Understanding take-over performance of high crash risk drivers during conditionally automated driving.
This study aimed to examine the difference in take-over performance between high crash risk (HCR) and lower crash risk (LCR) drivers in emergency take-over situations during conditionally automated driving. In the current simulator study, a 3 × 3 (within-subjects) factorial design was used, including the task factors (no task, reading the news, and watching a video) and time budget factors (time budget = 3 s, 4 s, and 5 s). Forty-eight participants completed a test drive on an approximately 10 km long two-way six-lane urban road. The participants firstly were in manual control and then switched to the...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Lin Q, Li S, Ma X, Lu G Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Mobile phone use among car drivers and motorcycle riders: The effect of problematic mobile phone use, attitudes, beliefs and perceived risk.
Abstract Mobile phone use while driving presents significant risks, potentially leading to injury or death through distracted driving. Using a case study of Vietnam, this research aimed to understand the effect of problematic mobile phone use (also known as mobile phone addiction or compulsive mobile phone use), attitudes and beliefs, and perceived risk on the frequency of mobile phone use among motorcyclists and car drivers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to motorcyclists (n1= 529) and car drivers (n2= 328) using an online survey and face-to-face survey. The survey took around 20-...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nguyen-Phuoc DQ, Oviedo-Trespalacios O, Su DN, De Gruyter C, Nguyen T Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Are collision and crossing course surrogate safety indicators transferable? A probability based approach using extreme value theory.
In this study we are seeking answers to under what conditions these indicators perform better and whether they are transferable. Using data gathered at a signalized intersection focusing on left-turning and straight moving vehicle interactions our analysis concluded that the two indicators are transferable with stricter threshold values for T2 and that POT gives more reasonable results. PMID: 32480015 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Borsos A, Farah H, Laureshyn A, Hagenzieker M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Evaluating the causal effects of cellphone distraction on crash risk using propensity score methods.
CONCLUSION: Propensity score approaches effectively mitigate potential confounding effect caused by imbalanced driver environmental characteristics in the observational NDS data. The ATT and ATO estimands are recommended for NDS case-cohort studies. ATT reflects the effect among exposed events, i.e. crashes or controls with cellphone exposure and ATO reflects the effect among events with similar characteristics. The study confirms the significant causal effect of overall cellphone distraction on crash risk and the heterogeneity in safety impact by age group. PMID: 32480016 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Lu D, Guo F, Li F Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Safety of micro-mobility: Analysis of E-Scooter crashes by mining news reports.
This study highlights the importance of public awareness and timely developing safety countermeasures to mitigate crashes involving E-Scooters. PMID: 32480017 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yang H, Ma Q, Wang Z, Cai Q, Xie K, Yang D Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Identifying high-risk commercial vehicle drivers using sociodemographic characteristics.
Abstract Crash data, from the state of Kentucky, for the 2015-2016 period, show that per capita crash rates and increases in crash-related fatalities were higher than the national average. In an effort to explain why the U.S. Southeast experiences higher crash rates than other regions of the country, previous research has argued the regions unique socioeconomic conditions provide a compelling explanation. Taking this observation as a starting point, this study examines the relationship between highway safety and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, using an extensive crash dataset from Kentucky. Its focu...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sagar S, Stamatiadis N, Wright S, Cambron A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Evaluating the combined effect of alcohol-involved and un-helmeted riding on motorcyclist fatalities in Taiwan.
CONCLUSIONS: This study found that alcohol-involved riding acts synergistically with un-helmeted riding to increase motorcyclist injury severity. PMID: 32474168 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wiratama BS, Chen PL, Ma ST, Chen YH, Saleh W, Lin HA, Pai CW Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Can a new emergency response system reduce traffic fatalities? The case of the 911-emergency response system in the Dominican Republic.
The objective of this work is to assess whether this new emergency response system was effective in reducing traffic fatalities. METHODS: Weekly numbers of traffic fatalities per population and per vehicle fleet from January 2013 to December 2015 were obtained from the Ministry of Health and the National Institute of Statistics. A hybrid time-series difference-in-difference analysis using multivariable negative binomial regression models were used to compare trends in rates of traffic fatalities in Santo Domingo to La Romana and Santiago, before and after the introduction of the 911-ERS. RESULTS: Estimates from n...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 26, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nazif-Munoz JI, Puello A, Williams A, Nandi A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Simulating Automated Emergency Braking with and without Torricelli Vacuum Emergency Braking for cyclists: Effect of brake deceleration and sensor field-of-view on accidents, injuries and fatalities.
