“I Snapchat and Drive!” A mixed methods approach examining snapchat use while driving and deterrent perceptions among young adults
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Verity Truelove, James Freeman, Jeremy DaveyAbstractThis research utilised a qualitative and quantitative study to examine a sample of young drivers’ perceptions of deterrent forces, both legal and non-legal, for the behaviour of phone use while driving. First, focus groups were conducted with 60 drivers between the ages of 17 and 25 years who resided in Queensland, Australia. This qualitative study utilised an inductive approach to elicit participants’ perceptions without omitting important ideas. Legal sanctions wer...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Going to the nearest hospital vs. designated trauma centre for road traffic crashes: estimating the time difference in Delhi, India.
Authors: Ahuja R, Tiwari G, Bhalla K Abstract Background: Time to hospital after a road traffic crash (RTC) plays a vital role in determining the outcome for crash victims. In Delhi, there are seven designated trauma centres where crash victims are typically taken, which may not be nearest hospital. We compare the transport time access (crash to hospital) depending on whether the victim is transported to a designated trauma centre or the nearest hospital. Data and methods: For each RTC geocoded manually from police records, the nearest hospital and the designated trauma centre is identified using Google Maps places...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 28, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 2308: Risk Riding Behaviors of Urban E-Bikes: A Literature Review
ng Yuan In order to clearly understand the risky riding behaviors of electric bicycles (e-bikes) and analyze the riding characteristics, we review the research results of the e-bike risky riding behavior from three aspects: the characteristics and causes of e-bike accidents, the characteristics of users’ traffic behavior, and the prevention and intervention of traffic accidents. The analysis results show that the existing research methods on risky riding behavior of e-bikes mainly involve questionnaire survey methods, structural equation models, and binary probability models. The illegal occupation of ...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - June 28, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ma Yang Zhou Feng Yuan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Multigroup invariance of the DAS across a random and an internet-sourced sample
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): M.J.M. Sullman, A.N. Stephens, J.E. TaylorAbstractIt is well established that angry and, subsequently, aggressive drivers pose a problem for road safety. Over recent years, there has been an increase in the number of published studies examining driver anger, particularly using the Driving Anger Scale (DAS). The DAS measures six broad types of situations likely to provoke anger while driving (i.e., police presence, illegal driving, discourtesy, traffic obstructions, slower drivers, and hostile gestures). The majority of the recent...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Seating configuration and position preferences in fully automated vehicles.
Conclusions: This study has provided valuable insight regarding seating configuration and position preferences in an FAV, as well as predicted activities and restraint use. Future research will use this information to simulate likely injury outcomes of these preferences in the event of a motor vehicle crash and provide a basis for the design of occupant protection systems for FAVs. PMID: 31246512 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Koppel S, Jiménez Octavio J, Bohman K, Logan D, Raphael W, Quintana Jimenez L, Lopez-Valdes F Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Improving pedestrian safety using combined HOG and Haar partial detection in mobile systems.
Conclusions: Performance improvement of the algorithm is compared with respect to state-of-the-art detectors/algorithms. Based on the detection rate and detection speed performance, it can be concluded that the proposed algorithm is suitable to be used for mobile systems to warn drivers about the possibility of collision with a pedestrian. PMID: 31246101 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mihçioğlu ME, Alkar AZ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving difficulties as reported by older drivers with mild cognitive impairment and without neurological impairment.
Conclusions: Though both group analyses show difficulties with switching from automatic to decision making, the difficulties are different. For the control group, the difficulty in switching involves switching in new or unexpected situations associated with high-information-load conditions, whereas this switching difficulty for the MCI group is associated with divided attention between easier tasks requiring switching. These findings underline the ability of older drivers (with MCI and without cognitive impairment) to indicate probable impairments in various driving skills. The patterns of difficulties perceived by the MCI...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Vardaki S, Dickerson AE, Beratis I, Yannis G, Papageorgiou SG Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

"I Snapchat and Drive!" A mixed methods approach examining snapchat use while driving and deterrent perceptions among young adults.
"I Snapchat and Drive!" A mixed methods approach examining snapchat use while driving and deterrent perceptions among young adults. Accid Anal Prev. 2019 Jun 27;131:146-156 Authors: Truelove V, Freeman J, Davey J Abstract This research utilised a qualitative and quantitative study to examine a sample of young drivers' perceptions of deterrent forces, both legal and non-legal, for the behaviour of phone use while driving. First, focus groups were conducted with 60 drivers between the ages of 17 and 25 years who resided in Queensland, Australia. This qualitative study utilised an inductive app...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Truelove V, Freeman J, Davey J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Multigroup invariance of the DAS across a random and an internet-sourced sample.
