Forecasting deaths of road traffic injuries in China using an artificial neural network.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that the ERNN model could be utilized to model and forecast the short-term trends accurately and to evaluate the impact of traffic safety programs when applied to historical road traffic deaths data. Forecasting traffic crash deaths will provide useful information to measure burden of road traffic injuries in China. PMID: 32500738 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Qian Y, Zhang X, Fei G, Sun Q, Li X, Stallones L, Xiang H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Determining the steering direction in critical situations: A decision tree-based method.
Conclusions: This study employed NASS-CDS data and DT classifiers to analyze and model drivers' DSD behavior. The test accuracies for both classifiers were acceptable. Potential variables influencing drivers' DSD were explored, which improves the research on evasive behavior in lateral movement and promotes further applications for intelligent vehicles using the constructed models. PMID: 32497445 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 3, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zhou H, Zhong Z, Hu M, Huang J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Serious motor vehicle collisions involving young drivers on Norwegian roads 2013-2016: Speeding and driver-related errors are the main challenge.
Conclusion: The vast majority of injury-causing MVCs involving young drivers are initiated by those drivers. These incidents are characterized by male drivers with little driving experience who are operating old cars on rural roads at excessive speeds. Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is also not uncommon. These issues should be targeted in future preventive measures. PMID: 32496905 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 3, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Breen JM, Næss PA, Hansen TB, Gaarder C, Stray-Pedersen A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Assessing the safety impacts of raising the speed limit on Michigan freeways using the multilevel mixed-effects negative binomial model.
Conclusions: The 15 mph increase in the speed limit on Michigan freeways had a significant association with the increase in fatal and injury crashes, total crashes and road departure crashes. The elevated crash risks associated with the speed limit increase suggest that further studies are needed to understand changes in drivers' behaviors following a speed limit increase. PMID: 32496845 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 3, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kwayu KM, Kwigizile V, Oh JS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Assessment of recent alcohol consumption by detecting ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate level among traffic accident patients.
Conclusion: Detection of EtG and EtS, minor metabolites along with ethanol in the blood can serve as an objective tool to provide further analysis regarding alcohol-related traffic accidents at emergency services. PMID: 32496812 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 3, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Dengiz H, Daglioglu N, Goren IE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Behavioral and psychosocial correlates of road traffic injuries: evidence from a nationwide study on Chinese undergraduates.
Conclusions: Several critical factors associated with RTIs were identified. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of RTI prevention and interventions programs targeted at university students. PMID: 32496809 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 3, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wu D, Yang T, Yang XY, Hoe CH, Peng S, Yu L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Crash causation and prevention
Publication date: August 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 143Author(s): Ezra Hauer (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 1, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Mobile phone use among car drivers and motorcycle riders: The effect of problematic mobile phone use, attitudes, beliefs and perceived risk
Publication date: August 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 143Author(s): Duy Q. Nguyen-Phuoc, Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Diep Ngoc Su, Chris De Gruyter, Teron Nguyen (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 1, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Understanding take-over performance of high crash risk drivers during conditionally automated driving
Publication date: August 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 143Author(s): Qingfeng Lin, Shiqi Li, Xiaowei Ma, Guangquan Lu (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 1, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Accident risk analysis based on motorway exposure: an application of benchmarking technique for human safety.
This study includes the concept of considering road segments as decision-making units for application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique which has no compulsion of the distribution function and critical assumptions, unlike the multiple regression models. According to the proposed methodology, a section of Motorway (M-2) Lahore-Islamabad has been analyzed. Out of 200 segments under consideration, 99 segments were selected with at least one accident and one injury or fatality. Furthermore, for risk calculation and ranking of road segments, the DEA technique along with the cross-risk matrix method was applied. This ...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - May 31, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Safety of micro-mobility: Analysis of E-Scooter crashes by mining news reports
Publication date: August 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 143Author(s): Hong Yang, Qingyu Ma, Zhenyu Wang, Qing Cai, Kun Xie, Di Yang (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 31, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Evaluating the causal effects of cellphone distraction on crash risk using propensity score methods
Publication date: August 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 143Author(s): Danni Lu, Feng Guo, Fan Li (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 31, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Are collision and crossing course surrogate safety indicators transferable? A probability based approach using extreme value theory
Publication date: August 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 143Author(s): Attila Borsos, Haneen Farah, Aliaksei Laureshyn, Marjan Hagenzieker (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 31, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Identifying high-risk commercial vehicle drivers using sociodemographic characteristics
Publication date: August 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 143Author(s): Shraddha Sagar, Nikiforos Stamatiadis, Samantha Wright, Aaron Cambron (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 31, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Crash causation and prevention.