This study estimates how many additional cyclist accidents, injuries or fatalities are avoided or mitigated by adding a system which increases braking levels, the Torricelli Vacuum Emergency Brake (VEB), to a state-of-the-art Automated Emergency Braking (AEB) system. To obtain a realistic state-of-the-art AEB system, the AEB parameter settings were defined to fulfil but not exceed the performance necessary to achieve a full score in the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP). The systems are simulated in a simple but realistic simulation model in MATLAB with varying brake deceleration and sensor field-of-view (FoV...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 26, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jeppsson H, Lubbe N Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Driver performance under simulated and actual driving conditions: Validity and orthogonality.
This study contrasted the performance of drivers under actual and simulated driving conditions, in order to assess the validity of the simulators and test the hypothesis that driving is composed of largely orthogonal sub-tasks. Thirty experienced drivers completed an on-road driving test and drove two different simulators, each simulator drive comprising seven difficulty-moderated driving scenarios. Between-simulator contrasts revealed largely absolute validity, the anticipated effects of increased difficulty within driving scenarios, but weak relationships between performance of different driving scenarios. On-road drivin...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 24, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Groeger JA, Murphy G Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Underestimation tendencies of vehicle speed by pedestrians when crossing unmarked roadway.
Abstract To make safe road crossing decisions, the pedestrians need to estimate the distance and speed of oncoming vehicles, in order to make conclusions about the available time gap they need for their road crossing. Since the speed represents combination of distance and time, we focused on pedestrians' ability to estimate the speed of the oncoming vehicles accurately. The aim of this study was to find some characteristics important for the speed mis-estimation tendencies and its values. Seventy participants estimated speed 3920 times in total. Research included three experiments. One vehicle participated in the ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 23, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Papić Z, Jović A, Simeunović M, Saulić N, Lazarević M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Revisiting freeway single tunnel crash characteristics analysis: A six-zone analytic approach.
This study aims to investigate the characteristics of traffic crashes in freeway single tunnels by separately considering the entrance and exit of the tunnel as well as the different lengths of tunnels. A six-zone approach is proposed, and the data from 156 single tunnels in Hunan province, China, are applied for safety analysis. The crash rate, crash type, and contributing crash factors are compared between the conventional four-zone approach and the proposed method, and the three types of tunnels with different lengths are also compared for in-depth analysis. Results show that the proposed six-zone method provides a bett...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 21, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pervez A, Huang H, Han C, Wang J, Li Y Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

How do oncoming traffic and cyclist lane position influence cyclist overtaking by drivers?
In this study, we performed a test-track experiment to investigate how oncoming traffic and position of the cyclist within the lane influence overtaking. Participants overtook a robot cyclist, which was controlled to ride in two different lateral positions within the lane. At the same time, an oncoming robot vehicle was controlled to meet the participant's vehicle with either 6 or 9 s time-to-collision. The order of scenarios was randomised over participants. We analysed safety metrics for the four different overtaking phases, reflecting drivers' safety margins to rear-end, head-on, and side-swipe collisions, in order to...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rasch A, Boda CN, Thalya P, Aderum T, Knauss A, Dozza M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Development and validation of a model predicting post-traumatic headache six months after a motor vehicle collision in adults.
Cassidy JD Abstract IMPORTANCE: The prognosis of post-traumatic headache is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a prognostic model to predict the presence of post-traumatic headache six months after a traffic collision in adults with incident post-traumatic headache. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of adults with incident post-traumatic headache injured in traffic collisions between November 1997 and December 1999 in Saskatchewan, Canada (development cohort); and between January 2004 and January 2005 in Sweden (validation cohort). SETTING: The Saskatchewan cohort (development) was popul...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Cancelliere C, Boyle E, Côté P, Holm LW, Salmi LR, Cassidy JD Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Crash risk and subjective risk perception during urban cycling: Evidence for congruent and incongruent sources.
CONCLUSIONS: Understanding why and where cyclists over- or underestimate the actual crash risk may provide a foundation for the design of safer cycling infrastructures, as well as for promoting cycling as a comfortable mode of transportation. PMID: 32445971 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: von Stülpnagel R, Lucas J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Application of association rules mining algorithm for hazardous materials transportation crashes on expressway.
