Editorial Board
Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Prevalence of mortality in cannabis consumer motorcyclists: meta-analysis of international studies.
Authors: Asgarian FS, Namdari M, Soori H Abstract The purpose of this study was to estimate prevalence of mortality in cannabis consumer motorcyclists across the world. A systematic review was conducted from publications PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, Scopus, and Google Scholar from August 2010 to March2019. The variances of each study were calculated using the binomial distribution formula and the heterogeneity among the studies was analyzed by Q-Cochran test with a significant level less than 0.1 and the index of changes attributed to I2 heterogeneity. The prevalence of mortality in cannabis consum...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Post encroachment time threshold identification for right-turn related crashes at unsignalized intersections on intercity highways under mixed traffic.
Authors: Paul M, Ghosh I Abstract Unsignalized intersections in developing countries experience many serious conflicts between cross-traffic due to indiscipline traffic manoeuvrability. Historically, Post Encroachment Time (PET) has gained attention as a proximal indicator to analyze crossing conflicts. However, identifying an appropriate PET threshold to classify critical conflicts for highly heterogeneous traffic scenario is still an unexplored area. Consequently, this study proposes a novel approach of PET threshold identification with proof of application by collecting data from ten intersections located on fou...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Limitations of the European barrier crash testing regulation relating to occupant safety
Publication date: December 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 133Author(s): Jasper Chell, Carola Elea Brandani, Stefano Fraschetti, Joe Chakraverty, Valentina CamomillaAbstractThe safety of roadside restraint systems in Europe is ensured by the EN 1317 regulation. The ability of the barrier to mitigate injury to the occupants of vehicles is tested according to two occupant injury metrics: Acceleration Severity Index (ASI) and Theoretical Head Impact Velocity (THIV). Both metrics aim to predict occupant head injury from vehicle kinematics, despite the potential to easily measure actual head kinematics fr...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Analysis of the influence of human errors on the occurrence of coastal ship accidents in different wave conditions using Bayesian Belief Networks
Publication date: December 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 133Author(s): Pedro Antão, C. Guedes SoaresAbstractThe paper describes a study aiming to assess the human error contribution in ship accidents in different weather conditions and the contribution that high significant wave heights have in the occurrence of certain accident typologies. To this aim, a Bayesian Belief Network model is developed, which includes variables related to the maritime accident but also to the different wave conditions. For the quantification of the conditional probability tables the maritime accident database of ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Effect of visible presence of policing activities on drivers’ vigilance and intention to refrain from non-driving activities: A scenario-based survey of general Japanese drivers
Publication date: December 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 133Author(s): Yukako Nakano, Kazuko Okamura, Ritsu Kosuge, Makoto Kihira, Goro FujitaAbstractDriver distraction is an important issue for road safety. The visible presence of policing activities alongside roadways seems to be significant in preventing driver distraction and other unsafe driving behaviors. The purpose of this study was to provide evidence of the effectiveness of visible policing presence on drivers’ self-reported intention to refrain from non-driving activities and that this effectiveness can be enhanced by manipulating ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A Horvitz-type estimation on incomplete traffic accident data analyzed via a zero-inflated Poisson model
Publication date: Available online 24 September 2019Source: Accident Analysis & PreventionAuthor(s): Martin T. Lukusa, Frederick Kin Hing PhoaAbstractTo improve the road safety, policy makers relay on data analysis to enact new traffic policies. Accordingly, statistical modeling has been linked in various studies of road crash counts with excess zeros. On top of this excess zero problem, missing data are also likely to occur in the road traffic accident data. Unless the missing data are resulted randomly, the popular naive estimation may not provide reliable results for policy making. In contrast, the implementation of...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Structural equations modeling of real-time crash risk variation in car-following incorporating visual perceptual, vehicular, and roadway factors
This study also emphasized the possibility and the need of applying the line markings as a visual intervention to prevent the drivers from rear-end crashes on curves, which may provide new insights and be a new solution for roadway safety. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Underutilized strategies in traffic safety: Results of a nationally representative survey.
Conclusions: The results indicate that when drivers in the United States are given facts about certain strategies to reduce crash fatalities, the majority are in favor of the underutilized strategies. This information could be useful to legislators and highway safety officials in their decisions to implement these strategies. PMID: 31550179 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fell J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Validation of a simplified human body model in relaxed and braced conditions in low-speed frontal sled tests.
