A 55 ‐year‐old COVID‐19‐positive man managed with self‐regulation of high‐flow oxygen by high‐velocity nasal insufflation therapy
We present a case report on a 55 ‐year‐old male with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), diabetes, and obesity requiring escalation to high‐flow oxygen by high‐velocity nasal insufflation (HVNI; Vapotherm). As this patient required frequent clinician interaction and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) to control flow rat e and oxygen fraction due to lability, and the patient was alert, we instructed the patient to modify the oxygen to maintain an SpO2 (peripheral capillary oxygen saturation) target range and flow rate, to address dyspnoea as well as reduction of flow, as tolerated, when other staff entered the r...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ari J. Ciment, Lawrence M. Ciment Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Sleep ‐related breathing disorders associated with the characteristics of underlying congenital rare diseases of Moebius syndrome and Poland syndrome
Here, we describe in detail the causal interactions between underlying two intractable and rare diseases, namely Moebius syndrome and Poland syndrome, and sleep ‐related breathing disorders in a 24‐year‐old woman. AbstractA 24 ‐year‐old woman was referred to us with daytime sleepiness. She has two congenital intractable and rare diseases, namely, Moebius syndrome and Poland syndrome. Physiological examinations and a detailed usage analysis under a ventilation device helped to conclude that hypoglossal nerve paralysis and thoracic deformity from her two underlying diseases were associated closely with her final di...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - May 18, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ai Inagaki Sugiyama, Satomi Shiota, Tomoko Yamada, Jun Ito, Kazuhiro Suzuki, Kazuhisa Takahashi Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Incidental synchronous bronchial tumour: an unusual bronchoscopic finding
We describe a patient with incidental endobronchial synchronous hamartoma and typical carcinoid and the management strategy. Key messageWe describe a patient with incidental endobronchial synchronous hamartoma and typical carcinoid with different management strategy. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - May 17, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Umberto Caterino, Dario Amore, Chiara Petagna, Albina Palma, Danila Caroppo, Simona Massa Tags: Clinical Image Source Type: research

Pulmonary tuberculosis in an immunocompetent patient with primary laryngeal aspergillosis
In this report, we are presenting a 45 ‐year‐old physician who presented with chronic dry cough, hoarseness of voice, and progressive vocal fatigue. Fibreoptic laryngoscopy (FOL) showed whitish patches on both vocal folds and he was initially diagnosed with laryngeal aspergillosis following histopathological examination. As there was no significant improvement on antifungal treatment, we re‐evaluated the case and, on further investigation, concomitant PTB was detected. Patient responded to category‐I anti‐tubercular drugs with complete recovery. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - May 17, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nirmal Kanti Sarkar, Bijoy Pada Gope Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

High ‐pressure leakage of pleural fluid through the healed entry site of the indwelling pleural catheter from undrained locules
We report a case of fluid leakage through the healed entry site of IPC due to high pressure built from undrained pleural fluid locules, which was successfully treated with an additional drain targeting the largest undrained locule. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - May 17, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ka Pang Chan, Ka Ching Joyce Ng, Chi To Kevin Li Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Pleural cryobiopsy is useful for comprehensive cancer genetic panel testing
Here, we describe a case of an 83 ‐year‐old woman in whom insufficient pleural tissue to perform comprehensive cancer genetic panel testing was obtained with biopsy forceps, but sufficient tissue was obtained with cryobiopsy. AbstractAn 83 ‐year‐old woman presented with dyspnoea. Her chest X‐ray showed a right‐sided pleural effusion. Flex‐rigid pleuroscopy was performed and showed a mass in the anterior portion. The mass was biopsied with conventional biopsy forceps, but the mass was solid, and sufficient tissues could not b e obtained. Therefore, the mass was biopsied with a cryoprobe. The tip of the probe w...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - May 13, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Satoru Ishii, Hiromu Watanabe, Shinyu Izumi, Masayuki Hojo, Haruhito Sugiyama Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Bronchogenic cysts mimicking thymoma in the anterior mediastinum
We report the two cases of resected bronchogenic cysts which were in the unusual location of anterior mediastinum with uncommon radiological feature. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - May 12, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jonggeun Lee, Jee Won Chang Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

