Characteristics of pedestrian head injuries observed from real world collision data
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Accident Analysis & PreventionAuthor(s): Guibing Li, Fang Wang, Dietmar Otte, Ciaran SimmsAbstractHead injury is one of the most common injury types in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions, which leads to death and long-term disabilities. However, detailed analysis of pedestrian head injuries in real world collisions is scarce. Thus the current study used two samples of 120 cases and 184 cases extracted from 1060 pedestrian collision cases captured during 2000–2015 from the GIDAS (German In-Depth-Accident Study) database to investigate the detailed characteristics...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A pedestrian serious injury risk prediction method based on posted speed limit
In this study, an optimal model based on the best combination of risk factors according to the Akaike information criterion (AIC) was developed. Additionally, a secondary GPS model using only crash site characteristics that can be derived from GPS coordinates from the crash scene was also developed. The optimal model is based on site and environmental conditions that could be derived from GPS data (posted speed limit, distance from crash site, natural lighting conditions, road geometry, road horizontal alignment and road vertical alignment) as well as pedestrian age/gender, driver age/gender and vehicle model year. The sec...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Gap acceptance probability model for pedestrians at unsignalized mid-block crosswalks based on logistic regression
Publication date: August 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 129Author(s): Jing Zhao, Jairus Odawa Malenje, Yu Tang, Yin HanAbstractGap acceptance represents a pedestrian’s assessment of how safe it may be to use an available gap in traffic flow at a particular point in time. Though walking is a major component of urban mobility, the high rate of fatal interaction with motor vehicle traffic raises safety issues around how pedestrians decide to accept the available gap. This paper explored these interactions by modeling gap acceptance behavior at the midblock crosswalks. Unlike other pedestrian gap ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Sleepy driving and risk of obstructive sleep apnea among truck drivers in Saudi Arabia.
Conclusions: Sleepy driving and a high risk of OSA was prevalent among the study population of male truck drivers in Saudi Arabia. Not getting good-quality sleep and driving experience from 6 to 10 years contributes to the accident risk among these truck drivers. PMID: 31120335 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Alahmari MD, Alanazi TM, Batawi AA, Al-Osaimi EA, Alrabeeah S, Jebakumar Z, Olaish AH, Almeneessier AS, BaHammam AS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Traverses, delays and fatalities at railway level crossings in Great Britain
Publication date: August 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 129Author(s): Andrew W. Evans, Peter HughesAbstractThis paper investigates relationships between traverses, delays and fatalities to road users at railway level crossings in Great Britain. A ‘traverse’ means a passage across a level crossing by a road user, who may be a pedestrian, cyclist, or occupant of a road vehicle. The paper finds that the road users with the highest fatality rate per traverse are pedestrians at passive crossings. Their rate is about three orders of magnitude higher than that of users with the lowest risk, who...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Roadside design assessment in an urban, low-density environment in the Gulf Cooperation Council region.
CONCLUSIONS: Significant revision of the existing roadside design not only in the area studied but throughout the UAE is recommended. The authors propose measures that may be useful in making roadside design in the area studied better align with the benchmark requirements. PMID: 31112427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Albuquerque FDB, Awadalla DM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving while impaired by alcohol: An analysis of drink-drivers involved in UK collisions.
CONCLUSIONS: The outcome is a more nuanced understanding of drivers contributing to drink-related crashes in the UK. The study concludes by discussing the implications for governments and other interested bodies for better targeting and delivery of public education campaigns and interventions. PMID: 31112416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Owen R, Ursachi G, Fosdick T, Horodnic AV Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effects of cognitive distraction on speed control in curve negotiation.
CONCLUSIONS: The impairment due to cognitive distraction was confirmed in this study but was only significant at a high level of cognitive distraction. The highly distracted drivers failed to perceive the curve in advance, resulting in a slower response to changes in the roadway. The findings indicate that acceleration may be an indicator of cognitive distraction while negotiating curves. A driver is prone to cognitive distraction and the driving performance is affected when driving requires excessive attention such as curve negotiation. PMID: 31112415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fu R, Zhou Y, Yuan W, Han T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Factors associated with driving under the influence of alcohol.
