Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 362: Erratum: Wagner, A.E., et al. SP8 Promotes an Aggressive Phenotype in Hepatoblastoma via FGF8 Activation. Cancers 2020, 12, 2294
itz Roland Kappler Two contributors’ names were missing in the original version of the authorship of the paper [...] (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - January 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alexandra Elisabeth Wagner Thomas Schwarzmayr Beate H äberle Christian Vokuhl Irene Schmid Markus Kaller Heiko Hermeking Dietrich von Schweinitz Roland Kappler Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 363: The Sarcoma Immune Landscape: Emerging Challenges, Prognostic Significance and Prospective Impact for Immunotherapy Approaches
eno Despite significant advances in multidisciplinary treatment strategies including surgery, radiotherapy, targeted therapy and chemotherapy there are yet no substantial improvements in the clinical benefit of patients with sarcomas. Current understanding of the underlying cellular and molecular pathways which govern the dynamic interactions between the tumor stroma, tumor cells and immune infiltrates in sarcoma tissues, led to the clinical development of new therapeutic options based on immunotherapies. Moreover, progress of the treatment of sarcomas also depends on the identification of biomarkers with prognostic an...
Source: Cancers - January 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Anna Koumarianou Jose Duran-Moreno Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 364: Bone Marrow Adipocytes: A Link between Obesity and Bone Cancer
Rosen Cancers that grow in the bone marrow are for most patients scary, painful, and incurable. These cancers are especially hard to treat due to the supportive microenvironment provided by the bone marrow niche in which they reside. New therapies designed to target tumor cells have extended the life expectancy for these patients, but better therapies are needed and new ideas for how to target these cancers are crucial. This need has led researchers to interrogate whether bone marrow adipocytes (BMAds), which increase in number and size during aging and in obesity, contribute to cancer initiation or progression within ...
Source: Cancers - January 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Michaela R. Reagan Heather Fairfield Clifford J. Rosen Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 344: Integrin α3β1 Represses Reelin Expression in Breast Cancer Cells to Promote Invasion
In this study we demonstrate that α3β1 represses RELN expression to enhance breast cancer cell invasion. RELN mRNA was significantly increased upon RNAi-mediated α3 knockdown in two triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and SUM159. Modulation of baseline Reelin levels altered invasive potential, where enhanced Reelin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells reduced invasion, while RNAi-mediated suppression of Reelin in SUM159 cells increased invasion. Moreover, treatment of α3β1-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells with culture medium that was conditioned by &...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Abibatou Ndoye Rakshitha Pandulal Miskin C. Michael DiPersio Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 343: RNA-Binding Protein La Mediates TGF β-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cell Properties
Conclusion: our study suggests that the TGFβ/AKT/pLaT389 signaling pathway regulates cancer cell plasticity. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tilman Heise Gunhild Sommer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 344: Integrin 31 Represses Reelin Expression in Breast Cancer Cells to Promote Invasion
In this study we demonstrate that 31 represses RELN expression to enhance breast cancer cell invasion. RELN mRNA was significantly increased upon RNAi-mediated 3 knockdown in two triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and SUM159. Modulation of baseline Reelin levels altered invasive potential, where enhanced Reelin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells reduced invasion, while RNAi-mediated suppression of Reelin in SUM159 cells increased invasion. Moreover, treatment of 31-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells with culture medium that was conditioned by 3 knockdown MDA-MB-231 cells led to decreased invasion. RNAi-mediated supp...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Abibatou Ndoye Rakshitha Pandulal Miskin C. Michael DiPersio Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 347: Pathogenesis and Diagnosis of Genitourinary Cancer
Y. Ro Genitourinary (GU) cancers are among the most common malignant diseases in men [...] (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Charles C. Guo Steven S. Shen Jae Y. Ro Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 346: ctDNA and Adjuvant Therapy for Colorectal Cancer: Time to Re-Invent Our Treatment Paradigm
e Tie Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While there have been significant developments in the treatments for patients with metastatic CRC in recent years, improving outcomes in the adjuvant setting has been more challenging. Recent technological advances in circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) assay with the ability to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) after curative intent surgery will fundamentally change how we assess recurrence risk and conduct adjuvant trials. Studies in non-metastatic CRC have now demonstrated the prognostic impact of ctDNA analysis after curat...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mahendra Naidoo Peter Gibbs Jeanne Tie Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 349: An Analysis of Vertebral Body Growth after Proton Beam Therapy for Pediatric Cancer
