Relationship between frontal car-to-car test result and vehicle crash compatibility evaluation in mobile progressive deformable barrier test.
Conclusions: The currently proposed compatibility evaluation method of the MPDB test showed some tendency to overestimate the effect of SD change and resulted in quantitatively inconsistent outcomes regarding occupant injury in the partner car in C2C impact conditions. PMID: 31381454 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Watanabe T, Kuroda I, Nakajima T, Masuda M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Crash and injury prevention estimates for intersection driver assistance systems in left turn across path/opposite direction crashes in the United States.
Conclusions: This study presents the simulated effectiveness of a hypothetical intersection active safety system on real crashes that occurred in the United States. This work shows that there is a strong potential to reduce crashes and injuries in the United States. PMID: 31381453 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bareiss M, Scanlon J, Sherony R, Gabler HC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Factors contributing to serious and fatal injuries in belted rear seat occupants in frontal crashes.
Discussion: Rear seat occupants sustained serious and fatal injuries due to belt loading in crashes in which front seat occupants survived, suggesting a discrepancy in restraint performance between the front and rear rows. Restraint strategies that reduce loading to the chest should be considered, but there may be potential tradeoffs with increased head excursion, particularly in the absence of rear seat airbags. Any new restraint designs should consider the unique needs of the rear seat environment. PMID: 31381452 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jermakian J, Edwards M, Fein S, Maltese MR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Frontal crash simulations using parametric human models representing a diverse population.
Conclusions: This study is the first to use a large set of diverse FE human models to investigate the combined effects of age, sex, stature, and BMI on injury risks in frontal crashes. The study demonstrated that parametric human models can effectively predict the injury trends for the population and may now be used to optimize restraint systems for people who are not similar in size and shape to the available anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). New restraints that adapt to occupant age, sex, stature, and body shape may improve crash safety for all occupants. PMID: 31381451 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hu J, Zhang K, Reed MP, Wang JT, Neal M, Lin CH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The potential of vehicle and road infrastructure interventions in fatal bicyclist accidents on Swedish roads-What can in-depth studies tell us?
Conclusions: The majority of fatally injured bicyclists studied could potentially be saved with known techniques. A speedy implementation of important vehicle safety systems is recommended. A fast introduction of effective interventions in the road infrastructure is also necessary, preferably with a plan for prioritization. PMID: 31381450 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kullgren A, Stigson H, Ydenius A, Axelsson A, Engström E, Rizzi M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Improvement of driver active interventions during automated driving by displaying trajectory pointers-A driving simulator study.
This article proposes an HMI that constantly indicates the future position of the vehicle. Methods: This research used the Toyota Dynamic Driving Simulator to evaluate the effect of the proposed HMI and compares the proposed HMI with an HMI that notifies the driver when the vehicle trajectory changes. A total of 48 test subjects were divided into 2 groups of 24: One group used the HMI that constantly indicated the future position of the vehicle and the other group used the HMI that provided information when the vehicle trajectory changed. The following instructions were given to the test subjects: (1) to not hold the steer...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ono S, Sasaki H, Kumon H, Fuwamoto Y, Kondo S, Narumi T, Tanikawa T, Hirose M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Intersection AEB implementation strategies for left turn across path crashes.
Conclusions: Implementation strategy and safety zone definition strongly influence the real-life performance of intersection AEB. AEB should be applied not only for the turning vehicle but also for the straight-going vehicle to benefit from the full potential. Situationally appropriate safety zone definitions, in line with human hazard perception, need more attention and are a key to balance true positive and false positive performance. Remaining delta-V does not decrease broadly; hence, there is no evidence that future LTAP/OD crashes will be generally of lower severity. This highlights the need for continuous development...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sander U, Lubbe N, Pietzsch S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Estimated benefit of automated emergency braking systems for vehicle-pedestrian crashes in the United States.
