Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 505: Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation Correlates with Favorable Overall Survival in High Grade Ovarian Cancer
In conclusion, NET formation seems to relate with better cancer patient outcome. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - February 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Muqaku Pils Mader Aust Mangold Muqaku Slany Del Favero Gerner Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 499: Mesothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Contributes to the Generation of Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts in Locally Advanced Primary Colorectal Carcinomas
Cabrera José A. Jiménez-Heffernan During peritoneal metastasis, cancer cells spread from abdominal solid tumors, disseminate through the peritoneal fluid and attach to and invade through mesothelial cells (MCs) that line the peritoneum. Intestinal adenocarcinomas originating in the mucosa infiltrate the submucosa, muscle layer, and serosa in order to finally colonize the peritoneal cavity. However, the mechanism by which metastatic cells leave the primary tumor and reach the peritoneal cavity has not been previously described. Hence, we investigate whether MCs lining visceral peritoneum, through a mesot...
Source: Cancers - February 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Carlos H. Gordillo Pilar Sandoval Patricia Mu ñoz-Hernández Luc ía Pascual-Antón Manuel L ópez-Cabrera Jos é A. Jiménez-Heffernan Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 498: Lipid –Saporin Nanoparticles for the Intracellular Delivery of Cytotoxic Protein to Overcome ABC Transporter-Mediated Multidrug Resistance In Vitro and In Vivo
Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 498: Lipid–Saporin Nanoparticles for the Intracellular Delivery of Cytotoxic Protein to Overcome ABC Transporter-Mediated Multidrug Resistance In Vitro and In Vivo Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers12020498 Authors: Guan-Nan Zhang Pranav Gupta Ming Wang Anna Maria Barbuti Charles R. Ashby Yun-Kai Zhang Leli Zeng Qiaobing Xu Ying-Fang Fan Zhe-Sheng Chen Although the judicious use of anticancer drugs that target one or more receptor tyrosine kinases constitutes an effective strategy to attenuate tumor growth, drug resistance is commonly encountered in cancer patients. The ATP...
Source: Cancers - February 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Guan-Nan Zhang Pranav Gupta Ming Wang Anna Maria Barbuti Charles R. Ashby Yun-Kai Zhang Leli Zeng Qiaobing Xu Ying-Fang Fan Zhe-Sheng Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 503: A Novel pH-Tunable Secondary Conformation Containing Mixed Micellar System in Anticancer Treatment
In this study, for the first time, we precisely assembled the poly-γ-benzyl-l-glutamate and an amphiphilic copolymer d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate into a mixed micellar system for the embedment of the anticancer drug doxorubicin. Importantly, the intracellular drug-releasing behaviors could be controlled by changing the secondary structures of poly-γ-benzyl-l-glutamate via the precise regulation of the buffer’s pH value. Under neutral conditions, the micellar architectures were stabilized by both α-helix secondary structures and the microc...
Source: Cancers - February 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shih Jiang Lin Kuo Huang Hou Chang Liu Chiang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 502: Obesity Promotes Cooperation of Cancer Stem-Like Cells and Macrophages to Enhance Mammary Tumor Angiogenesis
eady Arendt Obesity is correlated with worsened prognosis and treatment resistance in breast cancer. Macrophage-targeted therapies are currently in clinical trials, however, little is known about how obesity may impact treatment efficacy. Within breast adipose tissue, obesity leads to chronic, macrophage-driven inflammation, suggesting that obese breast cancer patients may benefit from these therapies. Using a high fat diet model of obesity, we orthotopically transplanted cancer cell lines into the mammary glands of obese and lean mice. We quantified changes in tumor invasiveness, angiogenesis and metastasis, and ex...