In this study, we retrospectively analyzed bone growth impairment after proton beam therapy for pediatric cancer. A total of 353 vertebral bodies in 23 patients under 12 years old who received proton beam therapy were evaluated. Compared to the non-irradiated vertebral body growth rate, the irradiated vertebral body rate (%/year) was significantly lower: 77.2%, 57.6%, 40.8%, 26.4%, and 14.1% at 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy (RBE) irradiation, respectively. In multivariate analysis, radiation dose was the only factor correlated with vertebral body growth. Age, gender, and vertebral body site were not significant factors. These ...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Keiichiro Baba Masashi Mizumoto Yoshiko Oshiro Shosei Shimizu Masatoshi Nakamura Yuichi Hiroshima Takashi Iizumi Takashi Saito Haruko Numajiri Kei Nakai Hitoshi Ishikawa Toshiyuki Okumura Kazushi Maruo Hideyuki Sakurai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 350: Roles of HIF and 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenases in Controlling Gene Expression in Hypoxia
nia Rocha Hypoxia—reduction in oxygen availability—plays key roles in both physiological and pathological processes. Given the importance of oxygen for cell and organism viability, mechanisms to sense and respond to hypoxia are in place. A variety of enzymes utilise molecular oxygen, but of particular importance to oxygen sensing are the 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDs). Of these, Prolyl-hydroxylases have long been recognised to control the levels and function of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF), a master transcriptional regulator in hypoxia, via their hydroxylase activity...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Julianty Frost Mark Frost Michael Batie Hao Jiang Sonia Rocha Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 345: The Transcriptomic Landscape of Prostate Cancer Development and Progression: An Integrative Analysis
Guoping Ren Daniel M. Berney Yong-Jie Lu Claude Chelala Next-generation sequencing of primary tumors is now standard for transcriptomic studies, but microarray-based data still constitute the majority of available information on other clinically valuable samples, including archive material. Using prostate cancer (PC) as a model, we developed a robust analytical framework to integrate data across different technical platforms and disease subtypes to connect distinct disease stages and reveal potentially relevant genes not identifiable from single studies alone. We reconstructed the molecular profile of PC to yiel...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jacek Marzec Helen Ross-Adams Stefano Pirr ò Jun Wang Yanan Zhu Xueying Mao Emanuela Gadaleta Amar S. Ahmad Bernard V. North Sol ène-Florence Kammerer-Jacquet Elzbieta Stankiewicz Sakunthala C. Kudahetti Luis Beltran Guoping Ren Daniel M. Berney Yong-Ji Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 352: Predicting of Sentinel Lymph Node Status in Breast Cancer Patients with Clinically Negative Nodes: A Validation Study
orusso Raffaella Massafra In the absence of lymph node abnormalities detectable on clinical examination or imaging, the guidelines provide for the dissection of the first axillary draining lymph nodes during surgery. It is not always possible to arrive at surgery without diagnostic doubts, and machine learning algorithms can support clinical decisions. The web calculator CancerMath (CM) allows you to estimate the probability of having positive lymph nodes valued on the basis of tumor size, age, histologic type, grading, expression of estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. We collected 993 patients referred to ...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Annarita Fanizzi Domenico Pomarico Angelo Paradiso Samantha Bove Sergio Diotiaiuti Vittorio Didonna Francesco Giotta Daniele La Forgia Agnese Latorre Maria Irene Pastena Pasquale Tamborra Alfredo Zito Vito Lorusso Raffaella Massafra Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 351: EGR1/GADD45 α Activation by ROS of Non-Thermal Plasma Mediates Cell Death in Thyroid Carcinoma
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that NTPAM induces apoptotic cell death in THCA through a novel mechanism by which NTPAM-induced ROS activates EGR1/GADD45α signaling. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that the regulation of the EGR1/GADD45α axis can be a novel strategy for the treatment of THCA. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Seung-Nam Jung Chan Oh Jae Won Chang Lihua Liu Mi Ae Lim Yan Li Jin Yudan Piao Hae Jong Kim Ho-Ryun Won Seong Eun Lee Min Joung Lee Jun Young Heo Sangmi Jun Doheon Lee Woo Seok Kang Dae-Woong Kim Ki-Sang Rha Young Il Kim Yea Eun Kang Bon Seok Koo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 353: Physical Interaction between HPV16E7 and the Actin-Binding Protein Gelsolin Regulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition via HIPPO-YAP Axis
ria Mileo Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) exhibits a strong oncogenic potential mainly in cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. The E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins, acting via specific interactions with host cellular targets, are required for cell transformation and maintenance of the transformed phenotype as well. We previously demonstrated that HPV16E7 interacts with the actin-binding protein gelsolin, involved in cytoskeletal F-actin dynamics. Herein, we provide evidence that the E7/gelsolin interaction promotes the cytoskeleton rearrangement leading to epithelial-mesenchymal transition-linked morphological a...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Paola Matarrese Rosa Vona Barbara Ascione Marco G. Paggi Anna Maria Mileo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 354: Ex Vivo Mitochondrial Respiration Parallels Biochemical Response to Ibrutinib in CLL Cells
