A priori acceptance of highly automated cars in Australia, France, and Sweden: A theoretically-informed investigation guided by the TPB and UTAUT
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Ioni Lewis, Sonja Forward, Patricia DelhommeAbstractTo assess and explain finely drivers’ a priori acceptance of highly automated cars, this study used the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Further, the current study sought to extend upon previous research to assess if intentions to use highly automated cars in the future differed according to country (i.e., Australia, France, & Sweden). These three countries were selected to enable com...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - February 1, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Are long-haul truck drivers unusually alert? A comparison with long-haul airline pilots
DiscussionThe results raise the possibility that long-haul truck drivers are actually sleepier than they report, and thus are at an increased risk for not responding to sleepiness in a timely manner. A potential explanation for this behavior is lack of education and training on sleepiness among truck drivers as compared with airline pilots. Alternatively, long-haul truck drivers may be exceptionally tolerant to soporific working conditions. The first reported results do not, however, support this hypothesis. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - February 1, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

“It is frustrating to not have control even though I know it’s not legal!”: A mixed-methods investigation on applications to prevent mobile phone use while driving
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Verity Truelove, Mark KingAbstractMobile phone distracted driving is a major risk factor for crashes. However, this behaviour has been increasing in recent years. Effective enforcement of mobile phone bans while driving faces several obstacles; as such, it is important to consider additional countermeasures. Applications designed to prevent distracted driving are a promising solution, yet more research is needed that examines their effectiveness in reducing dangerous phone use while driving behaviours. Ad...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 31, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The importance of flow composition in real-time crash prediction.
Abstract Previous real-time crash prediction models have scarcely used data disaggregated by vehicle type such as light, heavy and motorcycles. Thus, little effort has been made to quantify the impact of flow composition variables as crash precursors. We analyze the advantages of having access to this data by analyzing two scenarios, namely, with aggregated and disaggregated data. For each case, we build Logistics Regressions and Support Vector Machines models to predict accidents in a major urban expressway in Santiago, Chile. Our results show that having access to disaggregated data by vehicle type increases the...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 31, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Basso F, Basso LJ, Pezoa R Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Driving with undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): High prevalence of OSA risk in drivers who experienced a motor vehicle crash.
Abstract Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for motor vehicle crashes (MVC), and patients with diagnosed OSA have a higher likelihood of being involved in a traffic accident. OSA, however, is often underdiagnosed in the general population. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of undiagnosed OSA among hospitalized patients involved in MVCs.Methods: This is a prospective, observational pilot study of adult trauma patients admitted to a Level 1 trauma center after being the driver in a MVC. Patients were administered the STOP-Bang to assess risk of OSA and were asked questions about...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Purtle MW, Renner CH, McCann DA, Mallen JC, Spilman SK, Sahr SM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Comparison of three-point belt fit between humans and Hybrid-III anthropometric test devices in a driver mockup.
Conclusions: Differences in the lap and shoulder belt fits were quantified between the physical ATDs and regression predictions for similarly sized humans in driving postures. The consequences of these differences should be investigated to help increase understanding of the relationship between belt fit and belt performance. PMID: 31999486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Park J, Ebert SM, Reed MP, Hallman JJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Exposure to unsafe mobility: Traveling in the cargo area of pickup trucks in three Mexican cities.
Conclusions: Results support the importance of improving and enforcing current legislation and evaluating strategies directed to prevent exposure to this risky behavior with the potential of contributing to lowering the high burden that road traffic injuries imposed in Mexican public health. PMID: 31999484 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pérez-Núñez R, Vera-López JD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Illicit drugs are now more common than alcohol among South Australian crash-involved drivers and riders.
Conclusions: Although the apparent decline in alcohol involvement in road crashes in recent years in South Australia is to be welcomed, the increasing proportion of road crashes involving drug impaired drivers, particularly those affected by methamphetamine, is cause for concern. A National Drug Driving Working Group has been set up by Austroads to examine improvements in drug driving enforcement practices. The recommendations arising from their work need to be considered for implementation to prevent rising drug driving crashes from replacing the reduction in road crashes attributable to drink driving. PMID: 31999482...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Baldock M, Lindsay T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Using virtual reality to identify and modify risky pedestrian behaviors amongst Chinese children.