Source: Cancers - February 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hillers-Ziemer McMahon Hietpas Paderta LeBeau McCready Arendt Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 501: The c-Myc/AKT1/TBX3 Axis Is Important to Target in the Treatment of Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma
This study identifies c-Myc/AKT1/TBX3 as an important axis that could be targeted for the treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - February 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sims Maranyane Damerell Govender Isaacs Peres Prince Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 500: Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-1B Inhibition Disrupts IL13R α2-Promoted Invasion and Metastasis in Cancer Cells
Conclusions: We have uncovered that IL13 signaling through IL13Rα2 requires PTP1B activity and therefore, PTP1B inhibition represents a promising therapeutic strategy in multiple types of cancer, including glioblastoma. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - February 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bartolom é Mart ín-Regalado Ja én Zannikou Zhang de los R íos Balyasnikova Casal Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 504: Blood-Based SOX2-Promoter Methylation in Relation to Exercise and PM2.5 Exposure among Taiwanese Adults
In conclusion, PM2.5 was positively associated with SOX2-promoter methylation in participants who did regular exercise. Living in the southern area was positively associated with SOX2-promoter methylation regardless of exercise habits. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - February 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Su Tantoh Chou Wang Ho Chen Lee Nfor Hsu Liang Liaw Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 492: Depth of Remission Following First-Line Treatment Is an Independent Prognostic Marker for Progression-Free Survival in Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma
Conclusions: Remission status correlated significantly with PFS, suggesting depth of remission as prognostic marker for long-term relapse-free survival. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Barbara Kiesewetter Ingrid Simonitsch-Klupp Werner Dolak Marius E. Mayerhoefer Markus Raderer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 493: Knockdown of TFAM in Tumor Cells Retarded Autophagic Flux through Regulating p53 Acetylation and PISD Expression
Wang Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is required for mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription, which are essential for mitochondrial biogenesis. Previous studies reported that depleting mitochondrial functions by genetic deletion of TFAM impaired autophagic activities. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the current study, we identified that knockdown of TFAM repressed the synthesis of autophagy bio-marker LC3-II in tumor cells and decreased the expression of phosphatidyl-serine decarboxylase (PISD). Besides, downregulation of PISD with siRNA reduced the level of LC3-II, ind...
Source: Cancers - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jiang Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 495: A SOX2 Reporter System Identifies Gastric Cancer Stem-Like Cells Sensitive to Monensin
ombinho Pereira Almeida Gastric cancer remains a serious health burden with few therapeutic options. Therefore, the recognition of cancer stem cells (CSCs) as seeds of the tumorigenic process makes them a prime therapeutic target. Knowing that the transcription factors SOX2 and OCT4 promote stemness, our approach was to isolate stem-like cells in human gastric cancer cell lines using a traceable reporter system based on SOX2/OCT4 activity (SORE6-GFP). Cells transduced with the SORE6-GFP reporter system were sorted into SORE6+ and SORE6– cell populations, and their biological behavior characterized. ...
Source: Cancers - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: P ádua Barros Amaral Mesquita Freire Sousa Maia Caiado Fernandes Pombinho Pereira Almeida Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 494: Enhanced Expression of IGFBP-3 Reduces Radiosensitivity and Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Kuwahara Fukumoto Nakayama Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) modulates various cell functions through IGF-dependent or independent mechanisms. However, its biological roles in the radiosensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance and molecular mechanisms of the association between IGFBP-3 and OSCC radiosensitivity. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis of IGFBP-3 in 52 OSCC specimens from patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy and surgery (phase II study). Associat...
Source: Cancers - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sakata Hirosue Yoshida Matsuoka Kawahara Arita Nakashima Yamamoto Nagata Kawaguchi Gohara Nagao Yamana Toya Murakami Kuwahara Fukumoto Nakayama Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 497: Genomic Signature of the Standardized Uptake Value in 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography in Breast Cancer
ong Leem Chu The standardized uptake value (SUV), an indicator of the degree of glucose uptake in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), has been used for predicting the clinical behavior of malignant tumors. However, its characteristics have been insufficiently explored at the genomics level. Here, we aim to identify genomic signatures reflecting prognostic SUV characteristics in breast cancer (BRC). Through integrative genomic profiling of 3710 BRC patients, including 254 patients who underwent preoperative FDG-PET, we identified an SUV signature, which showed independent clinical utilit...
Source: Cancers - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kim Ahn Mun Jeong Bae Lee Jeong Leem Chu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 496: Increased Expression of Micro-RNA-23a Mediates Chemoresistance to Cytarabine in Acute Myeloid Leukemia
In conclusion, we show that increased expression of miR-23a mediates chemoresistance to AraC in AML and that it correlates with an inferior outcome in AraC-treated AML patients. We further demonstrate that miR-23a causes the downregulation of TOP2B, which is likely to mediate its effects on AraC sensitivity. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hatzl Perfler Wurm Uhl Quehenberger Ebner Troppmair Reinisch W ölfler Sill Zebisch Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 491: Molecular Signaling Pathways and Therapeutic Targets in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
ana Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex biological process and is often diagnosed at advanced stages with no effective treatment options. With advances in tumor biology and molecular genetic profiling, several different signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms have been identified as responsible for initiating and promoting HCC. Targeting these critical pathways, which include the receptor tyrosine kinase pathways, the Ras mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/Raf/MAPK), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, the ub...
