Impact of cannabis and low alcohol concentration on divided attention tasks during driving.
CONCLUSIONS: With increasing medical and legal cannabis use, understanding the impact of acute cannabis use on driving performance, including divided-attention, is essential. These data indicate that impaired divided-attention performance is a safety concern. PMID: 33035082 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 9, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Miller RE, Brown TL, Lee S, Tibrewal I, Gaffney GG, Milavetz G, Hartman RL, Gorelick DA, Compton R, Huestis MA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The effect of motor control requirements on drivers' eye-gaze pattern during automated driving.
Abstract This driving simulator study compared drivers' eye movements during a series of lane-changes, which required different levels of motor control for their execution. Participants completed 12 lane-changing manoeuvres in three drives, categorised by degree of manual engagement with the driving task: Fully Manual Drive, Manual Intervention Required, Fully Automated Drive (Manual drive, Partial automation, Full automation). For Partial automation, drivers resumed control from the automated system and changed lane manually. For Full automation, the automated system managed the lane change, but participants init...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 8, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Goncalves RC, Louw TL, Quaresma M, Madigan R, Merat N Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Safety effectiveness and performance of lane support systems for driving assistance and automation - Experimental test and logistic regression for rare events.
Abstract As of 2022, lane-keeping assistance systems and other selected safety technologies will become mandatory in new European vehicles to increase safety for passengers, pedestrians and cyclists. Lane support systems (LSS) are based on advanced computer vision technologies and they are expected to give safety benefits in reducing Ran of Road and head-on crashes comparable to already consolidated physical countermeasures like rumble strips. Anyway, despite the assumed technology readiness, there is still much uncertainty regarding the needs of vision systems for "reading" the road and limited results ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 8, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Cafiso S, Pappalardo G Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Application of Quantile Mixed Model for modeling Traffic Barrier Crash Cost.
This study highlights the changes in coefficient estimates while modeling crash costs. PMID: 33039818 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 8, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rezapour M, Ksaibati K, Moomen M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Estimating the out-of-the-loop phenomenon from visual strategies during highly automated driving.
This study scrutinized drivers' visual behaviour for 18 min of highly automated driving. Intersections between gaze and 13 areas of interest (AOIs) were analysed, considering both static and dynamic indicators. An estimation of self-reported mind wandering based on gaze behaviour was performed using partial least squares (PLS) regression models. The outputs of the PLS regressions allowed defining visual strategies associated with good monitoring of the driving scene. This information may enable online estimation of the OOTL phenomenon based on a driver's spontaneous visual behaviour. PMID: 33039817 [PubMed - as suppli...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 8, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Schnebelen D, Charron C, Mars F Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Modeling the causes-effect relationships among major accident predictors based on a fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making method.
CONCLUSIONS: Organizational factors and some of individual variables are the critical factors that affect the occurrence of accidents. Therefore, corrective actions for accident prevention should primarily focus on the correction of these variables. PMID: 33044212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Work)
Source: Work - October 8, 2020 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Mohammadfam I, Aliabadi MM, Soltanian AR, Mahdinia M Tags: Work Source Type: research

Effects of advanced warning information systems on secondary crash risk under connected vehicle environment
Publication date: December 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 148Author(s): Seung-oh Son, Jeongho Jeong, Seongmin Park, Juneyoung Park (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Health status and quality of life among road users with permanent medical impairment several years after the crash.
CONCLUSIONS: The Swedish definition of serious injury, an injury leading to PMI, was found to correlate with self-reported health loss; 85% of the injured road-users reported that they still had remaining symptoms several years after the accident. The injured body region leading to PMI after an accident can vary from the body regions reported to cause long-term health loss. It was found that the higher the degree of PMI the higher the health loss. Sustaining a PMI regardless severity and injured body region has the same effects on general health for men and women. Sustaining a PMI will both lower the health-related quality...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Stigson H, Boström M, Kullgren A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Are helmeted cyclists taking more risk at signalized intersections?
CONCLUSIONS: The results do not provide support for the position that promoting or mandating bicycle helmet use will have adverse safety effects because of more risky behavior among helmeted cyclists. PMID: 33026846 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Høye AK, Jensen ML, Sørensen MWJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Red-light running behavior of delivery-service E-cyclists based on survival analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Waiting position, violation of the law by other cyclists, and group size play an important role in red-right running behavior. The hazard rates of running red-light by delivery-service E-cyclists increased by 62% and 33% when they wait near motorized lanes and when other individuals violate traffic rules, respectively. The hazard rates reduced by 50% when there are more than five waiting cyclists. PMID: 33026838 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gao X, Zhao J, Gao H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Considering real-world sightline obstructions in crash and injury prevention estimates for left turn across path/opposite direction intersection active safety systems.
