Biomechanical Responses and Injury Assessment of Post Mortem Human Subjects in Various Rear-facing Seating Configurations
The objective of this study was to generate biomechanical corridors from post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in two different seatback recline angles in 56 km/h sled tests simulating a rear-facing occupant during a frontal vehicle impact. PMHS were placed in a production seat which included an integrated seat belt. To achieve a repeatable configuration, the seat was rigidized in the rearward direction using a reinforcing frame that allowed for adjustability in both seatback recline angle and head restraint position. The frame contained instrumentation to measure occupant loads applied to the head restraint and seatback. To m...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yun-Seok Kang Jason Stammen Rakshit Ramachandra Amanda M Agnew Alena Hagedorn Colton Thomas Hyun Jung Kwon Kevin Moorhouse John H Bolte Source Type: research

Kinematic and Injury Response of Reclined PMHS in Frontal Impacts
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:83-153.ABSTRACTFrontal impacts with reclined occupants are rare but severe, and they are anticipated to become more common with the introduction of vehicles with automated driving capabilities. Computational and physical human surrogates are needed to design and evaluate injury countermeasures for reclined occupants, but the validity of such surrogates in a reclined posture is unknown. Experiments with post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in a recline posture are needed both to define biofidelity targets for other surrogates and to describe the biomechanical response of reclined occupants in res...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rachel Richardson John-Paul Donlon Mohan Jayathirtha Jason L Forman Greg Shaw Bronislaw Gepner Jason R Kerrigan Martin Östling Krystoffer Mroz Bengt Pipkorn Source Type: research

Evaluation of Rotation Reduction Features in Infant and Extended-Use Convertible Child Restraint Systems during Frontal and Rear Impacts
The objectives of the current study were to perform sled tests to: (1) evaluate the effects of using a support leg in rearward-facing infant and extended-use convertible CRS models during frontal impacts, (2) evaluate the effects of using a pair of lower tethers in a rearward-facing extended-use convertible CRS model during rear impacts and (3) compare responses of ATDs in an extendeduse convertible CRS with a support leg and a pair of lower tethers in rearward- and forward-facing configurations during frontal and rear impacts. The presence of a support leg in rearward-facing infant and extended-use convertible CRS models ...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Declan A Patton Aditya N Belwadi Jalaj Maheshwari Kristy B Arbogast Source Type: research

Analysis of Kinematic Response of Pediatric Occupants Seated in Naturalistic Positions in Simulated Frontal Small Offset Impacts: With and Without Automatic Emergency Braking
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:31-59.ABSTRACTNaturalistic driving studies have shown that pediatric occupants do not assume ideal seating positions in real-world scenarios. Current vehicle assessment programs and child restraint system (CRS) sled tests, such as FMVSS No. 213, do not account for a wide range of seating postures that are typically observed during real-world trips. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the kinematic and kinetic response of a pediatric human body model in various naturalistic seating positions in booster seats when subjected to a frontal offset impact in a full-vehicle environment, with and wi...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: J Maheshwari S Sarfare C Falciani A Belwadi Source Type: research

Variations in User Implementation of the CORA Rating Metric
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:1-30.ABSTRACTThe CORA rating metric is frequently used in the field of injury biomechanics to compare the similarity of response time histories. However, subjectivity exists within the CORA metric in the form of user-customizable parameters that give the metric the flexibility to be used for a variety of applications. How these parameters are customized is not always reported in the literature, and it is unknown how these customizations affect the CORA scores. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate how variations in the CORA parameters affect the resulting similarity scores. A l...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Devon L Albert Source Type: research

Application of Deep Learning Methods for Pedestrian Collision Detection Using Dashcam Videos
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:291-321.ABSTRACTThe goal of this study is to clarify the usefulness of deep learning methods for pedestrian collision detection using dashcam videos for advanced automatic collision notification, focusing on pedestrians, as they make up the highest number of traffic fatalities in Japan. First, we created a dataset for deep learning from dashcam videos. A total of 78 dashcam videos of pedestrian-to-automobile accidents were collected from a video hosting website and from the Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI). Individual frames were selected from the video data amounting to a total of ...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Shouhei Kunitomi Shinichi Takayama Masayuki Shirakawa Source Type: research

