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Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 138: From Pathology to Precision Medicine in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Expressing Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK+ ALCL)
Wasik Anaplastic large cell lymphoma expressing anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK+ ALCL) is a distinct subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In this review, we discuss the historical findings that led to its classification as a unique disease, despite its varied clinical presentation and histology. We discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying ALK+ ALCL pathology and the questions that remain in the field. Finally, we visit how decades of ALK+ ALCL research has yielded more precise drugs that hold promise for the future. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - October 16, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Michael Werner Qian Zhang Mariusz Wasik Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 137: STAT3 but Not HIF-1 α Is Important in Mediating Hypoxia-Induced Chemoresistance in MDA-MB-231, a Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Line
This study has demonstrated that, in MDA-MB-231 cells, STAT3 rather than HIF-1α is important in mediating HICR to cisplatin. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - October 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hoda Soleymani Abyaneh Nidhi Gupta Aneta Radziwon-Balicka Paul Jurasz John Seubert Raymond Lai Afsaneh Lavasanifar Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 136: Radiation-Induced Changes of microRNA Expression Profiles in Radiosensitive and Radioresistant Leukemia Cell Lines with Different Levels of Chromosome Abnormalities
Yury Saenko In our study, we estimate an effect from chromosome aberrations and genome mutations on changes in microRNA expression profiles in cancer cell lines demonstrating different radiosensitivity. Here, cell viability and microRNA spectrum have been estimated 1, 4, and 24 h after irradiation. MiSeq high-throughput sequencing system (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) is employed to perform microRNA spectrum estimation. In the K562 cell line, the number of expressed microRNAs in chromosomes demonstrates a more pronounced variation. An analysis of microRNA effects on signaling pathway activity demonstrates differences...
Source: Cancers - October 13, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Daria Liamina Wladimir Sibirnyj Anna Khokhlova Viacheslav Saenko Eugenia Rastorgueva Aleksandr Fomin Yury Saenko Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 135: Can Intensity-Modulated-Radiotherapy Reduce Toxicity in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma?
yts Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a modern radiotherapy technique that was implemented in the mid-1990s. It allows closer shaping of dose, to target volumes, thereby sparing organs at risk (OARs). Before the IMRT-era, two-dimensional radiotherapy (2DRT) and later three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) were the techniques of choice, but this robust way of irradiating caused more normal tissue to receive a higher dose. Radiation of cancers in the head and neck region is complex because of close proximity to critical normal tissue and the large target volumes that need to be treated at high doses. I...
Source: Cancers - October 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Julie van der Veen Sandra Nuyts Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 134: The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer: Focus on Basal-Like Carcinomas
petta Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is characterized by a high grade of cell plasticity arising from the contribution of a diverse range of factors. When combined, these factors allow a cancer cell to transition from an epithelial to a mesenchymal state through a process of dedifferentiation that confers stem-like features, including chemoresistance, as well as the capacity to migrate and invade. Understanding the complex events that lead to the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype will therefore help to design new therapies against metastatic breast cancer. Here, we recapitulate the main endogenous m...
Source: Cancers - September 30, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Monica Fedele Laura Cerchia Gennaro Chiappetta Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 133: Platelet Integrins in Tumor Metastasis: Do They Represent a Therapeutic Target?
re Mangin Platelets are small anucleated cell fragments that ensure the arrest of bleeding after a vessel wall injury. They are also involved in non-hemostatic function such as development, immunity, inflammation, and in the hematogeneous phase of metastasis. While the role of platelets in tumor metastasis has been recognized for 60 years, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains largely unclear. Platelets physically and functionally interact with various tumor cells through surface receptors including integrins. Platelets express five integrins at their surface, namely α2β1, α5β1, ...
Source: Cancers - September 28, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Marion Lavergne Emily Janus-Bell Mathieu Schaff Christian Gachet Pierre Mangin Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 132: Regulation of mTOR, Metabolic Fitness, and Effector Functions by Cytokines in Natural Killer Cells
oine Marçais The control of cellular metabolism is now recognized as key to regulate functional properties of immune effectors such as T or Natural Killer (NK) cells. During persistent infections or in the tumor microenvironment, multiple metabolic changes have been highlighted in T cells that contribute to their dysfunctional state or exhaustion. NK cells may also undergo major phenotypic and functional modifications when infiltrating tumors that could be linked to metabolic alterations. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is a central regulator of cellular metabolism. mTOR integrates various extrin...