Abstract Knowledge of crash causes is important because it directs the mind to the consideration of potential prevention actions and because knowledge of the frequency with which various causes arise in crashes is necessary for determining the promise of potential prevention actions. Clinical crash causation studies consistently found that in the majority of crashes the road user was the sole cause and that in almost all crashes the road user was one of the causes. This is a 'quasi-finding' which provides false respectability to a style of road safety management that makes the road-user the primary target of preve...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hauer E Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Evaluating the combined effect of alcohol-involved and un-helmeted riding on motorcyclist fatalities in Taiwan
Publication date: August 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 143Author(s): Bayu Satria Wiratama, Ping-Ling Chen, Shiao-Tzu Ma, Yi-Hua Chen, Wafaa Saleh, Hui-An Lin, Chih-Wei Pai (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Mobile phone use among car drivers and motorcycle riders: The effect of problematic mobile phone use, attitudes, beliefs and perceived risk.
Abstract Mobile phone use while driving presents significant risks, potentially leading to injury or death through distracted driving. Using a case study of Vietnam, this research aimed to understand the effect of problematic mobile phone use (also known as mobile phone addiction or compulsive mobile phone use), attitudes and beliefs, and perceived risk on the frequency of mobile phone use among motorcyclists and car drivers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to motorcyclists (n1= 529) and car drivers (n2= 328) using an online survey and face-to-face survey. The survey took around 20-...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nguyen-Phuoc DQ, Oviedo-Trespalacios O, Su DN, De Gruyter C, Nguyen T Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Understanding take-over performance of high crash risk drivers during conditionally automated driving.
This study aimed to examine the difference in take-over performance between high crash risk (HCR) and lower crash risk (LCR) drivers in emergency take-over situations during conditionally automated driving. In the current simulator study, a 3 × 3 (within-subjects) factorial design was used, including the task factors (no task, reading the news, and watching a video) and time budget factors (time budget = 3 s, 4 s, and 5 s). Forty-eight participants completed a test drive on an approximately 10 km long two-way six-lane urban road. The participants firstly were in manual control and then switched to the...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Lin Q, Li S, Ma X, Lu G Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Identifying high-risk commercial vehicle drivers using sociodemographic characteristics.
Abstract Crash data, from the state of Kentucky, for the 2015-2016 period, show that per capita crash rates and increases in crash-related fatalities were higher than the national average. In an effort to explain why the U.S. Southeast experiences higher crash rates than other regions of the country, previous research has argued the regions unique socioeconomic conditions provide a compelling explanation. Taking this observation as a starting point, this study examines the relationship between highway safety and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, using an extensive crash dataset from Kentucky. Its focu...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sagar S, Stamatiadis N, Wright S, Cambron A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Safety of micro-mobility: Analysis of E-Scooter crashes by mining news reports.
This study highlights the importance of public awareness and timely developing safety countermeasures to mitigate crashes involving E-Scooters. PMID: 32480017 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yang H, Ma Q, Wang Z, Cai Q, Xie K, Yang D Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Evaluating the causal effects of cellphone distraction on crash risk using propensity score methods.
CONCLUSION: Propensity score approaches effectively mitigate potential confounding effect caused by imbalanced driver environmental characteristics in the observational NDS data. The ATT and ATO estimands are recommended for NDS case-cohort studies. ATT reflects the effect among exposed events, i.e. crashes or controls with cellphone exposure and ATO reflects the effect among events with similar characteristics. The study confirms the significant causal effect of overall cellphone distraction on crash risk and the heterogeneity in safety impact by age group. PMID: 32480016 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Lu D, Guo F, Li F Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Are collision and crossing course surrogate safety indicators transferable? A probability based approach using extreme value theory.
