florence Ledoux Hamid Hocini Edwige Bourstyn Catherine Miquel Sophie Guillerm Patrick Charveriat Marc Espi é Anne Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2658: Does Pemetrexed Work in Targetable, Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer? A Narrative Review
ng-We Kim Pemetrexed is currently mainly considered for the treatment of advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) negative for gene mutations/rearrangements (wild-type disease (WTD)). This narrative review aimed to highlight the role of pemetrexed in the treatment of onco-driven nonsquamous advanced NSCLC by reviewing published clinical studies. For epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, patient survival following first-line pemetrexed–platinum was longer than for WTD. Later-line pemetrexed-based treatment after tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) failure provided greater benefits t...
Source: Cancers - September 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jin-Yuan Shih Akira Inoue Rebecca Cheng Rocio Varea Sang-We Kim Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2646: Impact of Number of Segmented Tissues on SAR Prediction Accuracy in Deep Pelvic Hyperthermia Treatment Planning
Paulides In hyperthermia, the general opinion is that pre-treatment optimization of treatment settings requires a patient-specific model. For deep pelvic hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP), tissue models comprising four tissue categories are currently discriminated. For head and neck HTP, we found that more tissues are required for increasing accuracy. In this work, we evaluated the impact of the number of segmented tissues on the predicted specific absorption rate (SAR) for the pelvic region. Highly detailed anatomical models of five healthy volunteers were selected from a virtual database. For each model, seven l...
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Iva VilasBoas-Ribeiro Gerard C. van Rhoon Tomas Drizdal Martine Franckena Margarethus M. Paulides Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2647: Inhibition of DNA Repair Pathways and Induction of ROS Are Potential Mechanisms of Action of the Small Molecule Inhibitor BOLD-100 in Breast Cancer
hajahan-Haq BOLD-100, a ruthenium-based complex, sodium trans-[tetrachloridobis (1H-indazole) ruthenate (III)] (also known as IT-139, NKP1339 or KP1339), is a novel small molecule drug that demonstrated a manageable safety profile at the maximum tolerated dose and modest antitumor activity in a phase I clinical trial. BOLD-100 has been reported to inhibit the upregulation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress sensing protein GRP78. However, response to BOLD-100 varies in different cancer models and the precise mechanism of action in high-response versus low-response cancer cells remains unclear. In vitro studies have ind...
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Suzanne Bakewell Isabel Conde Yassi Fallah Mathew McCoy Lu Jin Ayesha N. Shajahan-Haq Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2648: Tissue Immune Profile: A Tool to Predict Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy in Triple Negative Breast Cancer
’Amati Andrea Botticelli Pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) can predict better survival outcomes in patients with early triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1), and Cluster of Differentiation 73 (CD73) are immune-related biomarkers that can be evaluated in the tumor microenvironment. We investigated if the contemporary expression of these biomarkers combined in a tissue immune profile (TIP) can predict pCR better than single biomarkers in TNBC. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), CD73 expression by ...
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bruna Cerbelli Simone Scagnoli Silvia Mezi Alessandro De Luca Simona Pisegna Maria Ida Amabile Michela Roberto Lucio Fortunato Leopoldo Costarelli Angelina Pernazza Lidia Strigari Carlo Della Rocca Paolo Marchetti Giulia d ’Amati Andrea Botticelli Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2649: Erratum: Lee, H.H., et al. Histone 2A Family Member J Drives Mesenchymal Transition and Temozolomide Resistance in Glioblastoma Multiforme. Cancers 2020, 12, 98
an Wu Yuan-Feng Lin The authors wish to make the following changes to this paper [...] (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hsun-Hua Lee Che-Hsuan Lin Hui-Yu Lin Chia-Hao Kuei Jing-Quan Zheng Yuan-Hung Wang Long-Sheng Lu Fei-Peng Lee Chaur-Jong Hu Dean Wu Yuan-Feng Lin Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2650: Essential Oils and Their Main Chemical Components: The Past 20 Years of Preclinical Studies in Melanoma
Bufalo The last two decades have seen the development of effective therapies, which have saved the lives of a large number of melanoma patients. However, therapeutic options are still limited for patients without BRAF mutations or in relapse from current treatments, and severe side effects often occur during therapy. Thus, additional insights to improve treatment efficacy with the aim to decrease the likelihood of chemoresistance, as well as reducing side effects of current therapies, are required. Natural products offer great opportunities for the discovery of antineoplastic drugs, and still represent a useful source...
