Ready to bully automated vehicles on public roads?
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Peng Liu, Yong Du, Lin Wang, Ju Da YoungAbstractAutomated vehicles (AVs), the wide adoption of which is expected to improve traffic safety significantly, are penetrating our roads. The AVs that are testing on public roads have been bullied by human road users. We are not sure whether the bullying incidents are isolated or will be common in the future. In a cross-national survey (N = 998 drivers in China and South Korea), we developed an eleven-item bullying intention questionnaire. We assumed and confirmed that, overall, participan...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - February 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Road crossing decisions in real and virtual environments: A comparative study on simulator validity.
This article presents the street crossing decisions of 30 participants who were facing an approaching vehicle and had to decide at what moment it was no longer safe to cross, applying the step-back method. The participants executed the task in a real environment and also within a highly immersive VR setup involving a head-mounted display (HMD). The results indicate significant differences between the two settings regarding the participants' behaviors. The time-to-contact of approaching vehicles was significantly lower for crossing decisions in the virtual environment than for crossing decisions in the real one. Additionall...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Feldstein IT, Dyszak GN Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Occupant injuries in light passenger vehicles-A NASS study to enable priorities for development of injury prediction capabilities of human body models.
Abstract To prioritize how the development of mathematical human body models for injury prediction in crash safety analysis should be made, the most frequent injuries in the NASS CDS data from 2000 to 2015 were analyzed. The crashes were divided into seven types, from front to side. Non-minor injuries (AIS2+) were analyzed in two steps. In the first step, a grouping was made according to the AIS definition of body regions: head, face, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvic contents, spine, upper extremities (including shoulder girdle) and lower extremities (including pelvis). In a second step, the body regions were divi...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pipkorn B, Iraeus J, Lindkvist M, Puthan P, Bunketorp O Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The real impact of full hydroplaning on driving safety.
e F Abstract Since its discovery at the end of the 1950's, hydroplaning has been a matter of concern for drivers on wet roads because it can affect driver safety. Indeed, this phenomenon can lead to a complete loss of contact between the tire and the road caused by the layer of water that develops between them, resulting in a complete loss of longitudinal and lateral grip. Although the phenomenon of hydroplaning is about 60 years old, it is almost impossible to find any scientific estimation of how frequently vehicle accidents can be caused by hydroplaning, especially in Europe. To cover this gap, the well-known G...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Spitzhüttl F, Goizet F, Unger T, Biesse F Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Ready to bully automated vehicles on public roads?
Abstract Automated vehicles (AVs), the wide adoption of which is expected to improve traffic safety significantly, are penetrating our roads. The AVs that are testing on public roads have been bullied by human road users. We are not sure whether the bullying incidents are isolated or will be common in the future. In a cross-national survey (N = 998 drivers in China and South Korea), we developed an eleven-item bullying intention questionnaire. We assumed and confirmed that, overall, participants had a greater intention to bully machine drivers than to bully other human drivers. Compared to the Korean participants,...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 10, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Liu P, Du Y, Wang L, Da Young J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Optimal design alternatives of advance guide signs of closely spaced exit ramps on urban expressways.