In this study we are seeking answers to under what conditions these indicators perform better and whether they are transferable. Using data gathered at a signalized intersection focusing on left-turning and straight moving vehicle interactions our analysis concluded that the two indicators are transferable with stricter threshold values for T2 and that POT gives more reasonable results. PMID: 32480015 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Borsos A, Farah H, Laureshyn A, Hagenzieker M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Can a new emergency response system reduce traffic fatalities? The case of the 911-emergency response system in the Dominican Republic
Publication date: August 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 143Author(s): José Ignacio Nazif-Munoz, Adrián Puello, Augusta Williams, Arijit Nandi (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Simulating Automated Emergency Braking with and without Torricelli Vacuum Emergency Braking for cyclists: Effect of brake deceleration and sensor field-of-view on accidents, injuries and fatalities
Publication date: July 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 142Author(s): Hanna Jeppsson, Nils Lubbe (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Evaluating the combined effect of alcohol-involved and un-helmeted riding on motorcyclist fatalities in Taiwan.
CONCLUSIONS: This study found that alcohol-involved riding acts synergistically with un-helmeted riding to increase motorcyclist injury severity. PMID: 32474168 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 27, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wiratama BS, Chen PL, Ma ST, Chen YH, Saleh W, Lin HA, Pai CW Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Simulating Automated Emergency Braking with and without Torricelli Vacuum Emergency Braking for cyclists: Effect of brake deceleration and sensor field-of-view on accidents, injuries and fatalities.
This study estimates how many additional cyclist accidents, injuries or fatalities are avoided or mitigated by adding a system which increases braking levels, the Torricelli Vacuum Emergency Brake (VEB), to a state-of-the-art Automated Emergency Braking (AEB) system. To obtain a realistic state-of-the-art AEB system, the AEB parameter settings were defined to fulfil but not exceed the performance necessary to achieve a full score in the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP). The systems are simulated in a simple but realistic simulation model in MATLAB with varying brake deceleration and sensor field-of-view (FoV...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 25, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jeppsson H, Lubbe N Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Can a new emergency response system reduce traffic fatalities? The case of the 911-emergency response system in the Dominican Republic.
The objective of this work is to assess whether this new emergency response system was effective in reducing traffic fatalities. METHODS: Weekly numbers of traffic fatalities per population and per vehicle fleet from January 2013 to December 2015 were obtained from the Ministry of Health and the National Institute of Statistics. A hybrid time-series difference-in-difference analysis using multivariable negative binomial regression models were used to compare trends in rates of traffic fatalities in Santo Domingo to La Romana and Santiago, before and after the introduction of the 911-ERS. RESULTS: Estimates from n...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 25, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nazif-Munoz JI, Puello A, Williams A, Nandi A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Driver performance under simulated and actual driving conditions: Validity and orthogonality
Publication date: August 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 143Author(s): John A. Groeger, Gillian Murphy (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 25, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Underestimation tendencies of vehicle speed by pedestrians when crossing unmarked roadway
Publication date: August 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 143Author(s): Zoran Papić, Andrijana Jović, Milan Simeunović, Nenad Saulić, Milan Lazarević (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 25, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Driver performance under simulated and actual driving conditions: Validity and orthogonality.
This study contrasted the performance of drivers under actual and simulated driving conditions, in order to assess the validity of the simulators and test the hypothesis that driving is composed of largely orthogonal sub-tasks. Thirty experienced drivers completed an on-road driving test and drove two different simulators, each simulator drive comprising seven difficulty-moderated driving scenarios. Between-simulator contrasts revealed largely absolute validity, the anticipated effects of increased difficulty within driving scenarios, but weak relationships between performance of different driving scenarios. On-road drivin...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 23, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Groeger JA, Murphy G Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Revisiting freeway single tunnel crash characteristics analysis: A six-zone analytic approach
Publication date: July 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 142Author(s): Amjad Pervez, Helai Huang, Chunyang Han, Jie Wang, Ye Li (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 23, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Underestimation tendencies of vehicle speed by pedestrians when crossing unmarked roadway.