Abstract Objective: China has a high fatality rate for child pedestrians, which highlights the necessity of implementing more effective pedestrian safety training programs in elementary schools. We thus investigated the efficacy of using virtual reality (VR) as an instructional technology to identify and modify risky pedestrian behaviors among Chinese children.Methods: Seventy-nine children (grades 1 through 3) from three elementary schools in Hubei province participated and were categorized into urban (n = 20), migrant (n = 29), or rural (n = 30) students based on the sch...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Luo H, Yang T, Kwon S, Zuo M, Li W, Choi I Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Are long-haul truck drivers unusually alert? A comparison with long-haul airline pilots.
DISCUSSION: The results raise the possibility that long-haul truck drivers are actually sleepier than they report, and thus are at an increased risk for not responding to sleepiness in a timely manner. A potential explanation for this behavior is lack of education and training on sleepiness among truck drivers as compared with airline pilots. Alternatively, long-haul truck drivers may be exceptionally tolerant to soporific working conditions. The first reported results do not, however, support this hypothesis. PMID: 32007780 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sallinen M, Pylkkönen M, Puttonen S, Sihvola M, Åkerstedt T Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A priori acceptance of highly automated cars in Australia, France, and Sweden: A theoretically-informed investigation guided by the TPB and UTAUT.
Abstract To assess and explain finely drivers' a priori acceptance of highly automated cars, this study used the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Further, the current study sought to extend upon previous research to assess if intentions to use highly automated cars in the future differed according to country (i.e., Australia, France, & Sweden). These three countries were selected to enable comparisons of a priori acceptance between countries of differing levels of exposure to highly automated cars. Participants (N = 1563; 62.1 % male) were re...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kaye SA, Lewis I, Forward S, Delhomme P Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

An Exploratory analysis of traffic accidents and vehicle ownership decisions using a random parameters logit model with heterogeneity in means
In this study, we present a methodology that addresses a driver’s decisions pertaining to a damaged car following a traffic accident. The choice set includes three alternatives: to replace the damaged car with a new one, replace the damaged car with a used one, and repair the damaged car. A random parameter (mixed) logit model with heterogeneity in the means is specified and estimated to gain more insight into the driver’s decision-making process following a traffic accident.The estimation results of the random parameter (mixed) logit model with heterogeneity in the means indicate that a wide range of explanato...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - January 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

On the causal effect of proximity to school on pedestrian safety at signalized intersections: A heterogeneous endogenous econometric model
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Analytic Methods in Accident ResearchAuthor(s): Shahram Heydari, Luis Miranda-Moreno, Adrian J. HickfordAbstractPedestrian safety in proximity to schools is a major concern of transportation authorities, local governments, and residents. In fact, several countermeasures (e.g., school-zone speed limits) are usually in place around schools to provide a safer environment, especially for school-age children. Two questions arise here: (i) are transportation facilities in proximity to schools truly safer than other facilities given a variety of implemented road safety int...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - January 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Investigating the injury severity of single-vehicle truck crashes in a developing country
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Ehsan Rahimi, Ali Shamshiripour, Amir Samimi, Abolfazl (Kouros) MohammadianAbstractTrucking plays a vital role in economic development in every country, especially countries where it serves as the backbone of the economy. The fast growth of economy in Iran as a developing country has also been accompanied by an alarming situation in terms of fatalities in truck-involved crashes, among the drivers and passengers of the trucks as well as the other vehicles involved. Despite the sizable efforts to investigate the truck-involved crashe...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Detection of driver manual distraction via image-based hand and ear recognition
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Li Li, Boxuan Zhong, Clayton Hutmacher, Yulan Liang, William J. Horrey, Xu XuAbstractDriving distraction is a leading cause of fatal car accidents, and almost nine people are killed in the US each day because of distracting activities. Therefore, reducing the number of distraction-affected traffic accidents remains an imperative issue. A novel algorithm for detection of drivers’ manual distraction was proposed in this manuscript. The detection algorithm consists of two modules. The first module predicts the bounding boxes of ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Past behaviours and future intentions: An examination of perceptual deterrence and alcohol consumption upon a range of drink driving events
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): James Freeman, Alexander Parkes, Naomi Lewis, Jeremy D. Davey, Kerry A. Armstrong, Verity TrueloveAbstractIntroductionThe threat of application of legal sanctions remains the prominent approach to reduce the prevalence of drink driving in a vast array of motoring jurisdictions. However, ongoing questions remain regarding: (a) the extent that such mechanisms impact upon offending behaviours, (b) the deleterious effect alcohol consumption has on decisions to drink and drive and (c) how best to operationalise (and measure) the concept...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A composite zonal index for biking attractiveness and safety
This study aims to develop a comprehensive zone-based index to represent both biking attractiveness and cyclist crash risk. The developed Bike Composite Index (BCI) consists of two sub-indices representing bike attractiveness and bike safety, which are estimated using Bike Kilometers Travelled (BKT) and cyclist-vehicle crash data from 134 traffic analysis zones (TAZ) in the City of Vancouver, Canada. The Bike Attractiveness Index is calculated from five factors: bike network density, centrality, and weighted slope as well as land use mix and recreational density. The Bike Safety Index is calculated from bike network covera...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A novel skateboarder-related near-crash identification method with roadside LiDAR data
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Jianqing Wu, Yongsheng Zhang, Hao XuAbstractSkateboarding is being an emerging travel model, especially for young travelers. The conflict between skateboarders and the other road users has raised safety concerns for traffic engineers. Safety evaluation about skateboarder-related conflicts has not been well performed due to the low skateboarder-related crashes and the limited historical crash data. Near-crashes have been considered as surrogate data for skateboard-related safety evaluation. This paper developed a procedure to extrac...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

"It is frustrating to not have control even though I know it's not legal!": A mixed-methods investigation on applications to prevent mobile phone use while driving.
