Do higher fuel prices help reduce road traffic accidents?
Publication date: February 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 135Author(s): Nadia K. Naqvi, Mohammed A. Quddus, Marcus P. EnochAbstractRoad traffic accidents have decreased in most developed nations over the last decade. This has been attributed to improvements in vehicle and road design, medical technology and care, and driver education and training. Recent evidence however indicates that fuel price changes also have a significant impact on road traffic accidents through other mediating factors such as reductions in driver exposure through less car travel and more fuel-efficient driving e.g. speed redu...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The most difficult at-fault fatal crashes to avoid with current active safety technology
ConclusionsWe calculated a crash incidence for the “unavoidable” crashes which was 20–27% smaller than the observed crash rate of ESC-fitted passenger cars in our previous study. We concluded that suicides, active driver input until the crash, and challenging weather and road conditions are the most difficult factors for current active safety systems. Our analysis did not account for issues such as system usability or driver acceptance and therefore our results should be regarded as something that is currently theoretically achievable. However, the observed incidence is a good reference for automated driv...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Evaluating the influence of knee airbags on lower limb and whole-body injury.
Conclusions: Knee airbags may be protective for knee to hip injuries and above waist injuries. If KABs continue to be widely implemented in the vehicle fleet, the field should continue to monitor and evaluate below knee injuries. PMID: 31834822 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: McMurry TL, Forman JL, Shaw G, Crandall JR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characteristics of bicycle crashes among children and the effect of bicycle helmets.
Conclusions: This study indicated that bicycle helmets effectively reduce injuries to the head and face. The results thus point to the need for actions aimed at increasing helmet use, especially among teenagers. Protective measures are necessary to further reduce injuries, especially to the upper extremities. PMID: 31834816 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Axelsson A, Stigson H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Highway crash detection and risk estimation using deep learning.
Abstract Crash Detection is essential in providing timely information to traffic management centers and the public to reduce its adverse effects. Prediction of crash risk is vital for avoiding secondary crashes and safeguarding highway traffic. For many years, researchers have explored several techniques for early and precise detection of crashes to aid in traffic incident management. With recent advancements in data collection techniques, abundant real-time traffic data is available for use. Big data infrastructure and machine learning algorithms can utilize this data to provide suitable solutions for the highway...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Huang T, Wang S, Sharma A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Drivers adapt - Be prepared for It!
Abstract Behavioral adaptation refers to the change in road user behavior in response to new conditions (Kulmala & Rämä, 2013). Behavioral adaptation can improve safety, but it can also reduce or even eliminate anticipated safety benefits of many well-intentioned road safety countermeasures. To expect driver behavior to remain the same after the implementation of a change in the road, vehicle, or driving environment, is naïve. Empirical studies that do not consider the full range of behavior affected by a countermeasure may similarly overlook the consequences of behavioral adaptation. This paper...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Smiley A, Rudin-Brown C Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Using the scanners and drone for comparison of point cloud accuracy at traffic accident analysis
Publication date: February 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 135Author(s): Rok Kamnik, Matjaž Nekrep Perc, Darja TopolšekAbstractThe purpose of the paper is to describe, compare and analyse the instruments used, time needed and accuracy of gathered data, sketches, 3D models and to enhance the extracted information about the accident. Simple sketches and tape measurements were performed. Also complex 3D measurements and 3D modelling of the scene with Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology were used. A classical police work dealing with a simulated traffic a...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Do higher fuel prices help reduce road traffic accidents?
Abstract Road traffic accidents have decreased in most developed nations over the last decade. This has been attributed to improvements in vehicle and road design, medical technology and care, and driver education and training. Recent evidence however indicates that fuel price changes also have a significant impact on road traffic accidents through other mediating factors such as reductions in driver exposure through less car travel and more fuel-efficient driving e.g. speed reduction on high-speed roads. So far though, no study has examined the effects of changing fuel prices on road traffic accidents in a countr...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Naqvi NK, Quddus MA, Enoch MP Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The most difficult at-fault fatal crashes to avoid with current active safety technology.