Conclusions: Though not all crashes could be avoided, AEB significantly mitigated risk to pedestrians. The longer the TTC of braking and the shorter the latency value, the higher benefits showed by the AEB system. All AEB models used in this study were estimated to reduce fatalities and injuries and were more effective when combined with driver braking. PMID: 31381447 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Haus SH, Sherony R, Gabler HC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Safety assessment of automated vehicles: how to determine whether we have collected enough field data?
Conclusion: The presented case studies illustrate that the proposed method is able to quantify the degree of completeness of a small set of field data and can be used to deduce whether sufficient data have been collected for the purpose of the field study. Future work will focus on applying the proposed method to larger data sets. The proposed method will be used to evaluate the level of completeness of the data collection on Singaporean roads, aimed at defining relevant test cases for the autonomous vehicle road approval procedure that is being developed in Singapore. PMID: 31381446 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Tra...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: de Gelder E, Paardekooper JP, Op den Camp O, De Schutter B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Test procedure for evaluating the human-machine interface of vehicles with automated driving systems.
Conclusions: Each can be used as a stand-alone method or in combination to generate objective, reliable, and valid evaluations of HMIs, focusing on whether they meet minimum requirements. However, we also emphasize that other evaluation aspects such as controllability, misuse, and acceptance are not within the scope of the evaluation protocol. PMID: 31381445 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Naujoks F, Hergeth S, Wiedemann K, Schömig N, Forster Y, Keinath A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Situational characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents involving vehicles traveling at low speeds in Japan.
This study aimed to investigate the situational characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents involving vehicles traveling at low speeds in Japan. We focused on vehicles with 4 or more wheels. Such characteristics included daytime or nighttime conditions, road type, vehicle behaviors preceding the accident, and vehicle impact locations. Methods: Pedestrian fatality data on vehicle-pedestrian accidents were obtained from the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis of Japan (ITARDA) from 2005 to 2014. Nine vehicle classifications were considered: Trucks with gross vehicle weight (GVW) ≥7.5 tons and
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Matsui Y, Oikawa S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Functional decomposition-A contribution to overcome the parameter space explosion during validation of highly automated driving.
Conclusions: The reduction potential is a valuable contribution to overcome the parameter space explosion during the validation of highly automated driving. However, this study is based on assumptions and only a small set of exemplary scenarios. Thus, the findings have to be validated in further studies. PMID: 31381443 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Amersbach C, Winner H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Residual road departure crashes after full deployment of LDW and LDP systems.
Conclusions: For LDP systems, which were assumed to have zero latency, no crashes were avoided if the time-to-collision (TTC) from lane crossing to impact was less than 0.55 s. Obstacles such as guardrails and traffic barriers, which tend to be very close to the road, were more common among the remaining crashes. The study shows that LDW/LDP systems are limited by two factors, driver reaction time and TTC to the roadside object. Thus, earlier driver response and longer TTC may help in these situations. PMID: 31381442 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Riexinger LE, Sherony R, Gabler HC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Posture and belt fit in reclined passenger seats.
Conclusions: Spine posture changes as the torso reclines in an automotive seat, and belt fit is altered by the change in posture. The results can be used to accurately position crash test dummies and computation human models and to guide the design of belt restraints. PMID: 31381441 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Reed MP, Ebert SM, Jones MLH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Banging heads onboard buses: Assessment scheme to improve injury mitigation for bus passengers.
Conclusions: A novel analysis of CCTV footage has enabled a better understanding of injury mechanisms for bus passengers to be developed. In combination with inspection of current buses, this has been used to develop an assessment system to improve the safety of buses in London. PMID: 31381440 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Edwards M, Edwards A, Appleby J, Beaumont D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

THOR dummy chest deflection response in oblique and lateral far-side sled tests.