Conclusions: The results justify the need for use of an active human body model for predicting low-speed frontal kinematics, particularly in the braced condition. Head kinematics were reduced when using active modeling for all simulations (braced and relaxed). PMID: 31549531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Devane K, Johnson D, Gayzik FS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Bayesian hierarchical statistics for traffic safety modelling and forecasting.
In this study, a Bayesian hierarchical model was utilized for accident counts forecasting in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. This work will help traffic planners and decision makers to enhance road safety levels and decrease accident fatality rate. Accidents data along 5 years from 2008 to 2012 at 143 road sites in Abu Dhabi with 5,511 accidents were used. The proposed model considered a number of covariates; speed limit, type of road, number of lanes, type of area, weather, time, surface condition and seat belt usage. Five sites with the highest numbers of accidents were studied. Year 2012 was used to validate prediction...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Effects of personality traits and sociocognitive determinants on risky riding behaviors among Chinese e-bikers.
Conclusions: Personality traits of e-bikers impacted their riding behaviors both directly and indirectly, and sociocognitive variables played an intermediate role in the personality-behavior relationship. The results revealed the importance of personality traits in influencing e-bikers' risky riding and also verified the applicability of the personality-behavior model proposed by Ulleberg and Rundmo ( 2003 ) among e-bikers. The findings of this study may provide an empirical basis for evidence-based safety interventions for e-bikers in China. PMID: 31539283 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zheng Y, Ma Y, Cheng J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Submarining sensitivity across varied anthropometry in an autonomous driving system environment.
Conclusions: Submarining may be a major challenge to overcome for reclined occupants, which may become more prevalent with autonomous driving systems. This study shows that the angle of recline, anthropometric variation, and position of the knee bolster affect the risk of submarining. To our knowledge, this is the first study to computationally evaluate the occupant protection implications of seatback recline for multiple body sizes, postures, and positions relative to the vehicle interior. PMID: 31539280 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rawska K, Gepner B, Kulkarni S, Chastain K, Zhu J, Richardson R, Perez-Rapela D, Forman J, Kerrigan JR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effects of ethyl alcohol on injuries severity according to injury severity scales in pedestrian fatal injury in traffic crashes.
CONCLUSIONS: The studies show that ethyl alcohol concentration may harm injury severity, especially in the case of women. The assessment of the severity of injuries in traffic crash victims is significantly influenced by their age and gender. The more risk factors the scale takes into consideration, the more precise is the assessment. PMID: 31524049 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

[Unintentional injuries in childhood and adolescence-prevalence, locations, and mechanisms : Results from KiGGS Wave  2 and trends].
CONCLUSION: Injury risks in childhood and adolescence vary primarily according to age and gender, but also, for example, according to personal and environmental factors. Knowledge of such contextual conditions is of great importance for the development of prevention measures. Since the beginning of the KiGGS study, there have been hardly any changes and no decrease in unintentional injuries in childhood and adolescence. PMID: 31529185 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz)
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - September 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Saß AC, Kuhnert R, Gutsche J Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research

Estimating the avoidable burden and population attributable fraction of human risk factors of road traffic injuries in iran: application of penalization, bias reduction and sparse data analysis.
