Assessing driving behavior upstream of work zones by detecting response points in speed profile: A naturalistic driving study.
Conclusions: Overall, drivers were likely to show a response at the lane ends, work zone speed limit signs, and speed feedback signs. PMID: 31647333 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Thapa R, Hallmark S, Smadi O, Goswamy A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Simulating cerebral edema and delayed fatality after traumatic brain injury using triphasic swelling biomechanics.
Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to simulate post-traumatic brain swelling to predict outcome. By incorporating swelling, ischemia, and cell death, our novel approach may improve fidelity of predicting outcome after MVCs. A strength of our approach is relying on the validated GHBMC model to predict brain deformation in the crash-scenario. The main goal of the current study was to demonstrate feasibility of simulating post-injury swelling using triphasic biomechanics. We successfully predicted clinically relevant increases in ICP that suggest a high likelihood of death when simulating a fata...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Basilio AV, Xu P, Takahashi Y, Yanaoka T, Sugaya H, Ateshian GA, Morrison B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Road safety of passing maneuvers: A bivariate extreme value theory approach under non-stationary conditions.
Abstract Observed accidents have been the main resource for road safety analysis over the past decades. Although such reliance seems quite straightforward, the rare nature of these events has made safety difficult to assess, especially for new and innovative traffic treatments. Surrogate measures of safety have allowed to step away from traditional safety performance functions and analyze safety performance without relying on accident records. In recent years, the use of extreme value theory (EV) models in combination with surrogate safety measures to estimate accident probabilities has gained popularity within th...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Cavadas J, Azevedo CL, Farah H, Ferreira A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The role of striking and struck vehicles in side crashes between vehicles: Bayesian bivariate probit analysis in China
ConclusionsFrom the results it can be concluded that there indeed exists correlation between striking and struck vehicles in side crashes, although the correlation is not so strong. Importantly, Bayesian bivariate probit model can address the role of striking and struck vehicles in side crashes simultaneously and can accommodate the correlation clearly, which extends the range of univariate probit analysis. The general and empirical countermeasures are presented to improve the safety at intersections. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A review of spatial approaches in road safety
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & PreventionAuthor(s): Apostolos Ziakopoulos, George YannisAbstractSpatial analyses of crashes have been adopted in road safety for decades in order to determine how crashes are affected by neighboring locations, how the influence of parameters varies spatially and which locations warrant interventions more urgently. The aim of the present research is to critically review the existing literature on different spatial approaches through which researchers handle the dimension of space in its various aspects in their studies and analyses. Specifica...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A review of spatial approaches in road safety.
Abstract Spatial analyses of crashes have been adopted in road safety for decades in order to determine how crashes are affected by neighboring locations, how the influence of parameters varies spatially and which locations warrant interventions more urgently. The aim of the present research is to critically review the existing literature on different spatial approaches through which researchers handle the dimension of space in its various aspects in their studies and analyses. Specifically, the use of different areal unit levels in spatial road safety studies is investigated, different modelling approaches are di...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ziakopoulos A, Yannis G Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Visual search and target detection during simulated driving in Parkinson’s disease
Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): M. Ranchet, J.C. Morgan, A.E. Akinwuntan, H. DevosAbstractPatients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD) often exhibit difficulties with visual search that may impede their ability to recognize landmarks and cars while driving. The main objective of this study was to investigate visual search performances of both billboards and cars in patients with PD using a driving simulator. A second objective was to examine the role of cognitive functions in performing the visual search task while driving. Nineteen patients with PD (age: 68 ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Author response: Re: Re: Fewster et al. (2019) Characterizing trunk muscle activations during simulated low-speed rear impact collisions.
PMID: 31633431 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fewster KM, Viggiani D, Gooyers CE, Parkinson RJ, Callaghan JP Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Re: Fewster et  al. (2019) Characterizing trunk muscle activations during simulated low-speed rear impact collisions, Traffic Injury Prevention, doi:10.1080/15389588.2019.1579317.
Re: Fewster et al. (2019) Characterizing trunk muscle activations during simulated low-speed rear impact collisions, Traffic Injury Prevention, doi:10.1080/15389588.2019.1579317. Traffic Inj Prev. 2019 Oct 21;:1-2 Authors: Siegmund GP PMID: 31633429 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Siegmund GP Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The role of striking and struck vehicles in side crashes between vehicles: Bayesian bivariate probit analysis in China.