Conclusion: The chestbands provide a unique opportunity to compute peak deflections that parallel current IR-TRACC-type deflections and allow computation of peak deflections independent of the initial point of attachment to the rib. The differing locations of the peak deflection vectors along the rib contours for different test conditions suggest that a priori attachment is less effective. Further, varying magnitudes of the differences between ID and TD metrics underscore the difficulty in extrapolating ID outputs under different conditions: Pure lateral versus oblique, airbag presence, and thoracic levels. Deflection meas...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yoganandan N, Hauschild H, Humm J, Purushothaman Y, Pintar FA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effect of automated versus manual emergency braking on rear seat adult and pediatric occupant precrash motion.
Conclusions: Across all ages, head and trunk excursions were greater in MEB than AEB, despite increased muscle activity in MEB. This observation may suggest an ineffective attempt to brace the head or a startle reflex. The increased excursion in MEB compared to AEB may be attributed to differences in the acceleration pulses between the 2 scenarios. These results suggest that AEB systems can use specific deceleration profiles that have potential to reduce occupant motion across diverse age groups compared to sudden maximum emergency braking applied manually. PMID: 31381438 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Graci V, Douglas E, Seacrist T, Kerrigan J, Mansfield J, Bolte J, Sherony R, Hallman J, Arbogast KB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A framework for definition of logical scenarios for safety assurance of automated driving.
Conclusions: Defining a limited number of safety-relevant scenarios helps to realize a systematic safety assurance process for automated vehicles. Scenarios are defined based on the point of the potential collision of a challenging object with the subject vehicle and its initial position. This approach allows defining scenarios for different environments and different driving states of the subject vehicle using the same mechanisms. A next step is the generation of logical scenarios for other driving states of the subject vehicle and for other traffic environments. PMID: 31381437 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Weber H, Bock J, Klimke J, Roesener C, Hiller J, Krajewski R, Zlocki A, Eckstein L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characteristics of rear-end crashes involving passenger vehicles with automatic emergency braking.
Conclusions: The typical rear-end crash occurs when 2 passenger vehicles are proceeding in line, on a dry road, and at lower speeds. Because atypical crash circumstances are overrepresented among rear-end crashes by striking vehicles with AEB, it appears that the system is doing a better job of preventing the more typical crash scenario. Consumer information testing programs of AEB use a test configuration that models the typical rear-end crash type. Testing programs promoting good AEB performance in crash circumstances where vehicles with AEB are overrepresented could guide future development of AEB systems that perform w...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Cicchino JB, Zuby DS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Passenger muscle responses in lane change and lane change with braking maneuvers using two belt configurations: Standard and reversible pre-pretensioner.
This article focuses on muscle activation data (surface electromyography [EMG] normalized using maximum voluntary contraction [MVC] data) obtained from 38 muscles in the neck, upper extremities, the torso, and lower extremities. The raw EMG data were filtered, rectified, and smoothed. All muscle activations were presented in corridors of mean ± one standard deviation. Separate Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were performed on volunteers' muscle activation onset and amplitude considering 2 paired samples with the belt configuration as an independent factor. Results: In normal driving conditions prior to any...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ghaffari G, Brolin K, Pipkorn B, Jakobsson L, Davidsson J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Trends in aggressivity and driver risk for cars, SUVs, and pickups: Vehicle incompatibility from 1989 to 2016.
Conclusions: The trend toward reduced fleet incompatibility has continued in the latest crash data, particularly for cars and SUVs. Although pickup-car incompatibility has also decreased over time, pickups remain disproportionately aggressive toward other vehicles, possibly due to their greater average curb weight. Reducing the weight of some of the heaviest vehicles and making crash avoidance technology fitment more widespread may be promising means to reduce remaining fleet incompatibility. Identifying the source of remaining incompatibility will be important for safety improvements going forward. PMID: 31381434 [Pu...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Monfort SS, Nolan JM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The detection of drowsiness using a driver monitoring system.
Conclusions: Blinks and saccades have been shown to be predictive of microsleeps; however, it may be that detection of microsleeps and lane departures occurs too late. Therefore, it is encouraging that the model was able to distinguish mild from moderate drowsy driving. The use of automation may make vehicle-based signals useless for characterizing driver states, providing further motivation for a DMS. Future improvements in impairment detection systems may be expected through a combination of improved hardware, physiological measures from unobtrusive sensors and wearables, and the intelligent integration of environmental ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Schwarz C, Gaspar J, Miller T, Yousefian R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Toward harmonizing prospective effectiveness assessment for road safety: Comparing tools in standard test case simulations.