"It is frustrating to not have control even though I know it's not legal!": A mixed-methods investigation on applications to prevent mobile phone use while driving. Accid Anal Prev. 2020 Jan 29;137:105412 Authors: Oviedo-Trespalacios O, Truelove V, King M Abstract Mobile phone distracted driving is a major risk factor for crashes. However, this behaviour has been increasing in recent years. Effective enforcement of mobile phone bans while driving faces several obstacles; as such, it is important to consider additional countermeasures. Applications designed to prevent distracted driving are a...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Oviedo-Trespalacios O, Truelove V, King M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Prehospital trauma care evolution, practice and controversies: need for a review.
Authors: Varghese M Abstract Modern medicine and surgery is historically very recent, and most interventions that are so commonly done in a hospital now are only 60 to 70 years old. Understanding of emergency care of the injured is more recent; however, for the sake of temporal convenience trauma care has become compartmentalized into phases: first aid, bystander care, prehospital care, emergency care, definitive levels of care and rehabilitation. The injured patient's body physiology is changing continuously from the time of the impact at the injury site.. The outcome of trauma is dependent not only on what...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - January 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Progress in pedestrian safety research.
This study presents a summary of the progress we have made in understanding pedestrian crash patterns. Pedestrian behaviour observed in different regions of the world tend to have similarity in pedestrian behaviour: gap acceptance, preferences of route choice and location for crossing roads. High income countries(HIC) have reported reduction in pedestrian fatalities as compared to low and middle income countries(LMICs), however pedestrian trips have also reduced in these countries leading to concerns about the effectiveness of 'known' strategies. Speed control through active measures have been found to have themaximal bene...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - January 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Global road safety: a well-travelled road?
Authors: Stevenson M, Bhalla K PMID: 31983269 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - January 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

A novel skateboarder-related near-crash identification method with roadside LiDAR data.
Abstract Skateboarding is being an emerging travel model, especially for young travelers. The conflict between skateboarders and the other road users has raised safety concerns for traffic engineers. Safety evaluation about skateboarder-related conflicts has not been well performed due to the low skateboarder-related crashes and the limited historical crash data. Near-crashes have been considered as surrogate data for skateboard-related safety evaluation. This paper developed a procedure to extract skateboarder-associated near-crashes automatically with the roadside Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). A new indic...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wu J, Zhang Y, Xu H Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A composite zonal index for biking attractiveness and safety.
This study aims to develop a comprehensive zone-based index to represent both biking attractiveness and cyclist crash risk. The developed Bike Composite Index (BCI) consists of two sub-indices representing bike attractiveness and bike safety, which are estimated using Bike Kilometers Travelled (BKT) and cyclist-vehicle crash data from 134 traffic analysis zones (TAZ) in the City of Vancouver, Canada. The Bike Attractiveness Index is calculated from five factors: bike network density, centrality, and weighted slope as well as land use mix and recreational density. The Bike Safety Index is calculated from bike network covera...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kamel MB, Sayed T, Bigazzi A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Investigating the injury severity of single-vehicle truck crashes in a developing country.
