Investigating the interaction between pedestrian behaviors and crashes through validation of a pedestrian behavior questionnaire (PBQ)
In this study, the association of behavioral dimensions with crash history as a driver, crash history as a pedestrian, the severity of an experienced pedestrian-related crash, and the participant's relative's crash history as a pedestrian were also investigated. The present study confirms that PBQ is a useful tool with adequate reliability for investigating Persian pedestrians' safety-related behaviors. These findings revealed the need for intervention programs and improving infrastructures through the evaluation of pedestrian behaviors, which may lead to decreasing pedestrian-related crash frequency.PMID:33639442 | DOI:10...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 27, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Arsalan Esmaili Kayvan Aghabayk Nasser Parishad Amanda N Stephens Source Type: research

Comparison of threshold determination methods for the deceleration rate to avoid a crash (DRAC)-based crash estimation
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Feb 24;153:106051. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106051. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThere is an increased interest in the use of traffic conflicts as a surrogate safety measure and several traffic conflict indicators have been developed. One of these indicators is the deceleration rate to avoid a crash (DRAC). Generally, the greater the DRAC value, the higher the crash risk and a crash would occur when the DRAC exceeds the maximum available deceleration rate (MADR). It is noted that the MADR varies considerably for individual vehicles and depends on many factors such as the pavement conditions, vehicle w...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 27, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chuanyun Fu Tarek Sayed Source Type: research

Do EMS times associate with injury severity?
This study utilized the linked data of police-reported crash data and emergency medical services runs, including 2192 crash injuries that transferred to hospital. A random-effects ordered probit approach was implemented to identify effective factors on crash injury severity. Three models of (1) crash-related variables, (2) crash-related and emergency medical services times and (3) crash-related, emergency medical services times and interaction effects of EMS times and injury location on the body were developed. Although the outcome could not find the impact of faster emergency medical services times on injury severity in t...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Aryan Hosseinzadeh Robert Kluger Source Type: research

Do EMS times associate with injury severity?
This study utilized the linked data of police-reported crash data and emergency medical services runs, including 2192 crash injuries that transferred to hospital. A random-effects ordered probit approach was implemented to identify effective factors on crash injury severity. Three models of (1) crash-related variables, (2) crash-related and emergency medical services times and (3) crash-related, emergency medical services times and interaction effects of EMS times and injury location on the body were developed. Although the outcome could not find the impact of faster emergency medical services times on injury severity in t...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Aryan Hosseinzadeh Robert Kluger Source Type: research

The prevalence of alcohol and other drugs in fatal road crashes in Victoria, Australia
CONCLUSIONS: A decline in the prevalence of alcohol in fatalities suggests that law enforcement and public health strategies in Australia to address road fatalities and drink-driving may have had a positive effect. However, increases were observed in the incidence of other potentially impairing drugs including opioids and amphetamines, specifically methylamphetamine, indicating a concerning trend in road safety in Victoria that warrants further monitoring.PMID:33631704 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2020.105905 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 25, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jennifer Schumann Monica Perkins Paul Dietze Dhanya Nambiar Biswadev Mitra Dimitri Gerostamoulos Olaf H Drummer Peter Cameron Karen Smith Ben Beck Source Type: research

The mediating effect of driver characteristics on risky driving behaviors moderated by gender, and the classification model of driver's driving risk
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Feb 22;153:106038. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106038. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHigh-risk drivers are more likely to be involved in traffic accidents, and the driving risk level of drivers could be affected by many potential factors, such as demographics and personality traits. Based on the Structural Equation Model (SEM), this study involves a sample of 3150 drivers from the Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP 2), to explore the relationships among drivers' demographic characteristics (gender, age, and cumulative driving years), sensation seeking, risk perception, and risky driving behaviors....
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 25, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Xiaolin Song Yangang Yin Haotian Cao Song Zhao Mingjun Li Binlin Yi Source Type: research