Source: Cancers - September 28, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: S ébastien Viel Laurie Besson Marie Marotel Thierry Walzer Antoine Mar çais Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 131: The Emerging Role of Polo-Like Kinase 1 in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Tumor Metastasis
Wen Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a key role in the regulation of the cell cycle. PLK1 is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, and its expression level often correlates with increased cellular proliferation and poor prognosis in cancer patients. It has been suggested that PLK1 controls cancer development through multiple mechanisms that include canonical regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis, modulation of DNA replication, and cell survival. However, emerging evidence suggests novel and previously unanticipated roles for PLK1 during tumor development. In this review, we will s...
Source: Cancers - September 27, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zheng Fu Donghua Wen Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 130: Alcohol and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Adding Fuel to the Flame
Nevzorova Primary tumors of the liver represent the fifth most common type of cancer in the world and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Case-control studies from different countries report that chronic ethanol consumption is associated with an approximately 2-fold increased odds ratio for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite the substantial epidemiologic data in humans demonstrating that chronic alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for HCC development, the pathways causing alcohol-induced liver cancer are poorly understood. In this overview, we summarize the epidemiological evidence for the ass...
Source: Cancers - September 25, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Pierluigi Ramadori Francisco Cubero Christian Liedtke Christian Trautwein Yulia Nevzorova Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 129: Alcohol Misuse Link to POEMS Syndrome in a Patient
Conclusions: Chronic alcohol misuse can be a strong risk factor to rare malignancies such as POEMS syndrome. Extreme elevation of VEGF levels is diagnostic for POEMS syndrome, and should be followed to assess response to therapy. In addition, other comorbidities should be considered individually to ensure personalized therapeutic intervention. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: John Neary Susan Goodwin Lawrence Cohen Manuela Neuman Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 128: Investigating the Interaction of Cyclic RGD Peptidomimetics with αVβ6 Integrin by Biochemical and Molecular Docking Studies
Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 128: Investigating the Interaction of Cyclic RGD Peptidomimetics with αVβ6 Integrin by Biochemical and Molecular Docking Studies Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers9100128 Authors: Monica Civera Daniela Arosio Francesca Bonato Leonardo Manzoni Luca Pignataro Simone Zanella Cesare Gennari Umberto Piarulli Laura Belvisi The interaction of a small library of cyclic RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptidomimetics with αVβ6 integrin has been investigated by means of competitive solid phase binding assays to the isolated receptor and docking calculations in the crystal structure of...
Source: Cancers - September 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Monica Civera Daniela Arosio Francesca Bonato Leonardo Manzoni Luca Pignataro Simone Zanella Cesare Gennari Umberto Piarulli Laura Belvisi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 127: Liver Cancer: Molecular Characterization, Clonal Evolution and Cancer Stem Cells
Testa Liver cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. The major forms of primary liver cancer are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). Both these tumors develop against a background of cirrhotic liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic liver damage and fibrosis. HCC is a heterogeneous disease which usually develops within liver cirrhosis related to various etiologies: hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (frequent in Asia and Africa), hepatitis C virus (HCV), chronic alcohol abuse, or metabolic syndrome (frequent in Western countries). In cirrhosis, hepa...
