Humidified rapid ‐insufflation ventilatory exchange is a means of oxygenation during rigid bronchoscopy: A case series
Humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange (HRIVE) was able to maintain adequate oxygenation via the rigid bronchoscope in a select group of patients. We suggest HRIVE now potentially offers an option of oxygenation via the rigid bronchoscope that allows for continuous oxygenation without interruption of the procedure, a cost-effective option compared to high-frequency jet ventilation, and a less labour-intensive option compared to low-frequency jet ventilation. AbstractHumidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange (HRIVE) is an option for maintenance of oxygenation. This technique allows for oxygenation while...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - January 26, 2022 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Anna Kornafeld, Sebastian Fernandez ‐Bussy, David Abia‐Trujillo, Juan C. Garcia, Ryan M. Chadha Tags: CASE SERIES Source Type: research

Chylothorax found in a patient with COVID ‐19
Here, we report the case of a patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia complicated by the onset of chylothorax. Chylothorax is a rare condition that results from thoracic duct damage with chyle leakage from the lymphatic system into the pleural space, usually on the right side. To date, few reports on chylothorax have been detected in COVID-19 patients. This case demonstrates chylothorax as a possible and uncommon complication of COVID-19. AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its clinical spectrum ra...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - January 23, 2022 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Francesco Satriano, Giulia Scioscia, Maria Grazia Cagnazzo, Federica Maci, Leonida Refolo, Paolo Fuso, Emanuele Gerardi, Diego Grasso, Piera Soccio, Donato Lacedonia Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

18F ‐FDG uptake in accessory respiratory muscles shows the respiratory effort of patients with pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis
We present a patient with pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis with intense18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in accessory respiratory muscles using positron emission tomography/computed tomography reflecting the strong respiratory effort. AbstractPatients with pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) have severe breathlessness even with mild hypoxaemia. In patients with PPFE, accessory respiratory muscles, such as the sternocleidomastoid muscles, are used to maintain ventilation. An intense18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in accessory respiratory muscles using positron emission tomography/computed tomography reflects the strong respir...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - January 21, 2022 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hiroko Okabayashi, Hiroko Machida, Aiko Masunaga, Hidenori Ichiyasu, Takuro Sakagami Tags: CLINICAL IMAGE Source Type: research

An unusual presentation of invasive aspergillosis with submandibular swelling in a 49 ‐year‐old man with end‐stage renal disease: A case report
We present a case of IA in a 49-year-old man with end-stage renal disease who presented with fever and developed a submandibular swelling. AbstractInvasive aspergillosis (IA) is a fatal disease and is related to immunocompromised patients like HIV, solid organ/allogeneic stem cell transplant patients, patients on immunosuppressive therapy or chemotherapy agents, burn patients and malnourished patients. Diagnosis is challenging due to the non-specific nature of symptoms. Usually, the patient presents with fever and respiratory symptoms such as cough and haemoptysis. We present a case of IA in a 49-year-old man with end-stag...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - January 20, 2022 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Phool Iqbal, Sinda Dakhlia, Sara Seife Hassen, Salah Mahdi Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Iron therapy as a novel treatment of scleroderma ‐related pulmonary hypertension: A case report and literature review
In this case report, we review pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) especially associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc), its treatment and identify a possible novel therapeutic approach for those with PAH-SSc. AbstractPulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is the leading cause of death in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), with a 3-year mortality of 40% –50% despite optimal therapy. Treatment mirrors that of idiopathic PAH and is often ineffective. This is a case report of a patient with SSc evaluated for progressive dyspnoea with exertion and found to have elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressures (PASPs). S...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - January 19, 2022 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Melissa Neumann, Karen A. Wong, Kevin Lazo, Diane Stover Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Nintedanib —A case of treating concurrent idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and non‐small cell lung cancer
We present the case of a 78-year-old female with stage IIIB lung adenocarcinoma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Following partial response to platinum-based chemotherapy, she was started on maintenance pemetrexed, but this was stopped due to bone marrow suppression and kidney injury. She received no further chemotherapy. Nintedanib was subsequently commenced for treatment of IPF. Remarkably, progress imaging at 2  years showed further regression of her lung adenocarcinoma, with stability of IPF. Nintedanib is a multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor with anti-cancer effects due to inhibition of angiogenesis...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - January 13, 2022 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shakti Dabholkar, Bo Gao, Brian Chuong Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Resection of a capillary haemangioma using robotic ‐assisted thoracic surgery: A case report
In this report, we describe a case of capillary haemangioma diagnosed by robot-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS). A 72-year-old man was incidentally found to have an anterior mediastinal tumour on chest computed tomography. The preoperative imaging findings were indicative of thymoma, and surgical treatment by RATS was selected. The intraoperative findings suggested that the tumour was a haemangioma originating from the pericardiophrenic vein. The pathological findings revealed a well-defined tumour with capillaries in a vascular-like structure and some thrombus formation. The pathological diagnosis was capillary haemangiom...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - January 12, 2022 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Takuya Ohashi, Mitsumasa Kawago, Yoshimitsu Hirai, Megumi Kiyoi, Miwako Miyasaka, Yumi Yata, Mari Kawaji, Aya Fusamoto, Hideto Iguchi, Hitomi Nakanishi, Yoshiharu Nishimura Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Endobronchial tuberculosis with unusual linear ulceration from tracheal to right upper lobar bronchi
The complications of endobronchial tuberculosis (TB) include bronchostenosis and fistula. We highly recommend that a TB test be included in the diagnosis of endobronchial lesions. Key messageThe complications of endobronchial tuberculosis (TB) include bronchostenosis and fistula. We highly recommend that a TB test be included in the diagnosis of endobronchial lesions. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - January 11, 2022 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hung ‐Yi Lin, Jih‐Chin Lee Tags: CLINICAL IMAGE Source Type: research