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Marta Di Martile Stefania Garzoli Rino Ragno Donatella Del Bufalo Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2634: Beyond Chemotherapies: Recent Strategies in Breast Cancer Treatment
Kischel In 2018, about 2.1 million women have been diagnosed with breast cancer worldwide. Treatments include—among others—surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or endocrine therapy. The current policy of care tends rather at therapeutic de-escalation, and systemic treatment such as chemotherapies alone are not systematically considered as the best option anymore. With recent advances in the understanding of cancer biology, and as a complement to anatomic staging, some biological factors (assessed notably via gene-expression signatures) are taken into account to evaluate the benefit of a chem...
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Arthur Foulon Pierrick Theret Lise Rodat-Despoix Philippe Kischel Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2635: Impact of New Systemic Treatment and Radiotherapy in Melanoma Patients with Leptomeningeal Metastases
Conclusion: Targeted therapy and immunotherapy are promising new treatment options in LM from melanoma that can increase overall survival, and may induce long lasting remission in some patients. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Pauline T étu Lila Sirven-Villaros Stefania Cuzzubbo Renata Ursu Barouyr Baroudjian Julie Delyon Fran çois Nataf Constance De Margerie-Mellon Clara Allayous Wendy Lefevre Antoine F. Carpentier C éleste Lebbé Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2636: Trial Sponsorship and Time to Reporting for Phase 3 Randomized Cancer Clinical Trials
M. Subbiah Ethan B. Ludmir The pace of clinical trial data generation and publication is an area of interest within clinical oncology; however, little is known about the dynamics and covariates of time to reporting (TTR) of trial results. To assess these, ClinicalTrials.gov was queried for phase three clinical trials for patients with metastatic solid tumors, and the factors associated with TTR from enrollment completion to publication were analyzed. Based on the 319 included trials, cooperative-group-sponsored trials were reported at a slower rate than non-cooperative-group trials (median 37.5 vs. 31.0 months; p &a...
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Timothy A. Lin Clifton David Fuller Vivek Verma Walker Mainwaring Andres F. Espinoza Austin B. Miller Amit Jethanandani Dario Pasalic Prajnan Das Bruce D. Minsky Charles R. Thomas David R. Fogelman Vivek Subbiah Ishwaria M. Subbiah Ethan B. Ludmir Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2637: Immunogenic Cell Death and Elimination of Immunosuppressive Cells: A Double-Edged Sword of Chemotherapy
nghelli Chemotherapy is initially used to kill proliferative cells. In the current area of emerging immunotherapy, chemotherapies have shown their ability to modulate the tumor micro environment and immune response. We focus here on two main effects: first, immunogenic cell death, defined as a form of regulated cell death (RCD) that is sufficient to activate an adaptive immune response in immunocompetent hosts; and second, the depletion of suppressive cells, known to play a major role in immune escape and resistance to immunotherapy. In this review, we present a review of different classically used chemotherapies focus...
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jean-David Fumet Emeric Limagne Marion Thibaudin Francois Ghiringhelli Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2640: Genome-Wide Comparison of the Target Genes of the Reactive Oxygen Species and Non-Reactive Oxygen Species Constituents of Cold Atmospheric Plasma in Cancer Cells
Sun Jung Kim Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) can induce cancer cell death. The majority of gene regulation studies have been biased towards reactive oxygen species (ROS) among the physicochemical components of CAP. The current study aimed to systemically determine the distribution of target genes regulated by the ROS and non-ROS constituents of CAP. Genome-wide expression data from a public database, which were obtained after treating U937 leukemia and SK-mel-147 melanoma cells with CAP or H2O2, were analyzed, and gene sets regulated by either or both of them were identified. The results showed 252 and 762 genes in H2O2...
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hwee Won Ji Heejoo Kim Hyeon Woo Kim Sung Hwan Yun Jae Eun Park Eun Ha Choi Sun Jung Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2641: Mitochondria and Cancer
n Mitochondria are indispensable for energy metabolism and are essential for the regulation of many cellular processes in healthy as well as in transformed cells [...] (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alexandr V. Bazhin Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2642: Hormone Involvement in Tissue Development, Physiology and Oncogenesis: A Preface to the Special Issue
o Hormones, i [...] (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Claudio Luparello Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2639: Expression of AR-V7 (Androgen Receptor Variant 7) Protein in Granular Cytoplasmic Structures Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Prostate Cancer Patients
Wach Helge Taubert Verena Lieb Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer, causing morbidity and mortality among men world-wide. The expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and its splice variants is a crucial factor of prostate cancer biology that has not been comprehensively studied in PCa tumors. The aim of this study was to characterize the protein expression of the AR and its splice variant, AR-V7, and their subcellular distributions in PCa by immunohistochemistry and to correlate the results to the clinicopathological data and prognosis. Immunohistochemical staining for AR and AR-V7 was performe...