CONCLUSIONS: This study quantified the sightline obstruction ratio, an important parameter needed to evaluate intersection active safety systems. This study also establishes a baseline for evaluating the presence of sightline obstructions in a future naturalistic driving study when road infrastructure has changed. PMID: 33026259 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bareiss M, Gabler HC, Sherony R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Psychological Constructs Related to Seat Belt Use: A Nationally Representative Survey Study.
In this study, we examined some of these potential psychological predictors. A probability-based web survey was conducted with 6,038 U.S. residents aged 16 or older who reported having driven or ridden in a car in the past year. We measured self-reported seat belt use and 18 psychological constructs and found that delay of gratification, life satisfaction, risk aversion, risk perception, and resistance to peer influence were positively associated with belt use. Impulsivity and social resistance orientation were negatively associated with belt use. Prior research has shown that psychological factors like delay of gratificat...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sheveland AC, Luchman JN, Mendelson J, Xie J, Bleiberg MA, Eby DW, Molnar LJ, Walton BR Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of pedestrian-vehicle crash injury severity factors in Colorado 2006–2016
Publication date: December 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 148Author(s): Ghazal Batouli, Manze Guo, Bruce Janson, Wesley Marshall (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Effects of advanced warning information systems on secondary crash risk under connected vehicle environment.
This study evaluated the impact of an optimal in-vehicle advanced warning information service in a connected vehicle (CV) environment to prevent secondary crashes. Driving simulation experiments were designed and performed to analyze driving behavior. The forward crash situation was reproduced in a simulated highway environment, and the safety effects were assessed based on simulation data from a driving simulator (DS). To explore and analyze the effectiveness of crash notifications from the advanced warning information system (AWIS) for preventing secondary crashes, this study utilized repeated measures of multivariate an...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Son SO, Jeong J, Park S, Park J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Fuzzy Surrogate Safety Metrics for real-time assessment of rear-end collision risk. A study based on empirical observations
Publication date: December 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 148Author(s): Konstantinos Mattas, Michail Makridis, George Botzoris, Akos Kriston, Fabrizio Minarini, Basil Papadopoulos, Fabrizio Re, Greger Rognelund, Biagio Ciuffo (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 5, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

How do drivers respond to driving risk during car-following? Risk-response driver model and its application in human-like longitudinal control
Publication date: December 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 148Author(s): Xiaocong Zhao, Ren He, Jianqiang Wang (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Traffic safety meta-analysis of reversible lanes
Publication date: December 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 148Author(s): Aaron Manuel, Alexandre de Barros, Richard Tay (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Attributions of accidents to “human error” in news stories: Effects on perceived culpability, perceived preventability, and perceived need for punishment
Publication date: December 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 148Author(s): Michael A. Nees, Nithya Sharma, Ava Shore (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Driving-Related Behaviours, Attitudes and Perceptions among Australian Medical Cannabis Users: Results from the CAMS 18-19 Survey
Publication date: December 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 148Author(s): Thomas R. Arkell, Nicholas Lintzeris, Llewellyn Mills, Anastasia Suraev, Jonathon C. Arnold, Iain S. McGregor (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Traffic safety meta-analysis of reversible lanes.
Abstract A meta-analysis was performed to review the potential effects of reversible lanes on traffic safety. A systematic review resulted in ten U.S studies, with 155 estimates of safety effects, that were selected for inclusion in the analysis. These studies employed either a simple before-after comparison or a cross-sectional comparison methodology. Study results were extracted by transforming the collision rates and frequencies of these studies into a log-odds ratio. The results of the meta-analysis suggest that the odds of a collision occurring are 30.9% higher for roads with reversible lanes when compared to...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 2, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Manuel A, de Barros A, Tay R Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

How do drivers respond to driving risk during car-following? Risk-response driver model and its application in human-like longitudinal control.