Authors: Bakhtiyari M, Mehmandar MR, Khezeli M, Latifi A, Jouybari TA, Mansournia MA Abstract The aim of this study was to prioritize human risk factors for preventive interventions by estimating the avoidable burden and population attributable fraction (PAF) of each risk factor using penalization and data augmentation method. To avoid the sparse data bias, Bayesian logistic regression via data augmentation methods, were used for multivariable analysis. Informative normal priors adopted from the studies were used for the studied human risk factors. Weakly informative log-f was used for the covariates. The populatio...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Cannabis use in older drivers in Colorado: The LongROAD Study
This study examined cannabis use and driving outcomes among older drivers in Colorado, which has legalized medical and recreational use. The associations of self-reported past-year cannabis use with diverse driving outcomes were assessed in 598 drivers aged 65–79 (51% female, 70% with postsecondary education), using regression analysis to adjust for health and sociodemographic characteristics. Two hundred forty four (40.8%) drivers reported ever using cannabis. Fifty-four drivers (9.0%) reported past-year use, ranging from more than once a day (13.0%) to less than once a month (50.0%). Of past-year users, 9.3% report...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Modeling unobserved heterogeneity for zonal crash frequencies: a Bayesian multivariate random-parameters model with mixture components for spatially correlated data
This study applies mixture components in a multivariate random parameters spatial model for zonal crash counts. Three different modeling formulations are employed to demonstrate the effects of mixture components and spatial heterogeneity in the goodness-of-fit in a multivariate random parameter model. The models are built for injury (i.e., possible, non-incapacitating, incapacitating, and fatal injury) and non-injury crashes using the data from 738 traffic analysis zones (TAZs) in Hillsborough County of Florida during a three-year period. The Deviance Information Criteria (DIC) is used to evaluate the performances of these...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - September 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The influence of the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory on risk perception and intentions to speed in young male and female drivers
This study applied the revised-Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (r-RST) to assess the influence of individual differences in young male and female drivers’ risk perceptions and intentions to exceed the posted speed limit in a 60 km/hr zone. Relevant to the current study was the Behavioural Activation System (BAS; sensitive to reward), with a specific focus on the BAS processes: Reward Interest, Goal-Drive Persistence, Reward Reactivity and Impulsivity, and the Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS; sensitive to punishment). It was hypothesised that young male and female drivers with stronger BAS traits would report lowe...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Identification of differential risk hotspots for collision and vehicle type in a directed linear network
In this study, a spatial approach is followed to estimate the risk that different types of collisions and vehicles present in the central area of Valencia (Spain), considering the accidents observed in this city during the period 2014–2017. A directed spatial linear network representing the non-pedestrian road structure of the area of interest was employed to guarantee an accurate analysis of the point pattern.A kernel density estimation technique was used to approximate the probability of risk along the network for each collision and vehicle type. A procedure based on these estimates and the sample size locally avai...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Fatal crashes in the 5 years after recreational marijuana legalization in Colorado and Washington
Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Jayson D. Aydelotte, Alexandra L. Mardock, Christine A. Mancheski, Shariq M. Quamar, Pedro G. Teixeira, Carlos V.R. Brown, Lawrence H. BrownAbstractColorado and Washington legalized recreational marijuana in 2012, but the effects of legalization on motor vehicle crashes remains unknown. Using Fatality Analysis Reporting System data, we performed difference-in-differences (DD) analyses comparing changes in fatal crash rates in Washington, Colorado and nine control states with stable anti-marijuana laws or medical marijuana laws o...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Identifying risk of poor physical and mental health recovery following a road traffic crash: An industry-specific screening tool
This study aimed to develop an industry-specific tool to identify risk of poor physical and mental recovery following minor to moderate injuries sustained in a road traffic crash (RTC). Existing tools are often designed for implementation by health professionals rather than insurer case managers who may not have a background in health. This study is a secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study using data collected at 2–6 months and 24 months post-RTC. Participants were claimants (n = 254; Mean age = 50 years; 65% female) with mild-moderate injuries recruited through the common-law ‘fault-based&rs...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Experimental assessment of vehicle performance and injury risk for cutaway buses using tilt table and modified dolly rollover tests
Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): MohammadReza Seyedi, Sungmoon Jung, Grzegorz Dolzyk, Jerzy WekezerAbstractBackgroundRollover crashes of buses occur less frequently than do those involving passenger cars; however, they are associated with higher fatality rates. During rollover crashes, a vehicle experiences multidirectional acceleration and multiple impacts, yielding a complex interaction between structural components and its occupants. A better understanding of vehicle and occupant’s motion, structural deformation, and vehicle and road interactions are n...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Incorporating spatial effects into temporal dynamic of road traffic fatality risks: A case study on 48 lower states of the United States, 1975–2015
This article introduces a novel method known as the Markov chain spatial model to incorporate the spatial effects into the temporal dynamic of the fatality rates. Compared to the traditional Markov chain model, the proposed spatial Markov chain model can quantify the influence of neighboring sites explicitly in the transition process. A case study using a long duration dataset, from 1975 to 2015 in the 48 lower states of the United Sates, was conducted to illustrate the proposed model. The fatality rates were measured as the number of traffic fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles or per 10,000 residents. The results sho...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Exploring microscopic driving volatility in naturalistic driving environment prior to involvement in safety critical events—Concept of event-based driving volatility
This study focuses on the component of “driving volatility matrix” related to specific normal and safety-critical events, named “event-based volatility.” The research issue is characterizing volatility in instantaneous driving decisions in the longitudinal and lateral directions, and how it varies across drivers involved in normal driving, crash, and/or near-crash events. To explore the issue, a rigorous quasi-experimental study design is adopted to help compare driving behaviors in normal vs unsafe outcomes. Using a unique real-world naturalistic driving database from the 2nd Strategic Highway Rese...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The role of perceived risk, reasons for non-seat belt use and demographic characteristics for seat belt use on urban and rural roads.