CONCLUSIONS: From the results it can be concluded that there indeed exists correlation between striking and struck vehicles in side crashes, although the correlation is not so strong. Importantly, Bayesian bivariate probit model can address the role of striking and struck vehicles in side crashes simultaneously and can accommodate the correlation clearly, which extends the range of univariate probit analysis. The general and empirical countermeasures are presented to improve the safety at intersections. PMID: 31648116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yuan Q, Xu X, Xu M, Zhao J, Li Y Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: December 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 133Author(s): (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Visual search and target detection during simulated driving in Parkinson's disease.
Abstract Patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) often exhibit difficulties with visual search that may impede their ability to recognize landmarks and cars while driving. The main objective of this study was to investigate visual search performances of both billboards and cars in patients with PD using a driving simulator. A second objective was to examine the role of cognitive functions in performing the visual search task while driving. Nineteen patients with PD (age: 68 ± 8yo, sex (Men/Women): 15/4) and 14 controls (age: 60 ± 11yo, sex: 7/7) first performed a battery of cognitive tests. Th...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ranchet M, Morgan JC, Akinwuntan AE, Devos H Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Bayesian hierarchical modeling of traffic conflict extremes for crash estimation: A non-stationary peak over threshold approach
This study presents a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate crashes from traffic conflict extremes in a non-stationary context. The model combines a peak over threshold approach with non-stationary thresholds in terms of regression quantiles and covariate-dependent parameters of the generalized Pareto distribution. The developed model was applied to estimate rear-end crashes from traffic conflicts of the same type collected from four signalized intersections. The conflicts were measured by the modified time to collision (MTTC) and traffic volume, shock wave area, average shock wave speed, and platoon ratio of each signal...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - October 18, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Addressing the human toll from motor vehicle traffic crashes.
Authors: PMID: 31609160 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - October 16, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Comparison of control strategies for the cervical muscles of an average female head-neck finite element model.
Conclusions: Both muscle control strategies improved the head kinematics compared to the passive model and comparable to the volunteer kinematics responses with overall better agreement achieved by the model with active muscles mimicking the human vestibular system. PMID: 31617760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 16, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Putra IPA, Iraeus J, Thomson R, Svensson MY, Linder A, Sato F Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Quantifying vehicle control from physiology in type 1 diabetes.
Abstract Objective: Our goal is to measure real-world effects of at-risk driver physiology on safety-critical tasks like driving by monitoring driver behavior and physiology in real-time. Drivers with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have an elevated crash risk that is linked to abnormal blood glucose, particularly hypoglycemia. We tested the hypotheses that (1) T1D drivers would have overall impaired vehicle control behavior relative to control drivers without diabetes, (2) At-risk patterns of vehicle control in T1D drivers would be linked to at-risk, in-vehicle physiology, and (3) T1D drivers would show impaired vehicle co...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 16, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chakraborty P, Merickel J, Shah V, Sharma A, Hegde C, Desouza C, Drincic A, Gunaratne P, Rizzo M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Studying the effect of interventions in injury research: experimental design options.
Authors: Bangdiwala SI PMID: 31591932 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - October 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

The more (sharp) curves, the lower the risk
Publication date: December 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 133Author(s): Rune ElvikAbstractThe risk of accident in horizontal curves is a complex function of at least the following characteristics of the curve: the radius of the curve; the length of the curve (and the resultant deflection angle); the presence of a spiral transition curve; the super-elevation of the curve; the distance to adjacent curves; and whether the curve is on a flat road, a straight gradient or a vertical curve. The interactions between these characteristics in determining accident risk in horizontal curves is only beginning to...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 9, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Evaluating the effectiveness of perceptual treatments on sharp curves: a driving simulator study.
Conclusions: The findings demonstrated the effectiveness of the perceptual treatments, especially red PTB, in enticing drivers to reduce their speeds whilst approaching the sharp curve under study or driving through the curve. PMID: 31589474 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Calvi A, D'Amico F, Ciampoli LB, Ferrante C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Detailed subject-specific FE rib modeling for fracture prediction.
Conclusion: This study indicates that rib fracture location can be predicted for subject specific rib models based on high resolution CT, when loaded in anterior-posterior bending, as long as the rib's cortical cortex is of sufficient thickness and has limited porosity. This study provides guidelines for further enhancements of rib modeling for fracture location prediction with HBMs. PMID: 31589083 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Iraeus J, Lundin L, Storm S, Agnew A, Kang YS, Kemper A, Albert D, Holcombe S, Pipkorn B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The more (sharp) curves, the lower the risk.