Abstract The blooming of intelligent connected vehicle (ICV) has been continuously shaping a hybrid traffic environment in which the road is shared among ICVs and vehicles driven by human drivers. However, due to the insufficient understanding of the human driving strategy and style, the conflicts between ICVs and human drivers have arisen public attention, threatening the road safety and bottlenecking the development of ICV. In order to embed the human driving strategy in the intelligent driving system, researchers have been rolling out efforts on driver modeling. Most driver models, however, still suffer from th...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 2, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zhao X, He R, Wang J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of augmented reality cues to improve the safety of left-turn maneuvers in a connected environment: A driving simulator study
Publication date: December 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 148Author(s): Alessandro Calvi, Fabrizio D’Amico, Chiara Ferrante, Luca Bianchini Ciampoli (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 2, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A GIS and microsimulation-based MCDA approach for evaluation of pedestrian crossings
Publication date: December 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 148Author(s): Kadir D. Alemdar, Ömer Kaya, Muhammed Y. Çodur (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 2, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Geographical patterns and effects of human and mechanical factors on road traffic crashes in Nigeria.
Authors: Adeleke R, Osayomi T, Iyanda AE Abstract Road traffic crashes (RTCs) remain an issue of global concern particularly in Nigeria where over 80 percent of these crashes are accounted by human and mechanical factors (HM). Many geographic studies on RTCs, fatality and injury have largely focused on the spatial clustering and associative analysis of risk factors; with little known about the relative contribution of HM factors within the spatial context. Hence, this study applied a spatial approach to the effect of HM factors on RTCs, fatality and injury across the regions of Nigeria. The data for this study were...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - October 2, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Towards activity-based exposure measures in spatial analysis of pedestrian–motor vehicle crashesThis article was handled by Associate Editor Chris Lee.
Publication date: December 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 148Author(s): Ni Dong, Fanyu Meng, Jie Zhang, S.C. Wong, Pengpeng Xu (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 2, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Evaluation of augmented reality cues to improve the safety of left-turn maneuvers in a connected environment: A driving simulator study.
This study tests the potential of Augmented Reality (AR) technology, built into connected vehicle technology, to improve the safety of left-turn maneuvers of connected vehicles by adding visual virtual information to the driver. To achieve this goal, a driving simulator study was carried out. The effectiveness of the system was tested, and the ability of young drivers to detect adequate gaps between vehicles in the opposite lane (with right of way) to safely turn left was assessed with and without AR warnings at a two-way stop-controlled intersection under a connected vehicles environment. In the scenario projected on the ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 1, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Calvi A, D'Amico F, Ferrante C, Bianchini Ciampoli L Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Attributions of accidents to "human error" in news stories: Effects on perceived culpability, perceived preventability, and perceived need for punishment.
Attributions of accidents to "human error" in news stories: Effects on perceived culpability, perceived preventability, and perceived need for punishment. Accid Anal Prev. 2020 Oct 02;148:105792 Authors: Nees MA, Sharma N, Shore A Abstract Attributions of the causes of accidents to human error are problematically reductive, yet such attributions persist in media coverage. Few experiments have examined how human error attributions affect people's perceptions. An experiment compared attributions of accidents to "human error" versus other causes ("mechanical failure," "...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 1, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nees MA, Sharma N, Shore A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Driving-Related Behaviours, Attitudes and Perceptions among Australian Medical Cannabis Users: Results from the CAMS 18-19 Survey.
Abstract As the use of cannabis for medical purposes becomes increasingly prevalent, driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) is emerging as a major public health issue. Understanding current behaviours, attitudes and perceptions around DUIC in medical cannabis users is an important first step in addressing this issue. Here we present the results from the driving-related subsection of the Cannabis as Medicine 2018-2019 Survey (CAMS18) of current Australian medical cannabis users (n = 1388). Of the 806 respondents who reported driving a motor vehicle in the last month, 34.6% said they typically drive within 3...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 1, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Arkell TR, Lintzeris N, Mills L, Suraev A, Arnold JC, McGregor IS Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Towards activity-based exposure measures in spatial analysis of pedestrian-motor vehicle crashesThis article was handled by Associate Editor Chris Lee.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of population or population density as a surrogate for pedestrian exposure when modeling the frequency of zonal pedestrian crashes is expected to produce biased estimations and invalid inferences. Spatial heterogeneity should also not be negligible when modeling pedestrian crashes involving contiguous spatial units. PMID: 33011425 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Dong N, Meng F, Zhang J, Wong SC, Xu P Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A GIS and microsimulation-based MCDA approach for evaluation of pedestrian crossings.