Authors: Zabihi F, Davoodi SR, Nordfjærn T Abstract Despite the well-documented benefits of seat belt use, a large number of drivers fail to fasten their seat belts in Iran. Efforts to improve seat belt use can be enhanced by identifying factors that motivate seat belt use. The main aims of this study were to assess the relationship between perceived risk of being ticketed and seat belt use among adult drivers on urban and rural roads and to identify reasons for not wearing a seat belt while exploring the relationship between these reasons and demographic information of adult drivers. An additional aim was to...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Mobile phone related crashes among motorcycle taxi drivers
Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Long T. Truong, Hang T.T. NguyenAbstractIn many countries, motorcycle taxis remain an important mode of travel due to their fast, flexible, and inexpensive service. The recent advent of ride-hailing services has led to dramatic growth in the fleet of motorcycle taxis and additional types of motorcycle taxi drivers. Furthermore, mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle is an emerging safety issue, particularly among ride-hailing motorcycle taxi drivers. This paper investigates mobile phone use while riding, crashes and mobile p...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Patterns of pre-crash behaviour in railway suicides and the effect of corridor fencing: a natural experiment in New South Wales.
This study tested the hypothesis that higher standards of corridor fencing reduce the proportion of train suicides in the non-jumping category. Data was analyzed as a natural experiment for 171 cases of apparent railway suicides in New South Wales (NSW) for the period 2011-2018. Results were congruent with the hypothesis. A higher level of corridor fencing in metropolitan Sydney was associated with a lower proportion in the non-jumping category (33%) compared with regional areas (74%). The article contributes by showing that: (i) fencing appears to lead to a reduction in some types of rail suicides and thus; (ii) contribut...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Major accident prevention illustrated by hydrocarbon leak case studies: A comparison between Brazilian and Norwegian offshore functional petroleum safety regulatory approaches
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Safety ScienceAuthor(s): Alex Garcia de Almeida, Jan Erik VinnemAbstractDespite laws, regulations, or risk management tools designed to avoid loss events, a hydrocarbon leak (HCL) in an offshore oil and gas platform1 is a major hazard event that reveals failures in risk control. In addition, similarities between different HCLs challenge the efficiency of current improvement mechanisms and the completeness of applied risk management practices. Accident causation models sustain that different roles in different levels, including regulators, companies, and the work envi...
Source: Safety Science - September 7, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Mapping the knowledge domain of road safety studies: A scientometric analysis
This study, based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) articles on road safety, employs the bibliometric tools VOSviewer and CitNetExplorer to create maps of author co-citation, document co-citation, citation networks, analyze the core authors and classic documents supporting road safety studies and show the citation context and development of such studies. It shows that road safety studies clustered mainly into four groups, whose we will refer to as “effects of driving psychology and behavior on road safety”, “causation, frequency and injury severity ana...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Urban freight and road safety in the era of e-commerce.
Conclusions: Freight-involved injury and fatality rates are rising more rapidly than overall road traffic-related rates, both in all areas and in urban areas. These crashes are also increasingly occurring on local roads and arterials as opposed to interstates. These findings can help policymakers better understand the changing patterns of freight-related safety issues. As freight volumes increase in commercial and residential areas, planners must increasingly consider freight needs and ensure that space is allocated to this function. Additionally, changes to surveillance systems are necessary to better track burden and ris...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: McDonald N, Yuan Q, Naumann R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The road to recovery for vulnerable road users hospitalised for orthopaedic injury following an on-road crash
ConclusionPedestrians and motorcyclists involved in on-road collisions experienced poorer patient-reported outcomes at 6 and 12 months post-injury when compared to cyclists. A focus on both primary injury prevention strategies, and investment in ongoing support and treatment to maximise recovery, is necessary to reduce the burden of road trauma for vulnerable road users. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Modeling of time-dependent safety performance using anonymized and aggregated smartphone-based dangerous driving event data
This study aims to establish time-dependent SPFs for urban roads by using large-scale dangerous driving event data captured by smartphones in different times of day. Multivariate conditional autoregressive (MVCAR) models are developed to jointly account for spatial and temporal dependence of crash observations. Results of two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests affirm the heterogeneity of the safety effects of dangerous driving events in different time periods. Time-dependent hotspots are identified using potential for safety improvement (PSI) metric. The assumption here is that due to the change of traffic conditions and envi...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Effects of driver sleepiness and fatigue on violations among truck drivers in India.