Effects of Technology on Drivers' Behavior during Backing Maneuvers
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:269-289.ABSTRACTThis paper examines how vehicle backing technologies affect driver performance during backing maneuvers. We conducted experiments using sport utility vehicles (SUV) with four technological variations: a baseline vehicle (B-L), a vehicle equipped with a parking sensor (PS-V), a vehicle equipped with a backup camera (hereafter BC-V), and a vehicle equipped with both technologies (BCPS-V). Two reverse parking maneuvers were tested: backing straight and backing diagonally into a parking space. For each vehicle, we measured the parameters of the driver's gaze, vehicle speed, the di...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yasuhiro Matsui Shoko Oikawa Source Type: research

Geometrical and Mechanical Characterization of the Abdominal Fold of Obese Post Mortem Human Subjects for Use in Human Body Modelling
This study aimed to collect geometrical characteristics and to investigate the mechanical responses of the abdomen of obese subjects. Four Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) with BMI ranging from 31 to 46 kg/m2 were collected. CT-scans performed in the seated position revealed that the antero-posterior depth of the abdominal fold (from the inguinal region to the most anterior point of the abdominal surface) was much greater (170 mm max., 127 mm average) than the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissues (85 max., 38 mm in average). Each PMHS was subjected to three infra-injurious antero-posterior belt pulls in a seated post...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Matthieu Lebarb é Philippe Beillas Tomas Janak Yoann Lafon Olivier Richard Philippe Petit Source Type: research

Biomechanical Responses and Injury Assessment of Post Mortem Human Subjects in Various Rear-facing Seating Configurations
The objective of this study was to generate biomechanical corridors from post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in two different seatback recline angles in 56 km/h sled tests simulating a rear-facing occupant during a frontal vehicle impact. PMHS were placed in a production seat which included an integrated seat belt. To achieve a repeatable configuration, the seat was rigidized in the rearward direction using a reinforcing frame that allowed for adjustability in both seatback recline angle and head restraint position. The frame contained instrumentation to measure occupant loads applied to the head restraint and seatback. To m...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yun-Seok Kang Jason Stammen Rakshit Ramachandra Amanda M Agnew Alena Hagedorn Colton Thomas Hyun Jung Kwon Kevin Moorhouse John H Bolte Source Type: research

Kinematic and Injury Response of Reclined PMHS in Frontal Impacts
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:83-153.ABSTRACTFrontal impacts with reclined occupants are rare but severe, and they are anticipated to become more common with the introduction of vehicles with automated driving capabilities. Computational and physical human surrogates are needed to design and evaluate injury countermeasures for reclined occupants, but the validity of such surrogates in a reclined posture is unknown. Experiments with post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in a recline posture are needed both to define biofidelity targets for other surrogates and to describe the biomechanical response of reclined occupants in res...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rachel Richardson John-Paul Donlon Mohan Jayathirtha Jason L Forman Greg Shaw Bronislaw Gepner Jason R Kerrigan Martin Östling Krystoffer Mroz Bengt Pipkorn Source Type: research

Evaluation of Rotation Reduction Features in Infant and Extended-Use Convertible Child Restraint Systems during Frontal and Rear Impacts
The objectives of the current study were to perform sled tests to: (1) evaluate the effects of using a support leg in rearward-facing infant and extended-use convertible CRS models during frontal impacts, (2) evaluate the effects of using a pair of lower tethers in a rearward-facing extended-use convertible CRS model during rear impacts and (3) compare responses of ATDs in an extendeduse convertible CRS with a support leg and a pair of lower tethers in rearward- and forward-facing configurations during frontal and rear impacts. The presence of a support leg in rearward-facing infant and extended-use convertible CRS models ...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Declan A Patton Aditya N Belwadi Jalaj Maheshwari Kristy B Arbogast Source Type: research

Analysis of Kinematic Response of Pediatric Occupants Seated in Naturalistic Positions in Simulated Frontal Small Offset Impacts: With and Without Automatic Emergency Braking
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:31-59.ABSTRACTNaturalistic driving studies have shown that pediatric occupants do not assume ideal seating positions in real-world scenarios. Current vehicle assessment programs and child restraint system (CRS) sled tests, such as FMVSS No. 213, do not account for a wide range of seating postures that are typically observed during real-world trips. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the kinematic and kinetic response of a pediatric human body model in various naturalistic seating positions in booster seats when subjected to a frontal offset impact in a full-vehicle environment, with and wi...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: J Maheshwari S Sarfare C Falciani A Belwadi Source Type: research