Pulmonary artery sarcoma: An important mimic of pulmonary embolism —Case reports and literature review
We present two cases of PAIS diagnosed at a single centre within a 2-year period and review the literature. AbstractPulmonary artery intimal sarcoma (PAIS) is a rare malignancy which closely mimics acute or chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. There are clinical and radiological characteristics which may raise suspicion of this important differential diagnosis. These include disproportionately lowd-dimer, troponin T or NT-proBNP, as well as characteristic findings on CT pulmonary angiography such as the ‘wall eclipsing sign’ and an non-dependent position of filling defects in the large arteries. Prompt diagnosis ...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - January 10, 2022 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Colin Tuft, Krishan Maheepala, Ajantha Raguparan, Anas Naeem, Suhrid Lodh, Steven Lindstrom Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

A rare case of common variable immunodeficiency and hepatopulmonary syndrome
An immunocompromised female with a background of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) presented with haemoptysis and dyspnoea. Investigations demonstrated intrapulmonary right-to-left shunting and liver cirrhosis, and a diagnosis of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) was made. This extremely rare association of CVID and HPS is one of the few cases reported in the literature. AbstractHepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is the triad of liver disease, hypoxia and intrapulmonary shunt. In this case report, we describe an immunocompromised female with a background of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) who presented with haemopty...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - January 8, 2022 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Emily Lawton, Chien ‐Li Holmes‐Liew Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Idiopathic dendriform pulmonary ossification diagnosed by bronchoscopic lung cryobiopsy: A case report
Dendriform pulmonary ossification (DPO) is a rare condition characterized by heterotopic bone production of unknown origin within the pulmonary tissue. This is the case of a 37-year-old man whose high-resolution computed tomography revealed diffuse reticular shadows and micronodules, consistent with calcification, who underwent transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) and was diagnosed with idiopathic DPO based on pathological findings. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of DPO diagnosed using TBLC. AbstractDendriform pulmonary ossification (DPO) is a rare condition characterized by heterotopic bone production ...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - December 31, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yasuhito Sekimoto, Yuichi Nagata, Motoyasu Kato, Yuta Arai, Yuichi Fujimoto, Haruhi Takagi, Takehiko Shukuya, Takuo Hayashi, Tetsutaro Nagaoka, Yasuko Yoshioka, Kazuhisa Takahashi Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - December 31, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Association of COVID ‐19 antigenicity with the development of antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis
We present two cases of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV): one that developed after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection presenting as diffuse alveolar haemorrhage and another that developed shortly after vaccination, presenting as granulomatous pulmonary nodules. Both patients improved with supportive care and immunosuppressive therapies. This adverse event appears to be a very rare complication of COVID-19 infection or vaccination. Early diagnosis of AAV is important because immunosuppressive therapy may improve patient outcomes. AbstractInflammatory processes, such as an...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - December 28, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jamie R. Felzer, Delvise T. Fogwe, Shaher Samrah, Clement J. Michet, Ulrich Specks, Misbah Baqir, Aahd F. Kubbara Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Nasal myiasis under direct bronchoscopic visualization
This video shows a case of nasal myiasis under fibreoptic bronchoscopic visualization in a patient admitted with septic shock and metastatic prostate cancer. Key messageThis is a video showing a case of nasal myiasis under direct visualization with flexible bronchoscopy in a patient admitted with septic shock and metastatic prostate cancer. Microbiology revealedLucilia sericata larvae. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - December 23, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ahel El Haj Chehade, Jordan Metcalf, Blake Jacobs Tags: CLINICAL VIDEO Source Type: research