CONCLUSIONS: Following the development of the logistic prediction models for DUI drivers, testing of the model was conducted for 3 control driver groups: Car, motorcycle, and bicycle. The prediction model with a probability greater than 50% showed that 77% of car drivers were under the influence of alcohol. Similarly, the prediction percentage for motorcyclists and bicyclists amounted to 71 and 67%, respectively. The recommendation of the study is that drivers whose DUI probability is above 50% should be potentially suspected of DUI. The results of this study can help to understand the problem of DUI among specific driver ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Smailović E, Lipovac K, Pešić D, Antić B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A novel speed model for safety evaluation of freeway alignment in Euclidean 3D space.
CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that there is a clear correlation between velocity and spatial curvature, which is proved by variance analysis. The estimation results of the speed models are reliable as tested using a real engineering example. The study would provide a scientific basis for safety evaluation of freeway alignment. PMID: 31112395 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wang X, Pu H, Yao J, Yan Y, Li X, Zeng Z Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effects of globally obtained informative priors on bayesian safety performance functions developed for Australian crash data
This study aims to examine the effects of globally informative priors and their distribution types on the precision and bias of SPFs developed for Australian crash data. To formulate and develop global informative priors, the means and variances of parameter estimates from previous research were critically reviewed. Informative priors were generated using three methods: 1) distribution fitting, 2) endogenous specification of dispersion parameters, and 3) hypothetically increasing the strength of priors obtained from distribution fitting. In so doing, the mean effects of crash contributing factors across the world are signi...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A forward collision avoidance algorithm based on driver braking behavior
Publication date: August 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 129Author(s): Xiaoxia Xiong, Meng Wang, Yingfeng Cai, Long Chen, Haneen Farah, Marjan HagenziekerAbstractMeasuring risk is critical for collision avoidance. The paper aims to develop an online risk level classification algorithm for forward collision avoidance systems. Assuming risk levels are reflected by braking profiles, deceleration curves from critical evasive braking events from the Virginia “100-car” database were first extracted. The curves are then clustered into different risk levels based on spectrum clustering, using cur...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Exploring causes and effects of automated vehicle disengagement using statistical modeling and classification tree based on field test data
Publication date: August 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 129Author(s): Song Wang, Zhixia LiAbstractAutomated vehicles (AV) testing on the public roads is ongoing in several states in the US as well as in Europe and Asia. As long as the automated vehicle technology has not achieved full automation (Level 5), human drivers are still expected to take over the steering wheel and throttles when there is an automated vehicle disengagement. However, contributing factors and the mechanism about automated vehicle-initiated disengagement has not been quantitatively and comprehensively explored and investigated...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: July 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 128Author(s): (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

In response to: A letter to the Editor re: Loftis et al, 'Evolution of the Abbreviated Injury Scale: 1990-2015' from Mr. Palmer.
PMID: 31095427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 16, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Loftis KL, Price J, Gillich PJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Abbreviated Injury Scale is well described: A letter to the Editor re: Loftis et  al., "Evolution of the Abbreviated Injury Scale: 1990-2015".
CONCLUSIONS: The changes that have been successively introduced to the AIS since 1990 have been well documented, and validated strategies to enable registries to adjust for AIS change are well established. However, further research into the effects of adopting the latest (2015) AIS version is encouraged. PMID: 31095419 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 16, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Palmer CS, Tohira H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Age-related differences in the perception of gap affordances: Impact of standardized action capabilities on road-crossing judgements
Publication date: August 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 129Author(s): James Stafford, Caroline Whyatt, Cathy M. CraigAbstractRecent road-crossing literature has found that older adults show performance differences between estimation and perception-action tasks suggesting an age-related difficulty in accurately calibrating the information picked up from the surrounding environment to their action capabilities (Lobjois and Cavallo, 2009). The present study investigated whether participants could accurately perceive gap affordances via information that specifies the time-to-arrival of the approaching c...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

An approach for evaluating the effectiveness of traffic guide signs at intersections
In this study, a generic approach is developed to examine and evaluate the effectiveness of traffic guide signs using simulation experiments. A traffic guide sign evaluation method (TGSEM) is developed and illustrated using examples of traffic guide sign schemes in suburban Beijing. The questionnaires showed that most drivers feel that the current traffic guide signs in suburban Beijing are insufficient and need to be rectified. Then, simulation experiments were conducted. Based on subjective experiments, the ergonomic evaluation model (DCI, the abbreviation of demand, comprehension, and information volume) was obtained. O...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A marginalized random effects hurdle negative binomial model for analyzing refined-scale crash frequency data
In this study, a marginalized random effects hurdle negative binomial (MREHNB) model was developed in which the hurdle modelling structure handles the excessive zeros issue and site-specific random effect terms capture the factors associated with unobserved heterogeneity. Moreover, the marginalized inference approach was first introduced here to obtain the marginal mean inference for the overall population rather than subject-specific estimations. Empirical analyses were conducted based on data from the Shanghai urban expressway system, and the MREHNB model was compared with the HNB (hurdle negative binomial) and the REHNB...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - May 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Evaluating the impact of criminalizing drunk driving on years of life lost due to road traffic deaths in one megacity, China.
CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that the law can lead to a reduction in YLL due to RTDs in Tianjin, China. Large immediate public health benefits resulted from the new road traffic law in China. YLL provides a complementary measure for examining the effect of criminalization on drunk driving RTDs. PMID: 31081701 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Xiong X, Wang Z, Xu R, Li G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An analysis of factors influencing accidents on road bridges in Norway
Publication date: August 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 129Author(s): Rune Elvik, Fridulv Sagberg, Per Andreas LangelandAbstractFactors explaining systematic variation in the number of injury accidents on road bridges in Norway during 2010–2016 have been identified by means of negative binomial regression models. A total of 6824 bridges recording in total 1368 accidents were included. Although almost 90% of the bridges recorded zero accidents, there is no evidence of an excessive number of zeros, often referred to as “zero-inflation”. Traffic volume, stated as AADT (Annual Average ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A semi-automated tool for identifying agricultural roadway crashes in crash narratives.
CONCLUSION: This article provides information on how crash narratives can supplement structured crash data. It also provides an easy-to-implement method to facilitate incorporating narratives into safety research along with keyword lists for identifying agricultural crashes. PMID: 31074650 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Trueblood AB, Pant A, Kim J, Kum HC, Perez M, Das S, Shipp EM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Low-velocity motor vehicle collision characteristics associated with claimed low back pain.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this investigation provide knowledge of collision characteristics that can be employed in future studies on the mechanisms of low back injury in low-speed motor vehicle collisions. PMID: 31074647 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fewster KM, Parkinson RJ, Callaghan JP Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A clustering approach to integrate traffic safety in road maintenance prioritization.
CONCLUSIONS: We find that focusing solely on road maintenance and crash severity does not provide clear guidance of how to prioritize between road maintenance efforts from a traffic safety perspective. However, when combined with geographical location and crash characteristics, a more nuanced picture appears that allows consideration of different target groups and perspectives. PMID: 31074635 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Janstrup KH, Møller M, Pilegaard N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Exploring relationships between observed activation rates and functional attributes of lane departure prevention.
CONCLUSION: The study identified functional characteristics (i.e., timing of steering input, prevention of departures more than 35 cm) of lane departure prevention systems that were strongly associated with observed activation of these systems in privately owned vehicles. Although this relationship does not imply causation, the findings support the hypothesis that functional characteristics of lane departure prevention systems affect their use. Designers may be able to use these results to maximize driver acceptance of future implementations of lane departure prevention. PMID: 31074631 [PubMed - as supplied by ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Reagan IJ, Cicchino JB, Montalbano CJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A screening tool for occupations requiring a high level of attentional performance
Publication date: July 2019Source: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 72Author(s): Ying-Yin Huang, Marino Menozzi, Caroline FaveyAbstractVigilance tasks with a high level of attentional demand are becoming more frequent in daily work. High levels of attentional demand are required in critical systems, such as air traffic control, crowd monitoring, visual quality inspection, or sports.In a previous study, we introduced an ecologically valid test for screening visual attention in the general working population. The test requires participants to complete a visual search task at a moderate level of difficul...
Source: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics - May 8, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Could wearing motorcycle protective clothing compromise rider safety in hot weather?