Conclusions: The study identified variations that can arise from the use of different simulation setups in assessment of the effectiveness of active safety systems. The research presented is a first of its kind and provides significant input to the overall goal of harmonization by identifying specific items for standardization. Future activities aim at further specification of methods for prospective assessments of the effectiveness of active safety, which will enhance comparability and trustworthiness in this kind of studies and thus contribute to increased traffic safety. PMID: 31381432 [PubMed - in process] (Source...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wimmer P, Düring M, Chajmowicz H, Granum F, King J, Kolk H, Op den Camp O, Scognamiglio P, Wagner M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Multi-agent traffic simulations to estimate the impact of automated technologies on safety.
Conclusions: We developed a multi-agent traffic simulation methodology to estimate the effect of different automated vehicle technologies on safety. The crash locations resulting from simulations of manual driving within a limited area in Japan were preliminary assessed by comparison with real-world crash data collected in the same area. Increasing penetration levels of AEB and LDW led to a large reduction in both the frequency and severity of rear-end crashes, followed by car-to-car head-on crashes and single-vehicle lane departure crashes. Preliminary estimations of the potential safety improvements that may be achieved ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kitajima S, Shimono K, Tajima J, Antona-Makoshi J, Uchida N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Quantifying Vision Zero: Crash avoidance in rural and motorway accident scenarios by combination of ACC, AEB, and LKS projected to German accident occurrence.
Conclusions: This article describes a systematic approach for assessing the effectiveness of ADAS using GIDAS PCM data to be able to project results to Germany. The closed-loop simulation run in rateEFFECT covers ACC, AEB, and LKS as well as relevant sensors for environment recognition and actuators for longitudinal and lateral vehicle control. Identification of green spots evaluates safety benefits of state-of-the-art level 0-2 functions as a baseline for further system improvements to address grey spots. Knowing which accidents could be avoided by standard ADAS helps focus the evolution of future driving functions on whi...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Stark L, Düring M, Schoenawa S, Maschke JE, Do CM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of rider and child pillion passenger kinematics along with injury mechanisms during motorcycle crash.
Conclusions: This study revealed 2 kinematics patterns and injury mechanisms. Simulations with config-MC manifested a high risk of head and thorax injury to the rider but a low risk of severe injury to the child. Thorax injury to the rider due to handlebar impact was only found in simulations with config-MC. However, a high risk of skull, lower extremity, brain, and neck injuries were more pronounced for cases with config-CM. A high risk of DAI was also noticed for the child. In simulations with config-CM the child exhibited a higher risk of severe injury. PMID: 31381429 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Carmai J, Koetniyom S, Hossain W Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Forward collision warning based on a driver model to increase drivers' acceptance.
Conclusions: Similar to other studies' results, drivers prefer warning times that compare with their driving behavior. It is important to consider that the study tested only one scenario. In addition, in this study, participants were aware of the appearance of the cyclist and the warning. A further investigation should be conducted to determine the acceptance of distracted drivers. PMID: 31381428 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Puente Guillen P, Gohl I Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Road surface condition detection utilizing resonance frequency and optical technologies
Publication date: Available online 5 August 2019Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Kang Gui, Lin Ye, Junfeng Ge, Faouzi Alaya Cheikh, Lizhen HuangAbstractWith the booming development of road network and intelligent transportation systems, road surface condition information becomes more and more valuable in traffic accident prevention and route optimization. Although some existing embedded detectors have been providing road condition data in some regions, they are not functional enough in either complex condition recognition or film thickness measurement. This paper introduces a dual-sensor based road condi...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - August 6, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Improving freeway segment crash prediction models by including disaggregate speed data from different sources
This study also assessed whether inclusion of speed data improved model performance and examined the effects of using speeds from physical sensors versus speed estimates from private-sector probe speed data. The results showed that using average hourly volume along with average speed and selected geometric variables improved predictions compared to annual models that did not use speed information. When comparing an AADT-based model to an average hourly volume model for total crashes, the mean absolute prediction error improved by 11% for rural models and 20% for urban models. This result was based on volume and speed data ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Speeding behavior and speed limits for heterogeneous bicycle flow.