Versha Banerji Mitochondrial respiration is becoming more commonly used as a preclinical tool and potential biomarker for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and activated B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling. However, respiration parameters have not been evaluated with respect to dose of ibrutinib given in clinical practice or the effect of progression on ibrutinib treatment on respiration of CLL cells. We evaluated the impact of low and standard dose ibrutinib on CLL cells from patients treated in vivo on mitochondrial respiration using Oroboros oxygraph. Cytokines CCL3 and CCL4 were evaluated using the Mesoscale. Western...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Subir Roy Chowdhury Cheryl Peltier Sen Hou Amandeep Singh James B. Johnston Spencer B. Gibson Aaron Marshall Versha Banerji Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 355: [18F]FET PET Uptake Indicates High Tumor and Low Necrosis Content in Brain Metastasis
Jens Gempt Amino acid positron emission tomography (PET) has been employed in the management of brain metastases. Yet, histopathological correlates of PET findings remain poorly understood. We investigated the relationship of O-(2-[18F]Fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([18F]FET) PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histology in brain metastases. Fifteen patients undergoing brain metastasis resection were included prospectively. Using intraoperative navigation, 39 targeted biopsies were obtained from parts of the metastases that were either PET-positive or negative and MRI-positive or negative. Tumor and necrosis conten...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hanno S. Meyer Friederike Liesche-Starnecker Mona Mustafa Igor Yakushev Benedikt Wiestler Bernhard Meyer Jens Gempt Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 356: A Selective Competitive Inhibitor of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A3 Hinders Cancer Cell Growth, Invasiveness and Stemness In Vitro
We report on the structural, biochemical, and cellular characterization of NR6, a new selective ALDH1A3 inhibitor derived from an already published ALDH non-selective inhibitor with cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma and colorectal cancer cells. Crystal structure, through X-Ray analysis, showed that NR6 binds a non-conserved tyrosine residue of ALDH1A3 which drives the selectivity towards this isoform, as supported by computational binding simulations. Moreover, NR6 shows anti-metastatic activity in wound healing and invasion assays and induces the downregulation of cancer stem cell markers. Overall, our work confirms the ...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Edoardo L. M. Gelardi Giorgia Colombo Francesca Picarazzi Davide M. Ferraris Andrea Mangione Giovanni Petrarolo Eleonora Aronica Menico Rizzi Mattia Mori Concettina La Motta Silvia Garavaglia Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 358: Treatment of Advanced Gastro-Entero-Pancreatic Neuro-Endocrine Tumors: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Phase III Randomized Controlled Trials
Campana Riccardo Casadei Several new therapies have been approved to treat advanced gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP–NENs) in the last twenty years. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing two or more therapies for unresectable GEP–NENs. Network metanalysis was used to overcome the multiarm problem. For each arm, we described the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curves. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival and grade 3&nd...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Claudio Ricci Giuseppe Lamberti Carlo Ingaldi Cristina Mosconi Nico Pagano Laura Alberici Valentina Ambrosini Lisa Manuzzi Fabio Monari Deborah Malvi Francesca Rosini Francesco Minni Davide Campana Riccardo Casadei Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 357: Estimation of the Potentially Avoidable Excess Deaths Associated with Socioeconomic Inequalities in Cancer Survival in Germany
erman Cancer Survival Working Group Many countries have reported survival inequalities due to regional socioeconomic deprivation. To quantify the potential gain from eliminating cancer survival disadvantages associated with area-based deprivation in Germany, we calculated the number of avoidable excess deaths. We used population-based cancer registry data from 11 of 16 German federal states. Patients aged ≥15 years diagnosed with an invasive malignant tumor between 2008 and 2017 were included. Area-based socioeconomic deprivation was assessed using the quintiles of the German Index of Multiple Deprivation (G...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lina Jansen Josephine Kanbach Isabelle Finke Volker Arndt Katharina Emrich Bernd Holleczek Hiltraud Kaj üter Joachim Kieschke Werner Maier Ron Pritzkuleit Eunice Sirri Lars Schwettmann Cynthia Erb Hermann Brenner for the German Cancer Survival Working Gr Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 359: Global Trends of Latent Prostate Cancer in Autopsy Studies
In conclusion, the recent increase in latent PC in Asian men is consistent with an increase in clinical PC. Evidence suggests that this increase is caused not only by the increase in PSA screening, but also by the adoption of a more Westernized lifestyle. Autopsy findings suggest the need to reconsider the definition of clinically insignificant PC. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Takahiro Kimura Shun Sato Hiroyuki Takahashi Shin Egawa Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 360: Immune Checkpoint Inhibitory Therapy in Sarcomas: Is There Light at the End of the Tunnel?
