Comparison of injuries in multiple and single event crashes
Traffic Inj Prev. 2021 Mar 10:1-10. doi: 10.1080/15389588.2021.1878161. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTObjective: Compare injuries for occupants in multiple event (ME) crashes where a less severe event preceded a more severe event to occupants in similar single event (SE) crashes.Methods: Occupants in ME crashes from NASS-CDS years 2000-2015 where the most severe event occurred subsequent to a less severe event were matched to occupants in SE crashes where the SE was similar to the most severe event in the ME crash. Occupants were matched based on occupant, vehicle, and crash characteristics and were compared across 21 deta...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sophia K Tushak Timothy L McMurry Sang-Hyun Lee Seok-Ho Hong Jason R Kerrigan Source Type: research

Female kinematics and muscle responses in lane change and lane change with braking maneuvers
This article quantifies the head center of gravity and T1 vertebra body (T1) linear and rotational displacements. This article also includes surface electromyography (EMG) data collected from 38 muscles in the neck, torso, and upper and lower extremities, all normalized by maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The raw EMG data were filtered, rectified, and smoothed. Separate Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed on EMG onset and amplitude as well as peak displacements of head and T1 considering 2 paired samples with the belt configuration as an independent variable.RESULTS: Significantly smaller lateral and forward disp...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ghazaleh Ghaffari Johan Davidsson Source Type: research

Investigating the effects of driving environment and driver characteristics on drivers' compliance with speed limits
CONCLUSION: This is the first exploratory study which investigated the speed compliance behavior of Indian drivers. Findings of the present study may assist the road safety strategies and policy interventions in reducing the speed-related crashes.PMID:33688753 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1893699 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ankit Kumar Yadav Nagendra R Velaga Source Type: research

Injury patterns within clusters of seriously injured occupants comparing real-world crashes in the United States and the European Union
CONCLUSIONS: Remarkably similar injury patterns at the MAIS 3+ level have been found in U.S. and German accident data sets after controlling for nine different parameters. This research provides evidence to indicate that how belted vehicle occupants are severely injured in the U.S. and in the EU is not necessarily different.PMID:33688752 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2020.1862805 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rocio Suarez-Del Fueyo Mirko Junge Francisco Lopez-Valdes Hampton Clay Gabler Lukas Woerner Stefan Hiermaier Source Type: research

Evaluating disparities in child occupant protection using a proportion-eliminated approach to mediation
CONCLUSION: A proportion-eliminated approach to mediation may be particularly useful in child passenger safety research aiming to inform the development of interventions tailored for racial minority populations.PMID:33688773 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1885652 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Emma B Sartin D Leann Long Catherine C McDonald Despina Stavrinos Olivio J Clay Jessica H Mirman Source Type: research

Driving errors that predict simulated rear-end collisions in drivers with multiple sclerosis
This study examines whether adjustment to stimuli errors can detect the occurrence of collisions in a driving simulator in drivers with MS.METHODS: As part of a quasi-experiment, 38 participants with MS and 21 participants without MS completed visual-cognitive and driving simulator assessments, which also recorded their adjustment to stimuli maneuvers. We quantified participants' adjustment to stimuli maneuvers via initial pedal reaction time (seconds), time to collision (seconds), mean speed (meters per second), and the occurrence of rear-end collisions (collide vs. did not collide) when a simulated vehicle cut across the...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sarah Krasniuk Sherrilene Classen Sarah A Morrow Source Type: research

Comparison of injuries in multiple and single event crashes
Traffic Inj Prev. 2021 Mar 10:1-10. doi: 10.1080/15389588.2021.1878161. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTObjective: Compare injuries for occupants in multiple event (ME) crashes where a less severe event preceded a more severe event to occupants in similar single event (SE) crashes.Methods: Occupants in ME crashes from NASS-CDS years 2000-2015 where the most severe event occurred subsequent to a less severe event were matched to occupants in SE crashes where the SE was similar to the most severe event in the ME crash. Occupants were matched based on occupant, vehicle, and crash characteristics and were compared across 21 deta...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sophia K Tushak Timothy L McMurry Sang-Hyun Lee Seok-Ho Hong Jason R Kerrigan Source Type: research

Female kinematics and muscle responses in lane change and lane change with braking maneuvers
This article quantifies the head center of gravity and T1 vertebra body (T1) linear and rotational displacements. This article also includes surface electromyography (EMG) data collected from 38 muscles in the neck, torso, and upper and lower extremities, all normalized by maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The raw EMG data were filtered, rectified, and smoothed. Separate Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed on EMG onset and amplitude as well as peak displacements of head and T1 considering 2 paired samples with the belt configuration as an independent variable.RESULTS: Significantly smaller lateral and forward disp...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ghazaleh Ghaffari Johan Davidsson Source Type: research