Publication date: July 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 128Author(s): Liz de RomeAbstractMotorcycle protective clothing (PPE) effectively reduces the risk of injury in crashes, however in hot conditions many motorcyclists ride unprotected. Recent work found available motorcycle PPE to be thermally inefficient in hot weather with potential to cause significant thermal strain under average Australian summer conditions. The current study investigated the potential for the cognitive and psychophysical concomitants of thermal strain to compromise reaction times, mood and fatigue with potential consequences...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A vehicle speed harmonization strategy for minimizing inter-vehicle crash risks
This study proposes a novel vehicle speed control strategy to minimize inter-vehicle crash risks in automated driving environments. The proposed methodology consists of the following three components: a risk estimation module, a risk map construction module, and a vehicle speed control module. The essence of the proposed strategy is to adjust the subject vehicle speed based on an analysis of the interactions among a subject vehicle and the surrounding vehicles. Crash risks are quantified by a fault tree analysis (FTA) method to integrate the crash occurrence potential and crash severity at every time step. A crash risk map...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Adaptive forward collision warnings: The impact of imperfect technology on behavioral adaptation, warning effectiveness and acceptance
Publication date: July 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 128Author(s): Katharina Reinmueller, Marco SteinhauserAbstractAdaptive ADAS that adjust warnings according to the driver´s current need for support offer a great potential to increase safety. However, it is crucial to understand how drivers deal with dynamically adapting technologies particularly in situations in which driver state monitoring fails and the system shows unexpected behavior. To better understand the consequences of unreliable adaptive ADAS on safety and to assess how failures of an adaptive FCW influence driving behavior, we ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Motorcycle active safety systems: Assessment of the function and applicability using a population-based crash data set.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that ABS, alone and in combination with other safety systems, has the potential to mitigate or possibly prevent a high percentage of PTW crashes in the considered setting. Other safety systems can influence different crash scenarios and are also recommended. Given the high cost of motorcycle crashes and the increasing number of PTW safety technologies, the proposed approach can be used to inform the process of selection of the most suitable interventions to improve PTW safety. PMID: 31059290 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Savino G, Pierini M, Fitzharris M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The effects of driver fatigue, gender, and distracted driving on perceived and observed aggressive driving behavior: A correlated grouped random parameters bivariate probit approach
This study aims to provide further insights in the variations of these two behavioral components arising from driver’s fatigue, gender as well as internal and external distractions (such as, rushing to destination, listening to music and solving logical problems) during the driving task. To identify how the factors determining perceived and observed aggressive behavior may vary across groups of drivers associated with such sources of aggressive driving, survey and simulation data are statistically analyzed. Separate models of perceived and observed aggressive driving behavior are estimated for fatigued and non-fatigu...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - May 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Effects of connected vehicle-based variable speed limit under different foggy conditions based on simulated driving
This study aims to quantify the effectiveness of the CV-VSL application by exploring drivers’ reactions to warnings (e.g., recommended travel speeds). In order to analyze the effectiveness of the CV-VSL application, a connected vehicle testing platform was established based on a driving simulator, and characteristics of the drivers’ speed adjustments after receiving warnings were analyzed with respect to different levels of visibility (i.e., no fog, slight fog, and heavy fog). This study also examined the effect of warnings on drivers in different impact zones (i.e., clear zone, transition zone, and fog zone). ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Evaluation of cooperative systems on driver behavior in heavy fog condition based on a driving simulator
This study divided the analyzed road into three different zones (clear zone, transition zone, and fog zone) according to visibility levels. Then, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted, and the effects of drivers’ individual characteristics on driving behavior were also investigated. Moreover, the linear mixed model with random effects was estimated to consider the contributing factors of the drivers’ speed adjustment behaviors. In addition, the standard deviation of speed, TET (time exposed time-to-collision), and TIT (time integrated time-to-collision) were selected to evaluate the longitudi...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Evaluation of a hospital-based injury surveillance system for monitoring road traffic deaths in Phuket, Thailand.