This study aims to employ the association rules mining (ARM) approach to discover the contributory crash-risk factors of HAZMAT vehicle-involved crashes on expressways. A case study is conducted using crash data obtained from the Korea Expressway Corporation crash database from 2008 to 2017. ARM was conducted using the Apriori algorithm, and a total of 855 interesting rules were generated. With appropriate support, confidence, and lift values, we found hidden patterns in the HAZMAT crash characteristics. The results indicate that HAZMAT vehicle-involved crashes are highly associated with male drivers, single vehicle-involv...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 19, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hong J, Tamakloe R, Park D Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Safety analysis of work zone complexity with respect to driver characteristics - A simulator study employing performance and gaze measures.
Abstract Driving is a complex task that consists of several physical (motor-related) and physiological (biological changes within the body) processes occurring simultaneously. The complexity of the task depends on several factors, but this research focuses on work zone configurations and their effect on driver performance and gaze behavior. The increase in work zone fatalities in the United States between 2015 and 2018 coupled with the limited literature of driver behavior in these complex environments requires a more comprehensive study. Given the nature of these crashes, typically lane departures, gaze behavior ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 19, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kummetha VC, Kondyli A, Chrysikou EG, Schrock SD Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Are safety and performance affected by navigation system display size, environmental illumination, and gender when driving in both urban and rural areas?
Abstract Driving with the aid of a navigation system could distract drivers. A high level of distraction influences driver performance and safety, leading to a possible increase in road crashes. The illumination level and size of the GPS display may influence the duration and frequency of a driver's glances, which in turn may affect driver distraction. In a simulated driving experiment requiring the use of a GPS, the GPS's display size and illumination level were examined, in light of the driver's experience and gender, to understand their effects on the performance and safety of young drivers on roads in urban an...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yared T, Patterson P, All ESA Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Exposure to a motor vehicle collision and the risk of future back pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: There was a consistent positive association in the critically reviewed literature that investigated the risk of future LBP following an acute MVC-related injury. For the patient with chronic low back pain who was initially injured in a MVC, more often than not (63 % of the time) the condition was caused by the MVC. These findings are likely to be of interest to clinicians, insurers, patients, governments and the courts. Future studies from both general and clinical populations would help strengthen these results. PMID: 32438092 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nolet PS, Emary PC, Kristman VL, Murnaghan K, Zeegers MP, Freeman MD Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Factor structure of the family climate for road safety scale in emerging adults in the United States.
Abstract The Family Climate for Road Safety Scale (FCRSS) was developed to measure parenting behaviors specific to the driving context. The original validation study found a scale structure composed of seven factors. However, this structure has not been consistently replicated. Two- and six-factor structures have also been identified. Further, this measure has not been validated in the U.S. and has not been subjected to measurement invariance testing to determine the factor structure's suitability across sex. Additionally, its ability to predict the driving style of emerging adults with varied driving experience h...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 15, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Burns AB, Garner AA, Chang A, Becker SP, Kofler MJ, Jarrett MA, Luebbe AM, Burns GL Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Comparing distance and time as driving exposure measures to evaluate fatal crash risk ratios.
CONCLUSIONS: The length of driving time can be an alternative to driving distance as a measure of driving exposure. The primary advantage of driving time over driving distance is that, starting from 2003, the disaggregated estimates of the length of driving time are available from ATUS over consecutive years, curtailing the discontinuity limitation of driving distance. Furthermore, the length of driving time is related to drivers' perceived risks about their driving conditions and as a result, may be a better exposure measure than driving distance in comparing crash risks between drivers whose likelihood of traveling in ha...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 14, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Shen S, Benedetti MH, Zhao S, Wei L, Zhu M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The paradox of pedestrian's risk aversion.
Abstract Traffic accidents are becoming a significant cause for unnatural deaths around the world, with more than 1.25 million fatalities in road accidents each year, and over 20 million people severely injured. A large portion of accidents that result in fatalities involve interaction between vehicles and pedestrians. In the literature, researchers speculate on a wide range of reasons for these figures. This paper focuses on the relationship between pedestrians' urgency to cross a busy road and the resulting level of risk for an accident. The probability for an accident is determined by a prediction model for a c...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 13, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hacohen S, Shoval S, Shvalb N Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Cognitive anticipation cellular automata model: An attempt to understand the relation between the traffic states and rear-end collisions.