This study aimed to identify and propose optimal design alternatives for exit ramp advance guide signs for different types of exit spacing. This study conducted a driving simulation experiment consisting of five design alternatives of advance guide signs and two exit ramp spacing variation. Eight indicators were measured. The repeated-measure analysis of variances (ANOVA) and the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) were performed for the influence analysis and efficiency evaluation of different schemes. Influence analysis results showed better design alternatives in five schemes of ad...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 9, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Huang L, Zhao X, Li Y, Ma J, Yang L, Rong J, Wang Y Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A hierarchical Bayesian multivariate ordered model of distracted drivers’ decision to initiate risk-compensating behaviour
This study aims to fill this gap by developing a comprehensive multivariate ordered model in Bayesian framework for risk-compensating behaviour of distracted drivers. The multivariate setting captures the common unobserved factors between multiple types of risk-compensating behaviour. In addition, an instrumental variable is employed to account for the endogeneity between crash risk and driving behaviour. To capture the varying effects of exogenous factors as well as varying propensity of initiating risk-compensating behaviour, the model is specified with grouped random parameters and random thresholds. This model is then ...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - February 8, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Application of the Poisson-Tweedie distribution in analyzing crash frequency data
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Dibakar Saha, Priyanka Alluri, Eric Dumbaugh, Albert GanAbstractThis paper describes a study that applies the Poisson-Tweedie distribution in developing crash frequency models. The Poisson-Tweedie distribution offers a unified framework to model overdispersed, underdispersed, zero-inflated, spatial, and longitudinal count data, as well as multiple response variables of similar or mixed types. The form of its variance function is simple, and can be specified as the mean added to the product of dispersion and mean raised to the power...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - February 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Understanding the discretionary lane-changing behaviour in the connected environment
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Yasir Ali, Zuduo Zheng, Md. Mazharul Haque, Mehmet Yildirimoglu, Simon WashingtonAbstractDiscretionary lane-changing (DLC) is one of the complex driving manoeuvres that requires surrounding traffic information for efficient and safe manoeuvring. The connected environment not only provides such information but also increases situational awareness, which is useful for DLC decision-making. However, the literature is devoid of any concrete evidence of such impact of the connected environment on DLC decision-making. As such, this paper ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - February 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Multitasking additional-to-driving: Prevalence, structure, and associated risk in SHRP2 naturalistic driving data
ConclusionsThe number of secondary tasks that the drivers were engaged in differs substantially for different event types. A graphical representation was presented that allows mapping task prevalence and co-occurrence within an event type as well as a comparison between different event types. The ORs of MAD indicate an elevated risk for all safety-critical events, with the greatest increase in the risk of rear-end striking crashes. The results are similar independently of whether secondary tasks are defined according to SHRP2 or general task groups. The results confirm that the reduction of driving performance from MAD obs...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - February 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Accounting for drivers’ bicycling frequency and familiarity with bicycle infrastructure treatments when evaluating safety
The objective of this research is to utilize a driving simulator to investigate driver behavior towards different bicycle infrastructure treatments when driver behavior is not provoked by an interaction with bicyclists. More specifically, this research intends to investigate the impact of bicycling frequency and treatment familiarity, as well as the combined effect of the two, on driver behavior at each treatment type. The treatments investigated are shared lane markings called “sharrows”, standard bike lanes, bike boxes, and merge lanes. The results show that bicycling frequency significantly affects the propo...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - February 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

An application of the theory of planned behaviour to understand compliance with daytime running headlights law among motorcycle riders.
Authors: Payani S, Law TH Abstract Fatal motorcycle crashes are a persistent problem in Southeast Asia. In many respects, road safety experts have acknowledged conspicuity issue as one of the main causes of such accidents. To mitigate this deficiency, daytime running headlights (DRHs) law has been documented among the widely exercised countermeasures. The present study aimed to explore socio-psychological factors shaping intentions towards use of DRHs among Malaysian motorcyclists, because compliance level with this rule has remained constant since 1996 (80%). For this purpose, a model was constructed through the T...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - February 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Do drivers self-regulate their engagement in secondary tasks at intersections? An examination based on naturalistic driving data
In conclusion, drivers appeared to self-regulate secondary task engagement in response to roadway and environmental conditions. Specifically, they exercised self-regulation by reducing their secondary task engagement when the driving task was more challenging. The findings from this study provide preliminary evidence for targeting the education and training of drivers and media campaigns related to safe driving strategies and managing distractions. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - February 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Looking for traces of the Troika’s intervention in European road safety
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): José I. Castillo-Manzano, Mercedes Castro-Nuño, Lourdes López-Valpuesta, Jesús BobyAbstractThe recent economic crisis has required the bailout of some European States by the so-called Troika, with capital injections accompanied by financial austerity. This paper analyzes econometrically the impact of this support programme on road safety for an original panel data (1995–2015). The findings also corroborate the Kuznets curve hypothesis for traffic accidents in the long term. Regarding the impact of ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - February 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Investigating pedestrian waiting time at semi-controlled crossing locations: Application of multi-state models for recurrent events analysis
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Yunchang Zhang, Yu Qiao, Jon D. FrickerAbstract“Semi-controlled” crosswalks are unsignalized, but clearly marked with “yield to pedestrian within crosswalk” signs. Ideally, pedestrians can cross the street immediately after they arrive at the curb. However, real world observations show that pedestrians and vehicles are often involved in non-verbal “negotiations” to decide who should proceed first. This kind of “negotiation” often causes delays for both parties and may lead to unsafe s...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - February 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A comparison of anti-whiplash seats during low/moderate speed rear-end collisions.