Elly Marcq Soft tissue and bone sarcomas are a very heterogeneous group of tumors with many subtypes for which diagnosis and treatment remains a very challenging task. On top of that, the treatment choices are limited, and the prognosis of aggressive sarcomas remains poor. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have drawn a lot of attention last years because of their promising response rates and their durable effects. ICIs are currently widely used in the daily routine practice for the treatment of a different malignancies, such as melanoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Still, ICIs are not incl...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Vasiliki Siozopoulou Andreas Domen Karen Zwaenepoel Annelies Van Beeck Evelien Smits Patrick Pauwels Elly Marcq Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 348: Discovery of Functional Alternatively Spliced PKM Transcripts in Human Cancers
gawa Jan Boren Jens Nielsen Mathias Uhlen Cheng Zhang Adil Mardinoglu Pyruvate kinase muscle type (PKM) is a key enzyme in glycolysis and plays an important oncological role in cancer. However, the association of PKM expression and the survival outcome of patients with different cancers is controversial. We employed systems biology methods to reveal prognostic value and potential biological functions of PKM transcripts in different human cancers. Protein products of transcripts were shown and detected by western blot and mass spectrometry analysis. We focused on different transcripts of PKM and investigated t...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Xiangyu Li Woonghee Kim Muhammad Arif Chunxia Gao Andreas Hober David Kotol Linn éa Strandberg Bj örn Forsström Åsa Sivertsson Per Oksvold Hasan Turkez Morten Gr øtli Yusuke Sato Haruki Kume Seishi Ogawa Jan Boren Jens Nielsen Mathias Uhlen Cheng Zha Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 361: Identification of a Dexamethasone Mediated Radioprotection Mechanism Reveals New Therapeutic Vulnerabilities in Glioblastoma
Conclusions: Our results reveal a novel DEXA-induced mechanism in GBM cells and provide a rationale for revisiting the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of GBM. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Paula Aldaz Jaione Auzmendi-Iriarte Maika Dur ántez Irene Lasheras-Otero Estefania Carrasco-Garcia M. Victoria Zelaya Laura Bragado Ana Ol ías-Arjona Larraitz Ega ña Nicol ás Samprón Idoia Morilla Marta Redondo-Mu ñoz Mikel Rico Massimo Squatrito Ma Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 340: T-Cell Lymphoma Clonality by Copy Number Variation Analysis of T-Cell Receptor Genes
In this study, based on WGS data, we identified monoclonal rearrangements (MRs) of T-cell receptors (TCR) genes using a novel segmentation algorithm and copy number computation. We evaluated the feasibility of this technique as a marker of T-cell clonality using T-cell lymphomas (TCL, n = 44) and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphomas (ENKTLs, n = 20), and identified 98% of TCLs with one or more TCR gene MRs, against 91% detected using PCR. TCR MRs were absent in all ENKTLs and NK cell lines. Sensitivity-wise, this platform is sufficiently competent, with MRs detected in the majority of samples with tumor content under 25% and it ...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ming Liang Oon Jing Quan Lim Bernett Lee Sai Mun Leong Gwyneth Shook-Ting Soon Zi Wei Wong Evelyn Huizi Lim Zhenhua Li Allen Eng Juh Yeoh Shangying Chen Kenneth Hon Kim Ban Tae-Hoon Chung Soo-Yong Tan Shih-Sung Chuang Seiichi Kato Shigeo Nakamura Emiko Ta Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 341: The Giant HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligase HERC1 Is Aberrantly Expressed in Myeloid Related Disorders and It Is a Novel BCR-ABL1 Binding Partner
i Enrico Bracco HERC E3 subfamily members are parts of the E3 ubiquitin ligases and key players for a wide range of cellular functions. Though the involvement of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in blood disorders has been broadly studied, so far the role of large HERCs in this context remains unexplored. In the present study we examined the expression of the large HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, HERC1, in blood disorders. Our findings revealed that HERC1 gene expression was severely downregulated both in acute and in chronic myelogenous leukemia at diagnosis, while it is restored after complete remission achievement. Inste...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Muhammad Shahzad Ali Cristina Panuzzo Chiara Calabrese Alessandro Maglione Rocco Piazza Daniela Cilloni Giuseppe Saglio Barbara Pergolizzi Enrico Bracco Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 342: Parvovirus-Based Combinatorial Immunotherapy: A Reinforced Therapeutic Strategy against Poor-Prognosis Solid Cancers
Marchini Resistance to anticancer treatments poses continuing challenges to oncology researchers and clinicians. The underlying mechanisms are complex and multifactorial. However, the immunologically “cold” tumor microenvironment (TME) has recently emerged as one of the critical players in cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. Therefore, TME modulation through induction of an immunological switch towards inflammation (“warming up”) is among the leading approaches in modern oncology. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are seen today not merely as tumor cell-killing ...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Assia Angelova Tiago Ferreira Clemens Bretscher Jean Rommelaere Antonio Marchini Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 339: Radiomics and Dosiomics for Predicting Local Control After Carbon-Ion Radiotherapy in Skull-Base Chordoma
r Orlandi Guido Baroni Skull-base chordoma (SBC) can be treated with carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) to improve local control (LC). The study aimed to explore the role of multi-parametric radiomic, dosiomic and clinical features as prognostic factors for LC in SBC patients undergoing CIRT. Before CIRT, 57 patients underwent MR and CT imaging, from which tumour contours and dose maps were obtained. MRI and CT-based radiomic, and dosiomic features were selected and fed to two survival models, singularly or by combining them with clinical factors. Adverse LC was given by in-field recurrence or tumour progression. The dat...