Variations in User Implementation of the CORA Rating Metric
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:1-30.ABSTRACTThe CORA rating metric is frequently used in the field of injury biomechanics to compare the similarity of response time histories. However, subjectivity exists within the CORA metric in the form of user-customizable parameters that give the metric the flexibility to be used for a variety of applications. How these parameters are customized is not always reported in the literature, and it is unknown how these customizations affect the CORA scores. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate how variations in the CORA parameters affect the resulting similarity scores. A l...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Devon L Albert Source Type: research

Application of Deep Learning Methods for Pedestrian Collision Detection Using Dashcam Videos
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:291-321.ABSTRACTThe goal of this study is to clarify the usefulness of deep learning methods for pedestrian collision detection using dashcam videos for advanced automatic collision notification, focusing on pedestrians, as they make up the highest number of traffic fatalities in Japan. First, we created a dataset for deep learning from dashcam videos. A total of 78 dashcam videos of pedestrian-to-automobile accidents were collected from a video hosting website and from the Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI). Individual frames were selected from the video data amounting to a total of ...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Shouhei Kunitomi Shinichi Takayama Masayuki Shirakawa Source Type: research

Effects of Technology on Drivers' Behavior during Backing Maneuvers
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:269-289.ABSTRACTThis paper examines how vehicle backing technologies affect driver performance during backing maneuvers. We conducted experiments using sport utility vehicles (SUV) with four technological variations: a baseline vehicle (B-L), a vehicle equipped with a parking sensor (PS-V), a vehicle equipped with a backup camera (hereafter BC-V), and a vehicle equipped with both technologies (BCPS-V). Two reverse parking maneuvers were tested: backing straight and backing diagonally into a parking space. For each vehicle, we measured the parameters of the driver's gaze, vehicle speed, the di...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yasuhiro Matsui Shoko Oikawa Source Type: research

Geometrical and Mechanical Characterization of the Abdominal Fold of Obese Post Mortem Human Subjects for Use in Human Body Modelling
This study aimed to collect geometrical characteristics and to investigate the mechanical responses of the abdomen of obese subjects. Four Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) with BMI ranging from 31 to 46 kg/m2 were collected. CT-scans performed in the seated position revealed that the antero-posterior depth of the abdominal fold (from the inguinal region to the most anterior point of the abdominal surface) was much greater (170 mm max., 127 mm average) than the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissues (85 max., 38 mm in average). Each PMHS was subjected to three infra-injurious antero-posterior belt pulls in a seated post...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Matthieu Lebarb é Philippe Beillas Tomas Janak Yoann Lafon Olivier Richard Philippe Petit Source Type: research

Biomechanical Responses and Injury Assessment of Post Mortem Human Subjects in Various Rear-facing Seating Configurations
The objective of this study was to generate biomechanical corridors from post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in two different seatback recline angles in 56 km/h sled tests simulating a rear-facing occupant during a frontal vehicle impact. PMHS were placed in a production seat which included an integrated seat belt. To achieve a repeatable configuration, the seat was rigidized in the rearward direction using a reinforcing frame that allowed for adjustability in both seatback recline angle and head restraint position. The frame contained instrumentation to measure occupant loads applied to the head restraint and seatback. To m...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yun-Seok Kang Jason Stammen Rakshit Ramachandra Amanda M Agnew Alena Hagedorn Colton Thomas Hyun Jung Kwon Kevin Moorhouse John H Bolte Source Type: research

Kinematic and Injury Response of Reclined PMHS in Frontal Impacts
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:83-153.ABSTRACTFrontal impacts with reclined occupants are rare but severe, and they are anticipated to become more common with the introduction of vehicles with automated driving capabilities. Computational and physical human surrogates are needed to design and evaluate injury countermeasures for reclined occupants, but the validity of such surrogates in a reclined posture is unknown. Experiments with post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in a recline posture are needed both to define biofidelity targets for other surrogates and to describe the biomechanical response of reclined occupants in res...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rachel Richardson John-Paul Donlon Mohan Jayathirtha Jason L Forman Greg Shaw Bronislaw Gepner Jason R Kerrigan Martin Östling Krystoffer Mroz Bengt Pipkorn Source Type: research

Evaluation of Rotation Reduction Features in Infant and Extended-Use Convertible Child Restraint Systems during Frontal and Rear Impacts
The objectives of the current study were to perform sled tests to: (1) evaluate the effects of using a support leg in rearward-facing infant and extended-use convertible CRS models during frontal impacts, (2) evaluate the effects of using a pair of lower tethers in a rearward-facing extended-use convertible CRS model during rear impacts and (3) compare responses of ATDs in an extendeduse convertible CRS with a support leg and a pair of lower tethers in rearward- and forward-facing configurations during frontal and rear impacts. The presence of a support leg in rearward-facing infant and extended-use convertible CRS models ...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Declan A Patton Aditya N Belwadi Jalaj Maheshwari Kristy B Arbogast Source Type: research