Investigating the effects of driving environment and driver characteristics on drivers' compliance with speed limits
CONCLUSION: This is the first exploratory study which investigated the speed compliance behavior of Indian drivers. Findings of the present study may assist the road safety strategies and policy interventions in reducing the speed-related crashes.PMID:33688753 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1893699 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ankit Kumar Yadav Nagendra R Velaga Source Type: research

Injury patterns within clusters of seriously injured occupants comparing real-world crashes in the United States and the European Union
CONCLUSIONS: Remarkably similar injury patterns at the MAIS 3+ level have been found in U.S. and German accident data sets after controlling for nine different parameters. This research provides evidence to indicate that how belted vehicle occupants are severely injured in the U.S. and in the EU is not necessarily different.PMID:33688752 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2020.1862805 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rocio Suarez-Del Fueyo Mirko Junge Francisco Lopez-Valdes Hampton Clay Gabler Lukas Woerner Stefan Hiermaier Source Type: research

A data-driven feature learning approach based on Copula-Bayesian Network and its application in comparative investigation on risky lane-changing and car-following maneuvers
In this study, the Copula-BNs are developed based on the Second Highway Research Program (SHRP2) Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) database. Upon network evaluation, the Copula-BNs for both risky LC and CF maneuvers demonstrate satisfactory structure performance and promising prediction performance. Feature inferences are conducted based on the Copula-BNs to respectively illustrate the causation of the two risky maneuvers. Several interesting findings related to features' contribution are discussed in this paper. To a certain extent, the Copula-BN developed using the data-driven method makes a trade-off between prediction a...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tianyi Chen Yiik Diew Wong Xiupeng Shi Yaoyao Yang Source Type: research

Democracy, governance, and road safety
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Mar 7;154:106067. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106067. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCountries scoring high on the Democracy Index developed by The Economist Intelligence Unit have fewer traffic fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants than countries scoring low on this index. The statistical relationship between democracy score and fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants is statistically highly significant and robust with respect to control for potentially confounding factors. A similar relationship exists between democracy score and the number of traffic fatalities per 100,000 motor vehicles. The statistical relati...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rune Elvik Source Type: research

Steering or braking avoidance response in SHRP2 rear-end crashes and near-crashes: A decision tree approach
CONCLUSIONS: In this paper we analyzed driving context, drivers' behavior, event criticality, and drivers' response in a unified structure to predict their avoidance response. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such effort where large-scale naturalistic data (crashes and near crashes) was analyzed for prediction of drivers' maneuver and determined key behavioral and contextual factors that contribute to this avoidance maneuver.PMID:33691227 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106055 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Abhijit Sarkar Jeffrey S Hickman Anthony D McDonald Wenyan Huang Tobias Vogelpohl Gustav Markkula Source Type: research

The effectiveness of different types of motorcycle helmets - A scoping review
CONCLUSION: Full-face helmets may protect head and face in motorcycle riders more than open-face and half-coverage helmets, but there is not enough evidence for better neck protection among these three helmet types. Helmets can affect the rider's vision, hearing, and ventilation. When designing a helmet, all of these factors should be taken into account.PMID:33689958 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106065 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mohammadreza Tabary Sadegh Ahmadi Mohammad Hosein Amirzade-Iranaq Maryam Shojaei Masoud Sohrabi Asl Zahra Ghodsi Amir Azarhomayoun Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Rasha Atlasi Farnaz Araghi Mehdi Shafieian Seyed Taghi Heydari Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Gerard O'Reil Source Type: research

Evaluating disparities in child occupant protection using a proportion-eliminated approach to mediation
CONCLUSION: A proportion-eliminated approach to mediation may be particularly useful in child passenger safety research aiming to inform the development of interventions tailored for racial minority populations.PMID:33688773 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1885652 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Emma B Sartin D Leann Long Catherine C McDonald Despina Stavrinos Olivio J Clay Jessica H Mirman Source Type: research

Driving errors that predict simulated rear-end collisions in drivers with multiple sclerosis
This study examines whether adjustment to stimuli errors can detect the occurrence of collisions in a driving simulator in drivers with MS.METHODS: As part of a quasi-experiment, 38 participants with MS and 21 participants without MS completed visual-cognitive and driving simulator assessments, which also recorded their adjustment to stimuli maneuvers. We quantified participants' adjustment to stimuli maneuvers via initial pedal reaction time (seconds), time to collision (seconds), mean speed (meters per second), and the occurrence of rear-end collisions (collide vs. did not collide) when a simulated vehicle cut across the...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sarah Krasniuk Sherrilene Classen Sarah A Morrow Source Type: research