Cryobiopsy for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia secondary to adult T ‐cell lymphoma/leukaemia
A case of transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) performed on a lung lesion in a patient with adult T-cell lymphoma/leukaemia (ATLL) diagnosed withPneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is presented. This is an important report that shows the usefulness of TBLC in differentiating pulmonary lesions in ATLL. AbstractA 79-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 1-week history of progressively worsening dyspnoea on exertion. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed bilateral consolidation. On laboratory findings, the line blot assay for human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 was positive, the white blood cell count was ...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - December 21, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hiroshi Kobe, Kenki Saito, Machiko Arita, Tadashi Ishida Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Congenital pulmonary airway malformation: A rare diagnosis in adulthood
This paper consists of a clinical image of a complex developmental anomaly that is usually diagnosed prenatally or during childhood. Its detection in adult life is very rare, as happened in the present case. Key messageThis paper consists of a clinical image of a complex developmental anomaly that is usually diagnosed prenatally or during childhood. Its detection in adult life is very rare, as happened in the present case. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - December 21, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Raquel Viana, Lina Carvalho, Cl áudia Santos Tags: CLINICAL IMAGE Source Type: research

A case of effective intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy against severe COVID ‐19 infection after arteriovenous graft surgery
We report a case of ESRD in which COVID-19 infection immediately followed arteriovenous graft surgery. Although the respiratory condition deteriorated following dexamethasone administration, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, pulse therapy was successful. AbstractPerioperative COVID-19 infections in patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are more likely to become severe, with a high mortality rate, than those in other patients. For such patients, corticosteroid therapy is one of the limited number of treatment options. We experienced a case of ESRD in which COVID-19 infection immediately followed ar...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - December 20, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sokichi Kamata, Souhei Hamanaka, Jin Tsukamoto, Teppei Tsuchimoto, Kiyohiro Fujiwara, Mikio Okamura Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Cinematic CT as a valuable protocol for severe ECAC
We report a case with suspected expiratory central airway collapse (ECAC), where initial workup with standard forced expiratory computed tomography (CT) could not detect expiratory collapse. Given the high index of suspicion for ECAC, the patient underwent dynamic bronchoscopy confirming the diagnosis. Subsequently, the implementation of a novel CT protocol, dynamic forced expiratory (cinematic), which comprises detailed, consecutive helical imaging of the central airway throughout the entire respiratory cycle could also confirm severe ECAC as proven by dynamic bronchoscopy. AbstractExpiratory central airway collapse (ECAC...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - December 8, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Daniel Hernandez ‐Rojas, David Abia‐Trujillo, Carlos Rojas, Alejandra Yu Lee‐Mateus, Rocio Castillo‐Larios, Sai Priyanka Pulipaka, Sebastian Fernandez‐Bussy Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the lung: Case report and review of the literature
We present the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with cough, and the chest x-ray and computed tomography scan revealed a tumour mass in the right lung. After lobectomy, histological examination combined with immunohistochemical study discovered an IMT of the lung. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - December 8, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sonila Bori çi, Marjeta Tanka, Luljeta Serbo Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Recurrent COVID ‐19 infection in a case of rituximab‐induced hypogammaglobulinaemia
Recurrent COVID-19 should be considered while managing post-COVID complications. Patients with immunodeficiency are at an increased risk of COVID-19 re-infection. AbstractPatients with immunodeficiency are at an increased risk of recurrent COVID-19 infection. They may lack the natural immune response that usually confers long-lasting immunity. Here, we present our experience managing one such patient, who had a COVID-19 infection twice, 5  months apart. He had a positive SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and computed tomography (CT) thorax with classical findings of COVID-...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - December 8, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jefferson Daniel, Balamugesh Thangakunam, Barney Thomas Jesudason Isaac, Mahesh Moorthy, Devasahayam Jesudas Christopher Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