Conclusions: The relatively similar occupant responses across all seats could explain the marginal reductions in whiplash injury risk between good- and poor-rated seats in field studies. Further research into the design of anti-whiplash devices is required to better understand the link between occupant response and injury, and to better mitigate the risk of whiplash injuries during rear-end collisions. PMID: 32027520 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mang DWH, Siegmund GP, Blouin JS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Understanding the discretionary lane-changing behaviour in the connected environment.
Abstract Discretionary lane-changing (DLC) is one of the complex driving manoeuvres that requires surrounding traffic information for efficient and safe manoeuvring. The connected environment not only provides such information but also increases situational awareness, which is useful for DLC decision-making. However, the literature is devoid of any concrete evidence of such impact of the connected environment on DLC decision-making. As such, this paper analyses the effects of the connected environment on DLC behaviour. Seventy-eight participants from a diverse background performed DLCs in randomised driving condit...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ali Y, Zheng Z, Mazharul Haque M, Yildirimoglu M, Washington S Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Looking for traces of the Troika's intervention in European road safety.
a L, Boby J Abstract The recent economic crisis has required the bailout of some European States by the so-called Troika, with capital injections accompanied by financial austerity. This paper analyzes econometrically the impact of this support programme on road safety for an original panel data (1995-2015). The findings also corroborate the Kuznets curve hypothesis for traffic accidents in the long term. Regarding the impact of intervention in the short term, despite reductions in safety policy budgets due to austerity, financial support, and related austerity measures might have led to an improvement in road saf...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Castillo-Manzano JI, Castro-Nuño M, López-Valpuesta L, Boby J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Application of the Poisson-Tweedie distribution in analyzing crash frequency data.
Abstract This paper describes a study that applies the Poisson-Tweedie distribution in developing crash frequency models. The Poisson-Tweedie distribution offers a unified framework to model overdispersed, underdispersed, zero-inflated, spatial, and longitudinal count data, as well as multiple response variables of similar or mixed types. The form of its variance function is simple, and can be specified as the mean added to the product of dispersion and mean raised to the power P. The flexibility of the Poisson-Tweedie distribution lies in the domain of P, which includes positive real number values. Special cases ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Saha D, Alluri P, Dumbaugh E, Gan A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Multitasking additional-to-driving: Prevalence, structure, and associated risk in SHRP2 naturalistic driving data.
CONCLUSIONS: The number of secondary tasks that the drivers were engaged in differs substantially for different event types. A graphical representation was presented that allows mapping task prevalence and co-occurrence within an event type as well as a comparison between different event types. The ORs of MAD indicate an elevated risk for all safety-critical events, with the greatest increase in the risk of rear-end striking crashes. The results are similar independently of whether secondary tasks are defined according to SHRP2 or general task groups. The results confirm that the reduction of driving performance from MAD o...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bálint A, Flannagan CAC, Leslie A, Klauer S, Guo F, Dozza M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Investigating pedestrian waiting time at semi-controlled crossing locations: Application of multi-state models for recurrent events analysis.
Abstract "Semi-controlled" crosswalks are unsignalized, but clearly marked with "yield to pedestrian within crosswalk" signs. Ideally, pedestrians can cross the street immediately after they arrive at the curb. However, real world observations show that pedestrians and vehicles are often involved in non-verbal "negotiations" to decide who should proceed first. This kind of "negotiation" often causes delays for both parties and may lead to unsafe situations. The study in this paper was based on video recordings of the waiting behaviors of 2059 pedestrians interacting with 100...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zhang Y, Qiao Y, Fricker JD Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Accounting for drivers' bicycling frequency and familiarity with bicycle infrastructure treatments when evaluating safety.