This study aims at capturing the influence of driver drowsiness on prevalence of traffic violations among long-haul truck drivers. The study is based on a roadside survey of 453 long-haul truck drivers, stopping at eateries and rest locations on highways connected to three Indian cities- Mumbai, Indore and Nagpur. The survey questionnaire was categorized into three sections: driver demographics, work-rest schedules and safety critical driver behavior (violations and lapses) in the last five years. The questions regarding unsafe driving practices like speeding, overtaking were combined to form a single factor 'violations' u...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Estimating the occurrence of traffic accidents near school locations: A case study from Valencia (Spain) including several approaches
Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Álvaro Briz-Redón, Francisco Martínez-Ruiz, Francisco MontesAbstractTraffic safety around school locations is a topic of particular interest given the large number of vulnerable users, such as pedestrians or cyclists, that commute to them at certain times of the day.A dataset of traffic accidents recorded in Valencia (Spain) during 2014 and 2015 is analyzed in order to estimate the effects that school locations produce on traffic risk within their surroundings. The four typologies of school in this city acco...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Design guidelines for turbulence in traffic on Dutch motorways
This article presents the underpinning of revising the Dutch design manual for motorways for turbulence in traffic. For this study loop detector data at eight on-ramps and five off-ramps were collected as well as empirical trajectory data at fourteen different on-ramps (three), off-ramps (three) and weaving segments (eight) in The Netherlands. The results show that the areas around ramps that are influenced by turbulence are smaller than described in the design manuals and that, in their present form, the microscopic simulation software packages VISSIM and MOTUS fail to simulate the number and location of lane-changes arou...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

How does drivers’ visual search change as a function of experience? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Chloe Robbins, Peter ChapmanAbstractNovice drivers are statistically over-represented in reported road crashes, with recent evidence suggesting that some of this increased crash involvement may be a result of limitations in their cognitive processing. Such processing has typically been measured by recording drivers’ patterns of eye movements, however, the exact ways in which eye movements are reported and interpreted varies substantially between different studies in the literature. Therefore, the objective of this systemat...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Rank-ordering anti-speeding messages
DiscussionAs jurisdictions globally recognize speeding as a major road safety issue, effective anti-speeding campaigns are essential. Findings added to current knowledge of PMT’s efficacy as a basis for generating effective anti-speeding messages and indicated areas for future research and application. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 28, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Evaluating the predictive power of an SPF for two-lane rural roads with random parameters on out-of-sample observations
Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Houjun Tang, Vikash V. Gayah, Eric T. DonnellAbstractNegative binomial (NB) regression is among the most common statistical modeling methods used to model crash frequencies due to its simple functional form and ability to handle over-dispersion commonly found in crash data. However, a drawback of this approach is that regression parameters are assumed to be the same across observations, which could contribute to biased parameter estimates. To alleviate this concern, the random parameters negative binomial (RPNB) model was recent...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The role of pre-crash driving instability in contributing to crash intensity using naturalistic driving data
Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Ramin Arvin, Mohsen Kamrani, Asad J. KhattakAbstractWhile the cost of crashes exceeds $1 Trillion a year in the U.S. alone, the availability of high-resolution naturalistic driving data provides an opportunity for researchers to conduct an in-depth analysis of crash contributing factors, and design appropriate interventions. Although police-reported crash data provides information on crashes, this study takes advantage of the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) which is a unique dataset that allows new insights due to detaile...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Freeway single and multi-vehicle crash safety analysis: Influencing factors and hotspots
Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Xuesong Wang, Mingjie FengAbstractSingle-vehicle (SV) and multi-vehicle (MV) crashes have been recognized as differing in spatial distribution and influencing factors, but little consideration has been given to these differences as related to hotspot identification. For the purpose of better hotspot identification, this study aims to analyze influencing factors of SV and MV crashes and to explore the consistency between SV and MV hotspots. Crash data, roadway geometric design features, and traffic characteristics were collected ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Pedestrian injury severity in motor vehicle crashes: An integrated spatio-temporal modeling approach