Source: Cancers - January 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Giulia Buizza Chiara Paganelli Emma D ’Ippolito Giulia Fontana Silvia Molinelli Lorenzo Preda Giulia Riva Alberto Iannalfi Francesca Valvo Ester Orlandi Guido Baroni Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 330: Assessment of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabiol in Mouse Models of Medulloblastoma and Ependymoma
This study emphasizes the importance of preclinical models in validating therapeutic agent efficacy prior to clinical trials, ensuring that enrolled patients are afforded the most promising therapies available. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - January 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Clara Andradas Jacob Byrne Mani Kuchibhotla Mathew Ancliffe Anya C. Jones Brooke Carline Hilary Hii Alexandra Truong Lisa C. D. Storer Timothy A. Ritzmann Richard G. Grundy Nicholas G. Gottardo Raelene Endersby Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 331: Prevalence and Predictive Factors for Upfront Dose Reduction of the First Cycle of First-Line Chemotherapy in Older Adults with Metastatic Solid Cancer: Korean Cancer Study Group (KCSG) Multicenter Study
Kyung Hee Lee Sung Hwa Bae Dong-Hoe Koo Jee Hyun Kim In Sook Woo Old age alone does not reflect an intolerability to chemotherapy. However, upfront dose reduction (UDR) of the first cycle of first-line palliative chemotherapy has sometimes been chosen by physicians for older adults with metastatic cancer due to concerns regarding adverse events. The development of predictive factors for UDR of palliative chemotherapy would be helpful for treatment planning among older adults. This was a secondary analysis of a study on predicting adverse events of first-line palliative chemotherapy in 296 patients (&...
Source: Cancers - January 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: In Gyu Hwang Minsuk Kwon Jin Won Kim Se Hyun Kim Yun-Gyoo Lee Jin Young Kim Su-Jin Koh Yoon Ho Ko Seong Hoon Shin Soojung Hong Tae-Yong Kim Sun Young Kim Hyun Jung Kim Hyo Jung Kim Myung Ah Lee Jung Hye Kwon Yong Sang Hong Kyung Hee Lee Sung Hwa Bae Dong- Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 332: CDK4/6 Inhibitor Treatments in Patients with Hormone Receptor Positive, Her2 Negative Advanced Breast Cancer: Potential Molecular Mechanisms, Clinical Implications and Future Perspectives
Laura Pizzuti Ilaria Portarena Nello Salesi Simone Scagnoli Paola Scavina Giuseppe Tonini Patrizia Vici Paolo Marchetti Hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer is the most common breast cancer subtype, and endocrine therapy (ET) remains its therapeutic backbone. Although anti-estrogen therapies are usually effective initially, approximately 50% of HR+ patients develop resistance to ET within their lifetime, ultimately leading to disease recurrence and limited clinical benefit. The recent addition of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 i...
Source: Cancers - January 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Michela Roberto Antonio Astone Andrea Botticelli Luisa Carbognin Alessandra Cassano Giuliana D ’Auria Agnese Fabbri Alessandra Fabi Teresa Gamucci Eriseld Krasniqi Mauro Minelli Armando Orlandi Francesco Pantano Ida Paris Laura Pizzuti Ilaria Portarena Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 333: Recent Research on Gastrointestinal Carcinoma
rdini This series of 10 articles (eight original articles and two reviews) is presented by international leaders in gastrointestinal cancer research [...] (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - January 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Giulia Rovesti Giorgia Marisi Andrea Casadei-Gardini Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 335: Targeting E-Selectin to Tackle Cancer Using Uproleselan
l Kareem Azab E-selectin is a vascular adhesion molecule expressed mainly on endothelium, and its primary role is to facilitate leukocyte cell trafficking by recognizing ligand surface proteins. E-selectin gained a new role since it was demonstrated to be involved in cancer cell trafficking, stem-like properties and therapy resistance. Therefore, being expressed in the tumor microenvironment, E-selectin can potentially be used to eradicate cancer. Uproleselan (also known as GMI-1271), a specific E-selectin antagonist, has been tested on leukemia, myeloma, pancreatic, colon and breast cancer cells, most of which involve...