The objective of this research is to utilize a driving simulator to investigate driver behavior towards different bicycle infrastructure treatments when driver behavior is not provoked by an interaction with bicyclists. More specifically, this research intends to investigate the impact of bicycling frequency and treatment familiarity, as well as the combined effect of the two, on driver behavior at each treatment type. The treatments investigated are shared lane markings called "sharrows", standard bike lanes, bike boxes, and merge lanes. The results show that bicycling frequency significantly affects the proport...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fournier N, Bakhtiari S, Valluru KD, Campbell N, Christofa E, Roberts S, Knodler M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Human Factors Analysis for Maritime Accidents Based on a Dynamic Fuzzy Bayesian Network
AbstractHuman factors are widely regarded to be highly contributing factors to maritime accident prevention system failures. The conventional methods for human factor assessment, especially quantitative techniques, such as fault trees and bow ‐ties, are static and cannot deal with models with uncertainty, which limits their application to human factors risk analysis. To alleviate these drawbacks, in the present study, a new human factor analysis framework called multidimensional analysis model of accident causes (MAMAC) is introduced. MAMAC combines the human factors analysis and classification system and business proces...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Weiliang Qiao, Yu Liu, Xiaoxue Ma, Yang Liu Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Temporal stability of driver injury severities in animal-vehicle collisions: A random parameters with heterogeneity in means (and variances) approach
This study investigates the determinants of driver injury severity in animal-vehicle collisions while systematically accounting for unobserved heterogeneity in the data by using three methodological approaches: mixed logit model, mixed logit model with heterogeneity in means, and mixed logit model with heterogeneity in means and variances. Using the data from Washington state from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2016, a wide range of factors that could potentially affect the injury severity of drivers were examined. Moreover, the temporal stability and transferability of the models were investigated through a series of lik...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - February 5, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The electric scooter: A surging new mode of transportation that comes with risk to riders.
Conclusion: We found a substantial increase in the number of scooter-related injuries during the first two months of electric scooter legalization. There was a lack of safety equipment utilization and concomitant alcohol utilization was common. These may offer areas of focus for injury prevention efforts. Additionally, standardization of injury coding for electric scooter related injury is critical to future studies and will help better understand the impact of this new mode of transportation. PMID: 32023131 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 5, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Puzio TJ, Murphy PB, Gazzetta J, Dineen HA, Savage SA, Streib EW, Zarzaur BL Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Racial and ethnic differences in patients involved in alcohol-impaired motor vehicle crashes and its related clinical outcomes among various age groups in the U.S.
Abstract Objective(s): 1) to determine whether the proportion of alcohol-impaired patients involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) varies by race/ethnicity within different age groups; 2) to explore the relationship between alcohol impairment, race/ethnicity and clinical outcomes among patients involved in MVCs across age groups.Methods: The 2012 National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) queried for patients aged 16-55 involved in MVCs who received a blood ethanol test on admission.Results: Of the 44,216 patients involved in MVC, 68% were White, 14% Black, and 13% were Hispanic. About 36% were 16-25 years old, and ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 5, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Randle R, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Pen D, Diab S, Shaheen M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Biomechanical impact testing of synthetic versus human cadaveric tibias for predicting injury risk during pedestrian-vehicle collisions.
Conclusions: Synthetic composite tibias offer the potential for developing a frangible test surrogate, and matched cadaveric response in several respects. However, the repeatability was not high enough for them to be used in their present form for injury prediction. PMID: 32023127 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 5, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Cameron MW, Schemitsch EH, Zdero R, Quenneville CE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Estimate of safety impact of lane keeping assistant system on fatalities and injuries reduction for China: Scenarios through 2030.
Conclusions: The safety impact of LKA system on traffic crash fatalities and injuries reduction in China has been estimated. The results indicate that LKA system has considerable potential benefit in China. Interaction design with the driver, setting of the minimum travel speed and adaptability of the harsh conditions of the camera are the breakthrough points for maximizing safety benefits. The safety system of the intelligent vehicle has different benefits in different countries. PMID: 32023126 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 5, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tan H, Zhao F, Hao H, Liu Z Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Do drivers self-regulate their engagement in secondary tasks at intersections? An examination based on naturalistic driving data.