Analysis of Kinematic Response of Pediatric Occupants Seated in Naturalistic Positions in Simulated Frontal Small Offset Impacts: With and Without Automatic Emergency Braking
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:31-59.ABSTRACTNaturalistic driving studies have shown that pediatric occupants do not assume ideal seating positions in real-world scenarios. Current vehicle assessment programs and child restraint system (CRS) sled tests, such as FMVSS No. 213, do not account for a wide range of seating postures that are typically observed during real-world trips. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the kinematic and kinetic response of a pediatric human body model in various naturalistic seating positions in booster seats when subjected to a frontal offset impact in a full-vehicle environment, with and wi...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: J Maheshwari S Sarfare C Falciani A Belwadi Source Type: research

Variations in User Implementation of the CORA Rating Metric
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:1-30.ABSTRACTThe CORA rating metric is frequently used in the field of injury biomechanics to compare the similarity of response time histories. However, subjectivity exists within the CORA metric in the form of user-customizable parameters that give the metric the flexibility to be used for a variety of applications. How these parameters are customized is not always reported in the literature, and it is unknown how these customizations affect the CORA scores. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate how variations in the CORA parameters affect the resulting similarity scores. A l...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Devon L Albert Source Type: research

Application of Deep Learning Methods for Pedestrian Collision Detection Using Dashcam Videos
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:291-321.ABSTRACTThe goal of this study is to clarify the usefulness of deep learning methods for pedestrian collision detection using dashcam videos for advanced automatic collision notification, focusing on pedestrians, as they make up the highest number of traffic fatalities in Japan. First, we created a dataset for deep learning from dashcam videos. A total of 78 dashcam videos of pedestrian-to-automobile accidents were collected from a video hosting website and from the Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI). Individual frames were selected from the video data amounting to a total of ...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Shouhei Kunitomi Shinichi Takayama Masayuki Shirakawa Source Type: research

Effects of Technology on Drivers' Behavior during Backing Maneuvers
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:269-289.ABSTRACTThis paper examines how vehicle backing technologies affect driver performance during backing maneuvers. We conducted experiments using sport utility vehicles (SUV) with four technological variations: a baseline vehicle (B-L), a vehicle equipped with a parking sensor (PS-V), a vehicle equipped with a backup camera (hereafter BC-V), and a vehicle equipped with both technologies (BCPS-V). Two reverse parking maneuvers were tested: backing straight and backing diagonally into a parking space. For each vehicle, we measured the parameters of the driver's gaze, vehicle speed, the di...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yasuhiro Matsui Shoko Oikawa Source Type: research

Geometrical and Mechanical Characterization of the Abdominal Fold of Obese Post Mortem Human Subjects for Use in Human Body Modelling
This study aimed to collect geometrical characteristics and to investigate the mechanical responses of the abdomen of obese subjects. Four Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) with BMI ranging from 31 to 46 kg/m2 were collected. CT-scans performed in the seated position revealed that the antero-posterior depth of the abdominal fold (from the inguinal region to the most anterior point of the abdominal surface) was much greater (170 mm max., 127 mm average) than the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissues (85 max., 38 mm in average). Each PMHS was subjected to three infra-injurious antero-posterior belt pulls in a seated post...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Matthieu Lebarb é Philippe Beillas Tomas Janak Yoann Lafon Olivier Richard Philippe Petit Source Type: research

Biomechanical Responses and Injury Assessment of Post Mortem Human Subjects in Various Rear-facing Seating Configurations
The objective of this study was to generate biomechanical corridors from post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in two different seatback recline angles in 56 km/h sled tests simulating a rear-facing occupant during a frontal vehicle impact. PMHS were placed in a production seat which included an integrated seat belt. To achieve a repeatable configuration, the seat was rigidized in the rearward direction using a reinforcing frame that allowed for adjustability in both seatback recline angle and head restraint position. The frame contained instrumentation to measure occupant loads applied to the head restraint and seatback. To m...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yun-Seok Kang Jason Stammen Rakshit Ramachandra Amanda M Agnew Alena Hagedorn Colton Thomas Hyun Jung Kwon Kevin Moorhouse John H Bolte Source Type: research