Source: Cancers - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Manali Dimri Ande Satyanarayana Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 479: ARH1 in Health and Disease
el Moss Arginine-specific mono-adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+-dependent, reversible post-translational modification involving the transfer of an ADP-ribose from NAD+ by bacterial toxins and eukaryotic ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) to arginine on an acceptor protein or peptide. ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolase 1 (ARH1) catalyzes the cleavage of the ADP-ribose-arginine bond, regenerating (arginine)protein. Arginine-specific mono-ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by bacterial toxins was first identified as a mechanism of disease pathogenesis. Cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates and...
Source: Cancers - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hiroko Ishiwata-Endo Jiro Kato Linda A. Stevens Joel Moss Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 486: Imaging of Monoclonal Gammapathy of Undetermined Significance and Smoldering Multiple Myeloma
çoise Kraeber-Bodere Multiple myeloma (MM) is always preceded by an initial monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) that then develops into asymptomatic or smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), which constitutes an intermediate clinical stage between MGUS and MM. According to a recent study, risk factors for faster MGUS to MM progression include an M protein of 1.5 g/dL or more and an abnormal free light chain ratio in patients with non-IgM MGUS. Therefore, the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) decided to recommend whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) for patients with high-risk MGUS in ...
Source: Cancers - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bastien Jamet Cl ément Bailly Thomas Carlier Cyrille Touzeau Anne-Victoire Michaud Mickael Bourgeois Philippe Moreau Caroline Bodet-Milin Fran çoise Kraeber-Bodere Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 485: Proteome Profiling Uncovers an Autoimmune Response Signature That Reflects Ovarian Cancer Pathogenesis
Ladd Urban Bast Jr Hanash Harnessing the immune response to tumor antigens in the form of autoantibodies, which occurs early during tumor development, has relevance to the detection of cancer at early stages. We conducted an initial screen of antigens associated with an autoantibody response in serous ovarian cancer using recombinant protein arrays. The top 25 recombinants that exhibited increased reactivity with cases compared to controls revealed TP53 and MYC, which are ovarian cancer driver genes, as major network nodes. A mass spectrometry based independent analysis of circulating immunoglobulin (Ig)-b...
Source: Cancers - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kobayashi Katayama Irajizad Vykoukal Fahrmann Kundnani Yu Cai Hsiao Yang Lu Celestino Long Do Lu Ladd Urban Bast Jr Hanash Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 484: Sugar Alcohols Have a Key Role in Pathogenesis of Chronic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Whole Blood and Liver Tissues
a El-Said The major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are hepatitis C and B viral infections that proceed to Chronic Liver Disease (CLD). Yet, the early diagnosis and treatment of HCC are challenging because the pathogenesis of HCC is not fully defined. To better understand the onset and development of HCC, untargeted GC-TOF MS metabolomics data were acquired from resected human HCC tissues and their paired non-tumor hepatic tissues (n = 46). Blood samples of the same HCC subjects (n = 23) were compared to CLD (n = 15) and healthy control (n = 15) blood samples. The participants were recruited from the...
Source: Cancers - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ismail Fiehn Elfert Helal Salama El-Said Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 483: Nerve Sparing Radical Hysterectomy: Short-Term Oncologic, Surgical, and Functional Outcomes
Muallem There is an obvious prevalence of disparity in opinions concerning the technique of nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy and its application, despite agreement on the need to spare the pelvic autonomic nerve system during such a radical operation. Understanding the precise three-dimensional anatomy of paracolpium and its close anatomical relationship to the components of the pelvic autonomic nervous system is the key in performing the nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy. A total of 42 consecutive patients with primary cervical cancers, who were operated upon in our institution between January 2017 and June 2019...
Source: Cancers - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Muallem Armbrust Neymeyer Miranda Muallem Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 481: Radioimmunotherapy of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Review of the Current Status of Literature
len Bezak Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has long been associated with lowαα survival rates. A lack of accurate diagnostic tests and limited treatment options contribute to the poor prognosis of PDAC. Radioimmunotherapy using α- or β-emitting radionuclides has been identified as a potential treatment for PDAC. By harnessing the cytotoxicity of α or β particles, radioimmunotherapy may overcome the anatomic and physiological factors which traditionally make PDAC resistant to most conventional treatments. Appropriate selection of...