Abstract It is well established that angry and, subsequently, aggressive drivers pose a problem for road safety. Over recent years, there has been an increase in the number of published studies examining driver anger, particularly using the Driving Anger Scale (DAS). The DAS measures six broad types of situations likely to provoke anger while driving (i.e., police presence, illegal driving, discourtesy, traffic obstructions, slower drivers, and hostile gestures). The majority of the recent studies have moved away from traditional paper-and-pencil methodologies, using the internet to collect data, for reasons of co...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sullman MJM, Stephens AN, Taylor JE Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Adjusting finite sample bias in traffic safety modeling
In this study, we apply a bias-correction procedure to the parameter estimation of Poisson and NB regression models. We provide a general bias-correction formulation and illustrate the finite sample bias through a special scenario with a single binary explanatory variable. Several factors affecting the magnitude of bias are identified, including the number of crashes and the balance of the crash counts within strata of a categorical explanatory variable. Simulations are conducted to examine the properties of the bias-corrected coefficient estimators. The results show that the bias-corrected estimators generally provide les...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Accounting for mediation in cyclist-vehicle crash models: A Bayesian mediation analysis approach
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Mohamed Bayoumi Kamel, Tarek SayedAbstractCyclist safety is affected by many factors on the zonal level. Previous studies have found associations between cyclist-vehicle crashes and vehicle and bike exposures, network configuration, land use, road facility, and the built environment. In addition, the network configuration, land use, and road facility were found to affect bike exposure levels. The association of zonal characteristics with both exposure and crashes may bias the development of macro-level bike safety models. This pa...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Using telematics data to find risky driver behaviour
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Manda Winlaw, Stefan H. Steiner, R. Jock MacKay, Allaa R. HilalAbstractUsage-based insurance schemes provide new opportunities for insurers to accurately price and manage risk. These schemes have the potential to better identify risky drivers which not only allows insurance companies to better price their products but it allows drivers to modify their behaviour to make roads safer and driving more efficient. However, for Usage-based insurance products, we need to better understand how driver behaviours influence the risk of a cra...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Fatal motorcycle crashes in wide urban area of Zagreb, Croatia-A 10-year review.
Conclusions: Alcohol intoxication has a major role in motorcycle crash-related mortality. A significant difference in BAC between fatally injured riders responsible for the accident and those who were not responsible implies that measures directed toward prevention of drinking and driving behavior could lower the number of fatal motorcycle crashes. Weekend measures, especially during spring and summer, could have particularly significant effects. PMID: 31237793 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bakovic M, Mažuranić A, Petrovecki V, Mayer D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Using telematics data to find risky driver behaviour.
Abstract Usage-based insurance schemes provide new opportunities for insurers to accurately price and manage risk. These schemes have the potential to better identify risky drivers which not only allows insurance companies to better price their products but it allows drivers to modify their behaviour to make roads safer and driving more efficient. However, for Usage-based insurance products, we need to better understand how driver behaviours influence the risk of a crash or an insurance claim. In this article, we present our analysis of automotive telematics data from over 28 million trips. We use a case control m...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Winlaw M, Steiner SH, MacKay RJ, Hilal AR Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Accounting for mediation in cyclist-vehicle crash models: A Bayesian mediation analysis approach.
Abstract Cyclist safety is affected by many factors on the zonal level. Previous studies have found associations between cyclist-vehicle crashes and vehicle and bike exposures, network configuration, land use, road facility, and the built environment. In addition, the network configuration, land use, and road facility were found to affect bike exposure levels. The association of zonal characteristics with both exposure and crashes may bias the development of macro-level bike safety models. This paper aims to explain these associations simultaneously using a form of Structural Equation Modelling approach. The analy...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kamel MB, Sayed T Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Adjusting finite sample bias in traffic safety modeling.