Kinematic and Injury Response of Reclined PMHS in Frontal Impacts
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:83-153.ABSTRACTFrontal impacts with reclined occupants are rare but severe, and they are anticipated to become more common with the introduction of vehicles with automated driving capabilities. Computational and physical human surrogates are needed to design and evaluate injury countermeasures for reclined occupants, but the validity of such surrogates in a reclined posture is unknown. Experiments with post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in a recline posture are needed both to define biofidelity targets for other surrogates and to describe the biomechanical response of reclined occupants in res...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rachel Richardson John-Paul Donlon Mohan Jayathirtha Jason L Forman Greg Shaw Bronislaw Gepner Jason R Kerrigan Martin Östling Krystoffer Mroz Bengt Pipkorn Source Type: research

Evaluation of Rotation Reduction Features in Infant and Extended-Use Convertible Child Restraint Systems during Frontal and Rear Impacts
The objectives of the current study were to perform sled tests to: (1) evaluate the effects of using a support leg in rearward-facing infant and extended-use convertible CRS models during frontal impacts, (2) evaluate the effects of using a pair of lower tethers in a rearward-facing extended-use convertible CRS model during rear impacts and (3) compare responses of ATDs in an extendeduse convertible CRS with a support leg and a pair of lower tethers in rearward- and forward-facing configurations during frontal and rear impacts. The presence of a support leg in rearward-facing infant and extended-use convertible CRS models ...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Declan A Patton Aditya N Belwadi Jalaj Maheshwari Kristy B Arbogast Source Type: research

Analysis of Kinematic Response of Pediatric Occupants Seated in Naturalistic Positions in Simulated Frontal Small Offset Impacts: With and Without Automatic Emergency Braking
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:31-59.ABSTRACTNaturalistic driving studies have shown that pediatric occupants do not assume ideal seating positions in real-world scenarios. Current vehicle assessment programs and child restraint system (CRS) sled tests, such as FMVSS No. 213, do not account for a wide range of seating postures that are typically observed during real-world trips. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the kinematic and kinetic response of a pediatric human body model in various naturalistic seating positions in booster seats when subjected to a frontal offset impact in a full-vehicle environment, with and wi...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: J Maheshwari S Sarfare C Falciani A Belwadi Source Type: research

Variations in User Implementation of the CORA Rating Metric
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:1-30.ABSTRACTThe CORA rating metric is frequently used in the field of injury biomechanics to compare the similarity of response time histories. However, subjectivity exists within the CORA metric in the form of user-customizable parameters that give the metric the flexibility to be used for a variety of applications. How these parameters are customized is not always reported in the literature, and it is unknown how these customizations affect the CORA scores. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate how variations in the CORA parameters affect the resulting similarity scores. A l...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Devon L Albert Source Type: research

Application of Deep Learning Methods for Pedestrian Collision Detection Using Dashcam Videos
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:291-321.ABSTRACTThe goal of this study is to clarify the usefulness of deep learning methods for pedestrian collision detection using dashcam videos for advanced automatic collision notification, focusing on pedestrians, as they make up the highest number of traffic fatalities in Japan. First, we created a dataset for deep learning from dashcam videos. A total of 78 dashcam videos of pedestrian-to-automobile accidents were collected from a video hosting website and from the Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI). Individual frames were selected from the video data amounting to a total of ...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Shouhei Kunitomi Shinichi Takayama Masayuki Shirakawa Source Type: research

Effects of Technology on Drivers' Behavior during Backing Maneuvers
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:269-289.ABSTRACTThis paper examines how vehicle backing technologies affect driver performance during backing maneuvers. We conducted experiments using sport utility vehicles (SUV) with four technological variations: a baseline vehicle (B-L), a vehicle equipped with a parking sensor (PS-V), a vehicle equipped with a backup camera (hereafter BC-V), and a vehicle equipped with both technologies (BCPS-V). Two reverse parking maneuvers were tested: backing straight and backing diagonally into a parking space. For each vehicle, we measured the parameters of the driver's gaze, vehicle speed, the di...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yasuhiro Matsui Shoko Oikawa Source Type: research