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Paul K önig Markus Eckstein Rudolf Jung Amer Abdulrahman Juan Guzman Katrin Weigelt Ginette Serrero Jun Hayashi Carol Geppert Robert St öhr Arndt Hartmann Bernd Wullich Sven Wach Helge Taubert Verena Lieb Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2638: How Different Are the Molecular Mechanisms of Nodal and Distant Metastasis in Luminal A Breast Cancer?
vel Bouchal Lymph node status is one of the best prognostic factors in breast cancer, however, its association with distant metastasis is not straightforward. Here we compare molecular mechanisms of nodal and distant metastasis in molecular subtypes of breast cancer, with major focus on luminal A patients. We analyze a new cohort of 706 patients (MMCI_706) as well as an independent cohort of 836 primary tumors with full gene expression information (SUPERTAM_HGU133A). We evaluate the risk of distant metastasis, analyze targetable molecular mechanisms in Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and identify relevant inhibitors. Lymp...
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Petr Lapcik Anna Pospisilova Lucia Janacova Peter Grell Pavel Fabian Pavel Bouchal Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2643: Isolation and Enumeration of CTC in Colorectal Cancer Patients: Introduction of a Novel Cell Imaging Approach and Comparison to Cellular and Molecular Detection Techniques
This study validates a molecular detection technique through using a novel cell imaging approach for CTC detection and enumeration, in comparison to a size-based cellular and correlated the data to clinico-pathological characteristics. Overall, 57 CRC patients were recruited for this prospective study. Blood samples were analysed for CTCs by three methods: (1) Epithelial marker immunofluorescence staining combined with automated microscopy using the NYONE® cell imager; (2) isolation by size using membrane filtration with the ScreenCell® Cyto IS device and immunofluorescence staining; (3) detection b...
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alexander Hendricks Burkhard Brandt Reinhild Geisen Katharina Dall Christian R öder Clemens Schafmayer Thomas Becker Sebastian Hinz Susanne Sebens Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2645: Adding PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors to Chemotherapy for the First-Line Treatment of Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC): A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials
Tiseo Survival outcomes in extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES SCLC) are dismal, with median overall survival (OS) less than 12 months. The combination of PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) with first-line platinum-etoposide chemotherapy has been recently evaluated in randomized clinical trials. We performed a systematic literature review through PubMed and conference proceedings. Randomized trials evaluating chemotherapy +/− PD-1/PD-L1 ICIs were included in the meta-analysis. Efficacy (OS), activity [progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR)] outcomes and toxici...
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Francesco Facchinetti Massimo Di Maio Marcello Tiseo Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2644: B Cells and Tertiary Lymphoid Structures Influence Survival in Lung Cancer Patients with Resectable Tumors
Fuster Rafael Aguiló Esther Barreiro Immune profile of B and T cells and tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs) may differ in tumors of lung cancer (LC) patients with/without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and may also influence patient survival. We sought to analyze: (1) TLSs, germinal centers (GCs), B and T cells, and (2) associations of the immune biomarkers with the patients’ 10-year overall survival (OS). TLSs (numbers and area), B [cluster of differentiation (CD) 20], and T (CD3), and GCs cells were identified in both tumor and non-tumor specimens (thoracotomy) from 90 LC-COPD...
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jun Tang Daniel Ramis-Cabrer V íctor Curull Xuejie Wang Merc é Mateu-Jiménez Lara Pijuan Xavier Duran Liyun Qin Alberto Rodr íguez-Fuster Rafael Aguil ó Esther Barreiro Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2627: Treatment of Gastric Cancer
nos Surgery represents the only method for potentially curative intent for gastric cancer (GC) [...] (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Stefano Rausei Georgios D. Lianos Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2628: Mesenchymal Stromal-Like Cells in the Glioma Microenvironment: What Are These Cells?
nei The glioma microenvironment is a critical regulator of tumor progression. It contains different cellular components such as blood vessels, immune cells, and neuroglial cells. It also contains non-cellular components, such as the extracellular matrix, extracellular vesicles, and cytokines, and has certain physicochemical properties, such as low pH, hypoxia, elevated interstitial pressure, and impaired perfusion. This review focuses on a particular type of cells recently identified in the glioma microenvironment: glioma-associated stromal cells (GASCs). This is just one of a number of names given to these mesenchymal...
Source: Cancers - September 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Anne Clavreul Philippe Menei Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2629: Clinical Results of Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) Specific PET and Implications for Radiotherapy Planning: Systematic Review
In conclusion, FAP-specific PET represents a promising imaging modality for radiotherapy planning that warrants further research. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Paul Windisch Daniel R. Zwahlen Stefan A. Koerber Frederik L. Giesel J ürgen Debus Uwe Haberkorn Sebastian Adeberg Tags: Review Source Type: research