Abstract We have investigated the accident's statistics of Europe and North America that are provided by the UN. This investigation has shown that accidents due to the traffic represent around 50 % of the total number of accidents every year. Among them, rear-end collisions hold a 20 % share. These numbers display the fact that the interaction between drivers can be held responsible of those incidents. In this respect, we have explored the reasons behind the conflict situations that may be responsible of the occurrence of rear-end collisions by the mean of a cognitive psychology based cellular automata model. Inde...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jetto K, Tahiri Z, Benyoussef A, El Kenz A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Analyzing road near departures as failure-caused events.
Abstract Surrogate measures of safety attract revived interest thanks to the advancements in traffic observations techniques and the growing need for rapid safety evaluation. A new method of safety analysis based on failure-caused traffic conflicts and the Lomax distribution was recently proposed to estimate crash frequency more efficiently than with crash data. This paper has two objectives: (1) demonstrate the method applicability to near-departure data collected in a driving simulator, and (2) provide initial evidence of the method validity. Traffic failures and road users' delayed responses to these failures i...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tarko AP Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Estimating the number of traffic crash-related cervical spine injuries in the United States; An analysis and comparison of national crash and hospital data.
CONCLUSIONS: Because of a limited sample size and restrictive criteria for both crash and injury inclusion, the NASS-CDS cannot be used to estimate the number of crash-related spinal injuries of any type or severity in the US. The most inappropriate use of the database is for estimating the number of spinal injuries resulting from low speed rear impact collisions, as the NASS-CDS samples fewer than 1 in 100,000 of the cervical spine injuries of any type occurring in low speed rear impact collisions. PMID: 32413544 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Freeman MD, Leith WM Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Exploring the role of delta-V in influencing occupant injury severities - A mediation analysis approach to motor vehicle collisions.
This study investigates the impact that delta-V, the relative change in vehicle velocity pre- and post-crash, has on the severity of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). We study injury severity using two metrics for each occupant - the number of injuries suffered, and the probability of suffering a serious or worse (MAIS 3+) injury. We use a cross-sectional set of generally-representative MVC data between 2010 and 2015 as a basis for our research. Collision factors that influence the crash environment are combined with the injuries that were suffered in MVCs. The influence of delta-V is captured using a mediation analysis, wh...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Shannon D, Murphy F, Mullins M, Rizzi L Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Detecting lane change maneuvers using SHRP2 naturalistic driving data: A comparative study machine learning techniques.
This study proposed trajectory-level lane change detection models based on features from vehicle kinematics, machine vision, roadway characteristics, and driver demographics under different weather conditions. To develop the models, the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) and Roadway Information Database (RID) datasets were utilized. Initially, descriptive statistics were utilized to investigate the lane change behavior, which revealed significant differences among different weather conditions for most of the parameters. Six data fusion categories were introduced for the first time, considering different data availabili...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Das A, Khan MN, Ahmed MM Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The impact of a new casino on the motor vehicle crash patterns in suburban Maryland.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Many states have legalized casino gambling, and casinos create increased vehicle traffic, but the strength of the association between casino construction and vehicle crashes is unknown. METHODS: Retrospective analyses of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) occurring within Anne Arundel County, Maryland (2010-2014) were conducted. The ratio of crashes within one mile of the casino's location after it was opened were compared to the ratio occurring in the same area before it was opened to determine how the incidence of MVCs near the casino changed with time. Logistic regression was used to determi...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kufera JA, Al-Hadidi A, Knopp DG, Dezman ZDW, Kerns TJ, Okedele OE, Rosenthal GL, Tracy JK Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Highlighting Bicyclist Biological Motion Enhances Their Conspicuity in Daylight.
We report two experiments that investigated the benefits of bicycle taillights and fluorescent clothing for enhancing the bicyclist's rear conspicuity in daylight. In Experiment 1, 24 participants sat in a car parked on a closed road at each of three distances and rated the conspicuity of four bicyclists displaying taillights that varied in their placement, intensity, and mode. The results confirmed that bicycle taillights can significantly enhance conspicuity in daylight. Varying the placement of the taillights revealed that having an "always on" taillight mounted to each of the rider's ankles was the most consp...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Edewaard DE, Fekety DK, Szubski EC, Tyrrell RA Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Trajectory-level fog detection based on in-vehicle video camera with TensorFlow deep learning utilizing SHRP2 naturalistic driving data.