An extremely rare case of nivolumab ‐associated macroscopic duodenitis with spontaneous regression
Immune ‐related adverse events usually occur in the colon; however, the duodenum could be affected by the immune checkpoint inhibitors. This is an extremely rare phenomenon that is characterized by pathologically non‐specific inflammation. AbstractAn 82 ‐year‐old man was presented to our hospital due to epigastric and right hypochondrial pain 17 weeks after the initiation of intravenous treatment with nivolumab for recurrent lung adenocarcinoma as multiple lung and sternal metastases. Urgent gastroscopy revealed macroscopic duodenitis such as severe erythema, oedema, black‐coloured erosions, and ulcers loc...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - May 11, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Takatora Akizawa, Takeshi Saraya, Hiroki Takakura, Masachika Fujiwara, Haruyuki Ishii, Hajime Takizawa Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Diffuse large B ‐cell lymphoma presenting with cavitary lung disease
We herein report a case in which a patient with diffuse large B ‐cell lymphoma (DLBCL) presented with cavitary lung disease and splenic mass, which was diagnosed by transbronchial biopsy. DLBCL should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with cavitary lung diseases who have rare metastatic lesions for primary lung cancer, such as intra‐abdom inal lymph nodes or spleen. AbstractDiffuse large B ‐cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with cavitary lung disease is rare and is often difficult to differentiate from primary lung cancer, granulomatous disease, or an infectious disease based on imaging findings alone. We her...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - May 11, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yukiko Hibino, Ryosuke Imai, Torahiko Jinta Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Destroyed lung due to sustained inflammation after chemoradiotherapy followed by durvalumab
This report has presented a case of destroyed lung in a patient with non ‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received chemoradiotherapy followed by durvalumab. Because of the sustained inflammation and abolished function of the left lung, left pneumonectomy was required. We considered that durvalumab might further accelerate the inflammatory response, which had been in troduced by fungal infection, leading to uncontrollable inflammation of the lung. AbstractA 68 ‐year‐old male patient with squamous cell carcinoma (cT4N2M0) of the left upper lobe received chemoradiotherapy followed by durvalumab, an immune checkpoint ...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - May 10, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kageaki Taima, Hisashi Tanaka, Masamichi Itoga, Yoshiko Ishioka, Akira Kurose, Sadatomo Tasaka Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Giant intrapulmonary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour
We present a rare case of primary lung malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs) in an adult female non ‐smoker patient, in whom surgical thoracotomy approach has obtained a good control of the disease. Low‐grade MPNST was established from excisional biopsy followed by immunohistochemistry. AbstractPulmonary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs) are extremely rare soft tissue sarcomas that develop from the cell constituting the nerve sheaths, approximately 5 –10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. We present a rare case of primary lung MPNST in an adult female non‐smoker patient, in whom surgica...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - May 5, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Desdiani Desdiani, Siti Darifah, Chairul Azali Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis prior to myelodysplastic syndrome
We report the first case of autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis associated with and preceding myelodysplastic syndrome. AbstractWe report the first case of autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) associated with and preceding myelodysplastic syndrome. A 74 ‐year‐old female with a history of polymyalgia rheumatica presented with six months history of progressive exertional breathlessness. Examination revealed bilateral chest crackles and exertional desaturation. A diagnosis of autoimmune PAP was made based on the presence of autoantibodies to granu locyte‐macrophage colony‐stimulating factor and charac...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - May 5, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chuan Tai Foo, Louis Chhor, Francis Thien Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Drainage of middle lobe vein into anomalous right lower lobe vein: management during thoracoscopic lobectomy
Here, we report a case of middle lobe vein draining into a right inferior lobar vein formed by two anomalous trunks lying on the superior surface of the common basal bronchus: in such instance, to avoid compromising the middle lobe vein drainage during a thoracoscopic right lower lobectomy, the two main tributaries of the lower lobe vein were individually identified and dissected peripherally from the anterior aspect after division of the major fissure. A careful hilar dissection and a precise surgical strategy can help surgeons perform correct procedures in presence of pulmonary vascular anomalies. AbstractVariations in p...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - May 5, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dario Amore, Alessandro Saglia, Dino Casazza, Tullio Valente, Pasquale Imitazione, Carlo Curcio Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease: limiting immunosuppressive therapy —a single‐centre experience
Granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) can be a progressive ILD ‐associated common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) that results in increased mortality. There are no treatment guidelines; however, progressive disease often responds to immunosuppression when intravenous immunoglobulin g (IVIg) monotherapy fails. This series adds evidence that immunosuppression can be limited with close observation in clinically stable patients and some patients can consider ceasing immunosuppression when disease has initially responded. AbstractGranulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) is characteriz...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - May 5, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Thomas J. Beaton, David Gillis, Karen Morwood, Michael Bint Tags: Case Series Source Type: research

