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Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 29: Estrogen and Androgen Blockade for Advanced Prostate Cancer in the Era of Precision Medicine
i Inoue Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been widely prescribed for patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC) to control key signaling pathways via androgen receptor (AR) and AR-collaborative transcriptional factors; however, PC gradually acquires a lethal phenotype and results in castration-resistant PC (CRPC) during ADT. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are required in clinical practice. In addition, ARs; estrogen receptors (ERs; ERα and ERβ); and estrogen-related receptors (ERRs; ERRα, ERRβ, and ERRγ) have been reported to be involved in the development or regulation of PC. R...
Source: Cancers - January 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tetsuya Fujimura Kenichi Takayama Satoru Takahashi Satoshi Inoue Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 28: Proteomic Analysis of Secretomes of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus-Infected Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells
Yura Oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain RH2 induced immunogenic cell death (ICD) with the release and surface exposure of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) SCCVII cells. The supernatants of RH2-infected SCCVII cells also exhibited antitumor ability by intratumoral administration in SCCVII tumor-bearing mice. The supernatants of RH2-infected cells and mock-infected cells were concentrated to produce Med24 and MedC for proteomic analyses. In Med24, the up- and down-regulated proteins were observed. Proteins including filamin, tubulin, t-complex protein 1 (TCP...
Source: Cancers - January 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shinya Tada Masakazu Hamada Yoshiaki Yura Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 27: Analysis of Site-Specific Methylation of Tumor-Related Genes in Head and Neck Cancer: Potential Utility as Biomarkers for Prognosis
yuki Mineta Clarifying the epigenetic regulation of tumor-related genes (TRGs) can provide insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and the risk for disease recurrence in HPV-negative head and neck cancers, originating in the hypopharynx, larynx, and oral cavity. We analyzed the methylation status of the promoters of 30 TRGs in 178 HPV-negative head and neck cancer patients using a quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Promoter methylation was correlated with various clinical characteristics and patient survival. The mean number of methylated TRGs was 14.2 (range, 2–25). In the multivariate Cox proportional...
Source: Cancers - January 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kiyoshi Misawa Daiki Mochizuki Atsushi Imai Masato Mima Yuki Misawa Hiroyuki Mineta Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 25: Localization Microscopy Analyses of MRE11 Clusters in 3D-Conserved Cell Nuclei of Different Cell Lines
Georg Hildenbrand In radiation biophysics, it is a subject of nowadays research to investigate DNA strand break repair in detail after damage induction by ionizing radiation. It is a subject of debate as to what makes up the cell’s decision to use a certain repair pathway and how the repair machinery recruited in repair foci is spatially and temporarily organized. Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) allows super-resolution analysis by precise localization of single fluorescent molecule tags, resulting in nuclear structure analysis with a spatial resolution in the 10 nm regime. Here, we used SMLM to s...
Source: Cancers - January 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Marion Eryilmaz Eberhard Schmitt Matthias Krufczik Franziska Theda Jin-Ho Lee Christoph Cremer Felix Bestvater Wladimir Schaufler Michael Hausmann Georg Hildenbrand Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 26: Colorectal Cancers: An Update on Their Molecular Pathology
a Colorectal cancers (CRCs) are the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Rather than being a single, uniform disease type, accumulating evidence suggests that CRCs comprise a group of molecularly heterogeneous diseases that are characterized by a range of genomic and epigenomic alterations. This heterogeneity slows the development of molecular-targeted therapy as a form of precision medicine. Recent data regarding comprehensive molecular characterizations and molecular pathological examinations of CRCs have increased our understanding of the genomic and epigenomic landscapes of CRCs, which has ena...
Source: Cancers - January 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kentaro Inamura Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 24: Contemporary Management of Localized Resectable Pancreatic Cancer
t Mahipal Pancreatic cancer is the third most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Surgical resection with negative margins still constitutes the cornerstone of potentially curative therapy, but is possible only in 15–20% of patients at the time of initial diagnosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the neoadjuvant approach may improve R0 resection rate in localized resectable and borderline resectable diseases, and potentially downstage locally advanced disease to achieve surgical resection, though the impact on survival is to be determined. Despite advancements in the last decade in developing...