Validation of surrogate measures of safety with a focus on bicyclist-motor vehicle interactions
This study focused on the validity of two commonly used SMoS indicators-minimum time to collision and post-encroachment time-with a specific focus on bicyclist-motor vehicle interactions. The study was divided into two main parts; the first part focused on observations at intersections in Scandinavia, and the second part focused on developing a crash model using data from 166 similar intersections. Nine signalised intersections in Scandinavia were observed for at least 24 h. During this time, each interaction between a bicyclist and a right- or left-turning motor vehicle was identified and trajectories for the road users w...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 24, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Carl Johnsson Aliaksei Laureshyn Carmelo D ágostino Source Type: research

Validation of surrogate measures of safety with a focus on bicyclist-motor vehicle interactions
This study focused on the validity of two commonly used SMoS indicators-minimum time to collision and post-encroachment time-with a specific focus on bicyclist-motor vehicle interactions. The study was divided into two main parts; the first part focused on observations at intersections in Scandinavia, and the second part focused on developing a crash model using data from 166 similar intersections. Nine signalised intersections in Scandinavia were observed for at least 24 h. During this time, each interaction between a bicyclist and a right- or left-turning motor vehicle was identified and trajectories for the road users w...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 24, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Carl Johnsson Aliaksei Laureshyn Carmelo D ágostino Source Type: research

Examining driver distraction in the context of driving speed: An observational study using disruptive technology and naturalistic data
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Feb 19;153:105983. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.105983. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTConsidering the number of people who have been involved in crashes associated with driver distractions, it is important to understand the characteristics of distracted driving on public roadways. While experiments have indicated that driver distractions are associated with slower driving speeds, the methodologies tend to have limited external validity. Observational studies are often conducted under limited circumstances - be it time or location. Therefore, in order to better understand the nature of driver distractions, ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 22, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kentaro Iio Xiaoyu Guo Dominique Lord Source Type: research

Examining driver distraction in the context of driving speed: An observational study using disruptive technology and naturalistic data
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Feb 19;153:105983. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.105983. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTConsidering the number of people who have been involved in crashes associated with driver distractions, it is important to understand the characteristics of distracted driving on public roadways. While experiments have indicated that driver distractions are associated with slower driving speeds, the methodologies tend to have limited external validity. Observational studies are often conducted under limited circumstances - be it time or location. Therefore, in order to better understand the nature of driver distractions, ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 22, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kentaro Iio Xiaoyu Guo Dominique Lord Source Type: research

The impact of mandating a driving lesson for elderly drivers in Japan using count data models: Case study of Toyota City
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Feb 18;153:106015. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106015. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAs one crucial mobility problem for elderly drivers, vehicle crashes due to elderly drivers account for an increased ratio of total vehicle crashes in recent years in Japan. Mandating a driving lesson for elderly drivers was implemented and revised continuously to reduce the number of vehicle crashes. To perform a practical driving lesson for elderly drivers, it is essential to evaluate whether it can reduce vehicle crashes significantly or not. Most previous studies only investigated its effects on fatal or severe rates ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 21, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jia Yang Toshiyuki Yamamoto Ryosuke Ando Source Type: research

The role of gender and temporal instability in driver-injury severities in crashes caused by speeds too fast for conditions
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Feb 18;153:106039. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106039. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe effect of inappropriate speed adjustment to adverse conditions on crash-injury severities, and how this effect might vary across male and female drivers, and over time, is not well understood. To study this, single-vehicle crashes occurring in rainy weather, where speed too fast for conditions is a driver action identified as a contributing factor to the crash, were considered. The differences between the resulting crash-injury severities of male and female drivers (and how these differences change over time) is then ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 21, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mouyid Islam Fred Mannering Source Type: research

The Impact of driver distraction and secondary tasks with and without other co-occurring driving behaviors on the level of road traffic crashes
This study's findings can inform the design and development of more precise and reliable driving assistance and warning systems.PMID:33611082 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106010 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 21, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ali Jazayeri John Ray B Martinez Helen S Loeb Christopher C Yang Source Type: research