Conclusions: The suggested speed limit values for different bicycle traffic flow can help to improve speed limit laws and policies for bicycle traffic. PMID: 31381427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Xu C, Guo H, Xu L, Jin S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Fatal side impact crash scenarios for rear seat and seat belt-restrained occupants from vulnerable populations.
Conclusions: Older adults suffered thoracic injuries at a higher rate than older children-who suffered predominately head injuries-and most vehicles did not have torso SABs installed, which could have mitigated thoracic injuries. Side impacts in which younger occupants were killed were more severe than impacts that resulted in the death of an older occupant; however, vehicle damage and intrusion in many fatal impacts for both age cohorts appeared similar to that of consumer information testing. Large pickups and heavy vehicles were the striking vehicle in over half of all fatalities; vehicle designs and crash tests should ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fein SM, Jermakian JS, Arbogast KB, Maltese MR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Neurologic injuries following road traffic accidents in the Dominican Republic: Examining causes and potential solutions.
This study examines RTA-related TBIs in the Dominican Republic, a country in the Caribbean with the highest RTA fatality rate in the Western Hemisphere. Methods: We interviewed 117 adult patients or medical guardians of patients admitted to Hospital Traumatológico Dr. Ney Arias Lora in Santo Domingo following an RTA. Information regarding the type of accident, patient demographics, and injuries sustained was collected for each patient. Results: Most study participants were males (79.5%), and the most common method of transportation was motorized 2-wheeled vehicle (MTW; 74.4%). Of the 69 patients who suffered a TBI, ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Reddy SP, Walsh MS, Paulino-Ramirez R, Florenzán J, Fernández J, Nwariaku FE, Abdelnaby A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Rates and types of injuries during the three consecutive years 2016 to 2018 of the V ätternrundan-One of the world's largest and longest bicycle races.
Rates and types of injuries during the three consecutive years 2016 to 2018 of the Vätternrundan-One of the world's largest and longest bicycle races. Traffic Inj Prev. 2019 Aug 05;:1-4 Authors: Sillén K, Wallenius V Abstract Objective: The present study was performed during 3 consecutive years of the Vätternrundan in Sweden, one of the world's longest and largest bicycle races. The aim was to examine the rates and types of injuries to participating cyclists in order to identify the reasons and mechanisms for injury, with the purpose of decreasing the risk of injury. Method: A retrosp...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sillén K, Wallenius V Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Topic analysis of Road safety inspections using latent dirichlet allocation: A case study of roadside safety in Irish main roads
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Carlos Roque, João Lourenço Cardoso, Thomas Connell, Govert Schermers, Roland WeberAbstractUnder the Safe System framework, Road Authorities have a responsibility to deliver inherently safe roads and streets. Addressing this problem depends on knowledge of the road network safety conditions and the number of funds available for new road safety interventions. It also requires the prioritisation of the various interventions that may generate benefits, increasing safety, while ensuring that reasonable steps are taken t...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Parent-adolescent bicycling safety communication and bicycling behavior
ConclusionsResults highlight lack of agreement between parents and adolescents on cycling instructions the adolescent receives from the parent. Parent instructions to adolescents regarding bicycling safety were not associated with actual riding behaviors. Results suggest parent messaging to adolescents may be ineffective. Given parents are in a position of influence, results indicate a need for parental training on effective safety-related communication strategies to assist them in capitalizing on their parental role to increase their child’s safety. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Multinomial logistic regression for prediction of vulnerable road users risk injuries based on spatial and temporal assessment.