Source: Cancers - January 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Anuhya Kommalapati Sri Tella Gaurav Goyal Wen Ma Amit Mahipal Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 23: mTOR Cross-Talk in Cancer and Potential for Combination Therapy
Michele Milella The mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays an essential role in sensing and integrating a variety of exogenous cues to regulate cellular growth and metabolism, in both physiological and pathological conditions. mTOR functions through two functionally and structurally distinct multi-component complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which interact with each other and with several elements of other signaling pathways. In the past few years, many new insights into mTOR function and regulation have been gained and extensive genetic and pharmacological studies in mice have enhanced our understanding of how ...
Source: Cancers - January 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Fabiana Conciatori Ludovica Ciuffreda Chiara Bazzichetto Italia Falcone Sara Pilotto Emilio Bria Francesco Cognetti Michele Milella Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 22: AR Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond
s The notion that androgens and androgen receptor (AR) signaling are the hallmarks of prostate cancer oncogenesis and disease progression is generally well accepted. What is more poorly understood is the role of AR signaling in other human malignancies. This special issue of Cancers initially reviews the role of AR in advanced prostate cancer, and then explores the potential importance of AR signaling in other epithelial malignancies. The first few articles focus on the use of novel AR-targeting therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer and the mechanisms of resistance to novel antiandrogens, and they also outl...
Source: Cancers - January 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Emmanuel Antonarakis Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 21: IRF4 Mediates the Oncogenic Effects of STAT3 in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas
io Inghirami Roberto Piva Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) are a category of T-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas which can be divided into anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive and ALK negative subgroups, based on ALK gene rearrangements. Among several pathways aberrantly activated in ALCL, the constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is shared by all ALK positive ALCL and has been detected in a subgroup of ALK negative ALCL. To discover essential mediators of STAT3 oncogenic activity that may represent feasible targets for ALCL therapies, we combined g...
Source: Cancers - January 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cecilia Bandini Aldi Pupuleku Elisa Spaccarotella Elisa Pellegrino Rui Wang Nicoletta Vitale Carlotta Duval Daniela Cantarella Andrea Rinaldi Paolo Provero Ferdinando Di Cunto Enzo Medico Francesco Bertoni Giorgio Inghirami Roberto Piva Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 20: Alcohol-Derived Acetaldehyde Exposure in the Oral Cavity
Balbo Alcohol is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a human carcinogen and its consumption has been associated to an increased risk of liver, breast, colorectum, and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers. Its mechanisms of carcinogenicity remain unclear and various hypotheses have been formulated depending on the target organ considered. In the case of UADT cancers, alcohol’s major metabolite acetaldehyde seems to play a crucial role. Acetaldehyde reacts with DNA inducing modifications, which, if not repaired, can result in mutations and lead to cancer development. Despite ...
Source: Cancers - January 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alessia Stornetta Valeria Guidolin Silvia Balbo Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 18: mTOR Pathways in Cancer and Autophagy
Pause TOR (target of rapamycin), an evolutionarily-conserved serine/threonine kinase, acts as a central regulator of cell growth, proliferation and survival in response to nutritional status, growth factor, and stress signals. It plays a crucial role in coordinating the balance between cell growth and cell death, depending on cellular conditions and needs. As such, TOR has been identified as a key modulator of autophagy for more than a decade, and several deregulations of this pathway have been implicated in a variety of pathological disorders, including cancer. At the molecular level, autophagy regulates several survi...
Source: Cancers - January 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mathieu Paquette Leeanna El-Houjeiri Arnim Pause Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 19: EpCAM Immunotherapy versus Specific Targeted Delivery of Drugs
Sarah Shigdar The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), or CD326, was one of the first cancer associated biomarkers to be discovered. In the last forty years, this biomarker has been investigated for use in personalized cancer therapy, with the first monoclonal antibody, edrecolomab, being trialled in humans more than thirty years ago. Since then, several other monoclonal antibodies have been raised to EpCAM and tested in clinical trials. However, while monoclonal antibody therapy has been investigated against EpCAM for almost 40 years as primary or adjuvant therapy, it has not shown as much promise as initially...