An accelerated hierarchical Bayesian crash frequency model with accommodation of spatiotemporal interactions
This study proposes a Bayesian spatiotemporal interaction (BSTI) approach for crash frequency modeling with an integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) method to greatly expedite the Bayesian estimation process. Manhattan, which is the most densely populated urban area of New York City, is selected as the study area. Hexagons are used as the basic geographic units to capture crash, transportation, land use, and demo-economic data from 2013 to 2019. A series of Bayesian models with various spatiotemporal specifications are developed and compared. The BSTI model with Type II interaction, which assumes that the structur...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 20, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Haipeng Cui Kun Xie Source Type: research

The dynamic tradeoff between safety and efficiency in discretionary lane-changing behavior: A random parameters logit approach with heterogeneity in means and variances
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Feb 16;153:106036. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106036. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe discretionary lane-changing behavior is highly associated with crash occurrence. This paper investigates the dynamic tradeoff between safety and efficiency and influencing factors of the decision-making process for the discretionary lane-change. A random parameters logit approach with heterogeneity in means and variances is employed on a microscopic vehicle trajectory dataset. Four vehicles are analyzed as a discretionary lane-changing group, and both the distance-related and speed-related factors are taken into accou...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 19, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ye Li Ruifeng Gu Jaeyoung Lee Min Yang Qinghong Chen Yinggui Zhang Source Type: research

Incorporating accident liability into crash risk analysis: A multidimensional risk source approach
This study uses detailed accident record data to mine the risk factors affecting the occurrence of accidents, and quantify the accident risk under the combination of risk factors. First, by reviewing relevant literature and analyzing historical accident, we construct a multi-dimension characterization framework of risk factors with bi-level structure. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is applied to supplement and improve the framework. Next, under this framework, we identify the risk factors in traffic accident record, and analyze the statistical characteristics from the level of risk sources and...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 19, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Xin Wang Zhaowei Qu Xianmin Song Qiaowen Bai Zhaotian Pan Haitao Li Source Type: research