Abstract To make safe road crossing decisions, the pedestrians need to estimate the distance and speed of oncoming vehicles, in order to make conclusions about the available time gap they need for their road crossing. Since the speed represents combination of distance and time, we focused on pedestrians' ability to estimate the speed of the oncoming vehicles accurately. The aim of this study was to find some characteristics important for the speed mis-estimation tendencies and its values. Seventy participants estimated speed 3920 times in total. Research included three experiments. One vehicle participated in the ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 22, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Papić Z, Jović A, Simeunović M, Saulić N, Lazarević M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Risk Assessment of Tractor-Related Hazards Based on Accident Cases.
In this study, hazards leading to accidents were identified, and their risks were assessed based on survey results to establish a more effective accident prevention strategy. Risk assessment for hazards proceeded as follows: hazard identification, frequency estimation, number of equivalent fatalities (NEF) estimation, and finally risk evaluation. Hazards were identified by analyzing 588 accident cases from NAS surveys and performing an expert review of the analysis results by implementing a Delphi survey. The frequency and NEF of each hazard were estimated by multiplying its probabilities and the statistical results of the...
Source: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health - May 22, 2020 Category: Occupational Health Tags: J Agric Saf Health Source Type: research

How do oncoming traffic and cyclist lane position influence cyclist overtaking by drivers?
Publication date: July 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 142Author(s): Alexander Rasch, Christian-Nils Boda, Prateek Thalya, Tobias Aderum, Alessia Knauss, Marco Dozza (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 22, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Development and validation of a model predicting post-traumatic headache six months after a motor vehicle collision in adults
Publication date: July 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 142Author(s): Carol Cancelliere, Eleanor Boyle, Pierre Côté, Lena W. Holm, Louis -Rachid Salmi, J. David Cassidy (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 22, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Crash risk and subjective risk perception during urban cycling: Evidence for congruent and incongruent sources
Publication date: July 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 142Author(s): Rul von Stülpnagel, Jonas Lucas (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 22, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Revisiting freeway single tunnel crash characteristics analysis: A six-zone analytic approach.
This study aims to investigate the characteristics of traffic crashes in freeway single tunnels by separately considering the entrance and exit of the tunnel as well as the different lengths of tunnels. A six-zone approach is proposed, and the data from 156 single tunnels in Hunan province, China, are applied for safety analysis. The crash rate, crash type, and contributing crash factors are compared between the conventional four-zone approach and the proposed method, and the three types of tunnels with different lengths are also compared for in-depth analysis. Results show that the proposed six-zone method provides a bett...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pervez A, Huang H, Han C, Wang J, Li Y Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Safety analysis of work zone complexity with respect to driver characteristics — A simulator study employing performance and gaze measures
Publication date: July 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 142Author(s): Vishal C. Kummetha, Alexandra Kondyli, Evangelia G. Chrysikou, Steven D. Schrock (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Factor structure of the family climate for road safety scale in emerging adults in the United States
Publication date: July 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 142Author(s): Austin B. Burns, Annie A. Garner, Alex Chang, Stephen P. Becker, Michael J. Kofler, Matthew A. Jarrett, Aaron M. Luebbe, G. Leonard Burns (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Exposure to a motor vehicle collision and the risk of future back pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Publication date: July 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 142Author(s): Paul S. Nolet, Peter C. Emary, Vicki L. Kristman, Kent Murnaghan, Maurice P. Zeegers, Michael D. Freeman (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The paradox of pedestrian's risk aversion
Publication date: July 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 142Author(s): Shlomi Hacohen, Shraga Shoval, Nir Shvalb (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Comparing distance and time as driving exposure measures to evaluate fatal crash risk ratios
Publication date: July 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 142Author(s): Sijun Shen, Marco H. Benedetti, Songzhu Zhao, Lai Wei, Motao Zhu (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Application of association rules mining algorithm for hazardous materials transportation crashes on expressway
Publication date: July 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 142Author(s): Jungyeol Hong, Reuben Tamakloe, Dongjoo Park (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Are safety and performance affected by navigation system display size, environmental illumination, and gender when driving in both urban and rural areas?