CONCLUSIONS: We calculated a crash incidence for the "unavoidable" crashes which was 20-27% smaller than the observed crash rate of ESC-fitted passenger cars in our previous study. We concluded that suicides, active driver input until the crash, and challenging weather and road conditions are the most difficult factors for current active safety systems. Our analysis did not account for issues such as system usability or driver acceptance and therefore our results should be regarded as something that is currently theoretically achievable. However, the observed incidence is a good reference for automated driving de...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Koisaari T, Utriainen R, Kari T, Tervo T Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Safety climate: Systematic literature network analysis of 38 years (1980-2018) of research.
The objective of this paper is to examine the safety climate knowledge epistemology using bibliometric and systematic literature network analysis. For this purpose, bibliometric information of research article published on safety climate topic was retrieved from Scopus databases. In total, 494 articles published between 1980 and 2018 were retrieved. These articles cover 1373 authors, 203 journals and 2511 keywords. Information collected was analyzed employing bibliometric and network analysis approach using an open source computer program R and VOSviewer. The main findings of the study reveal the publication trends in safe...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bamel UK, Pandey R, Gupta A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Probabilistic temporal prediction of the deaths caused by traffic in Colombia. Mortality caused by traffic prediction.
CONCLUSIONS: the applicability of the developed methodology to predict the dynamic behaviour of deaths caused by traffic injuries in Colombia for 2010 by means of a probabilistic random walk was confirmed with a good precision, suggesting that this methodology could be useful to verify the efficacy of national road safety strategies implemented to reduce mortality rates. PMID: 31838321 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rodríguez J, Jattin J, Soracipa Y Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Identifying the causes of road traffic collisions: Using police officers’ expertise to improve the reporting of contributory factors data
Publication date: February 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 135Author(s): Jonathan J. RolisonAbstractWorldwide, road crashes are a major course of death and serious injury. Police reports provide a rich source of data on the proximal causes (e.g., impairment by alcohol, failure to look properly) of road traffic collisions. Yet, road safety research has raised concerns about the quality and reliability of police reported data. In the UK crash report form, contributory factors are categorised (e.g., vehicle defects, driver error or reaction) to aid police officers in identifying appropriate factors. How...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

THC-influenced drivers in the new Danish 3-level offense system.
Conclusion: We found that more than two-thirds of the THC offenders faced milder sanctions compared to before the new legislation, suggesting that the new graduated legislation has had a significant impact. The current trend is a steadily increasing number of DUID cases. We believe that the continual increase is caused by a combination of factors, including increased police awareness and training of police personnel along with improved roadside screening abilities. PMID: 31821026 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hermansen SK, Pedersen TR, Christoffersen DJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Real-world risk exposure in older drivers with cognitive and visual dysfunction.
Conclusions: Results successfully mapped driver cognitive and visual profiles onto contemporaneous, real-world behavior and risk loci. Results link age-related dysfunction to real-world vehicle control and show that drivers may not sufficiently reduce exposure to higher-risk driving environments. Employing naturalistic observation to monitor and measure patterns of driver behavior can inform methods for early detection of age-related risk, fitness-to-drive assessments, and interventions to preserve safety, mobility, and quality of life in aging or other at-risk populations. PMID: 31821019 [PubMed - as supplied by publ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Merickel J, High R, Dawson J, Rizzo M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Using the scanners and drone for comparison of point cloud accuracy at traffic accident analysis.
;ek D Abstract The purpose of the paper is to describe, compare and analyse the instruments used, time needed and accuracy of gathered data, sketches, 3D models and to enhance the extracted information about the accident. Simple sketches and tape measurements were performed. Also complex 3D measurements and 3D modelling of the scene with Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology were used. A classical police work dealing with a simulated traffic accident was compared to sketches obtained from 3D models from Riegl VZ-400i 3D, Faro Focus S70, Geoslam ZebRevo 3D TLS and Topcon Falc...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kamnik R, Nekrep Perc M, Topolšek D Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Frontal crash seat belt restraint effectiveness and comfort accessories used by older occupants.