Source: Cancers - September 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Germana Castelli Elvira Pelosi Ugo Testa Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 126: The Impact of DNA Repair Pathways in Cancer Biology and Therapy
ang Genomic instability is one of the key hallmarks of cancer progression [1].[...] (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Anatoly Nikolaev Eddy Yang Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 125: Integrin Activation Contributes to Lower Cisplatin Sensitivity in MV3 Melanoma Cells by Inducing the Wnt Signalling Pathway
Conclusion: This is the first report on an integrin/wnt signalling activation axis addressing the consequences for chemotherapy sensitiveness of melanoma cells, which thus offers novel therapeutic targets for approaches to interfere with chemoresistance. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 16, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Maria Piva Bastian Jakubzig Gerd Bendas Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 124: MicroRNAs as Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer
In this report, we examined the role of miRs as biomarkers in CRC through a review of meta-analyses and large-scale analyses having strong statistical confidence in the study outcomes. We also discuss current issues in the clinical application of these miRs. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 13, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Takaaki Masuda Naoki Hayashi Yosuke Kuroda Shuhei Ito Hidetoshi Eguchi Koshi Mimori Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 122: EMT and Treatment Resistance in Pancreatic Cancer
rbone Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the third leading cause of adult cancer mortality in the United States. The poor prognosis for patients with PC is mainly due to its aggressive course, the limited efficacy of active systemic treatments, and a metastatic behavior, demonstrated throughout the evolution of the disease. On average, 80% of patients with PC are diagnosed with metastatic disease, and the half of those who undergo surgery and adjuvant therapy develop liver metastasis within two years. Metastatic dissemination is an early event in PC and is mainly attributed to an evolutionary biological process called epithelia...
Source: Cancers - September 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nicola Gaianigo Davide Melisi Carmine Carbone Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 123: Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase in Cutaneous Malignancies
iri Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of neoplasms. As suggested by its name, ALK was first described as part of a translocation product in cases of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, with other genetic and cytogenetic ALK mutations subsequently coming to attention in the development of many other hematologic and solid organ malignancies. ALK has now been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of several cutaneous malignancies, including secondary cutaneous systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) and primary cutaneous ALCL, mel...
Source: Cancers - September 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Severine Cao Vinod Nambudiri Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 121: The PI3K δ Inhibitor Idelalisib Inhibits Homing in an in Vitro and in Vivo Model of B ALL
This report tests PI3Kδ inhibitors in a more diverse group of ALL than has been previously reported and is the first published report of idelalisib inhibiting homing of ALL cells to bone marrow. Our data support further pre-clinical evaluation of idelalisib for the therapy of B ALL. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Etai Adam Hye Na Kim Eun Ji Gang Caitlin Schnair Solomon Lee Solah Lee Sajad Khazal Osanna Kosoyan Marina Konopleva Chintan Parekh Deepa Bhojwani Alan S. Wayne Hisham Abdel-Azim Nora Heisterkamp Yong-Mi Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 120: Acute and Late Toxicities of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally-Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Wasik For patients with unresectable locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), concurrent chemoradiotherapy improves overall survival as compared to sequential chemotherapy and radiation therapy, but is associated with higher rates of toxicities. Acute, clinically significant esophagitis or pneumonitis can occur in one in five patients. The risks of esophagitis and pneumonitis can impact the decision to deliver concurrent therapy and limit the total dose of radiation therapy that is delivered. Hematologic toxicities and emesis are common toxicities from systemic therapies for LA-NSCLC and can result in de...
Source: Cancers - September 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Vivek Verma Charles Simone Maria Werner-Wasik Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 119: Predicting Organ-Specific Risk Interactions between Radiation and Chemotherapy in Secondary Cancer Survivors
netti Several studies have shown that pediatric patients have an increased risk of developing a secondary malignancy several decades after treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this work, we use a biologically motivated mathematical formalism to estimate the relative risks of breast, lung and thyroid cancers in childhood cancer survivors due to concurrent therapy regimen. This model specifically includes possible organ-specific interaction between radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The model predicts relative risks for developing secondary cancers after chemotherapy in breast, lung and thyroid tissues, and compa...
Source: Cancers - September 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Venkata Manem Clemens Grassberger Harald Paganetti Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 118: EML4-ALK Variants: Biological and Molecular Properties, and the Implications for Patients
Bayliss Since the discovery of the fusion between EML4 (echinoderm microtubule associated protein-like 4) and ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase), EML4-ALK, in lung adenocarcinomas in 2007, and the subsequent identification of at least 15 different variants in lung cancers, there has been a revolution in molecular-targeted therapy that has transformed the outlook for these patients. Our recent focus has been on understanding how and why the expression of particular variants can affect biological and molecular properties of cancer cells, as well as identifying the key signalling pathways triggered, as a result. In the clin...