Source: Cancers - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hull Li Bartholomeusz Hsieh Allen Bezak Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 482: Current Advances in the Treatment of BRAF-Mutant Melanoma
anazi Garrett Melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. Melanoma is usually curable with surgery if detected early, however, treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and the five-year survival rate for metastatic melanoma had been 15–20% before the advent of immunotherapy. Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors has increased long-term survival outcomes in patients with advanced melanoma to as high as 50% although individual response can vary greatly. A mutation within the MAPK pathway leads to uncontrollable growth and ultimately develops into cancer. The most com...
Source: Cancers - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hima Yacoub Mishra White Long Alanazi Garrett Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 480: P-REX1-Independent, Calcium-Dependent RAC1 Hyperactivation in Prostate Cancer
azanietz The GTPase Rac1 is a well-established master regulator of cell motility and invasiveness contributing to cancer metastasis. Dysregulation of the Rac1 signaling pathway, resulting in elevated motile and invasive potential, has been reported in multiple cancers. However, there are limited studies on the regulation of Rac1 in prostate cancer. Here, we demonstrate that aggressive androgen-independent prostate cancer cells display marked hyperactivation of Rac1. This hyperactivation is independent of P-Rex1 activity or its direct activators, the PI3K product PIP3 and Gβγ subunits. Further...
Source: Cancers - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Baker Abba Garcia-Mata Kazanietz Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 487: Circulating Tumor Cells and Metabolic Parameters in NSCLC Patients Treated with Checkpoint Inhibitors
Egesta Lopci Circulating tumor cells (CTC) count and characterization have been associated with poor prognosis in recent studies. Our aim was to examine CTC count and its association with metabolic parameters and clinical outcomes in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). For this prospective study, data from 35 patients (23 males, 12 females) were collected and analyzed. All patients underwent an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) scan and CTC detection through Isolation by Size of Tumor/Trophoblastic Cells ...
Source: Cancers - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Angelo Castello Francesco Giuseppe Carbone Sabrina Rossi Simona Monterisi Davide Federico Luca Toschi Egesta Lopci Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 488: Cytokine-Induced Guanylate Binding Protein 1 (GBP1) Release from Human Ovarian Cancer Cells
rrini Marina Fabbi We showed that IL-27 shares several effects with IFN-γ in human cancer cells. To identify novel extracellular mediators, potentially involved in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) biology, we analyzed the effect of IL-27 or IFN-γ on the secretome of cultured EOC cells by mass-spectrometry (nano-UHPLC-MS/MS). IL-27 and IFN-γ modulate the release of a limited fraction of proteins among those induced in the whole cell. We focused our attention on GBP1, a guanylate-binding protein and GTPase, which mediates several biological activities of IFNs. Cytokine treatment...
Source: Cancers - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Grazia Carbotti Andrea Petretto Elisabeth Naschberger Michael St ürzl Stefania Martini Maria Cristina Mingari Gilberto Filaci Silvano Ferrini Marina Fabbi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 490: Stiffer Matrix Accelerates Migration of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells through Enhanced Aerobic Glycolysis Via the MAPK-YAP Signaling
Ju Song Increased extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness and metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells are two fundamental mediators of tumor progression, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Yet, the correlation between ECM stiffness and excessive aerobic glycolysis in promoting the development of HCC remains unknown. Here, we demonstrated that stiffer ECM promotes HCC cell migration depending on their accelerated aerobic glycolysis. Our results also indicated that stiffer ECM-induced YAP activation plays a major role in promoting aerobic glycolysis of HCC cells. Moreover, we showed that JNK and p38 MAPK signaling...
Source: Cancers - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Liu Luo Deng Ju Song Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 489: Synergistic Anti-Tumour Effect of Syk Inhibitor and Olaparib in Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Roles of Syk in EGFR Signalling and PARP1 Activation
Wu Lin Syk is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the signalling of immunoreceptors and growth factor receptors. Previously, we reported that Syk mediates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling and plays a negative role in the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. To understand whether Syk is a potential therapeutic target of cancer cells, we further elucidated the role of Syk in disease progression of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is highly associated with EGFR overactivation, and determined the combined effects of Syk and PARP1 inhibitors on SCC viability. We found that pharmacologi...
Source: Cancers - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Huang Chen Chen Wu Lin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 477: Multicenter External Validation of the Liverpool Uveal Melanoma Prognosticator Online: An OOG Collaborative Study
This study aims to externally validate the Liverpool Uveal Melanoma Prognosticator Online V3 (LUMPO3) to determine its reliability in predicting survival after treatment for choroidal melanoma when utilizing external data from other ocular oncology centers. Anonymized data of 1836 UM patients from seven international ocular oncology centers were analyzed with LUMPO3 to predict the 10-year survival for each patient in each external dataset. The analysts were masked to the patient outcomes. Model predictions were sent to an independent statistician to evaluate LUMPO3’s performance using discrimination and calib...