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis after lung transplantation
We report the case of a 69 ‐year‐old man five‐month post double lung transplant for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) who presented with progressive breathlessness, loss of lung function, and diffuse ground glass shadowing on the chest computed tomography. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed foamy macrophages, hyperpl asia of type II pneumocytes, and eosinophilic material in the alveolar space. Video thoracic lung biopsy was performed, and histology confirmed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Anti‐granulocyte‐macrophage colony‐stimulating factor (GM‐CSF) antibodies were negative. Bilateral sequential whole lu...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - May 5, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chandima Divithotawela, Simon H. Apte, Maxine E. Tan, Tharushi A. De Silva, Daniel C. Chambers Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Interstitial lung disease induced by docetaxel and ramucirumab chemotherapy after nivolumab treatment
We report cases of three patients who developed interstitial lung disease (ILD) during combination therapy with docetaxel and ramucirumab after nivolumab treatment. AbstractThree men (aged 64, 65, and 67  years) with advanced lung cancer who had been treated with nivolumab developed interstitial lung disease (ILD) during chemotherapy with docetaxel and ramucirumab. The treatment was clinically effective; however, the patients experienced immune‐related adverse effects due to nivolumab therapy: t wo patients developed ILD and the third developed psoriasis. Because the patients showed progression, docetaxel and ramu...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - April 22, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Komugi Okeya, Yukio Kawagishi, Mako Yamoto, Mami Shimizu, Toshihide Imizuda, Hiroshi Tsuji Tags: Case Series Source Type: research

Successful treatment of pyopneumothorax with bronchopleural fistula using endobronchial Watanabe spigots
We describe a case of necrotizing pneumonia complicated with bronchopleural fistula (BPF) and pyopneumothorax which was treated successfully with endobronchial Watanabe spigot (EWS). This case highlights the role of EWS in the management of BPF in patients with high surgical risk. AbstractBronchopleural fistula (BPF) can complicate necrotizing pneumonia. Surgery would be indicated in patients who fail conservative management, yet this group is often of poor pulmonary function and general condition. Bronchial occlusion with endobronchial Watanabe spigots (EWS) can be a potential alternative treatment when the culprit bronch...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - April 18, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chan Sin Chai, Swee Kim Chan, Sze Shyang Kho, Mei Ching Yong, Siew Teck Tie Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Miliary opacities in pulmonary sarcoidosis
We present a rare case of a 37 ‐year‐old woman diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis who presented with unusual bilateral upper lobes miliary opacities on chest high‐resolution computed tomography. Key messagePulmonary sarcoidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of miliary opacities in bilateral upper lobes predominance. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - April 18, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Keishi Sugino, Hirotaka Ono, Masahiro Ando, Seiji Igarashi, Atsuko Kurosaki, Eiyasu Tsuboi Tags: Clinical Image Source Type: research