Abstract Providing drivers with real-time weather information and driving assistance during adverse weather, including fog, is crucial for safe driving. The primary focus of this study was to develop an affordable in-vehicle fog detection method, which will provide accurate trajectory-level weather information in real-time. The study used the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) video data and utilized several promising Deep Learning techniques, including Deep Neural Network (DNN), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Python programming on the Ten...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Khan MN, Ahmed MM Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Factors influencing pedestrians' decision to cross the road by risky rolling gap crossing strategy at intersections in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
The objective of this research was to explore the factors that influenced pedestrians' decision to cross the road by rolling gap crossing at intersection. Data regarding road-crossing strategy of the pedestrians, their characteristics, their road-crossing behavior, intersection geometry, and traffic environmental condition were collected through videography survey method, on-site observation, and secondary source from six intersections of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A binary logistic regression model was developed in this study by using the collected data. Results of the developed model showed that seven statistically significant f...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 8, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zafri NM, Sultana R, Himal MRH, Tabassum T Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Temporal stability of the factors related to the severity of drivers' injuries in rear-end collisions.
This study demonstrates the importance of testing the temporal stability of pooled data by utilizing logistic regression modeling to analyze all rear-end collisions that occurred in North Carolina for the period from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2015. Separate models were developed for each year to model injury severity of striking and struck drivers. The year-wise models were compared together to identify the most temporally stable factors, and it was found that older and female drivers are usually more severely injured, but they do not increase injury severity of the drivers they collide with. It was also found that c...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Dabbour E, Dabbour O, Martinez AA Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

How do drivers negotiate intersections with pedestrians? The importance of pedestrian time-to-arrival and visibility.
Abstract Forward collision warning (FCW) and autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems are increasingly available and prevent or mitigate collisions by alerting the driver or autonomously braking the vehicle. Threat-assessment and decision-making algorithms for FCW and AEB aim to find the best compromise for safety by intervening at the "right" time: neither too early, potentially upsetting the driver, nor too late, possibly missing opportunities to avoid the collision. Today, the extent to which activation times for FCW and AEB should depend on factors such as pedestrian speed and lane width is unknown...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Dozza M, Boda CN, Jaber L, Thalya P, Lubbe N Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Investigating safety effects of wider longitudinal pavement markings.
Abstract Many road authorities in Canada have been contemplating the use of wider longitudinal pavement markings (LPMs) to enhance road safety and driver comfort. However, conclusive evidence on the safety impacts of wider LPMs has not been available. To address this gap in the literature, this study was conducted to investigate the safety impacts of wider LPMs. The study adopted the Full Bayes approach to conduct a before and after safety evaluation, using data collected from 38 treatment sites (highway segments) from three Canadian jurisdictions (i.e., British Columbia, Alberta, and Quebec). Collision and traffi...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hussein M, Sayed T, El-Basyouny K, de Leur P Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Not all protected bike lanes are the same: Infrastructure and risk of cyclist collisions and falls leading to emergency department visits in three U.S. cities.
CONCLUSIONS: Certain bicycle facilities are safer for cyclists than riding on major roads. Protected bike lanes vary in how well they shield riders from crashes and falls. Heavier separation, less frequent intersections with roads and driveways, and less complexity appear to contribute to reduced risk in protected bike lanes. Future research should systematically examine the characteristics that reduce risk in protected lanes to guide design. Planners should minimize conflict points when choosing where to place protected bike lanes and should implement countermeasures to increase visibility at these locations when they are...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Cicchino JB, McCarthy ML, Newgard CD, Wall SP, DiMaggio CJ, Kulie PE, Arnold BN, Zuby DS Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Effectiveness of child restraint legislation to reduce motor vehicle related serious injuries and fatalities: A national interrupted time series analysis.