In conclusion, drivers appeared to self-regulate secondary task engagement in response to roadway and environmental conditions. Specifically, they exercised self-regulation by reducing their secondary task engagement when the driving task was more challenging. The findings from this study provide preliminary evidence for targeting the education and training of drivers and media campaigns related to safe driving strategies and managing distractions. PMID: 32035295 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 5, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ismaeel R, Hibberd D, Carsten O, Jamson S Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Risk Assessment of Commercial dangerous -goods truck drivers using geo-location data: A case study in China
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Shifeng Niu, Satish V. UkkusuriAbstractThe primary objective of this study is to understand the relationship between driving risk of commercial dangerous-goods truck (CDT) and exposure factors and find a way to evaluate the risk of specific transportation environment, such as specific transportation route. Due to increasing transportation demand and potential threat to public, commercial dangerous goods transportation (CDGT) has drawn attention from decision makers and researchers within governmental and non-governmental safety org...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - February 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Risk Assessment of Commercial dangerous -goods truck drivers using geo-location data: A case study in China.
Abstract The primary objective of this study is to understand the relationship between driving risk of commercial dangerous-goods truck (CDT) and exposure factors and find a way to evaluate the risk of specific transportation environment, such as specific transportation route. Due to increasing transportation demand and potential threat to public, commercial dangerous goods transportation (CDGT) has drawn attention from decision makers and researchers within governmental and non-governmental safety organization. However, there are few studies focusing on driving risk assessment of commercial dangerous-goods truck ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Niu S, Ukkusuri SV Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The importance of flow composition in real-time crash prediction
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Franco Basso, Leonardo J. Basso, Raul PezoaAbstractPrevious real-time crash prediction models have scarcely used data disaggregated by vehicle type such as light, heavy and motorcycles. Thus, little effort has been made to quantify the impact of flow composition variables as crash precursors. We analyze the advantages of having access to this data by analyzing two scenarios, namely, with aggregated and disaggregated data. For each case, we build Logistics Regressions and Support Vector Machines models to predict accidents in a majo...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - February 1, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Safety of motorized two-wheeler riders in the formal and informal transport sector.
Authors: Gutierrez MI, Mohan D Abstract Road fatalities are largely preventable problem with large socioeconomic impact. Due to the rapidly increasing population, transport systems and road infrastructure have not met the demand. The use of motorized two-wheeler vehicles has increased, as informal transport. However, evidence on their safety is scarce. The aim of this article is to examine the safety and social equity issues in MTW in the informal transport sector. Factors can be used to explain traffic collisions in MTW in the formal/informal transport sectors: design, rider behavior, road design, enforcement, and...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - February 1, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

A priori acceptance of highly automated cars in Australia, France, and Sweden: A theoretically-informed investigation guided by the TPB and UTAUT
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Ioni Lewis, Sonja Forward, Patricia DelhommeAbstractTo assess and explain finely drivers’ a priori acceptance of highly automated cars, this study used the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Further, the current study sought to extend upon previous research to assess if intentions to use highly automated cars in the future differed according to country (i.e., Australia, France, & Sweden). These three countries were selected to enable com...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - February 1, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Are long-haul truck drivers unusually alert? A comparison with long-haul airline pilots
DiscussionThe results raise the possibility that long-haul truck drivers are actually sleepier than they report, and thus are at an increased risk for not responding to sleepiness in a timely manner. A potential explanation for this behavior is lack of education and training on sleepiness among truck drivers as compared with airline pilots. Alternatively, long-haul truck drivers may be exceptionally tolerant to soporific working conditions. The first reported results do not, however, support this hypothesis. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - February 1, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

“It is frustrating to not have control even though I know it’s not legal!”: A mixed-methods investigation on applications to prevent mobile phone use while driving
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Verity Truelove, Mark KingAbstractMobile phone distracted driving is a major risk factor for crashes. However, this behaviour has been increasing in recent years. Effective enforcement of mobile phone bans while driving faces several obstacles; as such, it is important to consider additional countermeasures. Applications designed to prevent distracted driving are a promising solution, yet more research is needed that examines their effectiveness in reducing dangerous phone use while driving behaviours. Ad...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 31, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The importance of flow composition in real-time crash prediction.