Source: Cancers - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cunha Rola Taktak Eleuteri Kalirai Heimann Hussain Bonnett Hill Traynor Jager Marinkovic Luyten Dogrus öz Kilic de Klein Smit van Poppelen Damato Afshar Guthoff Scheef Kakkassery Saakyan Tsygankov Mosci Ligorio Viaggi Le Guin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 467: Dual PI3K/mTOR Inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 Enhances Radiosensitivity of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) Cell Lines Due to Suppressed Double-Strand Break (DSB) Repair by Non-Homologous End Joining
Dikomey Wittig Arenz The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is frequently altered in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and negative squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) and overstimulation is associated with poor prognosis. PI3K drives Akt activation and constitutive signaling acts pro-proliferative, supports cell survival, DNA repair, and contributes to radioresistance. Since the small molecule NVP-BEZ235 (BEZ235) is a potent dual inhibitor of this pathway, we were interested whether BEZ235 could be an efficient radiosensitizer. The 50 nM BEZ235 was found to abrogate endogenous and irradiation-induced pho...
Source: Cancers - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sch ötz Balzer Brandt Ziemann Subtil Rieckmann K öcher Engenhart-Cabillic Dikomey Wittig Arenz Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 466: Venetoclax, a BCL-2 Inhibitor, Enhances the Efficacy of Chemotherapeutic Agents in Wild-Type ABCG2-Overexpression-Mediated MDR Cancer Cells
This study showed that, at a non-toxic concentration, venetoclax at 10 µM significantly reversed multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by wild-type ABCG2, without significantly affecting MDR mediated by mutated ABCG2 (R482G and R482T) and ABCB1, while moderate or no reversal effects were observed at lower concentrations (0.5 to 1 µM). The results showed that venetoclax increased the intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic agents, which was the result of directly blocking the wild-type ABCG2 efflux function and inhibiting the ATPase activity of ABCG2. Our study demonstrated that venetoclax p...
Source: Cancers - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wang Li Teng Lei Ji Cui Zeng Pan Yang Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 469: Personalized Assessment of Normal Tissue Radiosensitivity via Transcriptome Response to Photon, Proton and Carbon Irradiation in Patient-Derived Human Intestinal Organoids
M. Wells Amir Abdollahi Radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity often limits the curative treatment of cancer. Moreover, normal tissue relative biological effectiveness data for high-linear energy transfer particles are urgently needed. We propose a strategy based on transcriptome analysis of patient-derived human intestinal organoids (HIO) to determine molecular surrogates for radioresponse of gastrointestinal (GI) organs at risk in a personalized manner. HIO were generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), which were derived from skin biopsies of three patients, including two patients with FANCA deficie...
Source: Cancers - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ali Nowrouzi Mathieu G. Sertorio Mahdi Akbarpour Maximillian Knoll Damir Krunic Matthew Kuhar Christian Schwager Stephan Brons J ürgen Debus Susanne I. Wells James M. Wells Amir Abdollahi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 468: A Comprehensive Analysis of FUT8 Overexpressing Prostate Cancer Cells Reveals the Role of EGFR in Castration Resistance
er Qing Kay Li Hui Zhang The emergence of castration-resistance is one of the major challenges in the management of patients with advanced prostate cancer. Although the spectrum of systemic therapies that are available for use alongside androgen deprivation for treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is expanding, none of these regimens are curative. Therefore, it is imperative to apply systems approaches to identify and understand the mechanisms that contribute to the development of CRPC. Using comprehensive proteomic approaches, we show that a glycosylation-related enzyme, alpha (1,6) fucosyltran...
Source: Cancers - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Naseruddin H öti Tung-Shing Lih Jianbo Pan Yangying Zhou Ganglong Yang Ashely Deng Lijun Chen Mingmimg Dong Ruey-Bing Yang Cheng-Fen Tu Michael C. Haffner Qing Kay Li Hui Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 475: Are Glucosylceramide-Related Sphingolipids Involved in the Increased Risk for Cancer in Gaucher Disease Patients? Review and Hypotheses
y Levade Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie The roles of ceramide and its catabolites, i.e., sphingosine and sphingosine 1-phosphate, in the development of malignancies and the response to anticancer regimens have been extensively described. Moreover, an abundant literature points to the effects of glucosylceramide synthase, the mammalian enzyme that converts ceramide to β-glucosylceramide, in protecting tumor cells from chemotherapy. Much less is known about the contribution of β-glucosylceramide and its breakdown products in cancer progression. In this chapter, we first review published and personal ...