Source: Cancers - January 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Barbara Muz Anas Abdelghafer Matea Markovic Jessica Yavner Anupama Melam Noha Nabil Salama Abdel Kareem Azab Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 334: Immunotherapy and Immunotherapy Combinations in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
chynski Although most prostate cancers are localized, and the majority are curable, recurrences occur in approximately 35% of men. Among patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence and PSA doubling time (PSADT) less than 15 months after radical prostatectomy, prostate cancer accounted for approximately 90% of the deaths by 15 years after recurrence. An immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) and impaired cellular immunity are likely largely responsible for the limited utility of checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) in advanced prostate cancer compared with other tumor types. Thus, for immunologically &a...
Source: Cancers - January 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dhruv Bansal Melissa A. Reimers Eric M. Knoche Russell K. Pachynski Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 336: Prognostic Impacts of D816V KIT Mutation and Peri-Transplant RUNX1 –RUNX1T1 MRD Monitoring on Acute Myeloid Leukemia with RUNX1–RUNX1T1
Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 336: Prognostic Impacts of D816V KIT Mutation and Peri-Transplant RUNX1–RUNX1T1 MRD Monitoring on Acute Myeloid Leukemia with RUNX1–RUNX1T1 Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers13020336 Authors: Byung-Sik Cho Gi-June Min Sung-Soo Park Silvia Park Young-Woo Jeon Seung-Hwan Shin Seung-Ah Yahng Jae-Ho Yoon Sung-Eun Lee Ki-Seong Eom Yoo-Jin Kim Seok Lee Chang-Ki Min Seok-Goo Cho Dong-Wook Kim Jong Wook Lee Myungshin Kim Yonggoo Kim Hee-Je Kim The prognostic significance of KIT mutations and optimal thresholds and time points of measurable residual disease (...
Source: Cancers - January 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Byung-Sik Cho Gi-June Min Sung-Soo Park Silvia Park Young-Woo Jeon Seung-Hwan Shin Seung-Ah Yahng Jae-Ho Yoon Sung-Eun Lee Ki-Seong Eom Yoo-Jin Kim Seok Lee Chang-Ki Min Seok-Goo Cho Dong-Wook Kim Jong Wook Lee Myungshin Kim Yonggoo Kim Hee-Je Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 337: Tiny miRNAs Play a Big Role in the Treatment of Breast Cancer Metastasis
Boon-Cher Goh Distant organ metastases accounts for the majority of breast cancer deaths. Given the prevalence of breast cancer in women, it is imperative to understand the underlying mechanisms of its metastatic progression and identify potential targets for therapy. Since their discovery in 1993, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of tumour progression and metastasis in various cancers, playing either oncogenic or tumour suppressor roles. In the following review, we discuss the roles of miRNAs that potentiate four key areas of breast cancer metastasis—angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenc...
Source: Cancers - January 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Andrea York Tiang Teo Xiaoqiang Xiang Minh TN Le Andrea Li-Ann Wong Qi Zeng Lingzhi Wang Boon-Cher Goh Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 338: Recent Advances and Future Directions in Clinical Management of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
. Chung Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the most common cancer arising in the head and neck region. The most common risk factors are smoking, excessive drinking, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. While the overall incidence of smoking is decreasing, the incidence of HPV-related HNSCC is increasing in the United States and Western Europe, which led to a shift in understanding of the pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis of this disease. The outcomes for non-metastatic HNSCC remains very encouraging and continues to improve. Advances in radiation technology and techniques, better organ preser...
Source: Cancers - January 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jameel Muzaffar Shahla Bari Kedar Kirtane Christine H. Chung Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 328: The Great Escape: The Power of Cancer Stem Cells to Evade Programmed Cell Death
e d’Angelo Cancer is one of the primary causes of death worldwide. Tumour malignancy is related to tumor heterogeneity, which has been suggested to be due to a small subpopulation of tumor cells named cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs exert a key role in metastasis development, tumor recurrence, and also epithelial–mesenchymal transition, apoptotic resistance, self-renewal, tumorigenesis, differentiation, and drug resistance. Several current therapies fail to eradicate tumors due to the ability of CSCs to escape different programmed cell deaths. Thus, developing CSC-selective and programmed death-induc...