Geometrical and Mechanical Characterization of the Abdominal Fold of Obese Post Mortem Human Subjects for Use in Human Body Modelling
This study aimed to collect geometrical characteristics and to investigate the mechanical responses of the abdomen of obese subjects. Four Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) with BMI ranging from 31 to 46 kg/m2 were collected. CT-scans performed in the seated position revealed that the antero-posterior depth of the abdominal fold (from the inguinal region to the most anterior point of the abdominal surface) was much greater (170 mm max., 127 mm average) than the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissues (85 max., 38 mm in average). Each PMHS was subjected to three infra-injurious antero-posterior belt pulls in a seated post...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Matthieu Lebarb é Philippe Beillas Tomas Janak Yoann Lafon Olivier Richard Philippe Petit Source Type: research

Biomechanical Responses and Injury Assessment of Post Mortem Human Subjects in Various Rear-facing Seating Configurations
The objective of this study was to generate biomechanical corridors from post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in two different seatback recline angles in 56 km/h sled tests simulating a rear-facing occupant during a frontal vehicle impact. PMHS were placed in a production seat which included an integrated seat belt. To achieve a repeatable configuration, the seat was rigidized in the rearward direction using a reinforcing frame that allowed for adjustability in both seatback recline angle and head restraint position. The frame contained instrumentation to measure occupant loads applied to the head restraint and seatback. To m...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yun-Seok Kang Jason Stammen Rakshit Ramachandra Amanda M Agnew Alena Hagedorn Colton Thomas Hyun Jung Kwon Kevin Moorhouse John H Bolte Source Type: research

Kinematic and Injury Response of Reclined PMHS in Frontal Impacts
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:83-153.ABSTRACTFrontal impacts with reclined occupants are rare but severe, and they are anticipated to become more common with the introduction of vehicles with automated driving capabilities. Computational and physical human surrogates are needed to design and evaluate injury countermeasures for reclined occupants, but the validity of such surrogates in a reclined posture is unknown. Experiments with post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in a recline posture are needed both to define biofidelity targets for other surrogates and to describe the biomechanical response of reclined occupants in res...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rachel Richardson John-Paul Donlon Mohan Jayathirtha Jason L Forman Greg Shaw Bronislaw Gepner Jason R Kerrigan Martin Östling Krystoffer Mroz Bengt Pipkorn Source Type: research

Evaluation of Rotation Reduction Features in Infant and Extended-Use Convertible Child Restraint Systems during Frontal and Rear Impacts
The objectives of the current study were to perform sled tests to: (1) evaluate the effects of using a support leg in rearward-facing infant and extended-use convertible CRS models during frontal impacts, (2) evaluate the effects of using a pair of lower tethers in a rearward-facing extended-use convertible CRS model during rear impacts and (3) compare responses of ATDs in an extendeduse convertible CRS with a support leg and a pair of lower tethers in rearward- and forward-facing configurations during frontal and rear impacts. The presence of a support leg in rearward-facing infant and extended-use convertible CRS models ...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Declan A Patton Aditya N Belwadi Jalaj Maheshwari Kristy B Arbogast Source Type: research

Analysis of Kinematic Response of Pediatric Occupants Seated in Naturalistic Positions in Simulated Frontal Small Offset Impacts: With and Without Automatic Emergency Braking
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:31-59.ABSTRACTNaturalistic driving studies have shown that pediatric occupants do not assume ideal seating positions in real-world scenarios. Current vehicle assessment programs and child restraint system (CRS) sled tests, such as FMVSS No. 213, do not account for a wide range of seating postures that are typically observed during real-world trips. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the kinematic and kinetic response of a pediatric human body model in various naturalistic seating positions in booster seats when subjected to a frontal offset impact in a full-vehicle environment, with and wi...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: J Maheshwari S Sarfare C Falciani A Belwadi Source Type: research

Variations in User Implementation of the CORA Rating Metric
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:1-30.ABSTRACTThe CORA rating metric is frequently used in the field of injury biomechanics to compare the similarity of response time histories. However, subjectivity exists within the CORA metric in the form of user-customizable parameters that give the metric the flexibility to be used for a variety of applications. How these parameters are customized is not always reported in the literature, and it is unknown how these customizations affect the CORA scores. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate how variations in the CORA parameters affect the resulting similarity scores. A l...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Devon L Albert Source Type: research

Application of Deep Learning Methods for Pedestrian Collision Detection Using Dashcam Videos
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:291-321.ABSTRACTThe goal of this study is to clarify the usefulness of deep learning methods for pedestrian collision detection using dashcam videos for advanced automatic collision notification, focusing on pedestrians, as they make up the highest number of traffic fatalities in Japan. First, we created a dataset for deep learning from dashcam videos. A total of 78 dashcam videos of pedestrian-to-automobile accidents were collected from a video hosting website and from the Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI). Individual frames were selected from the video data amounting to a total of ...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Shouhei Kunitomi Shinichi Takayama Masayuki Shirakawa Source Type: research