A rare case of urachal carcinoma with multiple lung metastasis that required differentiation from primary lung carcinoma
Urachal cancer, a rare malignancy, constitutes
Source: Respirology Case Reports - December 8, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kentaro Suzuki, Yoshiro Kai, Masayuki Matsuda, Kazuhide Horimoto, Kazunori Iwai, Masato Takano, Masahito Yoshii, Shigeo Muro Tags: CLINICAL IMAGE Source Type: research

Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient with hyper ‐IgE syndrome
We report a case of HIES comorbid with CPA in a teenage male. AbstractHyperimmunoglobulin E (IgE) syndrome (HIES) is a rare disease with an unclear prognosis. We report a case of HIES comorbid with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). A 19-year-old male was referred to our department with a medical history of bacterial pneumonia and skin infection. Laboratory data showed an elevated eosinophil count and serum IgE level. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed a pneumatocele and bronchiectasis. On the basis of the clinical and laboratory findings and genetic mutation analysis, we diagnosed him as having HIES. Fourteen month...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - December 3, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Keisuke Kasuga, Keitaro Nakamoto, Kazuyuki Doi, Nozomi Kurokawa, Takeshi Saraya, Haruyuki Ishii Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

COVID ‐19‐induced adult multisystem inflammatory syndrome and fatal acute limb ischaemia
A case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced adult multisystem inflammatory syndrome and fatal acute limb ischaemia is presented. Key messageA case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced adult multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) and fatal acute limb ischaemia is presented. Arterial thrombosis and MIS are reported as complications of COVID-19. This case further highlights that arterial thrombosis and MIS can occur in COVID-19. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - December 2, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hiroshi Kobe, Akihiro Ito, Tadashi Ishida Tags: CLINICAL IMAGE Source Type: research