Source: Cancers - September 5, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sarah Sabir Sharon Yeoh George Jackson Richard Bayliss Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 117: Reduced Cytokine Release in Ex Vivo Response to Cilengitide and Cetuximab Is a Marker for Improved Survival of Head and Neck Cancer Patients
We present FLAVINO data arguing for further development of cilengitide plus cetuximab in treatment of a subgroup of HNSCC potentially identified by the FLAVINO assay using a set of biomarkers for response evaluation. (Source: Cancers)
Source: Cancers - September 5, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Susan Cedra Susanne Wiegand Marlen Kolb Andreas Dietz Gunnar Wichmann Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 116: Exploring the Role of RGD-Recognizing Integrins in Cancer
atja Steiger Horst Kessler Integrins are key regulators of communication between cells and with their microenvironment. Eight members of the integrin superfamily recognize the tripeptide motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) within extracelluar matrix (ECM) proteins. These integrins constitute an important subfamily and play a major role in cancer progression and metastasis via their tumor biological functions. Such transmembrane adhesion and signaling receptors are thus recognized as promising and well accessible targets for novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications for directly attacking cancer cells and their fatal microenv...
Source: Cancers - September 4, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Markus Nieberler Ute Reuning Florian Reichart Johannes Notni Hans-J ürgen Wester Markus Schwaiger Michael Weinm üller Andreas R äder Katja Steiger Horst Kessler Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 115: Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cell Therapy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM)
Albelda Cancer immunotherapy has now become a recognized approach to treating cancers. In addition to checkpoint blockade, adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown impressive clinical outcomes in leukemias and is now being explored in solid tumors. CARs are engineered receptors, stably or transiently transduced into T cells, that aim to enhance T cell effector function by recognizing and binding to a specific tumor-associated antigen. In this review, we provide a summary of CAR T cell preclinical studies and clinical trials for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a rare, locall...
Source: Cancers - September 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Astero Klampatsa Andrew Haas Edmund Moon Steven Albelda Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 113: Novel Molecular Targets for Chemoprevention in Malignancies of the Head and Neck
ess Cancers of the head and neck region are among the leading causes of cancer-related mortalities worldwide. Oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia are identified as precursor lesions to malignancy. Patients cured of an initial primary head and neck cancer are also susceptible to developing second primary tumors due to cancerization of their mucosal field. Multi-step acquisition of genetic mutations leading to tumorigenesis and development of invasive cancer has been previously described. Recently, whole exome sequencing of tumor specimens has helped to identify driver mutations in this disease. For these reasons, chemopr...
Source: Cancers - August 31, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Aarti Bhatia Barbara Burtness Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 114: Stem Cell-Like Properties of CK2 β-down Regulated Mammary Cells
Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 114: Stem Cell-Like Properties of CK2β-down Regulated Mammary Cells Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers9090114 Authors: Eve Duchemin-Pelletier Megghane Baulard Elodie Spreux Magali Prioux Mithila Burute Baharia Mograbi Laurent Guyon Manuel Théry Claude Cochet Odile Filhol The ubiquitous protein kinase CK2 has been demonstrated to be overexpressed in a number of human tumours. This enzyme is composed of two catalytic α or α’ subunits and a dimer of β regulatory subunits whose expression levels are probably implicated in CK2 regulation. Several rece...
Source: Cancers - August 31, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Eve Duchemin-Pelletier Megghane Baulard Elodie Spreux Magali Prioux Mithila Burute Baharia Mograbi Laurent Guyon Manuel Th éry Claude Cochet Odile Filhol Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 111: Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Update on Clinicopathological and Molecular Features
a Microphthalmia-associated transcription (MiT) family translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC) comprises Xp11 tRCC and t(6;11) RCC. Due to the presence of fusion genes, Xp11 tRCC and t(6;11) RCC are also known as TFE3- and TFEB-rearranged RCC, respectively. TFE3 and TFEB belong to the MiT family, which regulates melanocyte and osteoclast differentiation, and TFE3- and TFEB-rearranged RCC show characteristic clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features. Recent studies identified the fusion partner-dependent clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features in TFE3-rearranged RCC. Furthermore, RCC with chrom...