Authors: Vilaça M, Macedo E, Tafidis P, Coelho MC Abstract Urban area's rapid growth often leads to adverse effects such as traffic congestion and increasing accident risks due to the expansion in transportation systems. In the frame of smart cities, active modes are expected to be promoted to improve living conditions. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to reduce the number of vulnerable road users (VRUs) injuries. Considering injury severity levels from crashes involving VRUs, this article seeks spatial and temporal patterns between cities and presents a model to predict the likelihood of VRUs to be inv...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - August 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Endogenous commercial driver’s traffic violations and freight truck-involved crashes on mainlines of expressway
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Jungyeol Hong, Juneyoung Park, Gunwoo Lee, Dongjoo ParkAbstractFreight truck-involved crashes result in a high mortality rate and significantly impact logistic costs; therefore, many researchers have analyzed the causes of truck-involved traffic crashes. In the existing literature, it was found that truck-involved crashes are affected by factors such as road geometry, weather, driver and vehicle characteristics, and traffic volume based on a variety of statistical methodologies; however, the endogenous impact resulting from drive...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - August 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Engineering judgment and road safety.
Abstract Decisions that highway and traffic engineers make significantly affect the safety of road users. The documents that guide highway and traffic engineering practice suggest that many of these decisions be made by 'engineering judgment'. One would like this judgment to be informed by evidence-based anticipation of their likely safety consequences and by a professional ability to balance safety against mobility and other dimensions of 'utility'. I show that these desiderata are largely unfulfilled. The many implications of this finding are discussed. PMID: 31154285 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source:...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hauer E Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A feature learning approach based on XGBoost for driving assessment and risk prediction.
This study designs a framework of feature extraction and selection, to assess vehicle driving and predict risk levels. The framework integrates learning-based feature selection, unsupervised risk rating, and imbalanced data resampling. For each vehicle, about 1300 driving behaviour features are extracted from trajectory data, which produce in-depth and multi-view measures on behaviours. To estimate the risk potentials of vehicles in driving, unsupervised data labelling is proposed. Based on extracted risk indicator features, vehicles are clustered into various groups labelled with graded risk levels. Data under-sampling of...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Shi X, Wong YD, Li MZ, Palanisamy C, Chai C Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Key feature selection and risk prediction for lane-changing behaviors based on vehicles' trajectory data.
This study presents a research framework for key feature selection and risk prediction of car's LC behavior on the highway based on vehicles' trajectory dataset. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that focuses on key feature selection and risk prediction for LC behavior on the highway. From the vehicles' trajectory dataset, we extract car's candidate features and apply fault tree analysis and k-Means clustering algorithm to determine the LC risk level based on the performance indicator of Crash Potential Index (CPI). Random Forest (RF) classifier is applied to select key features from car's candidate fea...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chen T, Shi X, Wong YD Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Comparison of empirical Bayes and propensity score methods for road safety evaluation: A simulation study.
Abstract Statistical evaluation of road safety interventions can be undertaken using a variety of different approaches, typically requiring different assumptions to obtain causal identification. In this paper, we conduct a simulation study to compare the performance of empirical Bayes (EB) and propensity score (PS) based methods, which have featured prominently in the recent literature, in settings with and without violation of key assumptions. The estimators considered include EB, inverse probability weighting (IPW), and Doubly Robust (DR) estimation. We find that while the EB approach has good finite sample prop...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Li H, Graham DJ, Ding H, Ren G Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Safety-in-numbers: An updated meta-analysis of estimates.
Abstract Safety-in-numbers denotes the tendency for the number of accidents to increase less than in proportion to traffic volume. This paper updates a meta-analysis of estimates of safety-in-numbers published in 2017 (Elvik and Bjørnskau, Safety Science, 92, 274-282). Nearly all studies find safety-in-numbers, but the numerical estimates vary considerably. As virtually all studies are cross-sectional, it is not possible to determine if safety-in-numbers represents a causal relationship. Meta-regression analysis was performed to identify factors which may explain the large heterogeneity of estimates of safe...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Elvik R, Goel R Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Analytical observational study of nonfatal motor vehicle collisions and incidents in a light-vehicle sales and service fleet.