Source: Cancers - January 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Joanna Macdonald Justin Henri Kislay Roy Emma Hays Michelle Bauer Rakesh Veedu Normand Pouliot Sarah Shigdar Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 17: Advances in Molecular Profiling and Categorisation of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma and the Implications for Therapy
;ad McNamara Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) continues to be a disease with poor outcomes and short-lived treatment responses. New information is emerging from genome sequencing identifying potential subgroups based on somatic and germline mutations. A variety of different mutations and mutational signatures have been identified; the driver mutation in around 93% of PDAC is KRAS, with other recorded alterations being SMAD4 and CDKN2A. Mutations in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage repair pathway have also been investigated in PDAC and multiple clinical trials are ongoing with DNA-damaging agents. Rare muta...
Source: Cancers - January 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Rille Pihlak Jamie Weaver Juan Valle Mair éad McNamara Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 16: Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Review of Local Ablative Therapies
This article provides an overview of available data with regard to morbidity and oncological outcome of novel local therapies for LAPC. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - January 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alette Ruarus Laurien Vroomen Robbert Puijk Hester Scheffer Martijn Meijerink Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 14: Targeting Pancreatic Cancer Cell Plasticity: The Latest in Therapeutics
ckson Mortality remains alarmingly high for patients diagnosed with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), with 93% succumbing to the disease within five years. The vast majority of PDAC cases are driven by activating mutations in the proto-oncogene KRAS, which results in constitutive proliferation and survival signaling. As efforts to target RAS and its downstream effectors continue, parallel research aimed at identifying novel targets is also needed in order to improve therapeutic options and efficacy. Recent studies demonstrate that self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs) contribute to metastatic dissemination and ...
Source: Cancers - January 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jacob Smigiel Neetha Parameswaran Mark Jackson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 15: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Cancers in 2017
ce Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Cancers maintains high quality standards for its published papers[...] (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - January 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cancers Editorial Office Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 13: Translocation Breakpoints Preferentially Occur in Euchromatin and Acrocentric Chromosomes
ascal Duijf Chromosomal translocations drive the development of many hematological and some solid cancers. Several factors have been identified to explain the non-random occurrence of translocation breakpoints in the genome. These include chromatin density, gene density and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)/cohesin binding site density. However, such factors are at least partially interdependent. Using 13,844 and 1563 karyotypes from human blood and solid cancers, respectively, our multiple regression analysis only identified chromatin density as the primary statistically significant predictor. Specifically, translocation br...
Source: Cancers - January 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cheng-Yu Lin Ankit Shukla John Grady J. Fink Eloise Dray Pascal Duijf Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 11: Local Acetaldehyde —An Essential Role in Alcohol-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinogenesis
Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 11: Local Acetaldehyde—An Essential Role in Alcohol-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinogenesis Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers10010011 Authors: Mikko Nieminen Mikko Salaspuro The resident microbiome plays a key role in exposure of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract mucosa to acetaldehyde (ACH), a carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol. Poor oral health is a significant risk factor for oral and esophageal carcinogenesis and is characterized by a dysbiotic microbiome. Dysbiosis leads to increased growth of opportunistic pathogens (such as Candida yeasts) and may cause an up to 100...
Source: Cancers - January 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mikko Nieminen Mikko Salaspuro Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 12: New Interactors of the Truncated EBNA-LP Protein Identified by Mass Spectrometry in P3HR1 Burkitt ’s Lymphoma Cells
Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 12: New Interactors of the Truncated EBNA-LP Protein Identified by Mass Spectrometry in P3HR1 Burkitt’s Lymphoma Cells Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers10010012 Authors: Sonia Chelouah Emilie Cochet Sophie Couvé Sandy Balkaran Aude Robert Evelyne May Vasily Ogryzko Joëlle Wiels The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) acts as a co-activator of EBNA-2, a transcriptional activator essential for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced B-cell transformation. Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) cells harboring a mutant EBV strain that lacks both the EBNA-2 gen...