Source: Cancers - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Patricia Dubot Leonardo Astudillo Nicole Therville Fr édérique Sabourdy J érôme Stirnemann Thierry Levade Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 474: Biological Features and Prognostic Impact of Bone Marrow Infiltration in Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
In conclusion, concordant BM infiltration represents a subset with poor prognosis, whereas the prognostic impact of discordant BM infiltration could be limited to non-CGB cases. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alonso- Álvarez Alcoceba Garc ía-Álvarez Blanco Rodr íguez Baile Caballero D ávila Vidriales Esteban Arias D íaz Tamayo Caballero Guti érrez Gonz ález Mart ín Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 473: Predictive Value of Soluble PD-1, PD-L1, VEGFA, CD40 Ligand and CD44 for Nivolumab Therapy in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study
Goldwasser Alexandre Blanchet A large interindividual variability has been observed in anti Programmed cell Death 1 (anti-PD1) therapies efficacy. The aim of this study is to assess the correlation of soluble PD-1 (sPD-1), soluble Programmed cell Death Ligand 1 (sPD-L1), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and soluble CD44 (sCD44), with survival in nivolumab-treated metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Plasma biomarkers were assayed at baseline and after two cycles of nivolumab. A cut-off of positivity for sPD-1, sPD-L1 and sCD40L expressions was define...
Source: Cancers - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tiako Meyo Jouinot Giroux-Leprieur Fabre Wislez Alifano Leroy Boudou-Rouquette Tlemsani Khoudour Arrondeau Thomas-Schoemann Blons Mansuet-Lupo Damotte Vidal Goldwasser Alexandre Blanchet Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 472: Effect of Diphtheria Toxin-Based Gene Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
yamura Nishina Terai Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major global malignancy, responsible for >90% of primary liver cancers. Currently available therapeutic options have poor performances due to the highly heterogeneous nature of the tumor cells; recurrence is highly probable, and some patients develop resistances to the therapies. Accordingly, the development of a novel therapy is essential. We assessed gene therapy for HCC using a diphtheria toxin fragment A (DTA) gene-expressing plasmid, utilizing a non-viral hydrodynamics-based procedure. The antitumor effect of DTA expression in HCC cell lines...
Source: Cancers - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kamimura Yokoo Abe Sakai Nagoya Kobayashi Ohtsuka Miura Sakamaki Kamimura Miyamura Nishina Terai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 471: Association of TGF- β1 Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Case–Control Studies †
Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 471: Association of TGF-β1 Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Case–Control Studies † Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers12020471 Authors: Krishna Jana Panda Horne Awasthi Salgia Singhal Reports on the association of TGF-β1 polymorphisms with breast cancer (BC) have been conflicting, inconsistent, inconclusive, and controversial. PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were used to identify studies on TGF-β1 polymorphisms and BC risk. Data were extracted independently, and of the initial 3043 studies, 39 case-control st...
Source: Cancers - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Krishna Jana Panda Horne Awasthi Salgia Singhal Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 470: Transcriptome Analysis Identifies ALCAM Overexpression as a Prognosis Biomarker in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Conclusion: ALCAM overexpression seems to be an independent prognosis biomarker for LSCC patients. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nicolau-Neto de Souza-Santos Severo Ramundo Valverde Martins Santos Dias de Almeida Sim ão Ribeiro Pinto Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 478: Bone and Soft-Tissue Sarcoma: A New Target for Telomerase-Specific Oncolytic Virotherapy
hi Fujiwara Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is widely and frequently used as a virus vector in cancer gene therapy and oncolytic virotherapy. Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel antitumor treatment for inducing lytic cell death in tumor cells without affecting normal cells. Based on the Ad5 genome, we have generated three types of telomerase-specific replication-competent oncolytic adenoviruses: OBP-301 (Telomelysin), green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing OBP-401 (TelomeScan), and tumor suppressor p53-armed OBP-702. These viruses drive the expression of the adenoviral E1A and E1B genes under the control of the hTERT (hum...