Abstract Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a significant cause of lost-workday injuries, and consistently the leading cause of work-related fatalities in the United States for all industries combined. Prevention research has focused mainly on collisions fatal to the drivers of large trucks. This analytical observational study addresses gaps in the literature by: conducting a descriptive analysis of motor vehicle claim events involving light-vehicle drivers in a large health care industry fleet; identifying risk factors for work-related MVCs and injuries based on vehicle miles traveled; and providing details on circ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pratt SG, Bell JL Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Engineering ethics within accident analysis models.
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to further investigate engineering ethics and its gap within accident analysis models. In this paper, at first, the role of human factors in the occurrence of accidents is presented. Then engineering ethics as an element of human factors is proposed. It is suggested that engineering ethics can provide engineers with the necessary guidelines to avoid possible accidents arising from their decisions and actions. In addition, the Challenger and Columbia space shuttle case studies that demonstrate the role of engineering ethics in the prevention and occurrence of accidents are disc...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Haghighattalab S, Chen A, Fan Y, Mohammadi R Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Mobile phone conversation distraction: Understanding differences in impact between simulator and naturalistic driving studies.
This study identifies that these differences may be attributed to behavioural hypotheses associated with driver self-regulation, arousal from cognitive loading, task displacement and gaze concentration - all of which need to be explicitly tested in future driving studies. Metric estimation and application was also revealed to be polarising results and the subsequent assessment of the crash risk. A common metric applied in this domain is the 'Odds Ratio', particularly prevalent in NDSs. This study presents a detailed investigation into the assumptions and application of the Odds Ratio which revealed the potential for over- ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wijayaratna KP, Cunningham ML, Regan MA, Jian S, Chand S, Dixit VV Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Validated thoracic vertebrae and costovertebral joints increase biofidelity of a human body model in hub impacts.
Conclusions: Deformable T-spine and CV joint validation has not been previously published and yielded high biofidelity in rear impact and notable improvement in lateral impact at the full body level. Future work will focus on localized T-spine injury criteria made possible by the introduction of this fully deformable representation of the anatomy. PMID: 31364878 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Aira J, Guleyupoglu B, Jones D, Koya B, Davis M, Gayzik FS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Associations between driving under the influence or riding with an impaired driver and future substance use among adolescents.
Conclusions: RWID and DUI are significantly associated with greater alcohol and marijuana use over time. This study highlights that teens may be at higher risk for problem substance use in the future even if they ride with someone who is impaired. Prevention and intervention efforts for adolescents need to address both driving under the influence and riding with an impaired driver to prevent downstream consequences. PMID: 31356125 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Osilla KC, Seelam R, Parast L, D'Amico EJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Social distance and texting while driving: A behavioral economic analysis of social discounting.
Conclusion: The findings indicate that social distance of the sender is an important factor involved in the decision to text while driving. Participants were more likely to reply to a text while driving if the sender was less socially distant. When they were closer to their destination, they were less likely to reply to socially distant people than those closer to them. The roles that social consequences play in drivers' decision making to text while driving are discussed. PMID: 31356123 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Foreman AM, Hayashi Y, Friedel JE, Wirth O Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of finite element human body models for use in a standardized protocol for pedestrian safety assessment.
Conclusions: All simulations normal terminated. For each of the simulations, sagittal plane coordinate histories of the center of the head, 12th thoracic vertebrae, and center of acetabulum were compared with standard corridors and did not exceed the tolerance of 50 mm deviation. Head contact time was also compared with the reference values and did not exceed the tolerance interval of +3.5% and -7%. Comparison of contact forces was required for monitoring purposes only. The head contact time of the models for each simulation was recorded and compared by model size, impact speed, and vehicle geometry. Head contact ti...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Decker W, Koya B, Pak W, Untaroiu CD, Gayzik FS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research