Source: Cancers - January 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sonia Chelouah Emilie Cochet Sophie Couv é Sandy Balkaran Aude Robert Evelyne May Vasily Ogryzko Jo ëlle Wiels Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 10: Mutations in EMT-Related Genes in ALK Positive Crizotinib Resistant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers
In this study, we aim to identify gene mutations associated with resistance in ALKpositive advanced non-squamous NSCLC treated with crizotinib. Four ALK positive patients with progressive disease following crizotinib treatment were identified with paired pre- and post-crizotinib tumor tissue from our previously published cohort. Somatic variants in these samples were detected by whole exome sequencing. In one of the four patients, an ALK-resistance associated mutation was identified. In the other three patients, no ALK-resistance associated mutations were present. In these patients we identified 89 relevant somatic mutatio...
Source: Cancers - January 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jiacong Wei Anthonie van der Wekken Ali Saber Miente Terpstra Ed Schuuring Wim Timens T. Hiltermann Harry Groen Anke van den Berg Klaas Kok Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 9: Current Advances in Aptamers for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy
ua Zhou Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides that interact with target molecules with high affinity and specificity in unique three-dimensional structures. Aptamers are generally isolated by a simple selection process called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) and then can be chemically synthesized and modified. Because of their high affinity and specificity, aptamers are promising agents for biomarker discovery, as well as cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we present recent progress and challenges in aptamer and SELEX technology and highlight some represe...
Source: Cancers - January 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shin-ichiro Hori Alberto Herrera John Rossi Jiehua Zhou Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 6: Immune Evasion in Pancreatic Cancer: From Mechanisms to Therapy
varro Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), the most frequent type of pancreatic cancer, remains one of the most challenging problems for the biomedical and clinical fields, with abysmal survival rates and poor therapy efficiency. Desmoplasia, which is abundant in PDA, can be blamed for much of the mechanisms behind poor drug performance, as it is the main source of the cytokines and chemokines that orchestrate rapid and silent tumor progression to allow tumor cells to be isolated into an extensive fibrotic reaction, which results in inefficient drug delivery. However, since immunotherapy was proclaimed as the breakt...
Source: Cancers - January 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Neus Martinez-Bosch Judith Vinaixa Pilar Navarro Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 5: Oncogenic Signalling through Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR): A Driver of Metabolic Transformation and Cancer Progression
w Tee Throughout the years, research into signalling pathways involved in cancer progression has led to many discoveries of which mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key player. mTOR is a master regulator of cell growth control. mTOR is historically known to promote cell growth by enhancing the efficiency of protein translation. Research in the last decade has revealed that mTOR’s role in promoting cell growth is much more multifaceted. While mTOR is necessary for normal human physiology, cancer cells take advantage of mTOR signalling to drive their neoplastic growth and progression. Oncogenic signal tran...
Source: Cancers - January 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ellie Rad James Murray Andrew Tee Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 7: Clinical Implementation of Robust Optimization for Craniospinal Irradiation
ltran With robust optimization for spot scanning proton therapy now commercially available, the ability exists to account for setup, range, and interfield uncertainties during optimization. Robust optimization is particularly beneficial for craniospinal irradiation (CSI) where the large target volume lends itself to larger setup uncertainties and the need for robust match lines can all be handled with the uncertainty parameters found inside the optimizer. Suggested robust optimization settings, parameters, and image guidance for CSI patients using proton therapy spot scanning are provided. Useful structures are defined...
Source: Cancers - January 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alexandria Tasson Nadia Laack Chris Beltran Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 8: Modification of Epigenetic Histone Acetylation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
n Hsu Cells respond to various environmental factors such as nutrients, food intake, and drugs or toxins by undergoing dynamic epigenetic changes. An imbalance in dynamic epigenetic changes is one of the major causes of disease, oncogenic activities, and immunosuppressive effects. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a unique cellular chemical sensor present in most organs, and its dysregulation has been demonstrated in multiple stages of tumor progression in humans and experimental models; however, the effects of the pathogenic mechanisms of AHR on epigenetic regulation remain unclear. Apart from proto-oncogene acti...