In this study, we apply a bias-correction procedure to the parameter estimation of Poisson and NB regression models. We provide a general bias-correction formulation and illustrate the finite sample bias through a special scenario with a single binary explanatory variable. Several factors affecting the magnitude of bias are identified, including the number of crashes and the balance of the crash counts within strata of a categorical explanatory variable. Simulations are conducted to examine the properties of the bias-corrected coefficient estimators. The results show that the bias-corrected estimators generally provide les...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mao H, Deng X, Lord D, Flintsch G, Guo F Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Analyzing road crash frequencies with uncorrelated and correlated random-parameters count models: An empirical assessment of multilane highways
Publication date: Available online 22 June 2019Source: Analytic Methods in Accident ResearchAuthor(s): Tariq Usman Saeed, Thomas Hall, Hiba Baroud, Matthew J. VolovskiAbstractRecent literature on highway safety research has focused on methodological advances to minimize misspecifications and the potential for erroneous estimates and invalid statistical inferences. To further these efforts, this study carries out an empirical assessment of uncorrelated and correlated random-parameters count models for analyzing road crash frequencies on multilane highways considering two crash severities; injury and no-injury. The empirical...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - June 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The association of helmet use with the risk of death for occupants of motorcycles involved in traffic crashes: A meta-analysis.
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Mingming Liang, Yun Zhang, Xiaotian Zhang, Min Min, Tingting Shi, Yehuan Sun (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Vulnerable road users in low-, middle-, and high-income countries: Validation of a Pedestrian Behaviour Questionnaire
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Rich C. McIlroy, Katherine L. Plant, Usanisa Jikyong, Vũ Hoài Nam, Brenda Bunyasi, Gilbert O. Kokwaro, Jianping Wu, Md. Shamsul Hoque, John M. Preston, Neville A. StantonAbstractThe primary aim of this study was to validate the short version of a Pedestrian Behaviour Questionnaire across six culturally and economically distinct countries; Bangladesh, China, Kenya, Thailand, the UK, and Vietnam. The questionnaire comprised 20 items that asked respondents to rate the extent to which they perform certain types of pedestrian ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A randomized trial to test the impact of parent communication on improving in-vehicle feedback systems
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Corinne Peek-Asa, Michelle L. Reyes, Cara J. Hamann, Brandon D. Butcher, Joseph E. CavanaughAbstractThis randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of integrating Steering Teens Safe, a parent communication intervention, with feedback from an in-vehicle video recording system. In-vehicle video systems that trigger a recording when the vehicle exceeds a g-force threshold have been used to provide feedback to young drivers. Few of these programs have involved parental engagement. Parent-teen dyads were randomized to three gro...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Examining correlations between motorcyclist’s conspicuity, apparel related factors and injury severity score: Evidence from new motorcycle crash causation study
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Behram Wali, Asad J. Khattak, Numan AhmadAbstractMotorcyclists are vulnerable road users at a particularly high risk of serious injury or death when involved in a crash. In order to evaluate key risk factors in motorcycle crashes, this study quantifies how different “policy-sensitive” factors correlate with injury severity, while controlling for rider and crash specific factors as well as other observed/unobserved factors. The study analyzes data from 321 motorcycle injury crashes from a comprehensive US DOT FHWA&rsqu...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Safety aspects of riding with children: Descriptive analysis of adult riders’ self-report
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): J. Hatfield, R.G. Poulos, S.M. Murphy, L.K. Flack, C. Rissel, R. Grzebieta, A.S. McIntoshAbstractActive transport, including cycling, is promoted as an effective way of increasing children’s physical activity and health. Parents can support children’s riding by riding with them and it is important to address relevant safety issues. Little is known about parents’ experience of safety-relevant aspects of riding with children. Participants in the Safer Cycling Study in New South Wales, Australia, who reported that ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Drivers with child passengers: distracted but cautious?