Comparison of injuries in multiple and single event crashes
Traffic Inj Prev. 2021 Mar 10:1-10. doi: 10.1080/15389588.2021.1878161. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTObjective: Compare injuries for occupants in multiple event (ME) crashes where a less severe event preceded a more severe event to occupants in similar single event (SE) crashes.Methods: Occupants in ME crashes from NASS-CDS years 2000-2015 where the most severe event occurred subsequent to a less severe event were matched to occupants in SE crashes where the SE was similar to the most severe event in the ME crash. Occupants were matched based on occupant, vehicle, and crash characteristics and were compared across 21 deta...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sophia K Tushak Timothy L McMurry Sang-Hyun Lee Seok-Ho Hong Jason R Kerrigan Source Type: research

Female kinematics and muscle responses in lane change and lane change with braking maneuvers
This article quantifies the head center of gravity and T1 vertebra body (T1) linear and rotational displacements. This article also includes surface electromyography (EMG) data collected from 38 muscles in the neck, torso, and upper and lower extremities, all normalized by maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The raw EMG data were filtered, rectified, and smoothed. Separate Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed on EMG onset and amplitude as well as peak displacements of head and T1 considering 2 paired samples with the belt configuration as an independent variable.RESULTS: Significantly smaller lateral and forward disp...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ghazaleh Ghaffari Johan Davidsson Source Type: research

Investigating the effects of driving environment and driver characteristics on drivers' compliance with speed limits
CONCLUSION: This is the first exploratory study which investigated the speed compliance behavior of Indian drivers. Findings of the present study may assist the road safety strategies and policy interventions in reducing the speed-related crashes.PMID:33688753 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1893699 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ankit Kumar Yadav Nagendra R Velaga Source Type: research

Injury patterns within clusters of seriously injured occupants comparing real-world crashes in the United States and the European Union
CONCLUSIONS: Remarkably similar injury patterns at the MAIS 3+ level have been found in U.S. and German accident data sets after controlling for nine different parameters. This research provides evidence to indicate that how belted vehicle occupants are severely injured in the U.S. and in the EU is not necessarily different.PMID:33688752 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2020.1862805 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rocio Suarez-Del Fueyo Mirko Junge Francisco Lopez-Valdes Hampton Clay Gabler Lukas Woerner Stefan Hiermaier Source Type: research

A data-driven feature learning approach based on Copula-Bayesian Network and its application in comparative investigation on risky lane-changing and car-following maneuvers
In this study, the Copula-BNs are developed based on the Second Highway Research Program (SHRP2) Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) database. Upon network evaluation, the Copula-BNs for both risky LC and CF maneuvers demonstrate satisfactory structure performance and promising prediction performance. Feature inferences are conducted based on the Copula-BNs to respectively illustrate the causation of the two risky maneuvers. Several interesting findings related to features' contribution are discussed in this paper. To a certain extent, the Copula-BN developed using the data-driven method makes a trade-off between prediction a...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tianyi Chen Yiik Diew Wong Xiupeng Shi Yaoyao Yang Source Type: research

Democracy, governance, and road safety
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Mar 7;154:106067. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106067. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCountries scoring high on the Democracy Index developed by The Economist Intelligence Unit have fewer traffic fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants than countries scoring low on this index. The statistical relationship between democracy score and fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants is statistically highly significant and robust with respect to control for potentially confounding factors. A similar relationship exists between democracy score and the number of traffic fatalities per 100,000 motor vehicles. The statistical relati...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rune Elvik Source Type: research

Steering or braking avoidance response in SHRP2 rear-end crashes and near-crashes: A decision tree approach
CONCLUSIONS: In this paper we analyzed driving context, drivers' behavior, event criticality, and drivers' response in a unified structure to predict their avoidance response. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such effort where large-scale naturalistic data (crashes and near crashes) was analyzed for prediction of drivers' maneuver and determined key behavioral and contextual factors that contribute to this avoidance maneuver.PMID:33691227 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106055 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Abhijit Sarkar Jeffrey S Hickman Anthony D McDonald Wenyan Huang Tobias Vogelpohl Gustav Markkula Source Type: research

The effectiveness of different types of motorcycle helmets - A scoping review
CONCLUSION: Full-face helmets may protect head and face in motorcycle riders more than open-face and half-coverage helmets, but there is not enough evidence for better neck protection among these three helmet types. Helmets can affect the rider's vision, hearing, and ventilation. When designing a helmet, all of these factors should be taken into account.PMID:33689958 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106065 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mohammadreza Tabary Sadegh Ahmadi Mohammad Hosein Amirzade-Iranaq Maryam Shojaei Masoud Sohrabi Asl Zahra Ghodsi Amir Azarhomayoun Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Rasha Atlasi Farnaz Araghi Mehdi Shafieian Seyed Taghi Heydari Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Gerard O'Reil Source Type: research

