The utility of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) measures obtained from oral fluid samples in traffic safety.
Conclusions: The findings of this study are based on THC measures obtained in a laboratory, which may not be the same as those conducted by police using point-of-care devices. However, this study is unique due to its large sample of drivers obtained in similar roadside locations and times to actual law enforcement activities. Though a positive THCOF may assist law enforcement in probable cause for a blood draw, efforts to develop reliable methods to detect drug impairment based on OF should continue. PMID: 31356118 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Romano E, Moore C, Kelley-Baker T, Torres-Saavedra PA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Factors affecting use and nonuse of child safety car seats in Gorgan, Iran.
Conclusion: Special instructions should be developed to create incentive strategies for using a child safety seat. Mandating the use of a child safety seat, equipping cars with a child safety seat, encouraging children to use it, and providing continuous education and training are important factors for increasing the use of child safety seats. PMID: 31356109 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tavakoli Z, Davoodi SR, Azimmohseni M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characteristics of pedestrian head injuries observed from real world collision data.
Abstract Head injury is one of the most common injury types in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions, which leads to death and long-term disabilities. However, detailed analysis of pedestrian head injuries in real world collisions is scarce. Thus the current study used two samples of 120 cases and 184 cases extracted from 1060 pedestrian collision cases captured during 2000-2015 from the GIDAS (German In-Depth-Accident Study) database to investigate the detailed characteristics of AIS2+ pedestrian head injuries. Firstly, the interrelationship between different head injury types (skull fracture, focal brain injury, conc...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - July 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Li G, Wang F, Otte D, Simms C Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Taxicab crashes modeling with informative spatial autocorrelation
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Qingyu Ma, Hong Yang, Kun Xie, Zhenyu Wang, Xianbiao HuAbstractMaintaining taxi safety is one of the important goals of operating urban transportation systems. Taxicabs are often prone to higher crash risk due to their long-time exposure to the complicated and dynamic traffic environments in urban areas. Despite existing efforts in understanding the safety issues associated with these vehicles, there were still few attempts that have specifically examined the relationship between taxi-involved crashes and other multifaceted contr...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A full Bayes approach for traffic conflict-based before–after safety evaluation using extreme value theory
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Lai Zheng, Tarek SayedAbstractA full Bayes approach is proposed for traffic conflict-based before-after safety evaluations using extreme value theory. The approach combines traffic conflicts of different sites and periods and develops a uniform generalized extreme value (GEV) model for the treatment effect estimation. Moreover, a hierarchical Bayesian structure is used to link possible covariates to GEV parameters and to account for unobserved heterogeneity among different sites. The proposed approach was applied to evaluate the ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Investigating injury severities of motorcycle riders: A two-step method integrating latent class cluster analysis and random parameters logit model
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Fangrong Chang, Pengpeng Xu, Hanchu Zhou, Alan H.S. Chan, Helai HuangAbstractDue to the wide existence of heterogeneous nature in traffic safety data, traditional methods used to investigate motorcyclist rider injury severity always lead to masking of some underlying relationships which may be critical for the formulation of efficient safety countermeasures. Instead of applying one single model to the whole dataset or focusing on pre-defined crash types as done in previous studies, the present study proposes a two-step method int...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Modelling severity of pedestrian-injury in pedestrian-vehicle crashes with latent class clustering and partial proportional odds model: A case study of North Carolina
This study uses police reported pedestrian crash data collected from 2007 to 2014 in North Carolina, containing a variety of features of motorist, pedestrian, environmental, roadway characteristics. Parameter estimates and associated marginal effects are mainly used to interpret the models and evaluate the significance of each independent variable. Lastly, policy recommendations are made and future research directions are also given. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Traffic safety research in the 15th world conference on transport research.
Authors: Alhajyaseen W, Tiwari G PMID: 31328686 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - July 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

A simulator study of driving behavior and mental workload in mixed-use arterial road environments.
Conclusion: The findings provide insight into the interaction of road design elements in mixed-use urban road environments and demonstrate that increasingly complex environments increase driver demand. This has important road design implications for mixed-use arterial roads, which are often characterized by complex interactions between multiple road user groups. PMID: 31339360 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: O'Hern S, Stephan K, Qiu J, Oxley J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Association between higher-order driving instruction and risky driving behaviours: Exploring the mediating effects of a self-regulated safety orientation
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Natalie Watson-Brown, Bridie Scott-Parker, Teresa SenserrickAbstractAdolescents’ risky driving behaviours contribute to their over-representation in road trauma. Higher-order driving instruction is suggested to reduce such behaviours. To sustain positive behaviours in the long-term, self-determination theory identifies self-regulation as fundamental. The current research explored associations between higher-order driving instruction, risky driving behaviours, and a self-regulated safety orientation. Learner drivers (n =...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Implications of head and neck restraint test repeatability for specification improvement.