Good's syndrome presenting with CMV pneumonitis and oesophageal candidiasis: A case report
We describe a case of Good's syndrome presenting with cytomegalovirus pneumonitis and oesophageal candidiasis, and an incidental diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. AbstractGood's syndrome is an acquired combined T- and B-cell immunodeficiencies and patients are prone to opportunistic infections. The diagnosis is based on a characteristic immunoglobulin and lymphocyte subset profile, with clinical features of thymoma. Despite thymectomy, the immunodeficiencies persist and lifelong immunoglobulin replacement is necessary to prevent infections. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - December 2, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chin Tong Kwok, Yiu Cheong Yeung Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Switching from omalizumab to mepolizumab therapy improved extra ‐pulmonary abdominal and cutaneous vasculitis symptoms in a patient with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis
We report the clinical benefits after switching from omalizumab to mepolizumab in an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-negative eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis patient on her abdominal and cutaneous manifestations. AbstractEosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a systemic vasculitis of small-to-medium-sized vessels. Both eosinophilic infiltration and vasculitis are thought to contribute to multi-organ damage. Some biologics have been used to reduce the required dose of corticosteroids in EGPA, but no single agent can ensure a complete control of this disease. Here, we describe a patient ...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - December 1, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yu ‐Hsuan Chen, Ping‐Hung Kuo Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Two cases of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia masquerading as tuberculosis (TB) in a TB endemic area
We report two patients with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (OP) mimicking tuberculosis (TB). These cases highlight the rare presentation of OP and serves as a reminder that patients tested negative for TB, despite typical history and chest imaging findings, warrant further investigations as many diseases may mimic TB and vice versa. AbstractBefore the era of COVID-19 pandemic, organizing pneumonia (OP) is often underdiagnosed while tuberculosis (TB) is overdiagnosed especially in an endemic area. We report two patients with cryptogenic OP mimicking TB. First, a 56-year-old lady with right upper lobe air space opacity and...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - November 30, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mohamed Faisal Abdul Hamid, Sai Banu Selvarajah, Nik Nuratiqah, Ng Boon Hau, Andrea Yu ‐Lin Ban Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - November 29, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Oesophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis presenting as non ‐resolving pneumonia: A sinister cause diagnosed by EUS‐B‐FNA
We report a case of an oesophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis leading to a mediastinal collection caused byCandida glabrata presenting as a non-resolving pneumonia and mimicking an oesophageal mass. The case highlights the need of a high degree of suspicion, right approach to diagnostic work-up and appropriate histopathological and microbiological examination of clinical specimens. AbstractWe report a case of an oesophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis leading to a mediastinal collection caused byCandida glabrata presenting as a non-resolving pneumonia and mimicking an oesophageal mass. The patient was a 60-year-ol...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - November 25, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sharad Joshi, Subhasish Majumdar, Ankit Bhatia, Nitesh Tayal Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Removal of an aspirated tooth from the bronchus using a cryoprobe: A case report
In this report, we demonstrate the efficacy of a cryoprobe in removing airway foreign bodies caused by dental aspiration in an older patient. AbstractAn 88-year-old bedridden man with Alzheimer's disease developed fever and hypoxaemia. Chest radiography showed obstructive pneumonia caused by a foreign body in the airway. Examination using a flexible bronchoscope revealed a silver-crowned molar, thought to have fallen out due to root caries, at the left lower lobe branch. Removal of the foreign body was unsuccessful with grasping or basket forceps, but successful with cryoadhesion using a cryoprobe. Removal of an airway for...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - November 25, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hiroshi Ishimoto, Noriho Sakamoto, Sakiko Moriyama, Mayako Murata, Nana Nakada, Atsuko Hara, Takashi Kido, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, Kazuko Yamamoto, Yasushi Obase, Yuji Ishimatsu, Hiroshi Mukae Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

A rare case of mediastinal lymphatic venous malformations in children
This report highlights that it is possible to misdiagnose mediastinal lymphatic-venous malformation especially if its predominant portion is lymphatic tissue with only minimal contrast enhancement. Tissue biopsy must be avoided because it may lead to haemorrhagic complication. AbstractWe report a case of mediastinal lymphatic venous malformations (LVM) in a 11-year-old boy who presented with chest pain after jumping into a swimming pool, with review of the literature. A superior mediastinal mass was incidentally found from the chest x-ray. Chest computed tomography revealed a large heterogenous mass at the left-sided media...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - November 24, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Prakarn Tovichien, Phatthareeda Kaeotawee, Kanokporn Udomittipong, Preeyacha Pacharn, Ruchira Ruangchira ‐urai Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Unexpected haemorrhage from lateral thoracic artery following the removal of a pleural drainage tube
We report an unexpected haemorrhage from lateral thoracic artery following the removal of a pleural drainage tube which had been safely inserted. Pulmonologists must be aware of the possible arterial bleeding even during the removal of a safely inserted drain. AbstractPulmonologists must be aware of the possible arterial bleeding even during the removal of a safely inserted drain. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - November 24, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Keigo Matsuura, Makoto Tada, Toshiyuki Sumi, Koichi Osuda, Hisashi Nakata, Hirofumi Chiba Tags: CLINICAL IMAGE Source Type: research