Source: Cancers - August 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kentaro Inamura Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 112: Most Do, but Some Do Not: CD4+CD25 − T Cells, but Not CD4+CD25+ Treg Cells, Are Cytolytic When Redirected by a Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)
Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 112: Most Do, but Some Do Not: CD4+CD25− T Cells, but Not CD4+CD25+ Treg Cells, Are Cytolytic When Redirected by a Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers9090112 Authors: Andreas Hombach Hinrich Abken Evidences are accumulating that CD4+ T cells can physiologically mediate antigen specific target cell lysis. By circumventing major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restrictions through an engineered chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), CD4+ T cells lyse defined target cells as efficiently as do CD8+ T cells. However, the cytolytic capacity of redirected CD4+CD25− ...
Source: Cancers - August 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Andreas Hombach Hinrich Abken Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 110: Integrins as Therapeutic Targets: Successes and Cancers
odman Integrins are transmembrane receptors that are central to the biology of many human pathologies. Classically mediating cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interaction, and with an emerging role as local activators of TGFβ, they influence cancer, fibrosis, thrombosis and inflammation. Their ligand binding and some regulatory sites are extracellular and sensitive to pharmacological intervention, as proven by the clinical success of seven drugs targeting them. The six drugs on the market in 2016 generated revenues of some US$3.5 billion, mainly from inhibitors of α4-series integrins. In this review we...
Source: Cancers - August 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sabine Raab-Westphal John Marshall Simon Goodman Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 109: Understanding Resistance Mechanisms and Expanding the Therapeutic Utility of PARP Inhibitors
Tan Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors act through synthetic lethality in cells with defects in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair caused by molecular aberrations such as BRCA mutations, and is approved for treatment in ovarian cancer, with promising clinical activity against other HR defective tumors including breast and prostate cancers. Three PARP inhibitors have been FDA approved, while another two have shown promising activity and are in late stage development. Nonetheless, both primary and secondary resistance to PARP inhibition have led to treatment failure, and the development of predictive bi...
Source: Cancers - August 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Joline Lim David S. P. Tan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 108: National and Subnational Population-Based Incidence of Cancer in Thailand: Assessing Cancers with the Highest Burdens
Vatanasapt Hutcha Sriplung In Thailand, five cancer types—breast, cervical, colorectal, liver and lung cancer—contribute to over half of the cancer burden. The magnitude of these cancers must be quantified over time to assess previous health policies and highlight future trajectories for targeted prevention efforts. We provide a comprehensive assessment of these five cancers nationally and subnationally, with trend analysis, projections, and number of cases expected for the year 2025 using cancer registry data. We found that breast (average annual percent change (AAPC): 3.1%) and colorectal cancer (female...
Source: Cancers - August 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shama Virani Surichai Bilheem Wasan Chansaard Imjai Chitapanarux Karnchana Daoprasert Somsak Khuanchana Atit Leklob Donsuk Pongnikorn Laura Rozek Surattaya Siriarechakul Krittika Suwanrungruang Sukit Tassanasunthornwong Patravoot Vatanasapt Hutcha Sriplun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 106: ALK Status Assessment with Liquid Biopsies of Lung Cancer Patients
n Patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) harboring an anaplastic lymphoma kinase ALK gene rearrangement, detected from a tissue sample, can benefit from targeted ALK inhibitor treatment. However, while treatment is initially effective in most cases, relapse or progression occurs due to different resistance mechanisms including mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML44)-ALK. The liquid biopsy concept has recently radically changed the clinical care of NSCLC patients, in particular for those harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor ...
Source: Cancers - August 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Paul Hofman Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 107: ALK in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Pathobiology, Epidemiology, Detection from Tumor Tissue and Algorithm Diagnosis in a Daily Practice
n Patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) harboring an ALK rearrangement, detected from a tissue sample, can benefit from targeted ALK inhibitor treatment. Several increasingly effective ALK inhibitors are now available for treatment of patients. However, despite an initial favorable response to treatment, in most cases relapse or progression occurs due to resistance mechanisms mainly caused by mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of ALK. The detection of an ALK rearrangement is pivotal and can be done using different methods, which have variable sensitivity and specificity depending, in p...