Source: Cancers - January 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Vanessa Castelli Antonio Giordano Elisabetta Benedetti Francesco Giansanti Massimiliano Quintiliani Annamaria Cimini Michele d ’Angelo Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 327: Resistance to Antiandrogens in Prostate Cancer: Is It Inevitable, Intrinsic or Induced?
d Increasingly sophisticated therapies for chemical castration dominate first-line treatments for locally advanced prostate cancer. However, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) offers little prospect of a cure, as resistant tumors emerge rather rapidly, normally within 30 months. Cells have multiple mechanisms of resistance to even the most sophisticated drug regimes, and both tumor cell heterogeneity in prostate cancer and the multiple salvage pathways result in castration-resistant disease related genetically to the original hormone-naive cancer. The timing and mechanisms of cell death after ADT for prostate cancer ar...
Source: Cancers - January 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Norman J. Maitland Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 324: The Infratentorial Localization of Brain Metastases May Correlate with Specific Clinical Characteristics and Portend Worse Outcomes Based on Voxel-Wise Mapping
Chongran Sun Gao Chen The infratentorial regions are vulnerable to develop brain metastases (BMs). However, the associations between the infratentorial localization of BMs and clinical characteristics remained unclear. We retrospectively studied 1102 patients with 4365 BM lesions. Voxel-wise mapping of MRI was applied to construct the tumor frequency heatmaps after normalization and segmentation. The analysis of differential involvement (ADIFFI) was further used to obtain statistically significant clusters. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were used to analyze the prognosis. The parietal, insular and left occip...
Source: Cancers - January 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhangqi Dou Jiawei Wu Hemmings Wu Qian Yu Feng Yan Biao Jiang Baizhou Li Jinghong Xu Qi Xie Chenguang Li Chongran Sun Gao Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 329: Correction: Shen, J.; et al. Biological Aging Marker p16INK4a in T Cells and Breast Cancer Risk. Cancers 2020, 12, 3122
Hua Zhao The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - January 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jie Shen Renduo Song Bernard F. Fuemmeler Kandace P. McGuire Wong-Ho Chow Hua Zhao Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 320: Unraveling the Role of Innate Lymphoid Cells in AcuteMyeloid Leukemia
. Mundy-Bosse Over the past 50 years, few therapeutic advances have been made in treating acute myeloid leukemia (AML), an aggressive form of blood cancer, despite vast improvements in our ability to classify the disease. Emerging evidence suggests the immune system is important in controlling AML progression and in determining prognosis. Natural killer (NK) cells are important cytotoxic effector cells of the innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family that have been shown to have potent anti-leukemic functions. Recent studies are now revealing impairment or dysregulation of other ILCs in various types of cancers, including AML,...
Source: Cancers - January 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Matthew R. Lordo Steven D. Scoville Akul Goel Jianhua Yu Aharon G. Freud Michael A. Caligiuri Bethany L. Mundy-Bosse Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 321: Endoscopic Images by a Single-Shot Multibox Detector for the Identification of Early Cancerous Lesions in the Esophagus: A Pilot Study
Hsiang-Chen Wang Diagnosis of early esophageal neoplasia, including dysplasia and superficial cancer, is a great challenge for endoscopists. Recently, the application of artificial intelligence (AI) using deep learning in the endoscopic field has made significant advancements in diagnosing gastrointestinal cancers. In the present study, we constructed a single-shot multibox detector using a convolutional neural network for diagnosing different histological grades of esophageal neoplasms and evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of this computer-aided system. A total of 936 endoscopic images were used as training images, a...
Source: Cancers - January 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yao-Kuang Wang Hao-Yi Syu Yi-Hsun Chen Chen-Shuan Chung Yu Sheng Tseng Shinn-Ying Ho Chien-Wei Huang I-Chen Wu Hsiang-Chen Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 322: The Match between Molecular Subtypes, Histology and Microenvironment of Pancreatic Cancer and Its Relevance for Chemoresistance
illas In the last decade, several studies based on whole transcriptomic and genomic analyses of pancreatic tumors and their stroma have come to light to supplement histopathological stratification of pancreatic cancers with a molecular point-of-view. Three main molecular studies: Collisson et al. 2011, Moffitt et al. 2015 and Bailey et al. 2016 have found specific gene signatures, which identify different molecular subtypes of pancreatic cancer and provide a comprehensive stratification for both a personalized treatment or to identify potential druggable targets. However, the routine clinical management of pancreatic c...
Source: Cancers - January 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Javier Martinez-Useros Mario Martin-Galan Jesus Garcia-Foncillas Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 323: Enhanced DNA Repair Pathway is Associated with Cell Proliferation and Worse Survival in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)
In this study, a total of 749 HCC patients from 5 cohorts were studied to examine the relationships between enhancement of DNA repair and cancer aggressiveness, tumor immune microenvironment, and patient survival in HCC, utilizing a DNA repair pathway score. Our findings suggest that the DNA repair pathway was not only enhanced by the stepwise carcinogenic process of HCC, but also significantly enhanced in grade 3 HCC compared with grade 1 and 2 tumors. DNA repair high HCC was associated with worse survival, elevated intratumor heterogeneity, and mutation load, but not with the fraction of immune cell infiltration nor immu...