Effects of Technology on Drivers' Behavior during Backing Maneuvers
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:269-289.ABSTRACTThis paper examines how vehicle backing technologies affect driver performance during backing maneuvers. We conducted experiments using sport utility vehicles (SUV) with four technological variations: a baseline vehicle (B-L), a vehicle equipped with a parking sensor (PS-V), a vehicle equipped with a backup camera (hereafter BC-V), and a vehicle equipped with both technologies (BCPS-V). Two reverse parking maneuvers were tested: backing straight and backing diagonally into a parking space. For each vehicle, we measured the parameters of the driver's gaze, vehicle speed, the di...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yasuhiro Matsui Shoko Oikawa Source Type: research

Geometrical and Mechanical Characterization of the Abdominal Fold of Obese Post Mortem Human Subjects for Use in Human Body Modelling
This study aimed to collect geometrical characteristics and to investigate the mechanical responses of the abdomen of obese subjects. Four Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) with BMI ranging from 31 to 46 kg/m2 were collected. CT-scans performed in the seated position revealed that the antero-posterior depth of the abdominal fold (from the inguinal region to the most anterior point of the abdominal surface) was much greater (170 mm max., 127 mm average) than the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissues (85 max., 38 mm in average). Each PMHS was subjected to three infra-injurious antero-posterior belt pulls in a seated post...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Matthieu Lebarb é Philippe Beillas Tomas Janak Yoann Lafon Olivier Richard Philippe Petit Source Type: research

Biomechanical Responses and Injury Assessment of Post Mortem Human Subjects in Various Rear-facing Seating Configurations
The objective of this study was to generate biomechanical corridors from post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in two different seatback recline angles in 56 km/h sled tests simulating a rear-facing occupant during a frontal vehicle impact. PMHS were placed in a production seat which included an integrated seat belt. To achieve a repeatable configuration, the seat was rigidized in the rearward direction using a reinforcing frame that allowed for adjustability in both seatback recline angle and head restraint position. The frame contained instrumentation to measure occupant loads applied to the head restraint and seatback. To m...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yun-Seok Kang Jason Stammen Rakshit Ramachandra Amanda M Agnew Alena Hagedorn Colton Thomas Hyun Jung Kwon Kevin Moorhouse John H Bolte Source Type: research

Kinematic and Injury Response of Reclined PMHS in Frontal Impacts
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:83-153.ABSTRACTFrontal impacts with reclined occupants are rare but severe, and they are anticipated to become more common with the introduction of vehicles with automated driving capabilities. Computational and physical human surrogates are needed to design and evaluate injury countermeasures for reclined occupants, but the validity of such surrogates in a reclined posture is unknown. Experiments with post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in a recline posture are needed both to define biofidelity targets for other surrogates and to describe the biomechanical response of reclined occupants in res...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rachel Richardson John-Paul Donlon Mohan Jayathirtha Jason L Forman Greg Shaw Bronislaw Gepner Jason R Kerrigan Martin Östling Krystoffer Mroz Bengt Pipkorn Source Type: research

Evaluation of Rotation Reduction Features in Infant and Extended-Use Convertible Child Restraint Systems during Frontal and Rear Impacts
The objectives of the current study were to perform sled tests to: (1) evaluate the effects of using a support leg in rearward-facing infant and extended-use convertible CRS models during frontal impacts, (2) evaluate the effects of using a pair of lower tethers in a rearward-facing extended-use convertible CRS model during rear impacts and (3) compare responses of ATDs in an extendeduse convertible CRS with a support leg and a pair of lower tethers in rearward- and forward-facing configurations during frontal and rear impacts. The presence of a support leg in rearward-facing infant and extended-use convertible CRS models ...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Declan A Patton Aditya N Belwadi Jalaj Maheshwari Kristy B Arbogast Source Type: research

Analysis of Kinematic Response of Pediatric Occupants Seated in Naturalistic Positions in Simulated Frontal Small Offset Impacts: With and Without Automatic Emergency Braking
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:31-59.ABSTRACTNaturalistic driving studies have shown that pediatric occupants do not assume ideal seating positions in real-world scenarios. Current vehicle assessment programs and child restraint system (CRS) sled tests, such as FMVSS No. 213, do not account for a wide range of seating postures that are typically observed during real-world trips. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the kinematic and kinetic response of a pediatric human body model in various naturalistic seating positions in booster seats when subjected to a frontal offset impact in a full-vehicle environment, with and wi...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: J Maheshwari S Sarfare C Falciani A Belwadi Source Type: research