Publication date: July 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 142Author(s): Tamer Yared, Patrick Patterson, Esraa S. Abdel All (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Crash risk and subjective risk perception during urban cycling: Evidence for congruent and incongruent sources.
CONCLUSIONS: Understanding why and where cyclists over- or underestimate the actual crash risk may provide a foundation for the design of safer cycling infrastructures, as well as for promoting cycling as a comfortable mode of transportation. PMID: 32445971 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 19, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: von Stülpnagel R, Lucas J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Development and validation of a model predicting post-traumatic headache six months after a motor vehicle collision in adults.
Cassidy JD Abstract IMPORTANCE: The prognosis of post-traumatic headache is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a prognostic model to predict the presence of post-traumatic headache six months after a traffic collision in adults with incident post-traumatic headache. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of adults with incident post-traumatic headache injured in traffic collisions between November 1997 and December 1999 in Saskatchewan, Canada (development cohort); and between January 2004 and January 2005 in Sweden (validation cohort). SETTING: The Saskatchewan cohort (development) was popul...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 19, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Cancelliere C, Boyle E, Côté P, Holm LW, Salmi LR, Cassidy JD Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

How do oncoming traffic and cyclist lane position influence cyclist overtaking by drivers?
In this study, we performed a test-track experiment to investigate how oncoming traffic and position of the cyclist within the lane influence overtaking. Participants overtook a robot cyclist, which was controlled to ride in two different lateral positions within the lane. At the same time, an oncoming robot vehicle was controlled to meet the participant's vehicle with either 6 or 9 s time-to-collision. The order of scenarios was randomised over participants. We analysed safety metrics for the four different overtaking phases, reflecting drivers' safety margins to rear-end, head-on, and side-swipe collisions, in order to...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 19, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rasch A, Boda CN, Thalya P, Aderum T, Knauss A, Dozza M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Safety analysis of work zone complexity with respect to driver characteristics - A simulator study employing performance and gaze measures.
Abstract Driving is a complex task that consists of several physical (motor-related) and physiological (biological changes within the body) processes occurring simultaneously. The complexity of the task depends on several factors, but this research focuses on work zone configurations and their effect on driver performance and gaze behavior. The increase in work zone fatalities in the United States between 2015 and 2018 coupled with the limited literature of driver behavior in these complex environments requires a more comprehensive study. Given the nature of these crashes, typically lane departures, gaze behavior ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kummetha VC, Kondyli A, Chrysikou EG, Schrock SD Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Application of association rules mining algorithm for hazardous materials transportation crashes on expressway.
This study aims to employ the association rules mining (ARM) approach to discover the contributory crash-risk factors of HAZMAT vehicle-involved crashes on expressways. A case study is conducted using crash data obtained from the Korea Expressway Corporation crash database from 2008 to 2017. ARM was conducted using the Apriori algorithm, and a total of 855 interesting rules were generated. With appropriate support, confidence, and lift values, we found hidden patterns in the HAZMAT crash characteristics. The results indicate that HAZMAT vehicle-involved crashes are highly associated with male drivers, single vehicle-involv...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hong J, Tamakloe R, Park D Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Exploring driving characteristics of fit- and unfit-to-drive neurological patients: a driving simulator study.
Conclusions: Our results show that driving simulators are able to capture differences between (fit- and unfit-to-drive) neurological patient populations and therefore bear the potential for being used as a deficit-independent screening, assessment, or rehabilitation tool. The conditionally-fit-to-drive group exhibited less discriminative features, which points to greater importance of human judgment for this population. The observation that differences in most of the parameters were environment-dependent suggests that developers of future driver simulation tools should carefully design scenarios in order to fully exploit t...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 17, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Motnikar L, Stojmenova K, Štaba UČ, Klun T, Robida KR, Sodnik J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research