In this study, we aimed to examine the effectiveness of the introduction of age-appropriate child restraint legislation on serious and fatal injury in five Australian states and territories. For this interrupted time series analysis, we used a segmented regression method to assess the association between the implementation of child-restraint legislation and motor-vehicle related serious injuries and fatalities using data obtained from transport authorities in each jurisdiction. We estimated the change in annual rates after the implementation of legislation with the number of motor-vehicle accidents resulting in fatalities ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Shanthosh J, Rogers K, Lung T, Brown J, Ivers R, Wilson A, Jan S Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The role of control in risk perception on rural roads.
Abstract Risk perception plays an important role in driver behaviour, particularly for speed choice. Risk perception studies use a range of techniques from on-road data collection to ratings of still photos, however participants' ratings differ depending on the study methodology, possibly due to their perception of control. To explore this we conducted a multiple methods study to investigate drivers' perceptions of risk on rural roads. One group of participants drove (Drivers, n = 13) a 180 km route along rural roads (accompanied by a research assistant) and provided verbal risk ratings at thirteen locations...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Starkey NJ, Charlton SG Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Assessing hospital treatment for alcohol-related injury in Minnesota using 2000 - 2015 hospital discharge data: Opportunities and challenges.
CONCLUSIONS: These analyses suggest that the rate of hospital-treated ARI increased more steeply from 2000 to 2015 than all injuries. While there are significant challenges to using HDD for surveillance, further work to assess the validity of the data source is warranted. PMID: 32387515 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 5, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gloppen KM, Roesler J, Farley D, Kinde M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Truck drivers' interaction with cyclists in right-turn situations.
m C Abstract One of the more hazardous situations for a bicyclist is to go straight on in an intersection where a motor vehicle is turning right, and especially so when heavy vehicles are involved. The aim of this study was to investigate truck drivers' speed choice, gaze behaviour and interaction strategies in relation to vulnerable road users (VRU) when turning right in signalised and non-signalised intersections. Truck drivers experienced (n = 14) or inexperienced (n = 15) with urban traffic drove a 15 km long test route in an urban environment. To guarantee the presence of VRUs, a confederate cyclist with the ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kircher K, Ahlström C Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Effects of Partial Sleep Deprivation on Braking Response of Drivers in Hazard Scenarios.
This study aimed at modeling the Response Time (RT) and Total Braking Time (TBT) of drivers under Partial Sleep Deprivation (PSD). Fifty male participants drove the driving simulator in three experimental conditions: two test sessions and a baseline. The two test sessions were conducted after one and two nights of PSD (sleep = 4.25 ± 0.5 h), respectively. Sleep reduction was recorded using a wrist-worn Actiwatch. The baseline session was conducted after full rest (7-8 h sleep/day for a week). The order of test sessions and baseline was randomized. Each test included two hazard events: 1) pedestrians cros...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - May 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mahajan K, Velaga NR Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Risks to pedestrians in traffic systems with unfamiliar driving rules: a virtual reality approach.
In this study, a virtual-reality (VR) pedestrian simulation method was used to evaluate the risks to pedestrians crossing streets in a traffic system with driving rules that were unfamiliar to them. Pedestrians from mainland China (which has a right-side driving (RD) system) and Hong Kong (which has a left-side driving (LD) system) were studied. Significant differences were observed between pedestrians from the different locations in terms of the direction in which the pedestrians habitually first looked before crossing. When exposed to an unfamiliar driving rule (i.e., traffic coming from an inconsistent direction in term...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ye Y, Wong SC, Li YC, Lau YK Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Quantifying accident risk and severity due to speed from the reaction point to the critical conflict in fatal motorcycle accidents.
Abstract In fatal road vehicle accidents motorcycles are overrepresented per vehicle kilometre travelled. Fatal accidents involving motorcycles contain mode specific characteristics, and in common with fatal accidents involving all road users, speed typically presents as a significant contributory factor. The aim of the present study is to provide quantitative estimates for the contribution of speed in situations commencing from the reaction location to the safety critical event involving a motorcyclist and resulting in a fatal accident. The contribution of speed to the resulting accident risk and accident severit...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Murphy P, Morris A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Safety stressors, safety-specific trust, and safety citizenship behavior: A contingency perspective.