Conclusions: Accessories placed between the seat back and the lumbar region of an occupant have the potential to increase the risk of submarining due to a change in posture and should be avoided if such a change in posture when seated with an accessory is excessive. Sitting on seat cushions resulted in the greatest increase in seat belt anchor to hip distances and hence largest increase in sternal deflection. Given the fragility, frailty and particular importance of chest injuries among older vehicle occupants, further investigation is needed to determine whether these changes in ATD sternal deflection observed with seat c...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 9, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Whyte T, Kent N, Keay L, Coxon K, Brown J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Identifying the causes of road traffic collisions: Using police officers' expertise to improve the reporting of contributory factors data.
Abstract Worldwide, road crashes are a major course of death and serious injury. Police reports provide a rich source of data on the proximal causes (e.g., impairment by alcohol, failure to look properly) of road traffic collisions. Yet, road safety research has raised concerns about the quality and reliability of police reported data. In the UK crash report form, contributory factors are categorised (e.g., vehicle defects, driver error or reaction) to aid police officers in identifying appropriate factors. However, discord between the classification of contributory factors in crash reports and police officers' ow...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 9, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rolison JJ Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Odds of culpability associated with use of impairing drugs in injured drivers in Victoria, Australia
Publication date: February 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 135Author(s): Olaf H. Drummer, Dimitri Gerostamoulos, Matthew Di Rago, Noel W. Woodford, Carla Morris, Tania Frederiksen, Kim Jachno, Rory WolfeAbstractCulpability analysis was conducted on 5000 drivers injured as a result of a vehicular collision and in whom comprehensive toxicology testing in blood was conducted. The sample included 1000 drivers for each of 5 years from approximately 5000–6000 drivers injured and taken to hospital in the State of Victoria. Logistic regression was used to investigate differences in the odds of culpabil...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Exploring injury severity in head-on crashes using latent class clustering analysis and mixed logit model: A case study of North Carolina
This study aims to investigate the contributing factors that affect the injury severity of head-on crashes and develop appropriate countermeasures. Due to the unobserved heterogeneity inherent in the crash data, a latent class clustering analysis is firstly conducted to segment the head-on crashes into relatively homogeneous clusters. Then, mixed logit models are developed to further explore the unobserved heterogeneity within each cluster. Analyses are performed based on the data collected from the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) from 2005 to 2013 in North Carolina. The estimated parameters and associated margina...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Applying the colocation quotient index to crash severity analyses
Publication date: February 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 135Author(s): Pei-Fen Kuo, Dominique LordAbstractExamining the spatial relationships among crashes of various severity levels is essential for gaining a better understanding of the severity distribution and potential contributing factors to collisions. However, relatively few scholars have focused on analyzing this type of data. Therefore, in this study, we utilized a new index, the colocation quotient, to measure the spatial associations among crashes of various severities that occurred in College Station, Texas. This new method has been wid...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Severity analysis for large truck rollover crashes using a random parameter ordered logit model
Publication date: February 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 135Author(s): Ghazaleh Azimi, Alireza Rahimi, Hamidreza Asgari, Xia JinAbstractLarge truck rollover crashes present significant financial, industrial, and social impacts. This paper presents an effort to investigate the contributing factors to large truck rollover crashes. Specific focus was placed on exploring the role of heterogeneity and the potential sources of heterogeneity regarding their impacts on injury-severity outcomes. The data used in this study contained large truck rollover crashes that occurred between 2007 and 2016 in the sta...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Dealing with existing theory: national fatality rates, vehicle standards and personal safety.