Conclusion: With the addition of common test setup constraints, which do not violate the specification, the SFI 38.1 test protocol produced a repeatable test process for determining performance capabilities of HNRs within a single sled lab. A limited study using polyester webbing seat belt assemblies versus the nylon material called for in SFI 38.1 indicates that the material likely has less effects on ATD upper neck axial force and flexion extension bending moment time histories than the test setup freedom currently available within the specification. The additional test setup constraints are discussed and were shown to i...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Patalak JP, Harper MG, Stitzel JD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Comparison of epidemiology and injury profile between vulnerable road users and motor vehicle occupants in road traffic fatalities.
This study aimed to compare VRUs and motor vehicle occupants (MVOs) in terms of epidemiology and injury profile. Methods: We utilized a nationwide, prospective database of RTI-related mortality cases for patients who visited 23 emergency departments between January 2011 and December 2015. All fatalities due to RTIs in the prehospital phase or in-hospital were eligible, excluding patients with unknown mode of transport and those admitted to general wards. The primary and secondary outcomes were fracture injuries and visceral injuries diagnosed using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). We c...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kim SC, Lee HJ, Kim JM, Kong SY, Park JS, Jeon HJ, In YN, Kim H, Lee SW, Kim YT Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving safety improves after individualized training: An RCT involving older drivers in an urban area.
Conclusion: This study adds to the growing evidence base in support of individualized older driver training to optimize older drivers' safety and promote continued safe driving. PMID: 31329470 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gagnon S, Stinchcombe A, Curtis M, Kateb M, Polgar J, Porter MM, Bédard M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

How safe are standard certified motorcycle safety helmets? Malaysian postal delivery riders scenario.
The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of motorcycle safety helmets (MSHs) used by postal delivery riders (PDRs) that comply with the Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia's (SIRIM) MSH standard guidelines and identify factors that contribute toward compliance of used MSHs with the standards. Methods: The presence of SIRIM certification label, the status of MSH, type of chinstrap, MSH crash history, and duration of MSH use were observed. The dependent variable was the results of the SIRIM testing procedures (SIRIM tests). MSHs that passed the SIRIM tests were considered "standard...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yellappan K, K C Mani K, Md Tamrin SB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Can real-life driving ability be predicted by the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test?
Conclusions: MWT results correlate poorly with driving performance in a 2-h test irrespective of sleep latency cutoff or added alpha/microsleep latency data. Better diagnostic tools are needed to evaluate driving performance in patients with EDS. PMID: 31329466 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Virtanen I, Järvinen J, Anttalainen U Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Suicide by crashing into a heavy vehicle: Focus on professional drivers using in-depth crash data.
Conclusions: Suicides by crashing into heavy vehicles can have an impact on drivers' well-being; however, it is difficult to see how heavy-vehicle drivers could avoid a suicide attempt involving their vehicle. PMID: 31329464 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Radun I, Parkkari I, Radun J, Kaistinen J, Kecklund G, Olivier J, Tervo T, Theorell T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Association between higher-order driving instruction and risky driving behaviours: Exploring the mediating effects of a self-regulated safety orientation.