Non ‐invasive ventilation and airway exchange catheter using a novel adapter in a difficult airway patient with post‐extubation respiratory failure
We describe the case of a woman with a difficult airway who developed post ‐extubation respiratory failure. We provided successful non‐invasive ventilation support using a novel tube adapter for non‐invasive mechanical ventilation, which improved the patient's adaptation to a nasoenteric tube and an oronasal mask. Simultaneously, an airway exchanger catheter placed i n the trachea was maintained in situ until emergency reintubation risk was overcome. AbstractPost ‐extubation respiratory failure in patients with difficult airway is considered a challenge for the health team. Some intratracheal devices such as airway...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - April 18, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Oscar Ivan Quintero Osorio, Janer V. Arenas, Juan A. Cuervo, Gustavo A. Ospina Tasc ón Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

An unanticipated use of the nasogastric feeding tube
Nasogastric feeding (NGF) tube should be used only for the main intended purpose such as feeding, and the correct insertion of the NGF tube into the gastrointestinal tract is encouraged; however, an NGF tube aberrantly inserted into the lung might provide a valuable opportunity of obtaining samples from the lower respiratory tract. Here, we present the case of a 77 ‐year‐old‐man with right lower pneumonia who required NGF. The NGF tube was inadvertently inserted into the right main airway to the lower lung and immediately removed. However, the tube had collected some sample which was used to confirm the presence of m...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - April 17, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Satoru Yanagisawa, Ohe Takashi Tags: Clinical Image Source Type: research

Longitudinal lung involvement of systemic lupus erythematosus ‐related vasculitis and alveolar proteinosis‐like reaction
Here, we present a case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) ‐related lung vasculitis concomitantly with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP)‐like reaction in a 44‐year‐old woman. AbstractA 44 ‐year‐old woman with no symptoms was referred to our hospital for thorough examination of consolidation opacity on her left lung, which was growing for four years. She was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) at the age of 35 years and had been treated with prednisolone 10 mg/day. Physical examination and bronchoscopy revealed no abnormality including microbiological tests. She underwent surgical rese...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - April 17, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Takahito Suzuki, Noriyuki Enomoto, Yasuoki Horiike, Kazuhiro Asada, Toshihiro Shirai, Takafumi Suda Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Issue Information
Respirology Case Reports, Volume 8, Issue 5, July 2020. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - April 10, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Pembrolizumab ‐induced secondary sclerosing cholangitis in a non‐small cell lung cancer patient
Pembrolizumab, a humanized anti ‐programmed cell death‐1 (PD‐1) monoclonal antibody, demonstrates efficacy in treating non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, it can cause immune‐related adverse events (irAEs), including inflammatory manifestations. Cholangitis is a rare irAE. Herein, we report on an NSCLC patient w ho developed pembrolizumab‐induced cholangitis and review the relevant literature. AbstractA 50 ‐year‐old woman with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma received seven cycles of pembrolizumab as third‐line chemotherapy. Following the failure of pembrolizumab, she commenced fourth‐line chemothe...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - April 10, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sachiko Matsumoto, Keisuke Watanabe, Nobuaki Kobayashi, Kuniyasu Irie, Shoji Yamanaka, Takeshi Kaneko Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Steroid resistance in organizing pneumonia caused by pulmonary cryptococcosis