An accelerated hierarchical Bayesian crash frequency model with accommodation of spatiotemporal interactions.
This study proposes a Bayesian spatiotemporal interaction (BSTI) approach for crash frequency modeling with an integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) method to greatly expedite the Bayesian estimation process. Manhattan, which is the most densely populated urban area of New York City, is selected as the study area. Hexagons are used as the basic geographic units to capture crash, transportation, land use, and demo-economic data from 2013 to 2019. A series of Bayesian models with various spatiotemporal specifications are developed and compared. The BSTI model with Type II interaction, which assumes that the structur...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 17, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Cui H, Xie K Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The dynamic tradeoff between safety and efficiency in discretionary lane-changing behavior: A random parameters logit approach with heterogeneity in means and variances.
Abstract The discretionary lane-changing behavior is highly associated with crash occurrence. This paper investigates the dynamic tradeoff between safety and efficiency and influencing factors of the decision-making process for the discretionary lane-change. A random parameters logit approach with heterogeneity in means and variances is employed on a microscopic vehicle trajectory dataset. Four vehicles are analyzed as a discretionary lane-changing group, and both the distance-related and speed-related factors are taken into account to examine their dynamic effects. The modeling results indicate that (1) two dista...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 16, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Li Y, Gu R, Lee J, Yang M, Chen Q, Zhang Y Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Incorporating accident liability into crash risk analysis: A multidimensional risk source approach.
This study uses detailed accident record data to mine the risk factors affecting the occurrence of accidents, and quantify the accident risk under the combination of risk factors. First, by reviewing relevant literature and analyzing historical accident, we construct a multi-dimension characterization framework of risk factors with bi-level structure. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is applied to supplement and improve the framework. Next, under this framework, we identify the risk factors in traffic accident record, and analyze the statistical characteristics from the level of risk sources and...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 16, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wang X, Qu Z, Song X, Bai Q, Pan Z, Li H Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A systematic mapping review of surrogate safety assessment using traffic conflict techniques.
Abstract Safety assessment of road sections and networks have historically relied on police-reported crash data. These data have several noteworthy and significant shortcomings, including under-reporting, subjectivism, post hoc assessment of crash causes and contributing factors, limited behavioural information, and omitted potential important crash-related factors resulting in an omitted variable bias. Moreover, crashes are relatively rare events and require long observation periods to justify expenditures. The rarity of crashes leads to a moral dilemma-we must wait for sufficient crashes to accrue at a site-some...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 11, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Arun A, Haque MM, Bhaskar A, Washington S, Sayed T Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Towards a more inclusive and safe design of horizontal curves: Exploring the association between curve features, reliability measures, and safety.
Abstract Reliability analysis has been advocated as a robust methodology to quantify the risk (known as the probability of non-compliance, Pnc) associated with design limitations such as insufficient sight distance on horizontal curves. This risk represents the probability that the current design (e.g., available sight distance) would fail to meet the requirements of the driving population (e.g., required sight distance). Although previous work has quantified the risk and established links between Pnc and safety, Pnc remains a statistical measure that is not informative enough to roadway designers. To overcome thi...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Shalkamy A, Gargoum S, El-Basyouny K Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Older adult pedestrian trauma: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and GRADE assessment of injury health outcomes from an aggregate study sample of 1 million pedestrians.
Abstract This systematic review sought to assess older adult pedestrian injury severity, injury by anatomical location and incidence proportions, including comparisons to younger age groups when available and provide an analysis of the quality of the existing evidence. A structured search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycInfo, AMED, Web of Science, LILACS and TRID. STROBE was used to assess the reporting quality of the included studies. Random-effect model meta-analysis served to obtain pooled relative risk, incidence proportions and standardized mean differences for different outcomes due to p...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 9, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rod JE, Oviedo-Trespalacios O, Senserrick T, King M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A workload adaptive haptic shared control scheme for semi-autonomous driving.
Abstract Haptic shared control is used to manage the control authority allocation between a human and an autonomous agent in semi-autonomous driving. Existing haptic shared control schemes, however, do not take full consideration of the human agent. To fill this research gap, this study presents a haptic shared control scheme that adapts to a human operator's workload, eyes on road and input torque in real time. We conducted human-in-the-loop experiments with 24 participants. In the experiment, a human operator and an autonomy module for navigation shared the control of a simulated notional High Mobility Multipurp...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 9, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Luo R, Weng Y, Wang Y, Jayakumar P, Brudnak MJ, Paul V, Desaraju VR, Stein JL, Ersal T, Yang XJ Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Characterizing phone usage while driving: Safety impact from road and operational perspectives using factor analysis.
This study utilized an unsupervised learning method, known as factor analysis, on a unique distracted driving dataset to understand PUWD behavior from the roadway geometry and operational perspectives. The results indicate that the presence of a shoulder, median, and access control on the relatively higher functional class roadways could encourage more PUWD events. The roadways with relatively lower speed limits could have high PUWD event occurrences if the variation in operating speed is high. The results also confirm the correlations between the frequency of PUWD events and the frequency of distracted crashes. This relat...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 9, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kong X, Das S, Zhou H, Zhang Y Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Automated vehicle crash sequences: Patterns and potential uses in safety testing.