Source: Cancers - January 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Masanori Oshi Tae Hee Kim Yoshihisa Tokumaru Li Yan Ryusei Matsuyama Itaru Endo Leonid Cherkassky Kazuaki Takabe Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 326: Trends in Research on Exosomes in Cancer Progression and Anticancer Therapy
Bishayee Exosomes, the endosome-derived bilayered extracellular nanovesicles with their contribution in many aspects of cancer biology, have become one of the prime foci of research. Exosomes derived from various cells carry cargoes similar to their originator cells and their mode of generation is different compared to other extracellular vesicles. This review has tried to cover all aspects of exosome biogenesis, including cargo, Rab-dependent and Rab-independent secretion of endosomes and exosomal internalization. The bioactive molecules of the tumor-derived exosomes, by virtue of their ubiquitous presence and small ...
Source: Cancers - January 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dona Sinha Sraddhya Roy Priyanka Saha Nabanita Chatterjee Anupam Bishayee Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 325: Automated Assay of a Four-protein Biomarker Panel for Improved Detection of Ovarian Cancer
Conclusions: Combining MIF, OPN, PROL, and CA-125 can better differentiate ovarian cancer from healthy controls compared to CA-125 alone. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - January 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Christopher Walker Tuan-Minh Nguyen Shlomit Jessel Ayesha B. B. Alvero Dan-Arin Silasi Thomas Rutherford Sorin Draghici Gil Mor Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 315: Thymic Hyperplasia with Lymphoepithelial Sialadenitis (LESA)-Like Features: Strong Association with Lymphomas and Non-Myasthenic Autoimmune Diseases
Lötscher Burkhard Möller German Ott Gerhard Preissler Eric Roessner Andreas Rosenwald Philipp Ströbel Alexander Marx Thymic hyperplasia (TH) with lymphoepithelial sialadenitis (LESA)-like features (LESA-like TH) has been described as a tumor-like, benign proliferation of thymic epithelial cells and lymphoid follicles. We aimed to determine the frequency of lymphoma and autoimmunity in LESA-like TH and performed retrospective analysis of cases with LESA-like TH and/or thymic MALT-lymphoma. Among 36 patients (21 males) with LESA-like TH (age 52 years, 32–80; lesion diameter 7.0 ...
Source: Cancers - January 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Stefan Porubsky Zoran V. Popovic Sunil Badve Yara Banz Sabina Berezowska Dietmar Borchert Monika Br üggemann Timo Gaiser Thomas Graeter Peter Hollaus Katrin S. Huettl Michaela Kotrova Andreas Kreft Christian Kugler Fabian L ötscher Burkhard M öller Ger Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 316: A High-Dimensional Window into the Micro-Environment of Triple Negative Breast Cancer
een Kok Providing effective personalized immunotherapy for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients requires a detailed understanding of the composition of the tumor microenvironment. Both the tumor cell and non-tumor components of TNBC can exhibit tremendous heterogeneity in individual patients and change over time. Delineating cellular phenotypes and spatial topographies associated with distinct immunological states and the impact of chemotherapy will be necessary to optimally time immunotherapy. The clinical successes in immunotherapy have intensified research on the tumor microenvironment, aided by a plethora ...
Source: Cancers - January 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Iris Nederlof Hugo M. Horlings Christina Curtis Marleen Kok Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 317: 18F-FDG-PET/CT in Patients with Advanced, Radioiodine Refractory Thyroid Cancer Treated with Lenvatinib
Conclusion: Tumor response assessment by 18F-FDG-PET outperforms morphological response assessment by CT in patients with advanced radioiodine refractory DTC treated with Lenvatinib, which seems to be correlated with clinical outcomes. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - January 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Freba Ahmaddy Caroline Burgard Leonie Beyer Viktoria Koehler Peter Bartenstein Matthias P. Fabritius Thomas Geyer Vera Wenter Harun Ilhan Christine Spitzweg Andrei Todica Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 318: The Hippo Signaling Pathway in Drug Resistance in Cancer
ong Chemotherapy represents one of the most efficacious strategies to treat cancer patients, bringing advantageous changes at least temporarily even to those patients with incurable malignancies. However, most patients respond poorly after a certain number of cycles of treatment due to the development of drug resistance. Resistance to drugs administrated to cancer patients greatly limits the benefits that patients can achieve and continues to be a severe clinical difficulty. Among the mechanisms which have been uncovered to mediate anti-cancer drug resistance, the Hippo signaling pathway is gaining increasing attention...
Source: Cancers - January 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Renya Zeng Jixin Dong Tags: Review Source Type: research