Abstract Adolescents' risky driving behaviours contribute to their over-representation in road trauma. Higher-order driving instruction is suggested to reduce such behaviours. To sustain positive behaviours in the long-term, self-determination theory identifies self-regulation as fundamental. The current research explored associations between higher-order driving instruction, risky driving behaviours, and a self-regulated safety orientation. Learner drivers (n = 544), aged 16-19 years, responded to a 91-item survey. Self-regulated safety orientation was found to fully mediate the relationship between higher-or...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - July 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Watson-Brown N, Scott-Parker B, Senserrick T Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Working conditions and risk exposure of employees whose occupations require driving on public roads – Factorial analysis and classification
ConclusionAnalysis of data from the SUMER survey confirms that employees exposed to road risk are particularly affected by atypical work time characteristics, but can be found in all activity sectors and in all types of job. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The transportation safety of elderly pedestrians: Modeling contributing factors to elderly pedestrian collisions
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Dohyung KimAbstractFor the elderly, walking is an important, reliable mobility option, since the elderly frequently lose their physical and/or sensory ability to drive as their age increases. However, elderly pedestrians are vulnerable on the streets and are at great risk of injury or death, when involved in a collision. This is due to not only increased frailty but also such issues as reaction speed and confidence on the streets. Therefore, pedestrian safety for older adults is a growing concern. This paper comprehensively exami...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Evaluation of governmental safety regulatory functions in preventing major accidents in China
Publication date: December 2019Source: Safety Science, Volume 120Author(s): Yuan Gao, Yunxiao Fan, Jing Wang, Zhao DuanAbstractGovernmental safety regulatory functions play an important role in preventing major accidents by incorporating lessons from both the investigation of major accidents and the theory of system accident causation. However, to date, these functions have not been evaluated. In China, a unique aspect of accident prevention is that the government engages in macro-safety regulation. In this paper, the analysis process of the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) is applied to the Chinese safety regul...
Source: Safety Science - July 21, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Driver and road characteristics associated with child pedestrian injuries
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Liraz Fridman, Tona Pitt, Linda Rothman, Andrew Howard, Brent HagelAbstractBackgroundChild pedestrians make up a significant proportion of all road traffic deaths. Our primary objective was to examine the association of driver characteristics with child pedestrian injuries with a secondary objective to broadly describe the road characteristics surrounding these collisions.MethodsWe included drivers involved in child (
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The transportation safety of elderly pedestrians: Modeling contributing factors to elderly pedestrian collisions.
Abstract For the elderly, walking is an important, reliable mobility option, since the elderly frequently lose their physical and/or sensory ability to drive as their age increases. However, elderly pedestrians are vulnerable on the streets and are at great risk of injury or death, when involved in a collision. This is due to not only increased frailty but also such issues as reaction speed and confidence on the streets. Therefore, pedestrian safety for older adults is a growing concern. This paper comprehensively examines the relationship between physical conditions and elderly pedestrian safety at the intersecti...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - July 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kim D Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Working conditions and risk exposure of employees whose occupations require driving on public roads - Factorial analysis and classification.
CONCLUSION: Analysis of data from the SUMER survey confirms that employees exposed to road risk are particularly affected by atypical work time characteristics, but can be found in all activity sectors and in all types of job. PMID: 31336313 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - July 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fort E, Gadegbeku B, Gat E, Pelissier C, Hours M, Charbotel B Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Driver and road characteristics associated with child pedestrian injuries.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Child pedestrians make up a significant proportion of all road traffic deaths. Our primary objective was to examine the association of driver characteristics with child pedestrian injuries with a secondary objective to broadly describe the road characteristics surrounding these collisions. METHODS: We included drivers involved in child (
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - July 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fridman L, Pitt T, Rothman L, Howard A, Hagel B Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Is that move safe? Case study of cyclist movements at intersections with cycling discontinuities
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Matin S. Nabavi Niaki, Nicolas Saunier, Luis F. Miranda-MorenoAbstractThe cycling safety research literature has proposed methods to analyse safety and case studies to better understand the factors that lead to cyclist crashes. Surrogate measures of safety (SMoS) are being used as a proactive approach to identify severe interactions that do not result in an accident and interpreting them for a safety diagnosis. While most cyclist studies adopting SMoS have evaluated interactions by counting the total number of severe events per l...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Explaining crash modification factors: Why it’s needed and how it might be done
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Gary A. DavisAbstractAlthough the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) now provides empirical tools for predicting the safety consequences of highway engineering decisions, these tools represent the driver and vehicle conditions prevailing in the United States during the last few decades. As automated vehicles improve in capability and increase in market share these conditions will change, possibly reducing the accuracy of HSM predictions. Assessing the transferability of a crash modification factor to new situations almost certainly requ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 18, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Pedestrian overpass use and its relationships with digital and social distractions, and overpass characteristics
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Long T. Truong, Hang T.T. Nguyen, Hien D. Nguyen, Hung V. VuAbstractPedestrian deaths and injuries are a major health issue in both developed and developing countries. In Vietnam, pedestrians account for about 10–11% of all road traffic deaths, while their travel distance contributes to approximately 2.4% of the total distance travelled by all modes. This paper aims to explore the use of pedestrian overpasses and identify influencing factors, particularly with regards to social and digital distractions, and overpass charact...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 18, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Is that move safe? Case study of cyclist movements at intersections with cycling discontinuities.