Source: Cancers - January 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kwei-Yan Liu Li-Ting Wang Shih-Hsien Hsu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 4: The Role of Chromosomal Instability in Cancer and Therapeutic Responses
ón-Lagos Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, and despite increased research in recent years, control of advanced-stage disease and optimal therapeutic responses remain elusive. Recent technological improvements have increased our understanding of human cancer as a heterogeneous disease. For instance, four hallmarks of cancer have recently been included, which in addition to being involved in cancer development, could be involved in therapeutic responses and resistance. One of these hallmarks is chromosome instability (CIN), a source of genetic variation in either altered chromosome number or structure....
Source: Cancers - December 28, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Natalia Vargas-Rond ón Victoria Villegas Milena Rond ón-Lagos Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 3: Lipid Metabolism and Lipid Droplets in Pancreatic Cancer and Stellate Cells
g Kleeff Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is projected to become the second deadliest cancer by 2030, and the overall 5-year survival rate is currently less than 7%. Cancer cells frequently exhibit reprogramming of their metabolic activity. It is increasingly recognized that aberrant de novo lipid synthesis and reprogrammed lipid metabolism are both associated with the development and progression of various cancers, including pancreatic cancer. In this review, the current knowledge about lipid metabolism and lipid droplets in pancreatic cancer is discussed. In the first part, molecular mechanisms of lipid metabo...
Source: Cancers - December 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yoshiaki Sunami Artur Rebelo J örg Kleeff Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 2: Protein Kinase A Distribution Differentiates Human Glioblastoma from Brain Tissue
io Caretta Brain tumor glioblastoma has no clear molecular signature and there is no effective therapy. In rodents, the intracellular distribution of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (Protein kinase A, PKA) R2Alpha subunit was previously shown to differentiate tumor cells from healthy brain cells. Now, we aim to validate this observation in human tumors. The distribution of regulatory (R1 and R2) and catalytic subunits of PKA was examined via immunohistochemistry and Western blot in primary cell cultures and biopsies from 11 glioblastoma patients. Data were compared with information obtained from 17 other...
Source: Cancers - December 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Carla Mucignat-Caretta Luca Denaro Domenico D ’Avella Antonio Caretta Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 1: JNK, p38, ERK, and SGK1 Inhibitors in Cancer
rbonavicius Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases) are a family of kinases that regulates a range of biological processes implicated in the response to growth factors like latelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and stress, such as ultraviolet irradiation, heat shock, and osmotic shock. The MAP kinase family consists of four major subfamilies of related proteins (extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular regulated kinase 5 (ERK5)) and regulates numerous cellular activities, such as ...
Source: Cancers - December 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jonas Cicenas Egle Zalyte Arnas Rimkus Dalius Dapkus Remigijus Noreika Sigitas Urbonavicius Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 174: Fluorescence Sensing Using DNA Aptamers in Cancer Research and Clinical Diagnostics
tesarchio Among the various advantages of aptamers over antibodies, remarkable is their ability to tolerate a large number of chemical modifications within their backbone or at the termini without losing significant activity. Indeed, aptamers can be easily equipped with a wide variety of reporter groups or coupled to different carriers, nanoparticles, or other biomolecules, thus producing valuable molecular recognition tools effective for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This review reports an updated overview on fluorescent DNA aptamers, designed to recognize significant cancer biomarkers both in soluble or membra...
Source: Cancers - December 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Domenica Musumeci Chiara Platella Claudia Riccardi Federica Moccia Daniela Montesarchio Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 173: Recent Advances in Cancer Therapy Based on Dual Mode Gold Nanoparticles
it Sihver Many tumor-targeted strategies have been used worldwide to limit the side effects and improve the effectiveness of therapies, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy (RT), etc. Biophotonic therapy modalities comprise very promising alternative techniques for cancer treatment with minimal invasiveness and side-effects. These modalities use light e.g., laser irradiation in an extracorporeal or intravenous mode to activate photosensitizer agents with selectivity in the target tissue. Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a minimally invasive technique for cancer treatment which uses laser-activated photoabsorbers to convert ...