Authors: Mohan D, O'Neil B Abstract In this paper we discuss some of the weaknesses in exiting theories and understandings behind road safety interventions and policy making. The paper deals with four main issues: road traffic fatality rates and per capita income of countries, vehicle crashworthiness standards, role of pedestrian and powered two-wheeler share in traffic on fatalities, and safety standards for vehicles other than cars. Recent data indicate that there may not be a strong relationship between income and road safety performance and it is possible for low and middle-income countries (LMIC) to decrease d...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - December 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Optimal jam-absorption driving strategy for mitigating rear-end collision risks with oscillations on freeway straight segments
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2019Source: Accident Analysis & PreventionAuthor(s): Yuan Zheng, Guoqiang Zhang, Ye Li, Zhibin LiAbstractTraffic oscillations (or stop-and-go waves) in freeway traffic jam cause large variation of vehicle speed and remarkably reduce travel safety. Previous jam-absorption driving strategies focused on the operational side and did not consider the safety effects caused by the controlled vehicle on freeways. In this paper, we proposed an optimal jam-absorption driving strategy to mitigate traffic oscillations and rear-end collision risks on freeway straight segments. Firstly, ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Significance of attitudes, passion and cultural factors in driver's speeding behavior in Oman: application of theory of planned behavior.
This study aims to identify the significant factors that play an important role in the speeding behavior of drivers. A comprehensive questionnaire was designed and conducted with the students and employees of the University of Nizwa. The questionnaire items were designed considering the theoretical background of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and local socio-cultural aspects of the driving environment. A total of 303 usable samples were obtained. The collected data were analyzed using factor analysis and structural equation modelling technique. The extracted factors of speeding passion and culture, speeding attitudes...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - December 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Optimal jam-absorption driving strategy for mitigating rear-end collision risks with oscillations on freeway straight segments.
Abstract Traffic oscillations (or stop-and-go waves) in freeway traffic jam cause large variation of vehicle speed and remarkably reduce travel safety. Previous jam-absorption driving strategies focused on the operational side and did not consider the safety effects caused by the controlled vehicle on freeways. In this paper, we proposed an optimal jam-absorption driving strategy to mitigate traffic oscillations and rear-end collision risks on freeway straight segments. Firstly, the proposed strategy determined the starting and ending point of an oscillation at the temporal and spatial dimensions based on the Wave...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zheng Y, Zhang G, Li Y, Li Z Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Severity analysis for large truck rollover crashes using a random parameter ordered logit model.
Abstract Large truck rollover crashes present significant financial, industrial, and social impacts. This paper presents an effort to investigate the contributing factors to large truck rollover crashes. Specific focus was placed on exploring the role of heterogeneity and the potential sources of heterogeneity regarding their impacts on injury-severity outcomes. The data used in this study contained large truck rollover crashes that occurred between 2007 and 2016 in the state of Florida. A random parameter ordered logit (RPOL) model was applied. Various driver, vehicle, roadway, and crash attributes were explored ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Azimi G, Rahimi A, Asgari H, Jin X Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Exploring injury severity in head-on crashes using latent class clustering analysis and mixed logit model: A case study of North Carolina.
This study aims to investigate the contributing factors that affect the injury severity of head-on crashes and develop appropriate countermeasures. Due to the unobserved heterogeneity inherent in the crash data, a latent class clustering analysis is firstly conducted to segment the head-on crashes into relatively homogeneous clusters. Then, mixed logit models are developed to further explore the unobserved heterogeneity within each cluster. Analyses are performed based on the data collected from the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) from 2005 to 2013 in North Carolina. The estimated parameters and associated margina...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Liu P, Fan W Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Odds of culpability associated with use of impairing drugs in injured drivers in Victoria, Australia.