Source: Cancers - August 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Paul Hofman Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 105: The Role of Cancer-Derived Exosomes in Tumorigenicity & amp; Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition
Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 105: The Role of Cancer-Derived Exosomes in Tumorigenicity & Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers9080105 Authors: Robert Blackwell Kimberly Foreman Gopal Gupta Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their basement membrane interaction and acquire a more migratory, mesenchymal phenotype. EMT has been implicated in cancer cell progression, as cells transform and increase motility and invasiveness, induce angiogenesis, and metastasize. Exosomes are 30–100 nm membrane-bound vesicles that are formed and ...
Source: Cancers - August 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Robert Blackwell Kimberly Foreman Gopal Gupta Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 104: Complex Determinants of Epithelial: Mesenchymal Phenotypic Plasticity in Ovarian Cancer
Stack Unlike most epithelial malignancies which metastasize hematogenously, metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) occurs primarily via transcoelomic dissemination, characterized by exfoliation of cells from the primary tumor, avoidance of detachment-induced cell death (anoikis), movement throughout the peritoneal cavity as individual cells and multi-cellular aggregates (MCAs), adhesion to and disruption of the mesothelial lining of the peritoneum, and submesothelial matrix anchoring and proliferation to generate widely disseminated metastases. This exceptional microenvironment is highly permissive for phenotypi...
Source: Cancers - August 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yuliya Klymenko Oleg Kim M. Stack Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 103: Secondary Intracranial Tumors Following Radiotherapy for Pituitary Adenomas: A Systematic Review
Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 103: Secondary Intracranial Tumors Following Radiotherapy for Pituitary Adenomas: A Systematic Review Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers9080103 Authors: Ryuya Yamanaka Eisuke Abe Toshiteru Sato Azusa Hayano Yasuo Takashima Pituitary adenomas are often treated with radiotherapy for the management of tumor progression or recurrence. Despite the improvement in cure rates, patients treated by radiotherapy are at risk of development of secondary malignancies. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of the secondary intracranial tumors that occurred following radiotherapy to pituitary aden...
Source: Cancers - August 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ryuya Yamanaka Eisuke Abe Toshiteru Sato Azusa Hayano Yasuo Takashima Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 102: Significance of microRNAs in Androgen Signaling and Prostate Cancer Progression
Inoue The androgen receptor (AR) plays important roles in prostate cancer development and prostate tumor growth. After binding to androgens, AR functions as a nuclear receptor and translocates to the nucleus to bind to specific AR-binding sites (ARBSs). AR regulates epigenetic factor recruitments to activate its downstream signaling. Although androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is initially useful for prostate cancer patients, most patients eventually show resistance with hormone-refractory prostate cancers (HRPCs) or castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs). Thus, new therapeutic strategies targeting HRPCs/CRPCs s...
Source: Cancers - August 7, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ken-ichi Takayama Aya Misawa Satoshi Inoue Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 100: Crosstalk between microRNA and DNA Methylation Offers Potential Biomarkers and Targeted Therapies in ALK-Positive Lymphomas
tto The discovery of microRNA (miRNA) has provided new and powerful tools for studying the mechanism, diagnosis and treatment of human cancers. The down-regulation of tumor suppressive miRNA by hypermethylation of CpG island (CpG is shorthand for 5′-C-phosphate-G-3′, that is, cytosine and guanine separated by only one phosphate) is emerging as a common hallmark of cancer and appears to be involved in drug resistance. This review discusses the role of miRNA and DNA methylation in drug resistance mechanisms and highlights their potential as anti-cancer therapies in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK)-positive ly...
Source: Cancers - August 3, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Coralie Hoareau-Aveilla Fabienne Meggetto Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 101: Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and MicroRNAs in Lung Cancer
es Pierre Laurent-Puig Hélène Blons Despite major advances, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the major cause of cancer-related death in developed countries. Metastasis and drug resistance are the main factors contributing to relapse and death. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex molecular and cellular process involved in tissue remodelling that was extensively studied as an actor of tumour progression, metastasis and drug resistance in many cancer types and in lung cancers. Here we described with an emphasis on NSCLC how the changes in signalling pathways, transcription f...