Abstract The risk of accident in horizontal curves is a complex function of at least the following characteristics of the curve: the radius of the curve; the length of the curve (and the resultant deflection angle); the presence of a spiral transition curve; the super-elevation of the curve; the distance to adjacent curves; and whether the curve is on a flat road, a straight gradient or a vertical curve. The interactions between these characteristics in determining accident risk in horizontal curves is only beginning to be understood. This paper summarises the results of studies that have investigated the interact...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Elvik R Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Elderly pedestrians’ self-regulation failures and crash involvement: The development of typologies
Publication date: December 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 133Author(s): Yoshinori NakagawaAbstractThe present study aims to identify, study, and develop typologies based on cases of elderly pedestrian collisions with vehicles where the pedestrians subjectively ascribe the collision at least in part to their own self-regulation failures. Semistructured interview surveys were conducted with 18 elderly people who had experienced a crash with a vehicle as a pedestrian aged 65 years or older. Personal construct theory is adopted as the theoretical underpinning, and it is assumed that pedestrians have the...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Formative research identifying message strategies for a campus bicycle safety campaign using self-determination theory and the social norms approach
Publication date: December 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 133Author(s): Andrew GraysonAbstractThis formative study investigates the utility of the social norms approach (SNA) and self-determination theory (SDT) in framing safe bicycling messages with the goal of increasing intention to use bicycle lanes on a university campus. In Study 1, observational data showed that the majority of campus bicyclists did not use designated bike lanes while cycling; thus, intention to use bicycle lanes was chosen as the dependent variable for Study 2. Survey data (n = 168) collected from college stude...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Crash prediction based on traffic platoon characteristics using floating car trajectory data and the machine learning approach
Publication date: December 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 133Author(s): Junhua Wang, Tianyang Luo, Ting FuAbstractPredicting crash propensity helps study safety on urban expressways in order to implement countermeasures and make improvements. It also helps identify and prevent crashes before they happen. However, collecting real-time wide-coverage traffic information for crash prediction has been challenging. More importantly, previous studies have failed to consider the characteristics of the traffic platoon (vehicle group) that the crash vehicle belongs to before the crash occurs. This paper aims ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Safety effects of wet-weather pavement markings
Publication date: December 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 133Author(s): Eun Sug Park, Paul J. Carlson, Adam PikeAbstractWhile there has been increasing interest in wet-weather pavement markings due to their improved visibility and potential for enhancing road safety in wet-night conditions, there is a lack of research evaluating their safety effectiveness based on actual wet-night crash data. This paper presents the safety assessment of wet-weather pavement markings in the Atlanta District of the Texas Department of Transportation, conducted by two different evaluation approaches that are known to b...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Risk perception, worry, and pedestrian behaviour in the Norwegian population
Publication date: December 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 133Author(s): An-Magritt Kummeneje, Torbjørn RundmoAbstractThe aim of the study was to investigate the association between pedestrians’ risk perception and worry, and how worry influence pedestrians’ behaviour. Worry is regarded as a feeling that emerges as a result of an individual’s cognitive assessment of risk. The study was based on a questionnaire survey carried out among a representative sample (n = 2000) of the Norwegian population. The results showed differences in how people perceived risk and how worried...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Analysis of factors affecting injury severity for riders or occupants of all-terrain vehicles and golf carts involved in police-reported crashes
Publication date: December 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 133Author(s): Brendan J. Russo, Edward J. SmaglikAbstractIn recent years, the popularity of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in the United States (US) has increased, and the number of ATV driver and passenger deaths have also increased substantially in the last few decades. Riders or occupants of ATVs as well as golf carts are particularly vulnerable to injury, not only due to the lack of protection and safety equipment offered by their vehicles, but also the propensity for ejection in the event of a crash. Given the vulnerability of these road us...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Crash prediction based on traffic platoon characteristics using floating car trajectory data and the machine learning approach.