Abstract Culpability analysis was conducted on 5000 drivers injured as a result of a vehicular collision and in whom comprehensive toxicology testing in blood was conducted. The sample included 1000 drivers for each of 5 years from approximately 5000-6000 drivers injured and taken to hospital in the State of Victoria. Logistic regression was used to investigate differences in the odds of culpability associated with alcohol and drug use and other selected crash attributes using the drug-free driver as the reference group. Adjusted odds ratios were obtained from multivariable logistic regression models in which othe...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Drummer OH, Gerostamoulos D, Di Rago M, Woodford NW, Morris C, Frederiksen T, Jachno K, Wolfe R Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Applying the colocation quotient index to crash severity analyses.
Abstract Examining the spatial relationships among crashes of various severity levels is essential for gaining a better understanding of the severity distribution and potential contributing factors to collisions. However, relatively few scholars have focused on analyzing this type of data. Therefore, in this study, we utilized a new index, the colocation quotient, to measure the spatial associations among crashes of various severities that occurred in College Station, Texas. This new method has been widely used to define the colocation pattern of categorized data in various fields, but it has not yet been applied ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kuo PF, Lord D Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 31800330 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Comparison across vehicles of passenger head kinematics in abrupt vehicle maneuvers.
Abstract Objective: Studies of vehicle occupant motions in response to abrupt vehicle maneuvers have demonstrated movements that may result in changes in the level of protection for the occupant if a crash subsequently occurs. The previous studies have typically used a single vehicle. The current study assesses whether the patterns of occupant head movement are different across passenger vehicle types.Method: Data collection was conducted on a closed test track with the same driver for all trials. A passenger sedan, a minivan, and a pickup truck were equipped with inertial measurement units to quantify vehicle dyn...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Reed MP, Ebert SM, Jones MLH, Park BD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The effect of speed limit reductions in urban areas on cyclists' injuries in collisions with cars.
Conclusions: This study is an important follow-up on the implementation of measures that can influence bicycle safety. The insurance data used, made it possible to quantify a positive effect on injury severity for cyclists in passenger car-to-cyclist collisions when the speed limit was reduced in urban areas. Insurance claims cover collisions of all crash severity, so they include data covering all types of injuries-not just the most severe/fatal ones. This aspect is especially important in the speed intervals evaluated here, since moderate (MAIS 2) injuries are very frequent in lower-speed crashes and even these injuries ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Isaksson-Hellman I, Töreki J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Simulated single-bicycle crashes in the VTI crash safety laboratory.
Conclusions: The study implies that it is possible to examine single-bicycle crashes using crash tests, even though the setup is sensitive to minor input differences and the random variation in the resulting head impact values can be large. Sideway falls with the bicycles standing still were easier to perform with a good repeatability and indicated an influence of seating height on the head impact. PMID: 31800324 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Niska A, Wenäll J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A pre-drive ocular assessment predicts alertness and driving impairment: A naturalistic driving study in shift workers
This study assessed the efficacy of a pre-drive ocular assessment for predicting sleep-related impairment in naturalistic driving, in rotating shift workers. Fifteen healthcare workers drove an instrumented vehicle for 2 weeks, while working a combination of day, evening and night shifts. The vehicle monitored lane departures and behavioural microsleeps (blinks>500 ms) during the drive. Immediately prior to driving, ocular parameters were assessed with a 4-min test. Lane departures and behavioural microsleeps occurred on 17.5 % and 10 % of drives that had pre-drive assessments, respectively. Pre-drive blink duration s...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Seasonal patterns of traumatic brain injury deaths due to traffic-related incidents in the Slovak Republic.
Conclusions: The results show that Slovakia, like many countries, suffers a considerable burden of TBI and that RTIs are a major contributor to this, especially among young adults. Rates of TBI vary by season in Slovakia, and users of different modes of transport appear more or less likely to suffer such injury during different seasons. Considerable variability in rates of injury exists between road users and times of year. Improved understanding of the timing and sufferers of injuries may allow better planning of response and care services. Further research into transport modes and policies aimed at safer driving should b...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Taylor MS, Zelinkova V, Plancikova D, Melichova J, Sivco P, Rusnak M, Majdan M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A pre-drive ocular assessment predicts alertness and driving impairment: A naturalistic driving study in shift workers.