Abstract Trucking plays a vital role in economic development in every country, especially countries where it serves as the backbone of the economy. The fast growth of economy in Iran as a developing country has also been accompanied by an alarming situation in terms of fatalities in truck-involved crashes, among the drivers and passengers of the trucks as well as the other vehicles involved. Despite the sizable efforts to investigate the truck-involved crashes, very little is known about the safety of truck movements in developing countries, and about the single-truck crashes worldwide. Thus, this study aims to un...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rahimi E, Shamshiripour A, Samimi A, Mohammadian AK Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Detection of driver manual distraction via image-based hand and ear recognition.
Abstract Driving distraction is a leading cause of fatal car accidents, and almost nine people are killed in the US each day because of distracting activities. Therefore, reducing the number of distraction-affected traffic accidents remains an imperative issue. A novel algorithm for detection of drivers' manual distraction was proposed in this manuscript. The detection algorithm consists of two modules. The first module predicts the bounding boxes of the driver's right hand and right ear from RGB images. The second module takes the bounding boxes as input and predicts the type of distraction. 106,677 frames extrac...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Li L, Zhong B, Hutmacher C, Liang Y, Horrey WJ, Xu X Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Past behaviours and future intentions: An examination of perceptual deterrence and alcohol consumption upon a range of drink driving events.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: The threat of application of legal sanctions remains the prominent approach to reduce the prevalence of drink driving in a vast array of motoring jurisdictions. However, ongoing questions remain regarding: (a) the extent that such mechanisms impact upon offending behaviours, (b) the deleterious effect alcohol consumption has on decisions to drink and drive and (c) how best to operationalise (and measure) the concept of drink driving to enhance the accurate measurement of the dependent variable. METHOD: This paper reports on an examination of 773 Queensland motorists' (across nine local ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Freeman J, Parkes A, Lewis N, Davey JD, Armstrong KA, Truelove V Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of drivers' deceleration behavior based on naturalistic driving data.
Conclusion: The drivers' deceleration behavior can be divided into "no pedal input" and "brake pedal input." The following six factors significantly affect drivers' choice of deceleration mode: Traffic flow, Intersection mode, Lead vehicle motion state, Ego-vehicle motion state, Ego-vehicle speed and THW. The logistic regression model can quantify the influence of these six factors on drivers' deceleration behavior. This study provides a theoretical basis for the braking system design of ADAS (Advanced Driving Assistant System) and intelligent control system. PMID: 31986072 [PubMed - as supplied by...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 27, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Li S, Li P, Yao Y, Han X, Xu Y, Chen L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving simulator experiments to study drowsiness: A systematic review.
Conclusions: Overall, we can conclude that drowsiness and fatigue impair driving performance, resulting in drivers who are more exposed to risky situations. PMID: 31986057 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 27, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Soares S, Ferreira S, Couto A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 26, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Driver Drowsiness Detection Using Mixed-effect Ordered Logit Model Considering Time Cumulative Effect
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Analytic Methods in Accident ResearchAuthor(s): Xuxin Zhang, Xuesong Wang, Xiaohan Yang, Chuan Xu, Xiaohui Zhu, Jiaohua WeiAbstractDrowsy driving is one of the main causes of traffic crashes, a serious threat to road traffic safety. The effective early detection of a drowsiness state can help provide a timely warning for drivers, but previous studies have seldom considered the cumulative effect of drowsiness over time. The purpose of this study is therefore to establish a model to detect a driver's drowsiness level by considering individual differences combined with...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - January 25, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Incorporating Safety Reliability into Route Choice Model: Heterogeneous Crash Risk Aversions
In this study, a route choice model which accounts for both travelers’ safety concern—route safety reliability—and travel time concern is proposed. Route safety reliability (variability) is defined by the distribution of the travel crash risk cost (CRC) to represent the safety condition of travel routes. We further associate the travel safety variability due to stochastic crash occurrence with travelers’ crash risk aversion route choice behaviors, and postulate that travelers acquire the variability of route travel safety based on the past experience and factor it into their route choice in the form...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - January 25, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Big Data, Traditional Data and the Tradeoffs between Prediction and Causality in Highway-Safety Analysis
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Analytic Methods in Accident ResearchAuthor(s): Fred Mannering, Chandra R. Bhat, Venky Shankar, Mohamed Abdel-AtyAbstractThe analysis of highway accident data is largely dominated by traditional statistical methods (standard regression-based approaches), advanced statistical methods (such as models that account for unobserved heterogeneity), and data-driven methods (artificial intelligence, neural networks, machine learning, and so on). These methods have been applied mostly using data from observed crashes, but this can create a problem in uncovering causality sinc...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - January 25, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A Bivariate Bayesian Hierarchical Extreme Value Model for Traffic Conflict-based Crash Estimation
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Analytic Methods in Accident ResearchAuthor(s): Lai Zheng, Tarek SayedAbstractThere are two main issues associated with traffic conflict-based crash estimation. First, there are several conflict indicators which were shown to inherently represent partial severity aspects of traffic events. Therefore, combining more than one conflict indicator can result in more comprehensive understanding on the underlying level of safety. Second, the conflict extremes characterized by the indicators, which are most related to crashes, are rare and heterogeneous in nature. These iss...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - January 22, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Increased traffic injuries among older unprotected road users following the introduction of an age-based cognitive test to the driver’s license renewal procedure in Japan
ConclusionLicensing policies for older drivers should be rigorously evaluated, taking into account the safety of older unprotected road users, and should be balanced against it. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Increased traffic injuries among older unprotected road users following the introduction of an age-based cognitive test to the driver's license renewal procedure in Japan.