Source: Cancers - August 3, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Antoine Legras Nicolas P écuchet Sandrine Imbeaud Karine Pallier Audrey Didelot H élène Roussel Laure Gibault Elizabeth Fabre Fran çoise Le Pimpec-Barthes Pierre Laurent-Puig H élène Blons Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 99: Performance of a RT-PCR Assay in Comparison to FISH and Immunohistochemistry for the Detection of ALK in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
In this study, we performed a direct comparison of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lung cancer specimens using all three ALK detection methods. The RT-PCR test (diagnostic cut-off ΔCt of ≤8) was shown to be highly sensitive (100%) when compared to FISH and IHC. Sequencing of RNA detected full-length ALK transcripts or EML4-ALK and KIF5B-ALK fusion variants in discordant cases in which ALK expression was detected by the ALK RT-PCR test but negative by FISH and IHC. The overall specificity of the RT-PCR test for the detection of ALK in cases without full-length ALK expression was 94% in comparison to FISH an...
Source: Cancers - August 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: David Hout Brock Schweitzer Kasey Lawrence Stephan Morris Tracy Tucker Rosetta Mazzola Rachel Skelton Frank McMahon John Handshoe Mary Lesperance Aly Karsan David Saltman Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 98: EMT/MET at the Crossroad of Stemness, Regeneration and Oncogenesis: The Ying-Yang Equilibrium Recapitulated in Cell Spheroids
Elisa Messina The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential trans-differentiation process, which plays a critical role in embryonic development, wound healing, tissue regeneration, organ fibrosis, and cancer progression. It is the fundamental mechanism by which epithelial cells lose many of their characteristics while acquiring features typical of mesenchymal cells, such as migratory capacity and invasiveness. Depending on the contest, EMT is complemented and balanced by the reverse process, the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). In the saving economy of the living organisms, the same (Ying-...
Source: Cancers - July 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Elvira Forte Isotta Chimenti Paolo Rosa Francesco Angelini Francesca Pagano Antonella Calogero Alessandro Giacomello Elisa Messina Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 97: Localization of VEGF to Vascular ECM Is an Important Aspect of Tumor Angiogenesis
cup Our research has identified several examples in which reduced VEGF-A binding to deficient vascular extracellular matrix leads to deficits in tumor vascularization and tumor growth: (1) germline ablation of collagen VI in the stroma of intracranial B16F10 melanomas; (2) knockdown of the Tks5 scaffolding protein in MDA-MB-231 mammary tumor cells; (3) germline ablation of NG2 proteoglycan in the stroma of MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors; and (4) myeloid-specific ablation of NG2 in the stroma of intracranial B16F10 melanomas. Tumor hypoxia is increased in each of the four types of experimental mice, accompanied by increases i...
Source: Cancers - July 28, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Weon-Kyoo You William Stallcup Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 95: Integrins and Exosomes, a Dangerous Liaison in Cancer Progression
lli Integrin activity and function is classically related to the bi-directional regulation of cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) contacts that regulate a number of cell pathways linked to cell adhesion, cell detachment from ECM, cell migration, and anoikis. Interestingly, emerging data continue to uncover new roles for integrins in cancer-relevant pathways, particularly concerning the regulation of immune cell activity in the tumor niche, like myeloid cell differentiation and function and, very recently, the regulation of metastatic processes by exosomes. Exosomes are deeply involved in cell-cell communication processes a...
Source: Cancers - July 26, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mayra Paolillo Sergio Schinelli Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 96: Involvement of the Integrin α1β1 in the Progression of Colorectal Cancer
Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 96: Involvement of the Integrin α1β1 in the Progression of Colorectal Cancer Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers9080096 Authors: Salah Boudjadi Gérald Bernatchez Blanche Sénicourt Marco Beauséjour Pierre Vachon Julie Carrier Jean-François Beaulieu Integrins are a family of heterodimeric glycoproteins involved in bidirectional cell signaling that participate in the regulation of cell shape, adhesion, migration, survival and proliferation. The integrin α1β1 is known to be involved in RAS/ERK proliferative pathway activation and plays an imp...