Immunocompromised patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis show various computed tomography (CT) findings, and consolidation is frequently observed. Superimposed pulmonary cryptococcosis infection should be considered in cases of steroid ‐refractory cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). AbstractCryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) usually responds well to steroid therapy; however, recurrence is commonly observed when the steroid dose is tapered. A 74 ‐year‐old man suspected of having steroid‐resistant COP presented to our hospital. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed new consolidations of the left inferior lo...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - April 9, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Motoko Nomura, Hiromitsu Ohta, Masahiro Hiruta, Fumiaki Kudo, Fumiyoshi Ohyanagi, Yasuhiro Yamaguchi Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Oesophagobronchial perforations after placement of an oesophageal self ‐expanding metallic stent
An oesophageal fully covered self ‐expanding metallic stent was inserted in a patient with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. After administration of pembrolizumab, he was hospitalized with septic shock caused by oesophagobronchial perforations. Owing to a drainage surgery and insertion of additional stents, he was recovered and pembro lizumab administration was re‐initiated with complete resolution. AbstractAn oesophageal fully covered self ‐expanding metallic stent (SEMS) was placed in a 54‐year‐old Japanese man to relieve dysphagia owing to a stage cT1bN3M1c lung adenocarcinoma. High expression of programmed cell d...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - April 7, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ken ‐ichi Tomiyama, Norimasa Ito, Kenichi Hayashi, Yuki Kawamoto, Hiroaki Shinoda, Nobuyuki Katakami Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Relapse of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis immediately after completion of effective anti ‐tuberculosis treatments
Most cases of lymph node enlargement after completing tuberculosis (TB) treatment are due to paradoxical reaction (PR), not relapse, and therefore, do not require re ‐treatment. We herein report a case of a 28‐year‐old man who had developed cervical TB lymphadenitis and exhibited re‐enlargement of the same lymph nodes one month after completing effective TB chemotherapy, which was microbiologically proven as relapse. AbstractMost cases of lymph node enlargement after completing tuberculosis (TB) treatment are due to paradoxical reaction (PR), not relapse, and therefore, do not require re ‐treatment. We herein rep...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - April 7, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yuya Kimura, Masahiro Shimada, Masahiro Kawashima, Akira Yamane, Hideaki Nagai, Hirotoshi Matsui Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Peripheral pulmonary hamartoma with haemoptysis from the non ‐adjacent bronchus
We report a rare case of peripheral pulmonary hamartoma that caused haemoptysis from the non ‐adjacent bronchus. A 54‐year‐old man was admitted to our hospital because of haemoptysis. Contrast‐enhanced chest computed tomography revealed a tumour measuring 25 × 24 mm in the left lower lobe. Fluid was observed around the pulmonary artery in addition to the consolidation of the lingular segment of the left lung. Bronchoscopy confirmed continuous bleeding from the lingular bronchus, and surgery was planned. The patient was promptly diagnosed with pulmonary hamartoma intraoperatively, and tumo...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - April 6, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Naoya Kitamura, Toshihiro Ojima Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Corrigendum
Respirology Case Reports, Volume 8, Issue 4, May 2020. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - April 6, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Eosinophilic granulomatous polyangiitis with IgG4 hypergammaglobulinaemia and salivary gland swelling
We present a case of a 51 ‐year‐old Japanese woman diagnosed with eosinophilic granulomatous polyangiitis (EGPA), a rare vasculitis that can occur in patients with eosinophilia and history of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and sinusitis, with immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 hypergammaglobulinaemia and salivary gland swelling. AbstractA 51 ‐year‐old woman was admitted to our hospital for cough, fever, purpura in the legs, and salivary gland swelling. Six years ago, she had been diagnosed with bronchial asthma and was treated with a combination of inhaled corticosteroid and long‐acting beta2‐agonist. Blood examination showed ...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - March 31, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Koichiro Takahashi, Hironori Sadamatsu, Hiroki Tashiro, Go Kato, Masaru Uchida, Naoko Sueoka ‐Aragane Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