Abstract The cycling safety research literature has proposed methods to analyse safety and case studies to better understand the factors that lead to cyclist crashes. Surrogate measures of safety (SMoS) are being used as a proactive approach to identify severe interactions that do not result in an accident and interpreting them for a safety diagnosis. While most cyclist studies adopting SMoS have evaluated interactions by counting the total number of severe events per location, only a few have focused on the interactions between general directions of movement e.g. through cyclists and right turning vehicles. Howev...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - July 18, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nabavi Niaki MS, Saunier N, Miranda-Moreno LF Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Dual-target hazard perception: Could identifying one hazard hinder a driver’s capacity to find a second?
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Robert J. Sall, Jing FengAbstractLow-level cognitive processes like visual search are crucial for hazard detection. In dual-target searches, subsequent search misses (SSMs) are known to occur when the identification of one target impedes detection of another that is concurrently presented. Despite the high likelihood of concurrent hazards in busy driving environments, SSMs have not been empirically investigated in driving. In three studies, participants were asked to identify safety-related target(s) in simulated traffic scenes t...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Explaining crash modification factors: Why it's needed and how it might be done.
Abstract Although the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) now provides empirical tools for predicting the safety consequences of highway engineering decisions, these tools represent the driver and vehicle conditions prevailing in the United States during the last few decades. As automated vehicles improve in capability and increase in market share these conditions will change, possibly reducing the accuracy of HSM predictions. Assessing the transferability of a crash modification factor to new situations almost certainly requires an explanation of how the modification achieves its effect, but at present there is little gu...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - July 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Davis GA Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Pedestrian overpass use and its relationships with digital and social distractions, and overpass characteristics.
Abstract Pedestrian deaths and injuries are a major health issue in both developed and developing countries. In Vietnam, pedestrians account for about 10-11% of all road traffic deaths, while their travel distance contributes to approximately 2.4% of the total distance travelled by all modes. This paper aims to explore the use of pedestrian overpasses and identify influencing factors, particularly with regards to social and digital distractions, and overpass characteristics. An observational survey was conducted in Hanoi, Vietnam, in March 2017 at ten pedestrian overpasses. Behaviours of 608 pedestrians, including...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - July 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Truong LT, Nguyen HTT, Nguyen HD, Vu HV Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Dual-target hazard perception: Could identifying one hazard hinder a driver's capacity to find a second?
Abstract Low-level cognitive processes like visual search are crucial for hazard detection. In dual-target searches, subsequent search misses (SSMs) are known to occur when the identification of one target impedes detection of another that is concurrently presented. Despite the high likelihood of concurrent hazards in busy driving environments, SSMs have not been empirically investigated in driving. In three studies, participants were asked to identify safety-related target(s) in simulated traffic scenes that contained zero, one, or two target(s) of low or high perceptual saliency. These targets were defined as ob...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - July 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sall RJ, Feng J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Driver-related risk factors of fatal road traffic crashes associated with alcohol or drug impairment
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Anja Valen, Stig Tore Bogstrand, Vigdis Vindenes, Joachim Frost, Magnus Larsson, Anders Holtan, Hallvard GjerdeAbstractFatal road traffic crashes are often related to speeding, non-use of a seatbelt, and alcohol/drug-impaired driving. The aim of this study was to examine associations between driving under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol and driver-related risk factors that have been reported as significantly contributing causes of fatal road traffic crashes. The data were extracted from Norwegian road traffic crash registri...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A driving simulation study to examine the impact of available sight distance on driver behavior along rural highways
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): M. Bassani, L. Catani, A. Salussolia, C.Y.D. YangAbstractThe available sight distance (ASD) is the maximum length of the roadway ahead visible to the driver. It is a fundamental factor in road geometry principles and is used by road designers to ensure safe driving conditions. However, designers do not know how a specific ASD may affect the longitudinal and transversal behavior of drivers engaged in negotiating curves.This paper focuses on analyzing driver longitudinal behavior along rural highways curves with limited visibility....