A curious case of asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy in an adult
In this report, we describe an adult patient with his first presentation of respiratory failure and a presumptive diagnosis of ATD. AbstractAsphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), also known as Jeune syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia that most commonly manifests as shortening of long bones and ribs, as well as frequent extra-skeletal organ involvement. It is typically diagnosed in infancy or early childhood following episodes of respiratory distress or failure, in conjunction with characteristic physical findings, and is often fatal. The genetic heterogeneity of this disease, however, means there is v...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - November 12, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lachlan Stranks, Simone Barry, Aeneas Yeo Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Robust response of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma to pembrolizumab and sequential radiotherapy: A case report
We report the case of an 81-year-old man with multiple comorbidities who was diagnosed with pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma (PPC), a rare type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a more aggressive clinical course and a worse outcome than other types of NSCLC. Our patient showed a robust response to pembrolizumab followed by radiation therapy without adverse effects. In the absence of randomized clinical trials for PPCs, our case report demonstrates the potential application of pembrolizumab and radiation therapy for the treatment of PPCs. AbstractPulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma (PPC) is a rare type of non-small cell...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - November 11, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tae ‐Hun Kim, Sun Hyo Park, Ilseon Hwang, Jin Hee Lee, Jin Hee Kim, Hae Won Kim, Hyun Jung Kim Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

First reported case of late recurrence of pulmonary mucormycosis in a renal transplant recipient with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus
We report the first case of late recurrence of pulmonary mucormycosis (PM) and highlight the importance of secondary antifungal prophylaxis for PM if permanent reversal of immunosuppression is not possible. AbstractPulmonary mucormycosis (PM) is a rare, life-threatening fungal infection usually affecting immunocompromised patients. Its incidence is rising, with a recent outbreak associated with COVID-19 co-infection. Amphotericin B along with early surgery are considered the standard treatment. Recurrence has been reported in patients without adequate treatment and without permanent reversal of predisposing factors. We rep...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - November 11, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cheuk Cheung Derek Leung, Yu Hong Chan, Man Ying Ho, Ming Chiu Chan, Chun Hoi Chen, Chin Tong Kwok, Yiu Cheong Yeung Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Convalescent plasma therapy in an immunocompromised patient with multiple COVID ‐19 flares: a case report
We describe the case of a 45-year-old immunocompromised patient, who received convalescent plasma, in order to control multiple COVID-19 flares and prolonged SARS-CoV-2 viraemia lasting for 2  months after the initial diagnosis. AbstractConvalescent plasma (CP) transfusion has been utilized as a salvage therapy in immunocompromised patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. We describe the case of a 45-year-old immunocompromised patient, who received CP, in order to control multiple COVID-19 flares and prolonged SARS-CoV-2 viraemia lasting for 2  months after the initial diagnosis. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - November 9, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Frini Karaolidou, Natasa ‐Eleni Loutsidi, Zois Mellios, Edison Jahaj, Konstantinos Eleftheriou, Maria Pagoni, Ioannis Mpaltadakis, Athanasios‐Meletios Dimopoulos, Ioannis Kalomenidis, Apostolos G. Pappas Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Unusual lung adenocarcinoma spread along with pulmonary emphysema
The present case showed that lung adenocarcinoma can rarely present with imaging findings that mimic fibrotic lesions of interstitial pneumonia. Asymmetric lung involvement and symptoms of haemoptysis are clinical clues to the suspicion of lung neoplasm rather than fibrotic lung disease. Key messageLung adenocarcinoma can rarely present with imaging findings that mimic fibrotic lesions of interstitial pneumonia. Asymmetric lung involvement and symptoms of haemoptysis may be the clinical clues to the suspicion of lung neoplasm rather than fibrotic lung disease. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - November 8, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Takuto Miyamura, Yoshiaki Kinoshita, Hisako Kushima, Hiroshi Ishii Tags: CLINICAL IMAGE Source Type: research

Good's syndrome with diffuse panbronchiolitis as the prominent manifestation: A case and literature review
We report here a case of Good's syndrome (GS) with diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) as the prominent manifestation and carry out a literature review accordingly. Japanese scholars have reported extensively about GS combined with DPB or DPB-like pulmonary manifestation. However, such reports are rare in China; hence, the present report might help improve the understanding and diagnosis of such cases. AbstractGood's syndrome (GS) is characterized by thymoma combined with adult-onset immunodeficiency. Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic inflammatory airway disease, which predominantly affects East Asians. Japanese schol...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - November 8, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tian Luo, Lile Wang, Daiyan Fu, Ruicheng Hu, Chunchu Kong, Yunrong Chen, Xi Li Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