Source: Cancers - July 26, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Salah Boudjadi G érald Bernatchez Blanche S énicourt Marco Beaus éjour Pierre Vachon Julie Carrier Jean-Fran çois Beaulieu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 94: Targeting Platelets for the Treatment of Cancer
etharom The majority of cancer-associated mortality results from the ability of tumour cells to metastasise leading to multifunctional organ failure and death. Disseminated tumour cells in the blood circulation are faced with major challenges such as rheological shear stresses and cell-mediated cytotoxicity mediated by natural killer cells. Nevertheless, circulating tumour cells with metastatic ability appear equipped to exploit host cells to aid their survival. Despite the long interest in targeting tumour-associated host cells such as platelets for cancer treatment, the clinical benefit of this strategy is still unde...
Source: Cancers - July 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Omar Elaskalani Michael Berndt Marco Falasca Pat Metharom Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 93: Seed-in-Soil: Pancreatic Cancer Influenced by Tumor Microenvironment
Lin Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a fatal malignancy with a five-year survival rate lower than 7%, and most patients dying within six months of diagnosis. The factors that contribute to the aggressiveness of the disease include, but are not limited to: late diagnosis, prompt metastasis to adjacent vital organs, poor response, and resistance to anticancer treatments. This malignancy is uniquely associated with desmoplastic stroma that accounts for 80% of tumor mass. Understanding the biology of stroma can aid the discovery of innovative strategies for eradicating this lethal cancer in the future. This review highl...
Source: Cancers - July 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Huey-Jen Lin Jiayuh Lin Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 92: Regional Delivery of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cells for Cancer Therapy
cca Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cells are T-cells with recombinant receptors targeted to tumor antigens. CAR-T cell therapy has emerged as a mode of immunotherapy and is now being extensively explored in hematologic cancer. In contrast, CAR-T cell use in solid tumors has been hampered by multiple obstacles. Several approaches have been taken to circumvent these obstacles, including the regional delivery of CAR-T cells. Regional CAR-T cell delivery can theoretically compensate for poor T-cell trafficking and tumor antigen specificity while avoiding systemic toxicity associated with intravenous delivery. We reviewe...
Source: Cancers - July 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Praveen Sridhar Fabio Petrocca Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 91: Complex DNA Damage: A Route to Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability and Carcinogenesis
ros Georgakilas Cellular effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are of great variety and level, but they are mainly damaging since radiation can perturb all important components of the cell, from the membrane to the nucleus, due to alteration of different biological molecules ranging from lipids to proteins or DNA. Regarding DNA damage, which is the main focus of this review, as well as its repair, all current knowledge indicates that IR-induced DNA damage is always more complex than the corresponding endogenous damage resulting from endogenous oxidative stress. Specifically, it is expected that IR will create clusters of ...
Source: Cancers - July 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ifigeneia Mavragani Zacharenia Nikitaki Maria Souli Asef Aziz Somaira Nowsheen Khaled Aziz Emmy Rogakou Alexandros Georgakilas Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 89: The Role of Radiation Induced Injury on Lung Cancer
This manuscript evaluates the role of cell killing, tissue disorganization, and tissue damage on the induction of lung cancer following low dose rate radiation exposures from internally deposited radioactive materials. Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to 90Y, 91Y, 144Ce, or 90Sr in fused clay particles. Dogs lived out their life span with complete pathology conducted at the time of death. The radiation dose per cell turnover was characterized and related to the cause of death for each animal. Large doses per cell turnover resulted in acute death from lung damage with extensive cell killing, tissue disorganization, ch...
Source: Cancers - July 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Stephanie Puukila Christopher Thome Antone Brooks Gayle Woloschak Douglas Boreham Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 90: SIRT3: Oncogene and Tumor Suppressor in Cancer
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), the major deacetylase in mitochondria, plays a crucial role in modulating oxygen reactive species (ROS) and limiting the oxidative damage in cellular components. SIRT3 targets different enzymes which regulate mitochondrial metabolism and participate in ROS detoxification, such as the complexes of the respiratory chain, the isocitrate dehydrogenase, or the manganese superoxide dismutase. Thus, SIRT3 activity is essential in maintaining mitochondria homeostasis and has recently received great attention, as it is considered a fidelity protein for mitochondrial function. In some types of cancer, SIRT3 functi...
Source: Cancers - July 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Margalida Torrens-Mas Jordi Oliver Pilar Roca Jorge Sastre-Serra Tags: Review Source Type: research