In this study, a corridor-based analysis of such sites is performed. Twenty-four criteria that are considered to affect pedestrian crossing locations and traffic flow aredetermined. Based on these criteria, the most suitable pedestrian crossing scenario is identified using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and VlseKriterijuska Optimizacija I Komoromisno Resenje (VIKOR) from Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methods are used to evaluate the pedestrian crossing locations, and PTV VISSIM is used to examine the impact of these sites on traffic. The proposed method is then applie...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Alemdar KD, Kaya Ö, Çodur MY Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

An examination of the performance of damaged energy-absorbing end terminals
Publication date: November 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 147Author(s): Yunzhu Meng, Wen Hu, Costin Untaroiu (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Young drivers’ perceptions of risk and difficulty: Day versus night
Publication date: November 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 147Author(s): Teal Evans, Rwth Stuckey, Wendy Macdonald (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

An examination of the performance of damaged energy-absorbing end terminals.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study point out the need for in-service performance evaluations and proper maintenance and repair practices of end terminals. The simulation models developed in this study could be further employed to investigate device performance in crash situations that are physically impractical to test and investigate the effects of site characteristics on device performance. The simulation models could also supplement crash tests to certify new hardware designs. PMID: 33007743 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Meng Y, Hu W, Untaroiu C Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Young drivers' perceptions of risk and difficulty: Day versus night.
This study addressed those issues, using an exploratory approach entailing both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The 62 participants (28 females, 34 males) were grouped according to level of driving experience and age (16-30 years). Determinants of ratings were investigated using 6 day-night pairs of video clips at 6 different locations, plus 2 night-only clips at 2 other locations (14 clips in all). Depicted driving situations varied naturalistically in complexity as well as speed. They were presented in random orders twice to each participant, who used a slider to rate each clip continuously, once for risk and once...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 27, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Evans T, Stuckey R, Macdonald W Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A Bayesian Tobit quantile regression approach for naturalistic longitudinal driving capability assessment
Publication date: November 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 147Author(s): Rongjie Yu, Xiaojie Long, Mohammed Quddus, Junhua Wang (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 26, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Traffic campaigns and overconfidence: An experimental approach
Publication date: October 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 146Author(s): Thiago Christiano Silva, Marcela T. Laiz, Benjamin Miranda Tabak (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 26, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

EEG biomarkers acquired during a short, straight-line simulated drive to predict impairment from cannabis intoxication.
CONCLUSIONS: These results, in combination with prior work on the effect of cannabis intoxication during neurocognitive tasks, suggest that neurophysiological signatures associated with acute cannabis intoxication are robust and consistent across tasks, and that these signatures are significantly correlated with impaired performance in a driving simulator. Taken together, EEG data acquired during a short neurocognitive testbed and during a simulated drive may provide specific profiles of impairment associated with acute cannabis intoxication. Further research is needed to establish the impaired cognitive processes associat...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 24, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Brown TL, Richard C, Meghdadi A, Poole J, Fink A, Stevanović Karić M, McConnell M, Rupp G, Schmitt R, Gaffney GG, Milavetz G, Berka C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Advanced vehicle technologies and road safety: A scoping review of the evidence
Publication date: November 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 147Author(s): Andrea D. Furlan, Tara Kajaks, Margaret Tiong, Martin Lavallière, Jennifer L. Campos, Jessica Babineau, Shabnam Haghzare, Tracey Ma, Brenda Vrkljan (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 24, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Advanced vehicle technologies and road safety: A scoping review of the evidence.
jan B Abstract The proliferation of Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVTs) has generated both excitement and concern among researchers, policymakers, and the general public. An increasing number of driver assistance systems are already available in today's automobiles; many of which are expected to become standard. Therefore, synthesizing the available evidence specific to the safety of AVTs is critical. The goal of this scoping review was to summarize this evidence with a focus on AVTs that require some driver oversight (i.e., Levels 0-3 as per the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) levels of automation taxonomy...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 23, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Furlan AD, Kajaks T, Tiong M, Lavallière M, Campos JL, Babineau J, Haghzare S, Ma T, Vrkljan B Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Assessing the explanatory and predictive performance of a random parameters count model with heterogeneity in means and variances
Publication date: November 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 147Author(s): Xiaoyan Huo, Junqian Leng, Qinzhong Hou, Lai Zheng, Lintao Zhao (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 23, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Venomous snakes and people in a floodplain forest in the Western Brazilian Amazon: Potential risks for snakebites.