A familial case of Birt –Hogg–Dubé syndrome complicated with various cancers
This report described a familial case of BHDS complicated with various types of cancer (i.e. bladder, ureter, and lung). AbstractAn 89 ‐year‐old woman with small papules on her face presented to our hospital complaining of progressive dyspnoea. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed bilateral multiple lung cysts, a nodular opacity in the right lower lobe, and bilateral pleural effusion. She was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma. Her son, a 65‐year‐old man, also had bilateral basally located lung cysts and a past medical history of spontaneous pneumothorax. He had multiple papules on the face and neck, which were patholo...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - March 18, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yuki Goto, Kazunori Tobino, Miyuki Munechika, Yuki Yoshimatsu, Hiromi Ide, Kosuke Tsuruno Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Issue Information
Respirology Case Reports, Volume 8, Issue 4, May 2020. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - March 10, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

IgG4 ‐related disease in the differential diagnosis of lung nodules
We report a case of IgG4 ‐related disease mimicking lung cancer with pleural dissemination. AbstractIgG4 ‐related disease is an evolving entity of immune‐mediated origin. We report a case of IgG4‐related disease mimicking lung cancer with pleural dissemination. A 76‐year‐old male non‐smoker was admitted to our hospital because of chest X‐ray abnormality. Chest computed tomography scan sho wed a lung nodule measuring 26 × 14 mm with tiny nodules on the adjacent pleural surface. Wedge resection by video‐assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) was performed to aid diagnosis. Patholog...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - March 10, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hiroki Ishikawa, Hironori Uruga, Takeshi Fujii, Atsuko Kurosaki, Nasa Morokawa, Hisashi Takaya Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil ‐induced eosinophilic pneumonia
We report a case of a 66 ‐year‐old man with drug‐induced eosinophilic pneumonia secondary to tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil (TS‐1) treatment for adenocarcinoma of the gastro‐oesophageal junction. Key messageClinicians should be aware that eosinophilic pneumonia is one of the types of drug ‐induced lung injury that can be caused by tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil (TS‐1). (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - March 10, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Toshiyuki Sumi, Hisashi Nakata, Yuji Mori, Hiroki Takahashi Tags: Clinical Image Source Type: research

Honeycomb lung ‐like structures resulting from clustering of traction bronchiectasis distally in sarcoidosis
We herein describe the first case, to our knowledge, of pulmonary sarcoidosis with honeycomb lung ‐like structures developing as a result of concentration of traction bronchiectasis distally, predominantly in both lower lung fields, which developed through shrinkage of consolidations comprising a “central–peripheral band” detected in a woman in her 60s, with non‐caseating epithelioid g ranuloma. AbstractGene expression profiles of patients with progressive sarcoidosis, most of whom had evidence of fibrosis on imaging, have been reported to be similar to those of patients with inflammatory hypersensiti...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - March 9, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Michiru Sawahata, Noriharu Shijubo, Takeshi Johkoh, Koichi Hagiwara, Satoshi Konno, Tetsuo Yamaguchi Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Cholecystectomy under thoracic epidural anaesthesia for patient with severe intra ‐pulmonary shunt
We present a case of a young man with a known 57% calculated shunt requiring abdominal surgery and the multidisciplinary decisions required in the preoperative period to minimize post‐operative complications. AbstractPulmonary arteriovenous malformations are common in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia and can be associated with significant hypoxia and intra ‐pulmonary shunt. We present a case of a young man with a known 57% calculated shunt requiring abdominal surgery and the multidisciplinary decisions required in the preoperative period to minimize post‐operative complications. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - March 9, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Agustina Frankel, Rebekah Ferris, Peter Hodgkinson, Claire M. Ellender Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Severe acute respiratory failure due to a multifactorial diffuse alveolar haemorrhage
We here report the case of an 81 ‐year‐old male subject affected by a multifactorial diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH), in which the bleeding was related to the administration of clopidogrel and warfarin, both implicated in the context of a polycythaemia. He developed a severe acute respiratory failure treated with a ventilato ry support by means of a continuous positive airway pressure (C‐PAP) therapy. An improvement of patient's clinical conditions was observed only after clopidogrel and warfarin discontinuation. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is a life ‐threatening syndrome caused by infection, coagulation ...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - March 8, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ernesto Crisafulli, Barbara Burgazzi, Maria Majori, Walter Serra, Alfredo Chetta Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Surgical treatment of micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma
In conclusion, this report described an extremely rare tumour, MTWLS, and MTWLS might be considered in the differential diagnosis o f mediastinal tumour, especially thymoma. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - March 7, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Min Kyun Kang, Do Kyun Kang, Youn ‐Ho Hwang, Ji Yeon Kim Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