ANOTHER syndrome —Familial presentations of progressive lung disease leading to double lung transplantation: A case report and literature review
We report two brothers who presented with a constellation of features including alopecia, nail dystrophy, ophthalmic complications, thyroid disease, hypohidrosis, ephelides, enteropathy and recurrent respiratory tract infections, known as ANOTHER syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive variant of ectodermal dysplasia (ED). Both received lung transplantation, and we report their clinical course to highlight the sequelae of end-stage lung disease of hypohidrotic EDs. AbstractEctodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a heterogeneous rare group of disorders with an incidence at 1/100,000 live births. Currently, there are limited case repor...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - November 5, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Christina S. Thornton, Lakshmi Puttagunta, Douglas Helmersen, Mitesh V. Thakrar, Jayan Nagendran, Dale Lien, Rhea A. Varughese Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Post ‐coronavirus disease 2019 organizing pneumonia confirmed pathologically by video‐assisted thoracoscopic surgery
We present two Japanese cases of lung sequelae post coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The patients were histopathologically diagnosed with organizing pneumonia (OP) or OP with fibrosis and no diffuse alveolar damage on video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Case 1, who was diagnosed with OP, was successfully treated with corticosteroid and other immunosuppressive agents over a 6-month period. Although case 2, who was diagnosed with OP with fibrosis, had a partial and unsatisfactory response to immunosuppressive agents, the patient responded to antifibrotic treatment including nintedanib. AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 ...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - October 28, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Keishi Sugino, Hirotaka Ono, Shuji Haraguchi, Seiji Igarashi, Akira Hebisawa, Eiyasu Tsuboi Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Recurrent pneumothoraces with diffuse small ground ‐glass and solid nodules
We describe here the radiological and histological findings of MMPH in our patient. AbstractMultifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia (MMPH) is the lesser known pulmonary manifestation of tuberous sclerosis. It manifests radiologically as diffuse small ground-glass and solid nodules. Accurate diagnosis is essential as it can be mistaken for miliary tuberculosis or malignant lesions which necessitates specific treatment. Constellation of radiological features such as multicentric disease at onset and stability over time can help to distinguish MMPH from its differentials. Histologically, MMPH is characterized by hamart...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - October 28, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Li Yan Sandra Hui, Xin Min Cheng, Ing Xiang Soo, Su Ying Low Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - October 28, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Lung transplantation for post ‐COVID‐19 pulmonary fibrosis
We present a case of an otherwise healthy 34-year-old male who developed end-stage pulmonary fibrosis following COVID-19 infection. He achieved haemodynamic stability with mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) but did not show any sign of weaning off ECMO; however, he successfully underwent bilateral lung transplantation. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - October 19, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pratibha Gogia, Sandeep Attawar, Vivek Singh, Tarun Bhatnagar, Sanjay Sharma, Khushboo Batra, Swapnil Khare Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Anti ‐MDA5 antibody‐positive clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis with diffuse alveolar damage diagnosed by transbronchial lung cryobiopsy: A case report
We report a case showing diffuse alveolar damage in a patient with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) with anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody-positive clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis, diagnosed by transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) at an early stage without respiratory failure. Although this patient initially did not show respiratory failure, his respiratory condition gradually worsened despite intensive immunosuppression therapy and he died 3  months later. In patients with RP-ILD, TBLC has the potential to predict prognosis and treatment response by evaluating the...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - October 19, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hiroyuki Ishihara, Kensuke Kataoka, Reoto Takei, Yasuhiko Yamano, Toshiki Yokoyama, Toshiaki Matsuda, Tomoki Kimura, Junya Fukuoka, Takeshi Johkoh, Yasuhiro Kondoh Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Spontaneous improvement of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features: A case report
Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) was proposed to describe patients with interstitial lung disease who do not meet the classification criteria for a defined connective tissue disease. Here, we report a spontaneous improvement case of IPAF. AbstractInterstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) was proposed to describe patients with interstitial lung disease who do not meet the classification criteria for a defined connective tissue disease. Here, we report a spontaneous improvement case of IPAF. A 58-year-old man developed dry cough and dyspnoea. Positive result was obtained for the anti-centro...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - October 19, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hirotsugu Ohkubo, Akiko Nakano, Kohei Fujita, Yoshiyuki Ozawa, Takayuki Murase, Akio Niimi Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis with a history of vaping and vitamin E ‐positive bronchoalveolar lavage
We present a 33-year-old male presenting with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and a history of vaping. Serum anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibodies were present. Vitamin E (VE), but not VE acetate, was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage. This is the first report of potential association between vaping and autoimmune PAP. AbstractPulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) can be due to primary autoimmune and secondary causes, including e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury. We present a 33-year-old male presenting with PAP and a history of vaping. Serum anti-granulocyte-macropha...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - October 18, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tzy Harn Chua, Angela Takano, Yi Ju Yao, Sau Yee Chow, Anantham Devanand, Chee Kiang Tay Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