Abstract People who live in rural or forested areas are more likely to be affected by snakebites, due to their presence in the natural habitat of snakes and due to activities such as extractivism and agriculture. To conduct an ethnobiological study regarding the knowledge related to venomous snakes, snakebites and the attitudes of people who frequent areas of floodplain forests in the Alto Juruá (Brazilian Amazon), and correlate this information with data on snakebites in the region and the ecology of the ophiofauna, 100 residents, who are actively involved in extractivism, fishing, or hunting in the forest...
Source: Toxicon - September 22, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Silva JLD, Fonseca WLD, Mota da Silva A, Amaral GLGD, Ortega GP, Oliveira AS, Correa RR, Oliveira I, Monteiro WM, Bernarde PS Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Assessing the explanatory and predictive performance of a random parameters count model with heterogeneity in means and variances.
Abstract Random parameters model has been demonstrated to be an effective method to account for unobserved heterogeneity that commonly exists in highway crash data. However, the predefined single distribution for each random parameter may limit how the unobserved heterogeneity is captured. A more flexible approach is to develop a random parameters model with heterogeneity in means and variances by allowing the mean and variance of potential each random parameter to be an estimable function of explanatory variables. This burgeoning technique for modelling unobserved heterogeneity has been increasingly applied to va...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Huo X, Leng J, Hou Q, Zheng L, Zhao L Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Benchmarking road safety development across OECD countries: An empirical analysis for a decade
Publication date: November 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 147Author(s): Faan Chen, Jingyang Lyu, Tianye Wang (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Monte carlo method for estimating whole-body injury metrics from pedestrian impact simulation results
Publication date: November 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 147Author(s): Taewung Kim, Gerald Poplin, Varun Bollapragada, Tom Daniel, Jeff Crandall (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Federal road safety corps and administration of traffic laws in South-east Nigeria: an appraisal.
This study appraised road safety management reforms and security challenges in the South-east. Objectives of the study were to examine whether the execution of road safety education failed to undergird the road users' safety in the South-east and investigate whether the absence of institutional capacity of the Corps affected the realisation of road safety standardisation scheme. This study adopted mixed methods for data collection and quantitative descriptive analysis. It relied on the structural-functionalist theory and survey research design. The study revealed challenges in realisation of the objectives. Poor implementa...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 19, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 6854: Parents ’ Perspectives on the Health Education Provided by Clinicians in Portuguese Pediatric Hospitals and Primary Care for Children Aged 1 to 10 Years
This study aimed to analyze parents’ perspectives of the health education practice provided by health professionals to children and parents. This is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach, based on the conceptual framework of health education provided by health professionals to children/young people and families. The selection took place by non-probabilistic sampling of convenience, and was developed with parents/users of health units for pediatric hospitalization and primary health care in northern Portugal. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 20 parents from March to April ...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - September 18, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Pereira Escola Rodrigues Almeida Tags: Article Source Type: research

Benchmarking road safety development across OECD countries: An empirical analysis for a decade.
In this study, a systematic and effective methodology, IV-VIKOR with FNBC, is developed to perform the benchmarking of road safety development in an integrative manner for OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries. Linking to other methods and measures as the references, 36 OECD Member countries are ranked and grouped into several classes based on their overall achievement regarding road safety from the past decade (2009-2018). This provides government officials and policymakers, across the OECD Member countries, with a flexible tool to comprehensively benchmark road safety development. Provid...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chen F, Lyu J, Wang T Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The relationship between driving volatility in time to collision and crash-injury severity in a naturalistic driving environment
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2020Source: Analytic Methods in Accident ResearchAuthor(s): Behram Wali, Asad J. Khattak, Thomas Karnowski (Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research)
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - September 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The development and validation of video-based measures of drivers’ following distance and gap acceptance behaviours
Publication date: October 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 146Author(s): Mark S. Horswill, Andrew Hill, Likitha Silapurem (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - September 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Theoretical Model for Accident Prevention Based on Root Cause Analysis with Graph Theory
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2020Source: Safety and Health at WorkAuthor(s): Gregor Molan, Marija Molan (Source: Safety and Health at Work)
Source: Safety and Health at Work - September 18, 2020 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research