Source: Cancers - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hiroshi Tazawa Joe Hasei Shuya Yano Shunsuke Kagawa Toshifumi Ozaki Toshiyoshi Fujiwara Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 476: Plasma-activated Ringer ’s Lactate Solution Displays a Selective Cytotoxic Effect on Ovarian Cancer Cells
Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 476: Plasma-activated Ringer’s Lactate Solution Displays a Selective Cytotoxic Effect on Ovarian Cancer Cells Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers12020476 Authors: Bisag Bucci Coluccelli Girolimetti Laurita De Iaco Perrone Gherardi Marchio Porcelli Colombo Gasparre Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women and is characterized by the diffusion of nodules or plaques from the ovary to the peritoneal surfaces. Conventional therapeutic options cannot eradicate the disease and show low efficacy against resista...
Source: Cancers - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bisag Bucci Coluccelli Girolimetti Laurita De Iaco Perrone Gherardi Marchio Porcelli Colombo Gasparre Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 464: Melanoma-Derived Exosomal miR-125b-5p Educates Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs) by Targeting Lysosomal Acid Lipase A (LIPA)
In this study we examined the effects of cutaneous melanoma-derived exosomes on macrophage function and the underlying mechanisms. First, we showed that exposure to melanoma exosomes induces a tumor-promoting TAM phenotype in macrophages. Sequencing revealed enrichment for several miRNAs including miR-125b-5p in cutaneous melanoma exosomes. We showed that miR-125b-5p is delivered to macrophages by melanoma exosomes and partially induces the observed tumor-promoting TAM phenotype. Finally, we showed that miR-125b-5p targets the lysosomal acid lipase A (LIPA) in macrophages, which in turn contributes to their phenotype switc...
Source: Cancers - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dennis Gerloff Jana L ützkendorf Rose K.C. Moritz Tom Wersig Karsten M äder Lutz P. M üller Cord Sunderk ötter Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 459: CXCL1/CXCR2 Paracrine Axis Contributes to Lung Metastasis in Osteosarcoma
-Fang Liu Osteosarcoma, the most common of all bone malignancies, has a high likelihood of lung metastasis. Up until now, the molecular mechanisms involved in osteosarcomas with lung metastases are not clearly understood. Recent observations have shown that the chemokine CXCL1 and its receptor CXCR2 assist with the homing of neutrophils into the tumor microenvironment. Here, we show that the CXCL1/CXCR2 paracrine axis is crucial for lung metastasis in osteosarcoma. In an in vivo lung metastasis model of osteosarcoma, lung blood vessels expressed CXCL1 and osteosarcoma cells expressed the CXCR2 receptor. CXCR2 expressio...
Source: Cancers - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chia-Chia Chao Chiang-Wen Lee Tsung-Ming Chang Po-Chun Chen Ju-Fang Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 465: Loss of CDKN1A mRNA and Protein Expression Are Independent Predictors of Poor Outcome in Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients
In this study, we aim at identifying genes indicating chRCC progression. A bioinformatic approach was used to correlate chromosomal loss and mRNA expression from 15287 genes from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. All genes in TCGA chromophobe renal cancer dataset (KICH) for which a significant correlation between chromosomal loss and mRNA expression was shown, were identified and their associations with outcome was assessed. Genome-wide DNA copy-number alterations were analyzed by Affymetrix OncoScan® CNV FFPE Microarrays in a second cohort of Swiss chRCC. In both cohorts, tumors with loss of chromosomes...
Source: Cancers - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ohashi Angori Batavia Rupp Ajioka Schraml Moch Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 458: Misregulation of ELK1, AP1, and E12 Transcription Factor Networks Is Associated with Melanoma Progression
We present here an in-depth bioinformatic analysis of the melanoma RNAseq, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)seq, and single-cell (sc)RNA seq data to understand cancer progression. Specifically, we have performed a consensus network analysis of RNA-seq data from clinically re-grouped melanoma samples to identify gene co-expression networks that are conserved in early (stage 1) and late (stage 4/invasive) stage melanoma. Overlaying the fold-change information on co-expression networks revealed several coordinately up or down-regulated subnetworks that may play a critical role in melanoma progression. Furthermore, by incor...
Source: Cancers - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Komudi Singh Michelle Baird Robert Fischer Vijender Chaitankar Fayaz Seifuddin Yun-Ching Chen Ilker Tunc Clare M. Waterman Mehdi Pirooznia Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 460: Autocatalytic Tissue Polymerization Reaction Mechanism in Colorectal Cancer Development and Growth
unquist The goal of our study was to measure the kinetics of human colorectal cancer (CRC) development in order to identify aberrant mechanisms in tissue dynamics and processes that contribute to colon tumorigenesis. The kinetics of tumor development were investigated using age-at-tumor diagnosis (adenomas and CRCs) of familial adenomatous coli (FAP) patients and sporadic CRC patients. Plots of age-at-tumor diagnosis data as a function of age showed a distinct sigmoidal-shaped curve that is characteristic of an autocatalytic reaction. Consequently, we performed logistics function analysis and found an excellent fit (p ...