A case of primary pleural synovial sarcoma with endobronchial recurrence
We report a case of a PPSS that was operated and recurred as an endobronchial metastasis. AbstractPrimary pleural synovial sarcoma (PPSS) is an extremely rare malignancy without a known cause. The diagnosis is made after excluding metastasis from an extra ‐thoracic sarcoma. We report a case of a 67‐year‐old gentleman who presented with an incidental finding of a left lung mass on a routine chest X‐ray. A computed tomography (CT) of the thorax and whole‐body positron emission tomography (PET)‐CT was done confirming a left lung mass with no other extra‐thoracic involvement. A lobectomy was performed with a diag...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - March 5, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jen Lye Wan, Yoke Fong Lam, Kit Weng Foong, Norsalwa Abdul Ghani, Kumaresh Lachmanan Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange during bronchoscopy in severe pulmonary hypertension due to Gerbode defect
We describe a patient with severe pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure of 82  mmHg) who underwent bronchoscopy using deep sedation with THRIVE. There were no recorded desaturation events and no post‐operative signs of hypercapnia. This case report demonstrates a novel use of THRIVE in a patient with severe pulmonary hypertension. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - March 5, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lucas Upperman, Thomas Gildea, Ursula Galway Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Management of extensive subcutaneous emphysema using negative pressure wound therapy dressings
We report an 80 ‐year‐old gentleman who developed massive SE necessitating intubation for airway protection following a right chest tube insertion for spontaneous secondary pneumothorax. His SE persisted despite adequate thoracic drainage via a new chest tube. It was then decided to insert two negative pressure wound therapy dressings (NPWTD) or vacuum dressings in the patient's subcutaneous tissue layer via incisions made at anterior chest wall. The dressings were removed after four days in view of significant improvements. NPWTD appears to be an effective, well‐tolerated, safe, and inexpensive approac h that hasten...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - March 2, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nai ‐Chien Huan, Noorasyikin Mohamed Arifin, Teng‐Shin Khoo, Yean‐Chen Lai Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Vogt –Koyanagi–Harada disease during chemoimmunotherapy for non‐small cell lung cancer
We describe the first case of VKHD during chemoimmunotherapy including pembrolizumab in a patient with NSCLC, which was successfully treated with corticosteroid without any sequela. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - March 2, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yuri Kurono, Takayuki Takeda, Yusuke Kunimatsu, Nozomi Tani, Izumi Hashimoto, Kazuki Hirose Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Pneumonia in Parkinson's disease: barium aspiration in videofluoroscopic swallowing study
This is an excellent teaching image for daily clinical practice. Barium aspiration into tracheobronchial tree is a remarkable warning sign of dysphagia ‐related aspiration pneumonia. In patients with aspiration pneumonia, a thorough swallowing function assessment shall be considered. Also, along with clinical assessment, videofluoroscopic swallowing study is a good add‐on tool for dysphagia treatment plan and shared decision‐making for nasoga stric tube placement to patients and their caregivers. Owing to atypical presentation in patients with Parkinson's disease, dysphagia is often overlooked. Therefore, extra atten...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - March 2, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kwang ‐Hwa Chang, Yu‐Tien Tzeng, Jing‐Hwa Wey, Yuan‐Jun Liu, Yen‐Nung Lin, Wen‐Kuei Chung Tags: Clinical Image Source Type: research

Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis from gallbladder cancer mimicking diffuse alveolar haemorrhage
An 81 ‐year‐old man was admitted due to dyspnoea and haemoptysis. We suspected diffuse alveolar haemorrhage based on computed tomography (CT) findings of diffuse bilateral ground‐grass opacity and partial consolidation. Autopsy revealed pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis of whole lungs and primar y gallbladder cancer. AbstractDiagnosis in cases with pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis as a primary manifestation is difficult due to unawareness of the cancer. An 81 ‐year‐old man was admitted due to a one‐week history of dyspnoea and haemoptysis. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse bilateral ground‐gra...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - February 27, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hisao Higo, Noriyuki Suzaki, Takuya Nagata, Taro Togami, Nobuya Ohara, Masaomi Marukawa Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Silicone pneumonitis after gluteal filler: a case report and literature review
We describe a case of severe silicone pneumonitis complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and bilateral pneumothorax secondary to silicon gluteal augmentation. In this case report, we aim to discuss our experience and approach in managing an uncommon case of silicone embolization syndrome. Liquid silicone (polydimethylsiloxane) is an inert material that is commonly used for cosmetic purpose. Silicone embolization syndrome (SES) can rapidly progress to pneumonitis as a consequence of the injection of nonmedical ‐grade liquid silicone. We describe a case of severe silicone pneumonitis complicated with acute re...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - February 27, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Boon Hau Ng, Wan Rahiza Wan Mat, Nik Nuratiqah Nik Abeed, Mohamed Faisal Abdul Hamid, Andrea Ban Yu ‐Lin, Chun Ian Soo Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Rare case of vascular ring with Kommerell diverticulum mimicking uncontrolled asthma
We report a rare case of vascular ring with Kommerell diverticulum leading to a misdiagnosis of asthma in a 39 ‐year‐old woman. Anomalies of the aortic arch associated with Kommerell diverticulum (KD) are rare congenital malformations. Symptomatic thoracic vascular rings presenting in adults are rare. We report a case of a 39 ‐year‐old woman who was diagnosed with uncontrolled asthma. She was complaining of worsening respiratory symptoms with dysphagia. Imaging studies and preoperative findings concluded to type II congenital anomaly of the aortic arch or Neuhauser's anomaly: a right‐sided aortic arch with aberra...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - February 27, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ahmed Ben Saad, Nesrine Fahem, Houda Ben Saad, Asma Migaou, Chokri Kortas, Samah Joobeur Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Clinical manifestations in patients with PI*MMMalton genotypes. A matter still unsolved in alpha ‐1 antitrypsin deficiency
We report the genetic variants associated with alpha ‐1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) in 117 patients admitted to our outpatient clinic and characterized by a serum concentration of AAT lower than 113 mg/dL. We focused on the M‐like heterozygous variant of theSERPINA1 gene called PI*MMMalton, and describe three patients with this variant. While the role of homozygous AATD in liver and pulmonary disease is well established, the association between heterozygous AATD and chronic liver and pulmonary disease is still under investigation. The PI*MMMalton genotype was found in 5.8% of patients with a pathological genot...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - February 27, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Marina Aiello, Alberto Fantin, Chiara Longo, Ilaria Ferrarotti, Giuseppina Bertorelli, Alfredo Chetta Tags: Case Series Source Type: research

Severe clopidogrel ‐induced DRESS with eosinophilic pneumonia associated with Epstein–Barr virus reactivation
We report a case of severe clopidogrel ‐induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptom (DRESS) with concomitant eosinophilic pneumonia associated with reactivation of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). The patient was treated with systemic corticosteroids and mechanical ventilation management. DRESS can progress to severe respir atory failure, and presence of EBV or herpes virus in the serum or resected lymph node tissue is an important finding for its diagnosis. AbstractDrug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a type of hypersensitivity drug reaction. Here, we report the case of a 78 ...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - February 27, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yuji Inagaki, Kazunobu Tachibana, Yasushi Inoue, Takahiko Kasai, Yoshikazu Inoue Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Durvalumab induced sarcoid ‐like pulmonary lymphadenopathy
Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as durvalumab, are associated with a variety of unique immune ‐related adverse events. In this case, sarcoid‐like mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy developed with the use of adjuvant durvalumab for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. AbstractImmune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become pivotal in the treatment of lung cancer. An increasing number of immune ‐related adverse events (irAEs) have been recognized with their use. To our knowledge, this is the first published case of sarcoid‐like pulmonary lymphadenopathy associated with durvalumab, a monoclonal antibody against...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - February 27, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Emma Sanderson, Hari Wimaleswaran, Clare Senko, Shane White, Christine F. McDonald Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

New perspectives for a huge traumatic pneumatocele treatment in a young adult
We presented here an 18‐year‐old young adult with chest trauma caused by a fall. Chest computed tomography disclosed a cavitary lesion 10.5 × 8.5 × 6.4 cm3 over right upper lobe (RUL) with bilateral lower lung contusion and a mild haemopneumothorax but without rib fractures. Under conservative treatment, the condition lasted for ~8 months before complete resolution. Detailed temporal changes in chest X ‐ray were recorded for the analysis of natural healing processes. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - February 18, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sen ‐Ei Shai, Yi‐Ling Lai, Hsiao‐Wen Tang, Shih‐Chieh Hung Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Issue Information
Respirology Case Reports, Volume 8, Issue 3, April 2020. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - February 15, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research