ConclusionsDrivers with child passengers represent a specific driver population. They have a higher tendency to engage in distractions while driving, but they have fewer risk-taking behaviour-related fatal crashes compared to drivers with no child passengers. Our results indicate that the effects of child-passenger-related distractions on fatal crash risks are more relevant outside intersections, presumably because drivers may try to self-regulate their interactions with child passengers and focus on driving in more demanding traffic situations. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A geographically weighted regression to estimate the comprehensive cost of traffic crashes at a zonal level
This study proposes a method to estimate the comprehensive crash cost at the zonal level by using person-injury cost. The current metric of road safety attributes safety to the location of the crash, which makes it challenging to assign the crash cost to home-location of the individuals who were involved in traffic crashes. To overcome this limitation, we defined Home-Based Approach crash frequency as the expected number of crashes by severity that road users who live in a certain geographic area have during a specified period. Using crash data from Tennessee, we assign those involved in traffic crashes to the census tract...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A safety assessment of mixed fleets with Connected and Autonomous Vehicles using the Surrogate Safety Assessment Module
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Navreet Virdi, Hanna Grzybowska, S. Travis Waller, Vinayak DixitAbstractThe transportation network can provide additional utility by addressing the safety concerns on roads. On-road fatalities are an unfortunate loss of life and lead to significant costs for society and the economy. Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs), envisaged as operating with idealised safety and cooperation, could be a means of mitigating these costs. This paper intends to provide insights into the safety improvements to be attained by incrementally tra...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Reducing the time loss bias: Two ways to improved driving safety and energy efficiency
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Mario Herberz, Celina Kacperski, Florian KutznerAbstractThe time loss bias describes the systematic overestimation of time lost when decelerating from a relatively high speed. In the present study, we investigated the debiasing effect of two educational interventions, the Paceometer (Peer and Gamliel, 2013) and a newly designed Pop-up assistant, in a video-based controlled-access highway driving scenario. The Paceometer provides participants with pace information (min/km) added to the common speedometer. The Pop-up assistant info...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Driving anger among motor vehicle drivers in China: A cross-sectional survey.
Conclusion: Driving anger is a common emotion among Chinese drivers and has a strong correlation with aggressive driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID: 31225746 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fei G, Zhang X, Yang Y, Yao H, Yang J, Li X, Gao L, Zhou Y, Ming W, Stallones L, Xiang H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of bicycle crashes in Sweden involving injuries with high risk of health loss.
Conclusions: The types of crashes leading to health loss do not substantially differ from those that do not result in health loss. Two thirds of injuries leading to health loss occur in single bicycle crashes. In addition to separating cyclists from motorized traffic, other preventive strategies are needed. PMID: 31225743 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ohlin M, Algurén B, Lie A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Epidemiology of alcohol and drug screening among pedestrian fatalities in the United States, 2014-2016.
Conclusions: Preventive strategies become more important as pedestrian crashes and fatalities increase. Risk reduction in the form of policy change, alterations to the built environment, or interdisciplinary approaches to injury prevention is dependent upon best evidence supported in part by more deliberate and consistent screening. PMID: 31225741 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Thomas M, Riemann B, Jones J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A safety assessment of mixed fleets with Connected and Autonomous Vehicles using the Surrogate Safety Assessment Module.
Abstract The transportation network can provide additional utility by addressing the safety concerns on roads. On-road fatalities are an unfortunate loss of life and lead to significant costs for society and the economy. Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs), envisaged as operating with idealised safety and cooperation, could be a means of mitigating these costs. This paper intends to provide insights into the safety improvements to be attained by incrementally transitioning the fleet to CAVs. This investigation is done by constructing a calibrated microsimulation environment in Vissim and deploying the custom ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Virdi N, Grzybowska H, Waller ST, Dixit V Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Vulnerable road users in low-, middle-, and high-income countries: Validation of a Pedestrian Behaviour Questionnaire.
Abstract The primary aim of this study was to validate the short version of a Pedestrian Behaviour Questionnaire across six culturally and economically distinct countries; Bangladesh, China, Kenya, Thailand, the UK, and Vietnam. The questionnaire comprised 20 items that asked respondents to rate the extent to which they perform certain types of pedestrian behaviours, with each behaviour belonging to one of five categories identified in previous literature; violations, errors, lapses, aggressive behaviours, and positive behaviours. The sample consisted of 3423 respondents across the six countries. Confirmatory fact...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: McIlroy RC, Plant KL, Jikyong U, Nam VH, Bunyasi B, Kokwaro GO, Wu J, Hoque MS, Preston JM, Stanton NA Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A randomized trial to test the impact of parent communication on improving in-vehicle feedback systems.
Abstract This randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of integrating Steering Teens Safe, a parent communication intervention, with feedback from an in-vehicle video recording system. In-vehicle video systems that trigger a recording when the vehicle exceeds a g-force threshold have been used to provide feedback to young drivers. Few of these programs have involved parental engagement. Parent-teen dyads were randomized to three groups and 150 dyads completed the study. All groups received an in-vehicle video system that recorded driving events. The control group received no feedback or intervention. In th...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Peek-Asa C, Reyes ML, Hamann CJ, Butcher BD, Cavanaugh JE Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Examining correlations between motorcyclist's conspicuity, apparel related factors and injury severity score: Evidence from new motorcycle crash causation study.