Abstract Previous real-time crash prediction models have scarcely used data disaggregated by vehicle type such as light, heavy and motorcycles. Thus, little effort has been made to quantify the impact of flow composition variables as crash precursors. We analyze the advantages of having access to this data by analyzing two scenarios, namely, with aggregated and disaggregated data. For each case, we build Logistics Regressions and Support Vector Machines models to predict accidents in a major urban expressway in Santiago, Chile. Our results show that having access to disaggregated data by vehicle type increases the...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 31, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Basso F, Basso LJ, Pezoa R Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Driving with undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): High prevalence of OSA risk in drivers who experienced a motor vehicle crash.
Abstract Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for motor vehicle crashes (MVC), and patients with diagnosed OSA have a higher likelihood of being involved in a traffic accident. OSA, however, is often underdiagnosed in the general population. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of undiagnosed OSA among hospitalized patients involved in MVCs.Methods: This is a prospective, observational pilot study of adult trauma patients admitted to a Level 1 trauma center after being the driver in a MVC. Patients were administered the STOP-Bang to assess risk of OSA and were asked questions about...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Purtle MW, Renner CH, McCann DA, Mallen JC, Spilman SK, Sahr SM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Comparison of three-point belt fit between humans and Hybrid-III anthropometric test devices in a driver mockup.
Conclusions: Differences in the lap and shoulder belt fits were quantified between the physical ATDs and regression predictions for similarly sized humans in driving postures. The consequences of these differences should be investigated to help increase understanding of the relationship between belt fit and belt performance. PMID: 31999486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Park J, Ebert SM, Reed MP, Hallman JJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Exposure to unsafe mobility: Traveling in the cargo area of pickup trucks in three Mexican cities.
Conclusions: Results support the importance of improving and enforcing current legislation and evaluating strategies directed to prevent exposure to this risky behavior with the potential of contributing to lowering the high burden that road traffic injuries imposed in Mexican public health. PMID: 31999484 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pérez-Núñez R, Vera-López JD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Illicit drugs are now more common than alcohol among South Australian crash-involved drivers and riders.
Conclusions: Although the apparent decline in alcohol involvement in road crashes in recent years in South Australia is to be welcomed, the increasing proportion of road crashes involving drug impaired drivers, particularly those affected by methamphetamine, is cause for concern. A National Drug Driving Working Group has been set up by Austroads to examine improvements in drug driving enforcement practices. The recommendations arising from their work need to be considered for implementation to prevent rising drug driving crashes from replacing the reduction in road crashes attributable to drink driving. PMID: 31999482...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Baldock M, Lindsay T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Using virtual reality to identify and modify risky pedestrian behaviors amongst Chinese children.
Abstract Objective: China has a high fatality rate for child pedestrians, which highlights the necessity of implementing more effective pedestrian safety training programs in elementary schools. We thus investigated the efficacy of using virtual reality (VR) as an instructional technology to identify and modify risky pedestrian behaviors among Chinese children.Methods: Seventy-nine children (grades 1 through 3) from three elementary schools in Hubei province participated and were categorized into urban (n = 20), migrant (n = 29), or rural (n = 30) students based on the sch...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Luo H, Yang T, Kwon S, Zuo M, Li W, Choi I Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Are long-haul truck drivers unusually alert? A comparison with long-haul airline pilots.
DISCUSSION: The results raise the possibility that long-haul truck drivers are actually sleepier than they report, and thus are at an increased risk for not responding to sleepiness in a timely manner. A potential explanation for this behavior is lack of education and training on sleepiness among truck drivers as compared with airline pilots. Alternatively, long-haul truck drivers may be exceptionally tolerant to soporific working conditions. The first reported results do not, however, support this hypothesis. PMID: 32007780 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sallinen M, Pylkkönen M, Puttonen S, Sihvola M, Åkerstedt T Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A priori acceptance of highly automated cars in Australia, France, and Sweden: A theoretically-informed investigation guided by the TPB and UTAUT.