Variations in User Implementation of the CORA Rating Metric
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:1-30.ABSTRACTThe CORA rating metric is frequently used in the field of injury biomechanics to compare the similarity of response time histories. However, subjectivity exists within the CORA metric in the form of user-customizable parameters that give the metric the flexibility to be used for a variety of applications. How these parameters are customized is not always reported in the literature, and it is unknown how these customizations affect the CORA scores. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate how variations in the CORA parameters affect the resulting similarity scores. A l...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Devon L Albert Source Type: research

Application of Deep Learning Methods for Pedestrian Collision Detection Using Dashcam Videos
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:291-321.ABSTRACTThe goal of this study is to clarify the usefulness of deep learning methods for pedestrian collision detection using dashcam videos for advanced automatic collision notification, focusing on pedestrians, as they make up the highest number of traffic fatalities in Japan. First, we created a dataset for deep learning from dashcam videos. A total of 78 dashcam videos of pedestrian-to-automobile accidents were collected from a video hosting website and from the Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI). Individual frames were selected from the video data amounting to a total of ...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Shouhei Kunitomi Shinichi Takayama Masayuki Shirakawa Source Type: research

Effects of Technology on Drivers' Behavior during Backing Maneuvers
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:269-289.ABSTRACTThis paper examines how vehicle backing technologies affect driver performance during backing maneuvers. We conducted experiments using sport utility vehicles (SUV) with four technological variations: a baseline vehicle (B-L), a vehicle equipped with a parking sensor (PS-V), a vehicle equipped with a backup camera (hereafter BC-V), and a vehicle equipped with both technologies (BCPS-V). Two reverse parking maneuvers were tested: backing straight and backing diagonally into a parking space. For each vehicle, we measured the parameters of the driver's gaze, vehicle speed, the di...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yasuhiro Matsui Shoko Oikawa Source Type: research

Geometrical and Mechanical Characterization of the Abdominal Fold of Obese Post Mortem Human Subjects for Use in Human Body Modelling
This study aimed to collect geometrical characteristics and to investigate the mechanical responses of the abdomen of obese subjects. Four Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) with BMI ranging from 31 to 46 kg/m2 were collected. CT-scans performed in the seated position revealed that the antero-posterior depth of the abdominal fold (from the inguinal region to the most anterior point of the abdominal surface) was much greater (170 mm max., 127 mm average) than the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissues (85 max., 38 mm in average). Each PMHS was subjected to three infra-injurious antero-posterior belt pulls in a seated post...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Matthieu Lebarb é Philippe Beillas Tomas Janak Yoann Lafon Olivier Richard Philippe Petit Source Type: research

Biomechanical Responses and Injury Assessment of Post Mortem Human Subjects in Various Rear-facing Seating Configurations
The objective of this study was to generate biomechanical corridors from post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in two different seatback recline angles in 56 km/h sled tests simulating a rear-facing occupant during a frontal vehicle impact. PMHS were placed in a production seat which included an integrated seat belt. To achieve a repeatable configuration, the seat was rigidized in the rearward direction using a reinforcing frame that allowed for adjustability in both seatback recline angle and head restraint position. The frame contained instrumentation to measure occupant loads applied to the head restraint and seatback. To m...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yun-Seok Kang Jason Stammen Rakshit Ramachandra Amanda M Agnew Alena Hagedorn Colton Thomas Hyun Jung Kwon Kevin Moorhouse John H Bolte Source Type: research

Kinematic and Injury Response of Reclined PMHS in Frontal Impacts
Stapp Car Crash J. 2020 Nov;64:83-153.ABSTRACTFrontal impacts with reclined occupants are rare but severe, and they are anticipated to become more common with the introduction of vehicles with automated driving capabilities. Computational and physical human surrogates are needed to design and evaluate injury countermeasures for reclined occupants, but the validity of such surrogates in a reclined posture is unknown. Experiments with post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in a recline posture are needed both to define biofidelity targets for other surrogates and to describe the biomechanical response of reclined occupants in res...
Source: Stapp Car Crash Journal - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rachel Richardson John-Paul Donlon Mohan Jayathirtha Jason L Forman Greg Shaw Bronislaw Gepner Jason R Kerrigan Martin Östling Krystoffer Mroz Bengt Pipkorn Source Type: research