Abstract Predicting crash propensity helps study safety on urban expressways in order to implement countermeasures and make improvements. It also helps identify and prevent crashes before they happen. However, collecting real-time wide-coverage traffic information for crash prediction has been challenging. More importantly, previous studies have failed to consider the characteristics of the traffic platoon (vehicle group) that the crash vehicle belongs to before the crash occurs. This paper aims to model crash propensity based on traffic platoon characteristics collected by the floating car method, which provides ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wang J, Luo T, Fu T Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Elderly pedestrians' self-regulation failures and crash involvement: The development of typologies.
Abstract The present study aims to identify, study, and develop typologies based on cases of elderly pedestrian collisions with vehicles where the pedestrians subjectively ascribe the collision at least in part to their own self-regulation failures. Semistructured interview surveys were conducted with 18 elderly people who had experienced a crash with a vehicle as a pedestrian aged 65 years or older. Personal construct theory is adopted as the theoretical underpinning, and it is assumed that pedestrians have their own subjective ways of making sense of the crashes they are involved in. It was found that 11 of the ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nakagawa Y Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Formative research identifying message strategies for a campus bicycle safety campaign using self-determination theory and the social norms approach.
Abstract This formative study investigates the utility of the social norms approach (SNA) and self-determination theory (SDT) in framing safe bicycling messages with the goal of increasing intention to use bicycle lanes on a university campus. In Study 1, observational data showed that the majority of campus bicyclists did not use designated bike lanes while cycling; thus, intention to use bicycle lanes was chosen as the dependent variable for Study 2. Survey data (n = 168) collected from college students measured SNA and SDT constructs related to intention to use bicycle lanes, including descriptive...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Grayson A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Are we SAFE now? An evaluation of the Seatbelts Are for Everyone teen traffic safety program in Kansas.
Conclusions: The evaluation of SAFE suggests that students are receptive to programs about seat belt and traffic safety. States may consider the recommendations for improvement of this program with other published evaluations and programs to determine how best to implement similar programs in their communities. PMID: 31580733 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Freund NM, Turosak A, Dean A, White H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Risk perception, worry, and pedestrian behaviour in the Norwegian population.
Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the association between pedestrians' risk perception and worry, and how worry influence pedestrians' behaviour. Worry is regarded as a feeling that emerges as a result of an individual's cognitive assessment of risk. The study was based on a questionnaire survey carried out among a representative sample (n = 2000) of the Norwegian population. The results showed differences in how people perceived risk and how worried they were about being exposed to different hazards (traffic accident, harassment, theft, and terror) as a pedestrian during night-time and daytime....
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kummeneje AM, Rundmo T Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of factors affecting injury severity for riders or occupants of all-terrain vehicles and golf carts involved in police-reported crashes.
Abstract In recent years, the popularity of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in the United States (US) has increased, and the number of ATV driver and passenger deaths have also increased substantially in the last few decades. Riders or occupants of ATVs as well as golf carts are particularly vulnerable to injury, not only due to the lack of protection and safety equipment offered by their vehicles, but also the propensity for ejection in the event of a crash. Given the vulnerability of these road users, it's critical to understand factors which may affect injury severity to plan effective countermeasures aimed at redu...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Russo BJ, Smaglik EJ Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Safety effects of wet-weather pavement markings.
Abstract While there has been increasing interest in wet-weather pavement markings due to their improved visibility and potential for enhancing road safety in wet-night conditions, there is a lack of research evaluating their safety effectiveness based on actual wet-night crash data. This paper presents the safety assessment of wet-weather pavement markings in the Atlanta District of the Texas Department of Transportation, conducted by two different evaluation approaches that are known to be rigorous and statistically defensible: Empirical-Bayes before-after analysis and full Bayes before-after analysis with compa...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Park ES, Carlson PJ, Pike A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The common characteristics and behaviors of child occupants in motor vehicle travel.
Abstract Objective: Child occupant behavior and head position when travelling in child restraint systems (CRS) may have an effect on injury risk in the event of a motor vehicle crash. The current study aimed to describe the common characteristics and behaviors of child occupants during everyday, real-world motor vehicle travel in a sample of Australian families to identify potential safety implications of observed behaviors and head position within the CRS. Methods: Two instrumented study vehicles were used by 42 families for approximately two weeks. Continuous video and audio data were collected across 1,651 trip...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Cross SL, Koppel S, Arbogast KB, Bohman K, Rudin-Brown CM, Charlton JL Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effectiveness of center-mounted airbag in far-side impacts based on THOR sled tests.