CONCLUSION: An efficient and comprehensive road traffic injury and death surveillance system is critical for monitoring Phuket's road traffic burden. The hospital-based IS system is a useful system for monitoring road traffic deaths and assessing risk behaviors. However, the complexity of data collection and limited coverage hinders the ability of IS to fully represent road traffic deaths in Phuket Province. Combining data sources could improve coverage and should be considered. PMID: 31050566 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nittayasoot N, Peterson AB, Thammawijaya P, Parker EM, Sathawornwiwat A, Boonthanapat N, Chantian T, Voradetwitaya L, Jiraphongsa C, Sagarasaeranee O, Sansilapin C, Rattanathamsakul T, Ketgudee L, Tantiworrawit P Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pattern of road traffic crash hot zones versus probable hot zones in Tunisia: A geospatial analysis
This study examines the stability of the performance of two spatial autocorrelation measures on the basis of a Road Safety Risk Index (RSRI) through the comparison of the results for three regions (North-West, Center-East, and Center-West) and for three time periods (2002–2005, 2006–2009 and 2010–2013) in Tunisia. Our study differs from others in that it discusses the identification of probable hot zones and enhances the capability to examine a given highway by determining “dangerous probable lengths”, which aims to anticipate the traffic crashes in the future. The identified hot zones and pro...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Street-crossing workload in young and older pedestrians
Publication date: July 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 128Author(s): Aurélie DommesAbstractAlthough several studies have sought to identify both gap-acceptance difficulties with aging and gait differences, few have examined the extent to which crossing the street is physically and cognitively demanding for older pedestrians, in such a way that street crossing can be seen as a dual task. To gain insight into this issue, this study reports an experiment with 15 young (ages 19–26), 19 younger-old (ages 60–72), and 21 older-old (ages 73–82) adults. The participants carried out th...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - April 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Modeling correlation and heterogeneity in crash rates by collision types using full bayesian random parameters multivariate Tobit model
Publication date: July 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 128Author(s): Yanyong Guo, Zhibin Li, Pan Liu, Yao WuAbstractCrashes present different collision types. There usually exist unobserved risk factors which could jointly affect crash rates of different types, resulting in correlation and heterogeneity issues across observations. The primary objective of the study is to propose a novel random parameters multivariate Tobit (RPMV-Tobit) model for evaluating risk factors on crash rates of different collision types. Crash data from 367 freeway diverge areas in a three-year period were obtained for model...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - April 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Quantifying driver cell phone use at signalized intersections using software-defined radio.
CONCLUSIONS: Once characterized, the frequency of driver cell phone use can be used to justify changes to signal timing protocols. These adjustments could include extending the signal's "all-red time" or holding "yellow time" longer in order to properly clear the intersection. These data can also be used to identify locations that may require more enforcement measures to dissuade driver cell phone use. Furthermore, the impact of anti-cell phone campaigns or new laws can be quantified by measuring before and after cell phone use in the near term rather than waiting for crash studies at intersections to b...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Brennan TM, Jesson JE, Furlanetto PGA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

First evaluation of the possibility of testing for drugged driving using exhaled breath sampling.
CONCLUSION: The promising results from this study provide support to exhaled breath as a viable specimen for testing of drugged driving. The rapid, easy, and convenient sampling procedure offers the possibility to collect a drug test specimen at the roadside. The analytical investigation must be done in a laboratory at present because of the need for a highly sensitive instrument, which is already in use in forensic laboratories. The analytical work is not more challenging than for blood or oral fluid and should not cause an increase in cost. However, more studies need to be done before exhaled breath drug testing can be a...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Beck O, Ullah S, Kronstrand R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effect of alcohol use on accelerating and braking behaviors of drivers.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study revealed that drivers tend to be more aggressive and impulsive under the influence of alcohol, which deteriorates their driving performance. Impairment in accelerating and braking behaviors of drivers under the influence of alcohol leads to increased crash probabilities. The conclusions may provide reference in making countermeasures against drinking and driving and contribute to traffic safety. PMID: 31039040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yadav AK, Velaga NR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Gap acceptance behavior at unsignalized intersections: Effects of using a phone and a music player while driving.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results suggest that drivers are more likely to adopt a compensatory measure in complex driving situations only if they perceive a high risk. Hence, drivers are exposed to a greater risk while operating a music player, because this is not perceived as risky behavior. PMID: 31039038 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Choudhary P, Velaga NR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Organizational networks in road safety: Case studies of U.S. Vision Zero cities.
CONCLUSIONS: Organizational network analyses, enriched with coalition member interviews, can elucidate key aspects of coalition creation, attributes, and relationship structure. The case studies of leading VZ coalition networks presented here highlight the use of these tools. Ultimately, understanding associations between VZ network structures and attributes and road safety outcomes could help inform effective coalition adoption, implementation, and maintenance to optimize safety outcomes. PMID: 31039036 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Naumann RB, Heiny S, Evenson KR, LaJeunesse S, Cooper JF, Doggett S, Marshall SW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A safety analysis of roundabouts and turbo roundabouts based on Petri nets.