Reasonable driving speed limits based on recognition time in a dynamic low-visibility environment related to fog—A driving simulator study
Publication date: May 2021Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 154Author(s): Kun Wang, Weihua Zhang, Zhongxiang Feng, Haiyang Yu, Cheng Wang (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - March 9, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A data-driven feature learning approach based on Copula-Bayesian Network and its application in comparative investigation on risky lane-changing and car-following maneuvers
Publication date: May 2021Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 154Author(s): Tianyi Chen, Yiik Diew Wong, Xiupeng Shi, Yaoyao Yang (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - March 9, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Steering or braking avoidance response in SHRP2 rear-end crashes and near-crashes: A decision tree approach
Publication date: May 2021Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 154Author(s): Abhijit Sarkar, Jeffrey S. Hickman, Anthony D. McDonald, Wenyan Huang, Tobias Vogelpohl, Gustav Markkula (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - March 9, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Democracy, governance, and road safety
Publication date: May 2021Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 154Author(s): Rune Elvik (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - March 9, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

An analysis on the risk of being injured and killed in road travel injuries in Namibia
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot. 2021 Mar 8:1-9. doi: 10.1080/17457300.2021.1894180. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRoad traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major, global problem. Few studies on RTIs have been conducted in Namibia, despite having one of the highest RTI rates globally. We conducted multinomial logistic regression on national Namibian datasets on RTIs 2012-2014. Being a motorcyclist was associated with the greatest risk of being injured (adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRRR) 82.1 (95% CI 47.2-142.9)) or killed (aRRR 202.1 (112.7-362.7)). Risks were also elevated for cyclists (57.3 (23.6-139.5)), pedestrians (15.8 (13.2-18...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - March 8, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mitchel Chatukuta Nora Groce Jenny Mindel Maria Kett Source Type: research

The effectiveness of different types of motorcycle helmets – A scoping review
Publication date: May 2021Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 154Author(s): Mohammadreza Tabary, Sadegh Ahmadi, Mohammad Hosein Amirzade-Iranaq, Maryam Shojaei, Masoud Sohrabi Asl, Zahra Ghodsi, Amir Azarhomayoun, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Rasha Atlasi, Farnaz Araghi, Mehdi Shafieian, Seyed Taghi Heydari, Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini, Gerard O’Reilly, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - March 7, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The effects of alcohol intoxication on cognitive functions critical for driving: A systematic review
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Mar 3;154:106052. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106052. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAlcohol is the most frequently detected substance in drivers involved in road traffic collisions. Given that up to 35% of fatal road collisions are alcohol-related, it is important to determine the influence of alcohol intoxication on driving-related skills. This review provides an updated and systematic evaluation of the available research concerning the effect of alcohol intoxication on cognitive functions critical for driving. Databases EBSCOhost, PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus, Transport Research International Documentation ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - March 6, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Harriet Garrisson Andrew Scholey Edward Ogden Sarah Benson Source Type: research

The effects of alcohol intoxication on cognitive functions critical for driving: A systematic review
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Mar 3;154:106052. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106052. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAlcohol is the most frequently detected substance in drivers involved in road traffic collisions. Given that up to 35% of fatal road collisions are alcohol-related, it is important to determine the influence of alcohol intoxication on driving-related skills. This review provides an updated and systematic evaluation of the available research concerning the effect of alcohol intoxication on cognitive functions critical for driving. Databases EBSCOhost, PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus, Transport Research International Documentation ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - March 6, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Harriet Garrisson Andrew Scholey Edward Ogden Sarah Benson Source Type: research

The effects of alcohol intoxication on cognitive functions critical for driving: A systematic review
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Mar 3;154:106052. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106052. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAlcohol is the most frequently detected substance in drivers involved in road traffic collisions. Given that up to 35% of fatal road collisions are alcohol-related, it is important to determine the influence of alcohol intoxication on driving-related skills. This review provides an updated and systematic evaluation of the available research concerning the effect of alcohol intoxication on cognitive functions critical for driving. Databases EBSCOhost, PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus, Transport Research International Documentation ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - March 6, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Harriet Garrisson Andrew Scholey Edward Ogden Sarah Benson Source Type: research

The effects of alcohol intoxication on cognitive functions critical for driving: A systematic review
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Mar 3;154:106052. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106052. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAlcohol is the most frequently detected substance in drivers involved in road traffic collisions. Given that up to 35% of fatal road collisions are alcohol-related, it is important to determine the influence of alcohol intoxication on driving-related skills. This review provides an updated and systematic evaluation of the available research concerning the effect of alcohol intoxication on cognitive functions critical for driving. Databases EBSCOhost, PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus, Transport Research International Documentation ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - March 6, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Harriet Garrisson Andrew Scholey Edward Ogden Sarah Benson Source Type: research