Source: Cancers - December 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ellas Spyratou Mersini Makropoulou Efstathios Efstathopoulos Alexandros Georgakilas Lembit Sihver Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 171: Regulation of EMT in Colorectal Cancer: A Culprit in Metastasis
tta Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process during which cells lose their epithelial characteristics, for instance cell polarity and cell–cell contact, and gain mesenchymal properties, such as increased motility. In colorectal cancer (CRC), EMT is associated with an invasive or metastatic phenotype. In this review, we discuss recent studies exploring novel regulation mechanisms of EMT in CRC, including the identification of new CRC EMT regulators. Upregulation of inducers can promote EMT, leading to increased invasiveness and metastasis in CRC. These inducers can downregulate E-cadherin and upregu...
Source: Cancers - December 16, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Trung Vu Pran Datta Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 172: PRIMA-1 and PRIMA-1Met (APR-246): From Mutant/Wild Type p53 Reactivation to Unexpected Mechanisms Underlying Their Potent Anti-Tumor Effect in Combinatorial Therapies
hammad Krayem p53 protects cells from genetic assaults by triggering cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Inactivation of p53 pathway is found in the vast majority of human cancers often due to somatic missense mutations in TP53 or to an excessive degradation of the protein. Accordingly, reactivation of p53 appears as a quite promising pharmacological approach and, effectively, several attempts have been made in that sense. The most widely investigated compounds for this purpose are PRIMA-1 (p53 reactivation and induction of massive apoptosis )and PRIMA-1Met (APR-246), that are at an advanced stage of development, with sev...
Source: Cancers - December 16, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Anne Perdrix Ahmad Najem Sven Saussez Ahmad Awada Fabrice Journe Ghanem Ghanem Mohammad Krayem Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 170: Synchrotron-Based Pencil Beam Scanning Nozzle with an Integrated Mini-Ridge Filter: A Dosimetric Study to Optimize Treatment Delivery
In conclusion, integrating a mini-ridge filter into a synchrotron nozzle is feasible for improving treatment efficiency without significantly sacrificing the plan quality. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - December 13, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Xianliang Wang Yupeng Li Xiaodong Zhang Heng Li Koichi Miyazaki Rintaro Fujimoto Hiroshi Akiyama Michael T. Gillin Falk Poenisch Narayan Sahoo David Grosshans Brandon Gunn Steven Frank Pei Wang Jinyi Lang Qing Hou Xiaorong Zhu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 169: Activated HGF-c-Met Axis in Head and Neck Cancer
homas Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly morbid disease. Recent developments including Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved molecular targeted agent’s pembrolizumab and cetuximab show promise but did not improve the five-year survival which is currently less than 40%. The hepatocyte growth factor receptor; also known as mesenchymal–epithelial transition factor (c-Met) and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); and regulates tumor progression and response to therapy. The c-Met pathway has been shown to regula...
Source: Cancers - December 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Levi Arnold Jonathan Enders Sufi Thomas Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 168: Tracking Functional Tumor Cell Subpopulations of Malignant Glioma by Phasor Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy of NADH
In conclusion, FLIM of NADH provides a non-invasive method to monitor the dynamics of tumor heterogeneity before and after treatment. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - December 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Andrew Trinh Hongtao Chen Yumay Chen Yuanjie Hu Zhenzhi Li Eric Siegel Mark Linskey Ping Wang Michelle Digman Yi-Hong Zhou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 167: Ubiquitin Specific Peptidase 22 Regulates Histone H2B Mono-Ubiquitination and Exhibits Both Oncogenic and Tumor Suppressor Roles in Cancer
nus Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 22 (USP22) is a ubiquitin hydrolase, notably catalyzing the removal of the mono-ubiquitin moiety from histone H2B (H2Bub1). Frequent overexpression of USP22 has been observed in various cancer types and is associated with poor patient prognosis. Multiple mechanisms have been identified to explain how USP22 overexpression contributes to cancer progression, and thus, USP22 has been proposed as a novel drug target in cancer. However, gene re-sequencing data from numerous cancer types show that USP22 expression is frequently diminished, suggesting it may also harbor tumor suppressor-like pr...