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

An exploratory investigation of public perceptions towards safety and security from the future use of flying cars in the united states
This study aims at investigating public perceptions towards the safety and security implications that will arise after the future introduction of flying cars in the traffic fleet. In this context, we focus on individuals’ opinions about possible safety benefits and concerns as well as about policy measures that can potentially enhance the security of flying car. Due to the emergent nature and lack of public exposure of this technology, individuals’ perceptions and opinions regarding flying cars might be subject to several layers of unobserved heterogeneity, such as shared unobserved variations across interrelat...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - July 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

In a heart beat: Using driver’s physiological changes to determine the quality of a takeover in highly automated vehicles
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Mohamed Taher Alrefaie, Stever Summerskill, Thomas W JackonAbstractDeveloping conditionally automated driving systems is on the rise. Vehicles with full longitudinal and latitudinal control will allow drivers to engage in secondary tasks without monitoring the roadway, but users may be required to resume vehicle control to handle critical hazards. The loss of driver’s situational awareness increases the potential for accidents. Thus, the automated systems need to estimate the driver’s ability to resume control of the ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A driving simulation study to examine the impact of available sight distance on driver behavior along rural highways.
Abstract The available sight distance (ASD) is the maximum length of the roadway ahead visible to the driver. It is a fundamental factor in road geometry principles and is used by road designers to ensure safe driving conditions. However, designers do not know how a specific ASD may affect the longitudinal and transversal behavior of drivers engaged in negotiating curves. This paper focuses on analyzing driver longitudinal behavior along rural highways curves with limited visibility. A number of virtual sight condition scenarios were recreated and tested in the driving simulator. Three tracks were designed with va...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - July 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bassani M, Catani L, Salussolia A, Yang CYD Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Driver-related risk factors of fatal road traffic crashes associated with alcohol or drug impairment.
Abstract Fatal road traffic crashes are often related to speeding, non-use of a seatbelt, and alcohol/drug-impaired driving. The aim of this study was to examine associations between driving under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol and driver-related risk factors that have been reported as significantly contributing causes of fatal road traffic crashes. The data were extracted from Norwegian road traffic crash registries and forensic toxicology databases. Drug/alcohol investigated car and van drivers and motorcycle riders fatally injured in road traffic crashes in Norway during 2005-2015 were included in this s...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - July 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Valen A, Bogstrand ST, Vindenes V, Frost J, Larsson M, Holtan A, Gjerde H Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Using statistical modelling to analyze risk factors for severe and fatal road traffic accidents.
This study reaffirmed risk factors relating to severity of RTAs in the UK, but also established combinations of risk factors which led to the most severe outcomes allowing for targeting of accident-prevention measures. In addition, this study demonstrates the use of CART analysis which can be used in wider public health evaluations where multiple risk factors are at play. PMID: 31286842 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - July 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Driving behavior and road traffic crashes among professional and nonprofessional drivers in South Egypt.
This study aims to investigate the correlates with driving behaviors and road traffic crashes (RTCs) among professional and nonprofessional drivers in South Egypt. A total of 518 drivers (203 professional and 315 nonprofessional) were interviewed and their sociodemographic characteristics, driving habits, and RTC involvement during the preceding 2 years were documented. The Arabic version of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) was used to assess drivers' lapses, errors, and violations. The results showed that professional drivers had more lapses (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.54-5.96), errors (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.44-5.76), an...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - July 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

In a heart beat: Using driver's physiological changes to determine the quality of a takeover in highly automated vehicles.
Abstract Developing conditionally automated driving systems is on the rise. Vehicles with full longitudinal and latitudinal control will allow drivers to engage in secondary tasks without monitoring the roadway, but users may be required to resume vehicle control to handle critical hazards. The loss of driver's situational awareness increases the potential for accidents. Thus, the automated systems need to estimate the driver's ability to resume control of the driving task. The aim of this study was to assess the physiological behaviour (heart rate and pupil diameter) of drivers. The assessment was performed durin...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - July 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Alrefaie MT, Summerskill S, Jackon TW Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Trends and patterns in fatal US motorcycle crashes, 2000-2016.
Conclusion: Motorcycle fatality rates increased overall and across all age groups between 2000 and 2016. Fatalities for the oldest riders showed the steadiest increasing trends. Results highlight the continued public health burden of motorcyclist fatalities and, by extension, the importance of improving motorcycle safety. PMID: 31283363 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chaudhuri U, Ratnapradipa KL, Shen S, Rice TM, Smith GA, Zhu M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Automobile injury trends in the contemporary fleet: Belted occupants in frontal collisions.