This study assessed the efficacy of a pre-drive ocular assessment for predicting sleep-related impairment in naturalistic driving, in rotating shift workers. Fifteen healthcare workers drove an instrumented vehicle for 2 weeks, while working a combination of day, evening and night shifts. The vehicle monitored lane departures and behavioural microsleeps (blinks>500 ms) during the drive. Immediately prior to driving, ocular parameters were assessed with a 4-min test. Lane departures and behavioural microsleeps occurred on 17.5 % and 10 % of drives that had pre-drive assessments, respectively. Pre-drive blink duration s...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mulhall MD, Cori J, Sletten TL, Kuo J, Lenné MG, Magee M, Spina MA, Collins A, Anderson C, Rajaratnam SMW, Howard ME Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Revisiting vulnerability: Comparing young and adult workers’ safety voice intentions under different supervisory conditions
In this study, we test the widely held belief that young workers (aged 15–24) are less likely than adults (aged 25 and over) to speak up about safety concerns. Counter to this belief, and in line with age-related resource selectivity theory, we hypothesized that older workers would actually be less likely than younger workers to speak up about workplace safety concerns (“safety voice intentions”) when their supervisors are unclear about their own commitment to safety. To test this, we created two realistic scenarios in which we manipulated clarity of supervisor commitment to safety: (1) it is clear the su...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Assessing driver acceptance of technology that reduces mobile phone use while driving: The case of mobile phone applications
Publication date: February 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 135Author(s): Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oliver Briant, Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Mark KingAbstractThe nature of the road environment requires drivers to be vigilant and attentive. Distracted driving is a primary concern, as it threatens the safety of road users. However very little research has been conducted into interventions to combat such an issue. Existing interventions such as police enforcement and legislation appear to have limited effect. The use of mobile phone applications to assist in limiting driver distraction is an alternative interv...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Exploratory analysis of automated vehicle crashes in California: A text analytics & hierarchical Bayesian heterogeneity-based approach
This study aids in understanding the interactions of AVs and human-driven conventional vehicles in complex urban environments. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Exploratory analysis of automated vehicle crashes in California: A text analytics & hierarchical Bayesian heterogeneity-based approach.
This study aids in understanding the interactions of AVs and human-driven conventional vehicles in complex urban environments. PMID: 31790970 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - November 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Boggs AM, Wali B, Khattak AJ Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Assessing driver acceptance of technology that reduces mobile phone use while driving: The case of mobile phone applications.
Abstract The nature of the road environment requires drivers to be vigilant and attentive. Distracted driving is a primary concern, as it threatens the safety of road users. However very little research has been conducted into interventions to combat such an issue. Existing interventions such as police enforcement and legislation appear to have limited effect. The use of mobile phone applications to assist in limiting driver distraction is an alternative intervention that is currently gaining traction. With a great array of potential benefits, such as reducing road toll, these applications can be readily available...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - November 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Oviedo-Trespalacios O, Briant O, Kaye SA, King M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Revisiting vulnerability: Comparing young and adult workers' safety voice intentions under different supervisory conditions.