CONCLUSION: Licensing policies for older drivers should be rigorously evaluated, taking into account the safety of older unprotected road users, and should be balanced against it. PMID: 31962239 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ichikawa M, Inada H, Nakahara S Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Head injury metric response in finite element ATDs and a human body model in multidirectional loading regimes.
Conclusion: In conclusion, observed differences between the occupant models' head injury metric output were quantified. Loading direction had a large effect on metric outcome and metric comparability across models, with frontal and rear impacts with low vertical acceleration tending to be the most similar. One explanation for these differences could be the differences in neck stiffness between the models that allowed more rotation in the GHBMC and THOR. Care should be taken when using ATDs as human volunteer surrogates in these low energy events. PMID: 31951749 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 17, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jones DA, Gaewsky JP, Somers JT, Gayzik FS, Weaver AA, Stitzel JD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Assessing the safety criticality of driver behavior toward cyclists at intersections.
Conclusion: Therefore, the analysis can only provide an explanation for the higher proportion of accidents between drivers turning right and cyclists crossing from the right side in certain situations. Further research, for example analyses of exposure data regarding the frequency of turning manoeuvers at T-junctions, is needed in order to explain the higher proportion of accidents between drivers turning right and cyclists crossing from the right side. PMID: 31951744 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 17, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gohl I, Schneider A, Nitsch V Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Human Factors Analysis for Maritime Accidents Based on a Dynamic Fuzzy Bayesian Network
AbstractHuman factors are widely regarded to be highly contributing factors to maritime accident prevention system failures. The conventional methods for human factor assessment, especially quantitative techniques, such as fault trees and bow ‐ties, are static and cannot deal with models with uncertainty, which limits their application to human factors risk analysis. To alleviate these drawbacks, in the present study, a new human factor analysis framework called multidimensional analysis model of accident causes (MAMAC) is introduced. MAMAC combines the human factors analysis and classification system and business proces...
Source: Risk Analysis - January 15, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Weiliang Qiao, Yu Liu, Xiaoxue Ma, Yang Liu Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

How many crashes can connected vehicle and automated vehicle technologies prevent: A meta-analysis
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): Ling Wang, Hao Zhong, Wanjing Ma, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Juneyoung ParkAbstractThe connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies have made great progresses. It has been commonly accepted that CV or AV technologies would reduce human errors in driving and benefit traffic safety. However, the answer of how many crashes can be prevented because of CV or AV technologies has not reached a consistent conclusion. In order to quantitatively answer this question, this study used meta-analysis to evaluate the safety effectiveness of nine co...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 14, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Optimizing the safety-efficiency balancing of automated vehicle car-following
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): Xiaobo Liu, Danqi Shen, Lijuan Lai, Scott Le VineAbstractThis paper proposes an approach to rationally set automated vehicles’ car following behavior that explicitly balances between the competing considerations of safety (i.e. small probabilities of a high-consequence crash) and efficiency (guaranteed but small impacts on journey arrival time due to the choice of car following distance). The specification of safety and efficiency are both based on empirically supported concepts and data. In numerical analyses with empirical ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 13, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

How does an increased freeway speed limit influence the frequency of crashes on adjacent roads?