Source: Cancers - December 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lucile Jeusset Kirk McManus Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 166: Supraphysiologic Testosterone Therapy in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer: Models, Mechanisms and Questions
Elahe Mostaghel Since Huggins defined the androgen-sensitive nature of prostate cancer (PCa), suppression of systemic testosterone (T) has remained the most effective initial therapy for advanced disease although progression inevitably occurs. From the inception of clinical efforts to suppress androgen receptor (AR) signaling by reducing AR ligands, it was also recognized that administration of T in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) could result in substantial clinical responses. Data from preclinical models have reproducibly shown biphasic responses to T administration, with proliferation at low and...
Source: Cancers - December 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Osama Mohammad Michael Nyquist Michael Schweizer Stephen Balk Eva Corey Stephen Plymate Peter Nelson Elahe Mostaghel Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 164: Non-Canonical Thinking for Targeting ALK-Fusion Onco-Proteins in Lung Cancer
ivona Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements have been identified in lung cancer at 3–7% frequency, thus representing an important subset of genetic lesions that drive oncogenesis in this disease. Despite the availability of multiple FDA-approved small molecule inhibitors targeting ALK fusion proteins, drug resistance to ALK kinase inhibitors is a common problem in clinic. Thus, there is an unmet need to deepen the current understanding of genomic characteristics of ALK rearrangements and to develop novel therapeutic strategies that can overcome ALK inhibitor resistance. In this review, we present t...
Source: Cancers - November 30, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wei Wu Franziska Haderk Trever Bivona Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 163: Early Postoperative Low Expression of RAD50 in Rectal Cancer Patients Associates with Disease-Free Survival
Conclusion: Expression of RAD50 in rectal cancer may serve as a prognostic biomarker for long-term survival of patients with perineural invasion-positive tumors and for potential use in early stage and low-grade rectal cancer assessment. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - November 30, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Vincent Ho Liping Chung Amandeep Singh Vivienne Lea Maxine Revoltar Stephanie Lim Thein-Ga Tut Weng Ng Mark Lee Paul de Souza Joo-Shik Shin Cheok Soon Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 165: Telomere Shortening in Hematological Malignancies with Tetraploidization —A Mechanism for Chromosomal Instability?
Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 165: Telomere Shortening in Hematological Malignancies with Tetraploidization—A Mechanism for Chromosomal Instability? Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers9120165 Authors: Eigil Kjeldsen Aneuploidy, the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, is one of the most obvious differences between normal and cancer cells. There is, however, debate on how aneuploid cells arise and whether or not they are a cause or a consequence of tumorigenesis. Further, it is important to distinguish aneuploidy (the “state” of the karyotype) from chromosomal instability (CIN; the “rat...
Source: Cancers - November 30, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Eigil Kjeldsen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 161: Targeting Autophagy in ALK-Associated Cancers
riato Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process, which is used by the cells for cytoplasmic quality control. This process is induced following different kinds of stresses e.g., metabolic, environmental, or therapeutic, and acts, in this framework, as a cell survival mechanism. However, under certain circumstances, autophagy has been associated with cell death. This duality has been extensively reported in solid and hematological cancers, and has been observed during both tumor development and cancer therapy. As autophagy plays a critical role at the crossroads between cell survival and cell death, its ...
Source: Cancers - November 27, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Julie Frentzel Domenico Sorrentino Sylvie Giuriato Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 162: Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 Kinase (eEF2K) in Cancer
Proud Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) is a highly unusual protein kinase that negatively regulates the elongation step of protein synthesis. This step uses the vast majority of the large amount of energy and amino acids required for protein synthesis. eEF2K activity is controlled by an array of regulatory inputs, including inhibition by signalling through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). eEF2K is activated under conditions of stress, such as energy depletion or nutrient deprivation, which can arise in poorly-vascularised tumours. In many such stress conditions, eEF2K exerts cytoprotective...