Abstract Motorcyclists are vulnerable road users at a particularly high risk of serious injury or death when involved in a crash. In order to evaluate key risk factors in motorcycle crashes, this study quantifies how different "policy-sensitive" factors correlate with injury severity, while controlling for rider and crash specific factors as well as other observed/unobserved factors. The study analyzes data from 321 motorcycle injury crashes from a comprehensive US DOT FHWA's Motorcycle Crash Causation Study (MCCS). These were all non-fatal injury crashes that are representative of the vast majority (82%...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wali B, Khattak AJ, Ahmad N Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Safety aspects of riding with children: Descriptive analysis of adult riders' self-report.
Abstract Active transport, including cycling, is promoted as an effective way of increasing children's physical activity and health. Parents can support children's riding by riding with them and it is important to address relevant safety issues. Little is known about parents' experience of safety-relevant aspects of riding with children. Participants in the Safer Cycling Study in New South Wales, Australia, who reported that they had ridden with children in the last 12 months were questioned about how they ride with children, and their experience of safety issues and crashes. Among the 187 respondents who had ridd...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hatfield J, Poulos RG, Murphy SM, Flack LK, Rissel C, Grzebieta R, McIntosh AS Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Drivers with child passengers: distracted but cautious?
CONCLUSIONS: Drivers with child passengers represent a specific driver population. They have a higher tendency to engage in distractions while driving, but they have fewer risk-taking behaviour-related fatal crashes compared to drivers with no child passengers. Our results indicate that the effects of child-passenger-related distractions on fatal crash risks are more relevant outside intersections, presumably because drivers may try to self-regulate their interactions with child passengers and focus on driving in more demanding traffic situations. PMID: 31233993 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; A...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Maasalo I, Lehtonen E, Summala H Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A geographically weighted regression to estimate the comprehensive cost of traffic crashes at a zonal level.
This study proposes a method to estimate the comprehensive crash cost at the zonal level by using person-injury cost. The current metric of road safety attributes safety to the location of the crash, which makes it challenging to assign the crash cost to home-location of the individuals who were involved in traffic crashes. To overcome this limitation, we defined Home-Based Approach crash frequency as the expected number of crashes by severity that road users who live in a certain geographic area have during a specified period. Using crash data from Tennessee, we assign those involved in traffic crashes to the census tract...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hezaveh AM, Arvin R, Cherry CR Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Unsafe riding behaviors of shared-bicycle riders in urban China: A retrospective survey
Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Xiaolin Wu, Wangxin Xiao, Conghui Deng, David C. Schwebel, Guoqing HuAbstractShared-bicycle use has skyrocketed in urban China, but little is known about the safety of bicycle users. The Chinese popular media reports multiple risky riding behaviors among shared bicycle riders, but scientific research on the topic is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective WeChat-based online survey to examine how often shared bicycle riders report engaging in risky cycling behaviors in urban China. Eight unsafe shared bicycle riding beha...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 129Author(s): (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Reducing the time loss bias: Two ways to improved driving safety and energy efficiency.
Abstract The time loss bias describes the systematic overestimation of time lost when decelerating from a relatively high speed. In the present study, we investigated the debiasing effect of two educational interventions, the Paceometer (Peer and Gamliel, 2013) and a newly designed Pop-up assistant, in a video-based controlled-access highway driving scenario. The Paceometer provides participants with pace information (min/km) added to the common speedometer. The Pop-up assistant informs about the time lost when decreasing speed according to a specific situation. A mixed-design ANOVA confirmed the improvement of ti...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Herberz M, Kacperski C, Kutzner F Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Unsafe riding behaviors of shared-bicycle riders in urban China: A retrospective survey.