This study investigates the different relationships between safety stressors (safety role ambiguity, safety role conflict, and interpersonal safety conflict) and two forms of SCB (proactive and prosocial). It also examines the moderating effect of safety-specific trust (cognition- and affect-based) within these relationships. An analysis of 332 multisource data from frontline workers and their safety supervisors in China reveals that safety role ambiguity and safety role conflict negatively affect proactive safety behaviors, while interpersonal safety conflict impedes prosocial safety behaviors. Additionally, cognition-bas...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wang D, Wang X, Griffin MA, Wang Z Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Comprehensive safety assessment in mixed fleets with connected and automated vehicles: A crash severity and rate evaluation of conventional vehicles.
Abstract Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) technology, although in the development stage, is quickly expanding throughout the vehicle market. However, full market penetration will most likely require considerable planning as key stakeholders, manufacturers, consumers and governing agencies work together to determine optimal deployment strategies. Specifically, road safety is a critical challenge to the widespread deployment and adoption of this disruptive technology. During the transition period fleets will be composed of a combination of CAVs and conventional vehicles, and therefore it is imperative to invest...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sinha A, Chand S, Wijayaratna KP, Virdi N, Dixit V Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Impact of the Rural Intersection Active Warning System (RIAWS) on driver speed: A driving simulator study.
Abstract The Rural Intersection Active Warning System (RIAWS) is an innovative road safety treatment designed to slow traffic on major approaches to a high-risk rural intersection when vehicles are turning or crossing into or out of the side roads, thus reducing fatal and serious casualties. A 2 × 2 experimental driving simulation study was undertaken which aimed to determine the impact of signage (RIAWS versus traditional painted) and sign content (80 km/h versus slow down) on drivers' instantaneous speed at rural intersections. The driving simulator assessment was completed by 96 drivers aged between...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Meuleners LB, Fraser ML, Roberts P Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Improving the transferability of the crash prediction model using the TrAdaBoost.R2 algorithm.
Abstract The crash prediction model is a useful tool for traffic administrators to identify significant risk factors, estimate crash frequency, and screen hazardous locations, but some jurisdictions interested in traffic safety analysis can collect only limited or low-quality data. Existing crash prediction models can be transferred if calibrated, but the current aggregate calibration method limits prediction accuracy and the disaggregate method is resource-consuming. Transfer learning is another approach to calibration that acquires knowledge from old data domains to solve problems in new data domains. An instanc...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 23, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tang D, Yang X, Wang X Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Influence of traffic congestion on driver behavior in post-congestion driving.
This study revealed that traffic congestion negatively affected driver behavior on the post-congestion roads. Practical implications for driving safety education was discussed based on the findings from the present study. PMID: 32334153 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 22, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Li G, Lai W, Sui X, Li X, Qu X, Zhang T, Li Y Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Effects of the penalty mechanism against traffic violations in China: A joint frailty model of recurrent violations and a terminal accident.
This study focuses on quantifying the effects of penalty point and fine strategies on violation recurrences and accident occurrences of drivers. A frailty survival analysis method is conducted to jointly model the occurrence of violation and accident events of each individual. The frailty term in the model is leveraged to address the unobserved heterogeneity among drivers. Personal characteristics and penalty status are also incorporated as covariates in the model. Actual violation and accident data from a province in China are utilized to calibrate the model. The results show that penalty point strategy exhibits deterrent...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 22, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Liu Z, Wu H, Li R Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Status of signalized intersection safety-A case study of Kolkata.
This study intended to focus on safety issues associated with the planning, design, and operation of signalized intersections, and identify the risk factors affecting the frequency and severity of crashes. Assuming that user behavior is influenced by the design and traffic operational characteristics of a location, this study specifically aims to investigate the effects of geometric, infrastructural, traffic control and land use parameters on the number of crashes and their severity across 52 signalized intersections of Kolkata. These data were associated with crash records from 2011 through 2014, to extract important insi...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 22, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mitra S, Bhowmick D Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

At what cost? How planned collisions with pedestrians may save lives.
Abstract Pedestrian avoidance algorithms often tacitly assume that the maneuver which minimizes collisions will also be the safest maneuver. This work shows that this is not always the case when considering pedestrian fatalities. Given the unavoidable uncertainty in vehicle motion, environmental parameters, and pedestrian behavior, emergency avoidance maneuvers often involve some chance of a collision. Maneuvers that aim to keep the vehicle as far away from the pedestrian as possible will theoretically minimize collisions; but if this strategy is followed and a collision occurs nonetheless, it will often be at a h...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 16, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Robinson MD, Beal CE, Brennan SN Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research