Source: Cancers - November 27, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Xuemin Wang Jianling Xie Christopher Proud Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 160: Integrative Bioinformatic Analysis of Transcriptomic Data Identifies Conserved Molecular Pathways Underlying Ionizing Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects (RIBE)
Chatziioannou Ionizing radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) encompass a number of effects with potential for a plethora of damages in adjacent non-irradiated tissue. The cascade of molecular events is initiated in response to the exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), something that may occur during diagnostic or therapeutic medical applications. In order to better investigate these complex response mechanisms, we employed a unified framework integrating statistical microarray analysis, signal normalization, and translational bioinformatics functional analysis techniques. This approach was applied to several microa...
Source: Cancers - November 25, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Constantinos Yeles Efstathios-Iason Vlachavas Olga Papadodima Eleftherios Pilalis Constantinos Vorgias Alexandros Georgakilas Aristotelis Chatziioannou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 159: Genomic Destabilization Triggered by Replication Stress during Senescence
oshioka Most cancers develop after middle age, and are often associated with multiple mutations and genomic instability, implying that genomic destabilization is critical for age-related tumor development. In this manuscript, we review current knowledge regarding (1) the senescent cellular background, which is associated with a higher risk of genomic destabilization; and (2) the contributions of genomic destabilization to cancer development. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - November 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yusuke Minakawa Atsuhiro Shimizu Yusuke Matsuno Ken-ichi Yoshioka Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 158: Alcohol and Cancer Stem Cells
Luo Heavy alcohol consumption has been associated with increased risk of several cancers, including cancer of the colon, rectum, female breast, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, liver, and esophagus. It appears that alcohol exposure not only promotes carcinogenesis but also enhances the progression and aggressiveness of existing cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol tumor promotion, however, remain unclear. Cancer stem cells (CSC), a subpopulation of cancer cells with self-renewal and differentiation capacity, play an important role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy resist...
Source: Cancers - November 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mei Xu Jia Luo Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 157: Pancreatic Cancer Chemoresistance to Gemcitabine
aug Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), commonly referred to as pancreatic cancer, ranks among the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the Western world due to disease presentation at an advanced stage, early metastasis and generally a very limited response to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Gemcitabine remains a cornerstone of PDAC treatment in all stages of the disease despite suboptimal clinical effects primarily caused by molecular mechanisms limiting its cellular uptake and activation and overall efficacy, as well as the development of chemoresistance within weeks of treatment initiation. To circumvent g...
Source: Cancers - November 16, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Manoj Amrutkar Ivar Gladhaug Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 156: Cell Line Secretome and Tumor Tissue Proteome Markers for Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review
Conclusions: Secretome and tumor proteome-based biomarkers when validated in blood yield promising candidates. However, for discovered protein markers to be clinically applicable as screening tool they have to be specific for early stages and need to be validated externally in larger studies with participants recruited in true screening setting. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - November 16, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Megha Bhardwaj Vanessa Erben Petra Schrotz-King Hermann Brenner Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 155: Current and Prospective Protein Biomarkers of Lung Cancer
Anna Kichkailo Lung cancer is a malignant lung tumor with various histological variants that arise from different cell types, such as bronchial epithelium, bronchioles, alveoli, or bronchial mucous glands. The clinical course and treatment efficacy of lung cancer depends on the histological variant of the tumor. Therefore, accurate identification of the histological type of cancer and respective protein biomarkers is crucial for adequate therapy. Due to the great diversity in the molecular-biological features of lung cancer histological types, detection is impossible without knowledge of the nature and origin of malig...
Source: Cancers - November 13, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tatiana Zamay Galina Zamay Olga Kolovskaya Ruslan Zukov Marina Petrova Ana Gargaun Maxim Berezovski Anna Kichkailo Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 154: Liquid Biopsy and Therapeutic Targets: Present and Future Issues in Thoracic Oncology
n The practice of liquid biopsy (LB) has revolutionized the care of patients with metastatic lung cancer. Many oncologists now use this approach in daily practice, applying precise procedures for the detection of activating or resistance mutations in EGFR. These tests are performed with plasma DNA and have been approved as companion diagnostic test for patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. ALK is another important target in lung cancer since it leads to treatment of patients who are positive for a rearrangement in ALK identified with tumor tissue. By analogy with EGFR, LB for detection of genomic alteration...
Source: Cancers - November 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Paul Hofman Tags: Review Source Type: research