Abstract Shared-bicycle use has skyrocketed in urban China, but little is known about the safety of bicycle users. The Chinese popular media reports multiple risky riding behaviors among shared bicycle riders, but scientific research on the topic is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective WeChat-based online survey to examine how often shared bicycle riders report engaging in risky cycling behaviors in urban China. Eight unsafe shared bicycle riding behaviors were assessed: not wearing helmets, running red lights, cycling against the traffic flow, riding in lanes designed for motor vehicles, riding in lan...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wu X, Xiao W, Deng C, Schwebel DC, Hu G Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Bayesian hierarchical modeling of the non-stationary traffic conflict extremes for crash estimation
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Analytic Methods in Accident ResearchAuthor(s): Lai Zheng, Tarek Sayed, Mohamed EssaAbstractA Bayesian hierarchical modeling (BHM) approach is used to model non-stationary traffic conflict extremes of different sites together for crash estimation. The hierarchical structure has three layers, a data layer that is modeled with a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution, a latent Gaussian process layer that relates parameters of GEV to covariates and the unobserved heterogeneity, and a prior layer with prior distributions to characterize the latent process. The propos...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Risk factors for falls in Iranian older adults: a case-control study.
This study indicates several modifiable risk factors may be associated with falls that affect the health of older adults. Appropriate interventions are necessary to reduce modifiable risk factors of falls of high-risk elders. PMID: 31195925 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

An evaluation of wrong-way crashes from highway ramps in Kansas, USA.
Authors: Fitzsimmons EJ, Cunningham Iv JR, Dissanayake S, Liang J Abstract Wrong-way crashes on limited access highways continue to be a serious problem for state highway agencies and communities. These crashes are more likely to result in fatalities or serious injuries than other traffic incidents, due to vehicles travelling at high speeds, often involved on a roadway with limited vertical space and time to avoid a crash. This research study focused on wrong-way crashes that occurred on highways in the State of Kansas. Although these crashes represent a very small portion of crashes, wrong-way crashes were found t...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Basic epidemiology research designs III: cohort prospective design.
Authors: Bangdiwala SI PMID: 31195894 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Road Safety on Five Continents – Conference in Jeju, South Korea 2018
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Accident Analysis & PreventionAuthor(s): Anna Vadeby (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Road safety compliance among motorcyclists in Kawempe Division, Kampala, Uganda: a cross-sectional study.
This study determined the prevalence of and factors associated with compliance to selected road safety measures (helmet use, retro-reflective jackets use, riding permit and carrying one passenger) among commercial motorcyclists in Kawempe, from April to June 2014 using interviewer administered questionnaires. Total compliance was 0.9% and 24.4% to at least 3/4 measures. Compliance by measure was; 7.6% retroreflective jackets, 28.8% riding permits, 69.4% helmet use and 86.1% carrying one passenger. The associated factors were; knowing that (training before one starts to ride prevents crashes, Adjusted-odds-ratio (AOR) = 2.3...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

A proactive approach to assess safety level of urban bus stops.
Authors: Cheranchery MF, Bhattacharyya K, Salih M, Maitra B Abstract Road safety has emerged as a global concern, and bus stops are the major points of concern as they act as interfaces where pedestrians interact with transit vehicles. In order to achieve a safe and sustainable infrastructure at bus stops, it is necessary to assess safety level of bus stops and suggest safety improvement measures. The present work aims to investigate whether design and management deficiencies of bus stops have any effect on safety of passengers and pedestrians. It is also aimed to develop a pro-active approach for evaluating safety...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Trends in bicycle-related injuries, hospital admissions, and deaths in the USA 1997-2013.
Conclusion: On a per participant basis, the rate of cycling-related injuries and hospital admissions increased between 1997 and 2013. This trend likely reflects a combination of shifting demographics among cyclists with an increase in older cyclists who are at increased risk of severe injury. PMID: 31199704 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fergus KB, Sanford T, Vargo J, Breyer BN Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Social environment versus cycling competency predicting risk-taking in 11- to 13-year-old cyclists in The Netherlands.
Conclusions: At least 20% of children sometimes or more often take risks in traffic. Children who feel peer pressure to behave in a risky manner, observe parents and friends behaving in a risky manner in traffic, and have been exposed as passengers to risky driving more often take risks in traffic themselves. These results provide support for including items on risky road behavior in health monitors and to design interventions that address the risk factors in the child's perceived social environment. PMID: 31199691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Twisk D, Vlakveld W Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Profile of victims of accidents with biological material in a course of Dentistry
Conclusion: The results showed that the number of incidents is high and can be attributed to several factors, such as lack of experience of students and the non-use of personal protective equipment. As a result, it is necessary to establish a permanent education program focused on education and accident prevention strategies to minimize these problems.RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar o perfil epidemiol ógico dos acidentes com material biológico ocorridos na clínica odontológica de uma universidade na região sul do país Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, transversal, re...
Source: RGO - Revista Gaucha de Odontologia - June 13, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research