In this study, we test the widely held belief that young workers (aged 15-24) are less likely than adults (aged 25 and over) to speak up about safety concerns. Counter to this belief, and in line with age-related resource selectivity theory, we hypothesized that older workers would actually be less likely than younger workers to speak up about workplace safety concerns ("safety voice intentions") when their supervisors are unclear about their own commitment to safety. To test this, we created two realistic scenarios in which we manipulated clarity of supervisor commitment to safety: (1) it is clear the supervisor...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - November 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Turner N, Tucker S, Deng C Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Cyclist-motor vehicle collisions before and after implementation of cycle tracks in Toronto, Canada
ConclusionsCycle track implementation was associated with increased safety for cyclists on cycle tracks, after adjusting for cycling volume. In addition, there was a significant reduction in CMVC on streets surrounding cycle tracks between 151 m – 550 m distance from the tracks (a ‘safety halo’ effect), suggesting an area-wide safety effect of cycle track implementation. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 28, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Comparison between elderly and young drivers’ performances on a driving simulator and self-assessment of their driving attitudes and mastery
Publication date: February 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 135Author(s): Milleville-Pennel Isabelle, Marquez SimonAbstractElderly people are often considered dangerous drivers due to a decline in visual exploration and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to look into 18 young (between 21 and 35  years old) and 12 elderly (between 65 and 78 years old) drivers’ behaviour. We compared their self-assessment of driving as well as their visual and cognitive competencies. Then we assessed their driving competencies and self-regulation practices by using different scenarios on a drivin...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 28, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Worldwide research output trends on drinking and driving from 1956 to 2015
This study seeks to analyze worldwide research activity on drinking and driving of macro-actors (countries and research fields) and meso-actors (institutions, journals, articles, co-substance(s) studied) during the last 6 decades (between 1956 and 2015). Web of Science and Elsevier Scopus were searched using terms referred to drinking and driving, including terms related to vehicles and way spaces. Overlapping was excluded and absence of false positives was confirmed. Articles on alcohol with/without other psychoactive substances were assessed quantitatively (bibliometric measures). Well identified by All Science Journal C...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The light is red: Uncertainty behaviours displayed by pedestrians during illegal road crossing
This study focuses on pedestrians crossing illegally at a signal light, and specifically investigates uncertainty behaviour, also referred to as hesitation, which occurs when a pedestrian slows down or stops his/her crossing movement then (1) abandons the crossing by returning to the kerb or (2) accelerates to cross the road more quickly. We sought to understand the causes of this behaviour in France and Japan, two countries where interesting differences have already been demonstrated in the way pedestrians behave. The results show a longer period of uncertainty for pedestrians in Japan compared to France. Japanese pedestr...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Real-time crash risk prediction on arterials based on LSTM-CNN
Publication date: February 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 135Author(s): Pei Li, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Jinghui YuanAbstractReal-time crash risk prediction is expected to play a crucial role in preventing traffic accidents. However, most existing studies only focus on freeways rather than urban arterials. This paper proposes a real-time crash risk prediction model on arterials using a long short-term memory convolutional neural network (LSTM-CNN). This model can explicitly learn from the various features, such as traffic flow characteristics, signal timing, and weather conditions. Specifically, LSTM capt...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Interregional inequality and road accident rates in Spain
Publication date: February 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 135Author(s): María Pilar Sánchez González, Ángel Tejada Ponce, Francisco Escribano SotosAbstractThe aim of this study was to determine whether interregional inequality in Spain had the same impact on the risks of fatality and injury across the different provinces of Spain, in the period from 1999 to 2015. This allows us to map fatality and injury rates in Spanish provinces depending on their level of economic development. Provinces were divided in two large groups according to the mean weight of their per capita G...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Accuracy of algorithms to predict injury severity in older adults for trauma triage.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that it is more difficult to accurately predict severe injury in older adults involved in MVCs, which has the potential to result in significant overtriage. This decreased accuracy is likely due to variations in fragility in older adults. These findings indicate that special care should be taken when using regression-based prediction models to determine the appropriate hospital destination for older occupants. PMID: 31774698 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hartka T, Gancayco C, McMurry T, Robson M, Weaver A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Cyclist-motor vehicle collisions before and after implementation of cycle tracks in Toronto, Canada.
CONCLUSIONS: Cycle track implementation was associated with increased safety for cyclists on cycle tracks, after adjusting for cycling volume. In addition, there was a significant reduction in CMVC on streets surrounding cycle tracks between 151 m - 550 m distance from the tracks (a 'safety halo' effect), suggesting an area-wide safety effect of cycle track implementation. PMID: 31785479 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - November 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ling R, Rothman L, Cloutier MS, Macarthur C, Howard A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research