A case of pulmonary foreign body granuloma formation after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma
We present a case of pulmonary foreign body granuloma diagnosed by bronchoscopy in a patient with multiple lung lesions after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma. Key messageWe experienced a case of pulmonary foreign body granuloma diagnosed by bronchoscopy in a patient with multiple lung lesions after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma. We speculate that the lesions may be caused by transarterial migration of the materials used for TACE. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - October 14, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Saori Murata, Morio Nakamura, Shinji Sasada, Keisuke Kirita, Kota Ishioka, Saeko Takahashi, Yusuke Usui, Yumi Tsuchiya, Reishi Seki Tags: CLINICAL IMAGE Source Type: research

Diffuse goitre enlargement after immunotherapy for non ‐small cell lung cancer
We experienced a case of hyperprogressive disease (HPD) in a potential metastatic thyroid tumour during immunotherapy. HPD can be life-threatening depending on where it appears, so clinicians need to be careful. Key messageIt is well known that a phenomenon called hyperprogressive disease (HPD) often occurs during immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. In the present case, we experienced a case of HPD in a potential metastatic thyroid tumour during immunotherapy. HPD can be life-threatening depending on where it appears, so clinicians need to be careful. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - October 12, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kohei Fujita, Norio Araki, Tadashi Mio Tags: CLINICAL IMAGE Source Type: research

Idiopathic recurrent serositis —Off the beaten track
We present a case of idiopathic recurrent serositis affecting the pleural and pericardial membranes. This is an increasingly recognized entity. We include a review of the published literature along with discussions about potential treatments. AbstractA 63-year-old female presented with chest pain and fever, and was found to have recurrent pleuropericardial effusions. Extensive investigations including infection screen and serologies, autoimmune screen and pleural and pericardial biopsy revealed no secondary aetiologies. She was diagnosed with idiopathic recurrent serositis (IRS). Our patient developed rash to naproxen, so ...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - October 12, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Melanie Trishna Hui Min Roy, Chee Hong Loh, Melonie Sriranganathan, Angela Maria Takano Pena, Jagadesan Raghuram Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Legionella pneumophila pneumonia with rapid clinical course in a lung cancer patient
We report an acute clinical course of pneumonia caused byLegionella pneumophila in a patient receiving chemotherapy for lung cancer and corticosteroid therapy. A 57-year-old man presented with fever and dyspnoea and was admitted to our hospital. Chest computed tomography revealed a new left lower lung infiltrate, tumour progression in the right upper lung region, metastases to lymph nodes and pleural effusion. The urinary antigen test forLegionella was positive. The patient's oxygen requirement increased on the day of admission, and he died the day after hospitalization. Legionnaires' disease may manifest with an acute pre...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - October 8, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Masaharu Aga, Aya Shiba, Yusuke Hamakawa, Suguru Matsuzaka, Kazuhito Miyazaki, Yuri Taniguchi, Yuki Misumi, Yoko Agemi, Tsuneo Shimokawa, Hiroaki Okamoto Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

A case of massive saddle pulmonary embolism and benign tracheal stenosis in a patient with COVID ‐19 infection
In this study, we report the case of a patient with a recent COVID-19 infection that got complicated by a massive PE as well as a BTS. (Source: Respirology Case Reports)
Source: Respirology Case Reports - October 5, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ralph Nehme, Mohamad Fleifel, Melissa Abou Khalil, Ali Al Dailaty Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research