Source: Cancers - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bruce M. Boman Arthur Guetter Ryan M. Boman Olaf A. Runquist Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 461: Non-Coding RNAs in Adrenocortical Cancer: From Pathogenesis to Diagnosis
cute;cs Igaz Non-coding RNA molecules including microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several tumors and numerous data support their applicability in diagnosis as well. Despite recent advances, the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer still remains elusive and there are no reliable blood-borne markers of adrenocortical malignancy, either. Several findings show the potential applicability of microRNAs as biomarkers of malignancy and prognosis, and there are some data on lncRNA as well. In this review, we present a synopsis on the potential relevance of non-coding RNA...
Source: Cancers - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Decmann Perge Turai Pat ócs Igaz Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 463: Changes in Functional Outcome and Quality of Life in Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients within the First Year after Surgery: A Prospective Observational Study
aad-Hansen Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients undergoing surgery may experience reduced functional outcome (FO) and quality of life (QoL) compared to the general population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of FO and QoL in patients with STS in the extremities within the first year after first-time limb-sparing surgery. Twenty-nine out of 40 eligible patients were included in the present study. QoL and FO were evaluated by questionnaires while FO was also evaluated by objective tests. Patients were assessed before surgery and at fixed time points within the first year after surgery. Patients with S...
Source: Cancers - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Saebye Amidi Keller Andersen Baad-Hansen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 462: Decitabine Augments Chemotherapy-Induced PD-L1 Upregulation for PD-L1 Blockade in Colorectal Cancer
ng Ke Chao Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) has demonstrated impressive clinical outcomes in several malignancies, but its therapeutic efficacy in the majority of colorectal cancers is still low. Therefore, methods to improve its therapeutic efficacy in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients need further investigation. Here, we demonstrate that immunogenic chemotherapeutic agents trigger the induction of tumor PD-L1 expression in vitro and in vivo, a fact which was validated in metastatic CRC patients who received preoperatively neoadjuvant chemotherapy (neoCT) treatment, suggesting that tumor PD-L1 upregulation by chemo...
Source: Cancers - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Huang Chiang Chen Chen Hu Yang Ke Chao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 455: Exon-4 Mutations in KRAS Affect MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT Signaling in Human Multiple Myeloma Cell Lines
Bargou Andreas Rosenwald Thorsten Stühmer Ellen Leich Approximately 20% of multiple myeloma (MM) cases harbor a point mutation in KRAS. However, there is still no final consent on whether KRAS-mutations are associated with disease outcome. Specifically, no data exist on whether KRAS-mutations have an impact on survival of MM patients at diagnosis in the era of novel agents. Direct blockade of KRAS for therapeutic purposes is mostly impossible, but recently a mutation-specific covalent inhibitor targeting KRASp.G12C entered into clinical trials. However, other KRAS hotspot-mutations exist in MM patients, incl...
Source: Cancers - February 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Susann Wei ßbach Sofia Catalina Heredia-Guerrero Stefanie Barnsteiner Lukas Gro ßhans Jochen Bodem Hanna Starz Christian Langer Silke Appenzeller Stefan Knop Torsten Steinbrunn Simone Rost Hermann Einsele Ralf Christian Bargou Andreas Rosenwald Thorsten Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 456: An Epitope on EGFR Loading Catastrophic Internalization Serve as a Novel Oncotarget for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Therapy
Liang Fei Sun The precise role of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells is unknown and EGFR inhibitors have not achieved positive clinical results. The rapid and drastic internalization of EGFR has been proved to successfully treat EGFR inhibitor-resistant patients in recent clinical trials. Here, the anti-tumor efficacy of a protein (rLZ-8) from Ganoderma lucidum was evaluated, it was demonstrated that rLZ-8 could bind to EGFR specifically, drastically enter into Hepatoma cells, abrogate endosomal recycling and induce HCC cell death. Surprisingly, we screened a monoclonal an...
Source: Cancers - February 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dianshuai Huang Qingjie Fan Zhiyi Liu Shuqin Zhang Wei Huang Hongrui Li Chongyang Liang Fei Sun Tags: Article Source Type: research