Conclusion: The center-mounted airbag reduced the ATD excursions and accelerations in the 45° and 90° tests, thus reducing the risk of injury due to contact with the intruding structure. The results of this study may assist in designing countermeasures for vehicles in far-side impact. PMID: 31567026 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Umale S, Hauschild H, Humm J, Driesslein K, Yoganandan N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A systematic cost-benefit analysis of 29 road safety measures
Publication date: December 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 133Author(s): Stijn Daniels, Heike Martensen, Annelies Schoeters, Wouter Van den Berghe, Eleonora Papadimitriou, Apostolos Ziakopoulos, Susanne Kaiser, Eva Aigner-Breuss, Aggelos Soteropoulos, Wim Wijnen, Wendy Weijermars, Laurent Carnis, Rune Elvik, Oscar Martin PerezAbstractEconomic evaluations of road safety measures are only rarely published in the scholarly literature. We collected and (re-)analyzed evidence in order to conduct cost-benefit analyses (CBAs) for 29 road safety measures. The information on crash costs was based on data from...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Toward an integrated traffic law enforcement and network management in connected vehicle environment: Conceptual model and survey study of public acceptance
Publication date: December 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 133Author(s): Moahd Alghuson, Khaled Abdelghany, Ahmed HassanAbstractThe increasing number of traffic accidents and their associated traffic congestion have prompted the development of innovative technologies to curb such problems. This paper proposes a novel score-based traffic law-enforcement and network management system (SLEM) that is based on connected vehicles (CV) technology. SLEM assigns a score to each driver which reflects her/his driving performance and compliance with traffic laws. The proposed system adopts a rewarding mechanism ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Risk analysis and management for highway operations safety using a covariate-balanced determinant detector
Publication date: December 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 133Author(s): Chengqian Li, Qi Fang, Lieyun Ding, Botao ZhongAbstractHighway operations are marred with inherent risks of injury or death, making risk management critical for ensuring the adequate safety of the people involved. This paper investigates the interaction between various highway safety risk factors and effective risk mitigation strategies related to such interaction. The Covariate-Balanced Determinant Detector (CBDD) technique is used to estimate the quantity of both individual and combined risks, and their effect on highway opera...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Bayesian hierarchical modeling traffic conflict extremes for crash estimation: A non-stationary peak over threshold approach
This study presents a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate crashes from traffic conflict extremes in a non-stationary context. The model combines a peak over threshold approach with non-stationary thresholds in terms of regression quantiles and covariate-dependent parameters of the generalized Pareto distribution. The developed model was applied to estimate rear-end crashes from traffic conflicts of the same type collected from four signalized intersections. The conflicts were measured by the modified time to collision (MTTC) and traffic volume, shock wave area, average shock wave speed, and platoon ratio of each signal...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - October 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Risk analysis and management for highway operations safety using a covariate-balanced determinant detector.
Abstract Highway operations are marred with inherent risks of injury or death, making risk management critical for ensuring the adequate safety of the people involved. This paper investigates the interaction between various highway safety risk factors and effective risk mitigation strategies related to such interaction. The Covariate-Balanced Determinant Detector (CBDD) technique is used to estimate the quantity of both individual and combined risks, and their effect on highway operations safety. Through this technique, the most dangerous risk combinations have been identified and corresponding risk mitigation sce...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Li C, Fang Q, Ding L, Zhong B Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Toward an integrated traffic law enforcement and network management in connected vehicle environment: Conceptual model and survey study of public acceptance.
Abstract The increasing number of traffic accidents and their associated traffic congestion have prompted the development of innovative technologies to curb such problems. This paper proposes a novel score-based traffic law-enforcement and network management system (SLEM) that is based on connected vehicles (CV) technology. SLEM assigns a score to each driver which reflects her/his driving performance and compliance with traffic laws. The proposed system adopts a rewarding mechanism that rewards high-performing drivers and penalizes low-performing drivers who fail to obey the laws. The reward mechanism is in the f...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Alghuson M, Abdelghany K, Hassan A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A systematic cost-benefit analysis of 29 road safety measures.