Conclusions: For belted occupants in frontal collisions, substantial reductions in injury risk have been realized in many body regions in recent years. Risk reduction in the thorax has lagged other body regions, resulting in increasing prevalence among skeletal injuries in newer model year vehicles (especially in the elderly). Injuries also remain common in the arm and hand/wrist for all age ranges studied. These results provide insight into where advances in the field have made gains in occupant protection and what injury types remain to be addressed. PMID: 31283362 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Forman J, Poplin GS, Shaw CG, McMurry TL, Schmidt K, Ash J, Sunnevang C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Spatial analysis of mortality rate of pedestrian accidents in Iran during 2012-2013.
Conclusions: According to the cluster pattern of accidents in the 3 provinces and the presence of hot spots in 9 provinces, it is necessary to identify factors that increase the risk of death in the study provinces in order to reduce the mortality rate among pedestrians due to traffic accidents. Therefore, to reduce the pedestrian mortality rate, especially in high-risk provinces, some studies need to be conducted to determine the risk factors in pedestrian mortality. PMID: 31283359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hasani J, Erfanpoor S, Rajabi A, Barzegar A, Khodadoost M, Afkar M, Hashemi Nazari SS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Time-of-day variations and temporal instability of factors affecting injury severities in large-truck crashes
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2019Source: Analytic Methods in Accident ResearchAuthor(s): Ali Behnood, Fred L. ManneringAbstractUsing the data from large-truck crashes in Los Angeles over an eight-year period (January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2017), the variation in the influence of factors affecting injury severities during different time periods of the day (morning and afternoon) and from year to year is studied. To capture potential unobserved heterogeneity, random parameters logit models with heterogeneity in the means and variances of the random parameters were estimated considering three possible crash inj...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - July 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Development of pedestrian crash prediction model for a developing country using artificial neural network.
This study proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) technique to develop a pedestrian fatal crash frequency model at the intersection level. In this study, three activation functions are used along with four different learning algorithms to build different combinations of ANN models. In each of these combinations, the number of neurons in the hidden layer is varied by trial and error method, and the best results are considered. In this way, 12 sets of pedestrian fatal crash predictive models are developed. Out of these, Bayesian Regularization Neural Network consisting of 13 neurons in the hidden layer with 'hyperbolic ...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - July 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Animal-vehicle collisions in Texas: How to protect travelers and animals on roadways
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Devin C. Wilkins, Kara M. Kockelman, Nan JiangAbstractAnimal-vehicle collisions (AVCs) are a growing problem in the United States, resulting in countless loss of animal life and considerable human injury and death every year, especially to motorcyclists. Due to underreporting, collision data generally provide a very low (highly biased) estimate of actual AVC counts and often lack key details, such as the species of animals involved. However, AVC reports cover entire states and nations, and can illuminate differences in wild versu...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The effectiveness and influencing factors of a penalty point system in China from the perspective of risky driving behaviors
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Hongming Dong, Ning Jia, Junfang Tian, Shoufeng MaAbstractMany countries have adopted penalty point systems (PPS) to deter drivers from breaking traffic laws. To investigate the effectiveness of PPS on reducing illegal driving behavior, this study analyzed traffic violation data of a Chinese city in 2017. This analysis revealed that 1) risky driving behaviors (RDBs) are among the main causes of traffic violations and 2) almost half of the offenders with multiple violations committed the same traffic rule violations more than once...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - July 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The effectiveness and influencing factors of a penalty point system in China from the perspective of risky driving behaviors.
Abstract Many countries have adopted penalty point systems (PPS) to deter drivers from breaking traffic laws. To investigate the effectiveness of PPS on reducing illegal driving behavior, this study analyzed traffic violation data of a Chinese city in 2017. This analysis revealed that 1) risky driving behaviors (RDBs) are among the main causes of traffic violations and 2) almost half of the offenders with multiple violations committed the same traffic rule violations more than once. To further explain these phenomena, a survey in another Chinese city-Tianjin-was conducted. Considering the fact that most types of R...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - July 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Dong H, Jia N, Tian J, Ma S Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Animal-vehicle collisions in Texas: How to protect travelers and animals on roadways.
Abstract Animal-vehicle collisions (AVCs) are a growing problem in the United States, resulting in countless loss of animal life and considerable human injury and death every year, especially to motorcyclists. Due to underreporting, collision data generally provide a very low (highly biased) estimate of actual AVC counts and often lack key details, such as the species of animals involved. However, AVC reports cover entire states and nations, and can illuminate differences in wild versus domestic animal-vehicle collisions through statistical and spatial analysis. 51,522 animal-related crashes were reported to Texas...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - July 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wilkins DC, Kockelman KM, Jiang N Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research