Abstract To assess and explain finely drivers' a priori acceptance of highly automated cars, this study used the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Further, the current study sought to extend upon previous research to assess if intentions to use highly automated cars in the future differed according to country (i.e., Australia, France, & Sweden). These three countries were selected to enable comparisons of a priori acceptance between countries of differing levels of exposure to highly automated cars. Participants (N = 1563; 62.1 % male) were re...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kaye SA, Lewis I, Forward S, Delhomme P Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

An Exploratory analysis of traffic accidents and vehicle ownership decisions using a random parameters logit model with heterogeneity in means
In this study, we present a methodology that addresses a driver’s decisions pertaining to a damaged car following a traffic accident. The choice set includes three alternatives: to replace the damaged car with a new one, replace the damaged car with a used one, and repair the damaged car. A random parameter (mixed) logit model with heterogeneity in the means is specified and estimated to gain more insight into the driver’s decision-making process following a traffic accident.The estimation results of the random parameter (mixed) logit model with heterogeneity in the means indicate that a wide range of explanato...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - January 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

On the causal effect of proximity to school on pedestrian safety at signalized intersections: A heterogeneous endogenous econometric model
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Analytic Methods in Accident ResearchAuthor(s): Shahram Heydari, Luis Miranda-Moreno, Adrian J. HickfordAbstractPedestrian safety in proximity to schools is a major concern of transportation authorities, local governments, and residents. In fact, several countermeasures (e.g., school-zone speed limits) are usually in place around schools to provide a safer environment, especially for school-age children. Two questions arise here: (i) are transportation facilities in proximity to schools truly safer than other facilities given a variety of implemented road safety int...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - January 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Investigating the injury severity of single-vehicle truck crashes in a developing country
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Ehsan Rahimi, Ali Shamshiripour, Amir Samimi, Abolfazl (Kouros) MohammadianAbstractTrucking plays a vital role in economic development in every country, especially countries where it serves as the backbone of the economy. The fast growth of economy in Iran as a developing country has also been accompanied by an alarming situation in terms of fatalities in truck-involved crashes, among the drivers and passengers of the trucks as well as the other vehicles involved. Despite the sizable efforts to investigate the truck-involved crashe...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Detection of driver manual distraction via image-based hand and ear recognition
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Li Li, Boxuan Zhong, Clayton Hutmacher, Yulan Liang, William J. Horrey, Xu XuAbstractDriving distraction is a leading cause of fatal car accidents, and almost nine people are killed in the US each day because of distracting activities. Therefore, reducing the number of distraction-affected traffic accidents remains an imperative issue. A novel algorithm for detection of drivers’ manual distraction was proposed in this manuscript. The detection algorithm consists of two modules. The first module predicts the bounding boxes of ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Past behaviours and future intentions: An examination of perceptual deterrence and alcohol consumption upon a range of drink driving events
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): James Freeman, Alexander Parkes, Naomi Lewis, Jeremy D. Davey, Kerry A. Armstrong, Verity TrueloveAbstractIntroductionThe threat of application of legal sanctions remains the prominent approach to reduce the prevalence of drink driving in a vast array of motoring jurisdictions. However, ongoing questions remain regarding: (a) the extent that such mechanisms impact upon offending behaviours, (b) the deleterious effect alcohol consumption has on decisions to drink and drive and (c) how best to operationalise (and measure) the concept...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A composite zonal index for biking attractiveness and safety
This study aims to develop a comprehensive zone-based index to represent both biking attractiveness and cyclist crash risk. The developed Bike Composite Index (BCI) consists of two sub-indices representing bike attractiveness and bike safety, which are estimated using Bike Kilometers Travelled (BKT) and cyclist-vehicle crash data from 134 traffic analysis zones (TAZ) in the City of Vancouver, Canada. The Bike Attractiveness Index is calculated from five factors: bike network density, centrality, and weighted slope as well as land use mix and recreational density. The Bike Safety Index is calculated from bike network covera...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research