Abstract Economic evaluations of road safety measures are only rarely published in the scholarly literature. We collected and (re-)analyzed evidence in order to conduct cost-benefit analyses (CBAs) for 29 road safety measures. The information on crash costs was based on data from a survey in European countries. We applied a systematic procedure including corrections for inflation and Purchasing Power Parity in order to express all the monetary information in the same units (EUR, 2015). Cost-benefit analyses were done for measures with favorable estimated effects on road safety and for which relevant information on...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Daniels S, Martensen H, Schoeters A, Van den Berghe W, Papadimitriou E, Ziakopoulos A, Kaiser S, Aigner-Breuss E, Soteropoulos A, Wijnen W, Weijermars W, Carnis L, Elvik R, Perez OM Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Safety performance and technology heterogeneity in China’s provincial construction industry
Publication date: January 2020Source: Safety Science, Volume 121Author(s): Liangguo Kang, Chao Wu, Xiuping Liao, Bing WangAbstractThe technology heterogeneity in the construction industry causes difficulties for an unbiased evaluation of safety performance. The non-parametric and two-hierarchy frontier data envelopment analysis (DEA) model was constructed according to the inputs and outputs of China’s provincial construction industry in 2017. Safety performance and its potential as well as undesirable output potential were analyzed from the aspect of technology gap and management efficiency. The results showed that t...
Source: Safety Science - September 27, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Age-based differences in the disability of extremity injuries in pediatric and adult occupants.
The objective was to develop a disability-based metric for motor vehicle crash (MVC) upper and lower extremity injuries and compare functional outcomes between children and adults. Methods: Disability risk (DR) was quantified using Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores within the National Trauma Data Bank-Research Data System for the top 95% most frequently occurring Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3 extremity injuries (22 unique injuries). Pediatric (7-18 years), young adult (19-45 years), middle-aged (46-65 years), and older adult (66+ years) MVC occupants with an FIM score and at least one of ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gaffley M, Weaver AA, Talton JW, Barnard RT, Stitzel JD, Zonfrillo MR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An analysis of cyclists' speed at combined pedestrian and cycle paths.
Conclusions: The relationship between bicycle type and measured speed was not entirely clear, but the results suggest that paths with higher proportions of electric and racer bicycles have higher average speeds. There also appears to be a connection between average speed and the width of the distribution; that is, the higher the average speed, the wider the speed distribution. More research is needed on how speed levels and speed variance affect accident risk. PMID: 31560212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Eriksson J, Forsman Å, Niska A, Gustafsson S, Sörensen G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Comparison among driving state prediction models for car-following condition based on EEG and driving features
Publication date: December 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 133Author(s): Liu Yang, Wei Guan, Rui Ma, Xiaomeng LiAbstractRisky driving states such as aggressive driving and unstable driving are the cause of many traffic accidents. Many studies have used either driving data or physiological data such as electroencephalography (EEG) to estimate and monitor driving states. However, few studies made comparison among those driving-feature-based, EEG-feature-based and hybrid-feature-based (combination of driving features and EEG features) models. Further, limited types of EEG features have been extracted an...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Investigation of the consequences of the modifiable areal unit problem in macroscopic traffic safety analysis: A case study accounting for scale and zoning
Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Álvaro Briz-Redón, Francisco Martínez-Ruiz, Francisco MontesAbstractTraffic safety analysis at the macroscopic level usually relies on previously defined areal traffic analysis zones (TAZs) that are used as the units of investigation. Hence, statistical inference is made on the basis of such units, implying that the consideration of a certain TAZ configuration may influence the results and conclusions achieved. Regarding this, the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) is a well-known issue in the field of spa...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Estimating the effects of a studded footwear subsidy program on pedestrian falls among older adults in Gothenburg, Sweden
Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Carl Bonander, Robin HolmbergAbstractWe study the effects of a studded footwear subsidy program in Gothenburg, Sweden, where a free pair of anti-slip devices was distributed to all residents aged over 65 years as a pedestrian falls prevention measure. Using a difference-in-differences approach with internal age-based controls, we find evidence of a short-term effect on emergency department visits due to slips on snow and ice during the first year of the intervention (−45% [95% CI: −54, −9] in 2013), which equat...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Effects of roadwork characteristics and drivers’ individual differences on speed preferences in a rural work zone
Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Renata Torquato Steinbakk, Pål Ulleberg, Fridulv Sagberg, Knut Inge FostervoldAbstractWork zone safety from a psychological perspective has received little attention in scientific literature. Therefore, the present study aims to explore the influence of roadwork characteristics and drivers’ individual differences in terms of personality traits and self-assessment of driving skills on speed preferences in a rural work zone. Eight hundred forty-five Norwegian drivers stated their preferred speed for ten pictures of a r...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research