CONCLUSIONS: The reduced complexity of the turbo roundabout is due to the strict limitations in lane changes, turning turbo roundabouts into a safer model: A lower number of possible movements that can be performed by drivers and a smaller number of trajectories with collision risk. Petri nets have proven to be perfectly applicable to the representation of traffic circular systems (such as roundabouts and turbo roundabouts) and to measure the complexity and security of the system. PMID: 31039035 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Balado J, Díaz-Vilariño L, Arias P, Novo A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Identification of critical causes of construction accidents in China using a model based on system thinking and case analysis
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2019Source: Safety ScienceAuthor(s): Wei Zhang, Shuangna Zhu, Xiao Zhang, Tingsheng ZhaoAbstractHundreds of accidents occur each year in the construction industry and result in large numbers of injuries, deaths, and loss of property. Although construction safety management aims for zero accidents, this is difficult to achieve because of multiple factors influencing the occurrence of accidents. To clarify the framework for construction accident prevention, this study uses accident causation theory and the system thinking method to build a construction accident causation system (CA...
Source: Safety Science - April 29, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of the effectiveness of traffic calming measures on vehicle speeds and pedestrian injury severity in Ghana.
CONCLUSION: It was clearly evident that traffic calming devices reduce vehicular speeds and, thus, the incidence and severity of pedestrian injuries in built-up areas in Ghana. However, the fact that they are deployed on arterial roads is increasingly becoming a road safety concern. Given the emerging safety challenges associated with speed calming measures, we recommend that their use be restricted to residential streets but not on arterial roads. Long-term solutions for improving pedestrian safety proposed herein include bypassing settlements along the highways to reduce pedestrians' exposure to traffic collisions and ad...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Damsere-Derry J, Ebel BE, Mock CN, Afukaar F, Donkor P, Kalowole TO Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Street-crossing workload in young and older pedestrians.
Abstract Although several studies have sought to identify both gap-acceptance difficulties with aging and gait differences, few have examined the extent to which crossing the street is physically and cognitively demanding for older pedestrians, in such a way that street crossing can be seen as a dual task. To gain insight into this issue, this study reports an experiment with 15 young (ages 19-26), 19 younger-old (ages 60-72), and 21 older-old (ages 73-82) adults. The participants carried out three tasks: (i) a simple walking task, (ii) a dual task involving walking while scanning (walking while pressing a button ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Dommes A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Modeling correlation and heterogeneity in crash rates by collision types using full bayesian random parameters multivariate Tobit model.
Abstract Crashes present different collision types. There usually exist unobserved risk factors which could jointly affect crash rates of different types, resulting in correlation and heterogeneity issues across observations. The primary objective of the study is to propose a novel random parameters multivariate Tobit (RPMV-Tobit) model for evaluating risk factors on crash rates of different collision types. Crash data from 367 freeway diverge areas in a three-year period were obtained for modeling. Three major types of collisions including rear-end, sideswipe, and angle collisions were considered. The RPMV-Tobit ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Guo Y, Li Z, Liu P, Wu Y Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The relationship between sleep quality and lifestyle in postmenopausal Iranian women: a cross-sectional study.
This study aimed to determine the relationship between sleep quality and lifestyle factors in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women (n = 252) in Ahvaz, Iran with an age range of 45-55 years, were enrolled from April to December 2015. The study tools included the Lifestyle Questionnaire (LSQ) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The LSQ contains 10 lifestyle factors: physical health, physical activity, weight control and nutrition, psychological health, spiritual health, social health, medications and narcotics avoidance, illness prevention, accident prevention, and environmental health. Data were analyzed using, chi-sq...
Source: Women and Health - April 28, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Tadayon M, Ilkhani M, Abedi P, Haghighi Zadeh M Tags: Women Health Source Type: research

Are successful safety devices being used universally?
Authors: Forjuoh SN PMID: 31012374 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - April 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Real-time locating systems and safety in construction sites: A literature review
This study aims to conduct a systematic literature review to investigate predominant research streams, achievements, and limitations to the all existing applications of RTLS technology in construction safety management, and suggest potential areas for future research on the integration of RTLS applications into wider scopes of onsite safety management. The main contribution of this review lies on providing a more comprehensive knowledge of the current utilization and further development of RTLS applications on improving construction safety management. RTLSs have aided safety management process in eight major research strea...
Source: Safety Science - April 25, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research