This study employs an integrated spatio-temporal modeling approach to untangle the crashed injury correlates that may vary across the space and time domain. Specifically, this study employs Geographically and Temporally Weighted Ordinal Logistic Regression (GTWOLR) to examine the correlates of pedestrian injury severity in motor vehicle crashes. The method leverages the space- and time-referenced crash data and powerful computational tools. This study performed non-stationarity tests to verify whether the local correlates of pedestrian injury severity have a significant spatio-temporal variation. Results showed that some v...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Estimation of traffic conflicts using precise lateral position and width of vehicles for safety assessment
This study aims to address these gaps by proposing a generic methodology for safety evaluation applicable also in non-lane-based multi-class traffic conditions. It utilizes precise position of the vehicles and their widths to identify critical interactions between all types of vehicles. Conflicts are then estimated from these critical interactions using the modified time-to-collision (MTTC), an existing SMoS. The proposed methodology is evaluated in both lane-based as well as non-lane based traffic conditions. The former uses NGSIM trajectory data and compares the estimated conflicts with the literature. The latter, on the...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Macro-level accident modeling in Novi Sad: A spatial regression approach
In this study, a macroscopic analysis was conducted in order to identify the factors which have an effect on traffic accidents in traffic analysis zones. The factors that impact accidents vary according to the characteristics of the observed area, which in turn leads to a discrepancy between research and practice. The total number of accidents was observed in this paper, along with the number of motorized and non-motorized mode accidents within a three-year period in the city of Novi Sad. The models used for this analysis were spatial predictive models comprised of the classical predictive space model, spatial lag model an...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Application of a model-based recursive partitioning algorithm to predict crash frequency
The objective of this paper is to explore the potential of the MOB algorithm as a methodological alternative to parametric modeling methods in crash frequency analysis. To accomplish the objective, a standard negative binomial (NB) regression model, a NB model developed using the MOB algorithm, adjusted NB models which incorporate variables identified by the MOB algorithm, and a random parameters NB model are compared using 8 years of data collected from two-lane rural highways in Pennsylvania. The models are compared in terms of data fitness, sign and magnitude of statistical association between the independent and depend...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A clustering approach to developing car-to-two-wheeler test scenarios for the assessment of Automated Emergency Braking in China using in-depth Chinese crash data
Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Bo Sui, Nils Lubbe, Jonas BärgmanAbstractTwo-wheeled vehicles (motorized and non-motorized, referred to as TWs) are an important part of the transport system in China. They also represent an important challenge for road safety, with many TW user fatalities and injuries every year. Recently, active safety systems for cars, such as Automated Emergency Braking (AEB), promise to reduce road traffic fatalities and injuries. For these systems to work effectively, it is necessary to understand and define the complex traffic scenar...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Kinematic risky driving behavior among younger and older drivers: Differences over time by age group and sex.
Conclusions: KRD rates were higher among younger relative to older, more experienced drivers and did not decline over time, consistent with a protracted period of risky driving behavior. The persistently higher KRD rate among young drivers suggests the need to enhance crash prevention approaches, such as feedback about abrupt maneuvering, to young drivers and their parents. PMID: 31442090 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Simons-Morton BG, Gershon P, Gensler G, Klauer S, Ehsani J, Zhu C, O'Brien F, Gore-Langton R, Dingus T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

E-bikers' braking behavior: Results from a naturalistic cycling study.
Conclusions: The results provide new insights into the behavior of cyclists on e-bikes and may provide support in the development of safety measures including guidelines and best practices for optimal brake use. The results may also inform the design of braking systems intended to reduce the complexity of the braking operation. PMID: 31442089 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Huertas-Leyva P, Dozza M, Baldanzini N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Self-reports of workloads and aberrant driving behaviors as predictors of crash rate among taxi drivers: A cross-sectional study in China.
Conclusions: To improve the safety of taxi drivers, considerable measures should be strictly implemented, ranging from periodic driver training and safety education to workload reduction, with the cooperation of government agencies and taxi companies. The findings of this study contribute to the design of potentially useful policy initiatives as well as targeted safety promotion programs. PMID: 31442087 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wang Y, Zhang Y, Li L, Liang G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Relationship between hazard-perception-test scores and proportion of hard-braking events during on-road driving – An investigation using a range of thresholds for hard-braking
In this study, we tested if hard braking events might be accounted for by drivers' hazard perception (HP) ability. Our investigation was based on an original approach. Usually, researchers define hard braking according to a single deceleration threshold (e.g., g
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research