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of raising freeway speed limits on the frequency of crashes on urban arterial roads adjacent to freeways (spillover effects). Crash data within Michigan were collected on 1393 urban arterial road segments before and after freeway speed limits were altered. Before-and-after data was collected simultaneously on 1470 comparison segments of urban arterial where speed limits did not change to control for the regression-to-the-mean bias. The mixed effects negative binomial (MENB) regression model was developed to analyze crash frequency on urban arterials. The results indi...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 13, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Estimated crash injury risk and crash characteristics for motorsport drivers
ConclusionMultiple logistic regression was used to estimate AIS 1+ injury only and AIS 1+ with sub-injury risk for motorsport drivers using motorsport-specific crash and medical record databases. The injury risk estimate models can provide future guidance and insight for at-track emergency medical response dispatch immediately following an on-track crash. These models may also inform future driver triage protocols and influence future expenditures on motorsports safety research. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Improving crash predictability of the Highway Safety Manual through optimizing local calibration process
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): Seyedehsan Dadvar, Young-Jae Lee, Hyeon-Shic ShinAbstractThe predictive method of the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) estimates crash frequency by applying an uncalibrated safety performance function (SPF) and a set of uncalibrated crash modification factors (CMFs) to each location individually; then the predicted crashes must be adjusted by a local calibration factor (LCF) at the aggregate level for at least 30–50 sites per SPF. Although this calibration procedure assures total predicted crashes will be localized, still the pred...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

How does an increased freeway speed limit influence the frequency of crashes on adjacent roads?
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of raising freeway speed limits on the frequency of crashes on urban arterial roads adjacent to freeways (spillover effects). Crash data within Michigan were collected on 1393 urban arterial road segments before and after freeway speed limits were altered. Before-and-after data was collected simultaneously on 1470 comparison segments of urban arterial where speed limits did not change to control for the regression-to-the-mean bias. The mixed effects negative binomial (MENB) regression model was developed to analyze crash frequency on urban arterials. The results indi...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Alhomaidat F, Kwigizile V, Oh JS, Houten RV Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Optimizing the safety-efficiency balancing of automated vehicle car-following.
Abstract This paper proposes an approach to rationally set automated vehicles' car following behavior that explicitly balances between the competing considerations of safety (i.e. small probabilities of a high-consequence crash) and efficiency (guaranteed but small impacts on journey arrival time due to the choice of car following distance). The specification of safety and efficiency are both based on empirically supported concepts and data. In numerical analyses with empirical vehicle trajectories at two sites, we demonstrate intuitive response to systematic variation in numerical values selected as inputs, as we...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Liu X, Shen D, Lai L, Le Vine S Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Predicting real-time traffic conflicts using deep learning
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): Nicolette Formosa, Mohammed Quddus, Stephen Ison, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Jinghui YuanAbstractRecently, technologies for predicting traffic conflicts in real-time have been gaining momentum due to their proactive nature of application and the growing implementation of ADAS technology in intelligent vehicles. In ADAS, machine learning classifiers are utilised to predict potential traffic conflicts by analysing data from in-vehicle sensors. In most cases, a condition is classified as a traffic conflict when a safety surrogate (e.g. time-t...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 10, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Breath tests in Western Australia: Examining the economic dividends and effectiveness of general deterrence
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): Jesse Parmar, Christine McComb, Paul House, Geoffrey C. BarnesAbstractIn this paper, we examine the relationship between traffic enforcement (in the form of roadside breath testing for alcohol) and traffic outcomes (alcohol-related traffic crashes) to identify an optimal point of traffic enforcement.In Western Australia (WA), Police are authorised to stop any driver and measure their blood alcohol concentration via a sample of their breath. Using a metric employed by Ferris et al. (2013) and a methodology analogous to that utilised...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 10, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

VR-Based investigation of forklift operator situation awareness for preventing collision accidents
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): Minji Choi, Seungjun Ahn, JoonOh SeoAbstractForklifts are among the machines involved with the highest levels of occupational fatalities. As many accidents involved with a forklift can be attributed to the low situation awareness (SA) of the operator, it is essential to understand the factors influencing a forklift operator’s SA for reducing forklift accidents, especially of collision type. Against this background, this research aims to investigate how a forklift operator’s SA about other people around can be influenced...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 10, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Analysis of pre-crash characteristics of passenger car to cyclist accidents for the development of advanced drivers assistance systems
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): François Char, Thierry SerreAbstractThe purpose of this study was to analyze car-to-cyclist accidents to determine the challenges for an active safety system on car to avoid accidents. Based on 2261 car-to-cyclist accidents provided by in-depth accident databases, accidents are analyzed more specifically from kinematic reconstructions. The main accident scenarios are determined: crossing nearside, crossing farside, longitudinal, turning (right and left) and others. Proportion of brakes activation by the drivers before the im...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 10, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research