In this study, sequence of events data extracted from California AV collision reports were used to investigate patterns and how they may be used to develop AV test scenarios. Employing sequence analysis methods and clustering, this study evaluated 168 AV crashes (with AV in automatic driving mode before disengagement or collision) reported to the California DMV from 2015 to 2019. Analysis of subsequences showed that the most representative pattern in AV crashes was "collision following AV stop". Analysis of event transition showed that disengagement, as an event in 24% of all studied AV crash sequences, had a tra...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 9, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Song Y, Chitturi MV, Noyce DA Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Low-cost road marking measures for increasing safety in horizontal curves: A driving simulator study.
Abstract Statistics show that horizontal curves, especially those of radii less than 200 m, present an increased road accident risk mainly due to inappropriate speed and failure to maintain proper lateral position. This simulator study aims to analyse how two low-cost road marking measures (red median and horizontal warning signs), alone or combined with a vertical warning sign, affect driver behaviour (driving speed, lateral movement, acceleration/deceleration) before and throughout dangerous horizontal curves on a two-way rural road. With GIS-supported mapping of traffic accidents, we identified the most dangero...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 9, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Babić D, Brijs T Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Role of exposure in bicycle safety analysis: Effect of cycle path choice.
The objective of this study is to advance the estimation of exposure in the bicycle safety analysis, using the detailed origin-destination data of each trip of the London public bicycle rental system. Two approaches including shortest path method (SPM) and weighted shortest path method (WSPM) are proposed to model the bicycle path choice and to estimate the bicycle distance traveled (BDT). Then, the bicycle crash frequency models that adopt BDTs as the exposure estimated using SPM and three WSPMs are developed. Three exposure measures including bicycle trips, bicycle time traveled (BTT), and BDT are assessed. Results indic...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 9, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ding H, Sze NN, Guo Y, Li H Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Bus stop design and traffic safety: An explorative analysis.
Abstract One way to prioritize public transport over private vehicle mobility, is to implement curbside rather than layby bus stop designs. There is, however, uncertainty about the consequences of implementing curbside rather than layby stops for traffic collision risks. To begin investigating this issue, we describe an exploratory analysis in which national data describing bus stops, road properties, traffic collisions and built-up areas were merged based on geographical location. Analysis of the resulting data set suggests that the relative rates of traffic collisions resulting in personal injury within 60 m of ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 9, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Phillips RO, Hagen OH, Berge SH Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Quantifying the automated vehicle safety performance: A scoping review of the literature, evaluation of methods, and directions for future research.
This study is designed to identify the AV safety quantification studies, evaluate the quantification approaches used in the literature, and uncover the gaps and challenges in AV safety evaluation. We employed a scoping review methodology to identify the approaches used in the literature to quantify AV safety. After screening and reviewing the literature, six approaches were identified: target crash population, traffic simulation, driving simulator, road test data analysis, system failure risk assessment, and safety effectiveness estimation. We ran two evaluations on the identified approaches. First, we investigated each ap...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 8, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sohrabi S, Khodadadi A, Mousavi SM, Dadashova B, Lord D Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of factors influencing delivery e-bikes' red-light running behavior: A correlated mixed binary logit approach.
This study aimed to explore the influencing factors of red light running behavior and identify the differences between the DEB riders and the ordinary e-bike (OEB) riders to aid the development of countermeasures. In this study, the mixed (random parameter) binary logistic model was employed to capture the effects of unobserved heterogeneity. With this approach, factors including individual characteristics, behavioral variables, characteristics of signalized intersections, and the traffic environment were examined. Additionally, to account for the combined influence on the RLR occurrence, mixed logit framework was develope...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 6, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zhang F, Ji Y, Lv H, Ma X Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Prediction of rear-end conflict frequency using multiple-location traffic parameters.
This study aims at investigating -for the first time- rear-end conflict frequency in an urban network level using vehicle-to-vehicle interactions and at correlating frequency with the corresponding network traffic state. The Time-To-Collision (TTC) and Deceleration Rate to Avoid Crash (DRAC) metrics are utilized to estimate conflict frequency on the current network situation, as well as on scenarios including AV characteristics. Three critical conflict points are defined, according to TTC and DRAC thresholds. After extracting conflicts, data are fitted into Zero-inflated and also traditional Negative Binomial models, as we...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 5, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Katrakazas C, Theofilatos A, Islam MA, Papadimitriou E, Dimitriou L, Antoniou C Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Integration of automated vehicles in mixed traffic: Evaluating changes in performance of following human-driven vehicles.
This study aims to create new knowledge by quantifying the behavioral changes caused when conventional human-driven vehicles follow AVs and investigating the impact of these changes (if any) on safety and the environment. This study analyzes data obtained from a field experiment by Texas A&M University to evaluate the effects of AVs on the behavior of a following human-driver. The dataset is comprised of nine drivers that attempted to follow 5 speed-profiles, with two scenarios per profile. In scenario one, a human-driven vehicle follows an AV that implements a human driver speed profile (base). In scenario two, the hu...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 5, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mahdinia I, Mohammadnazar A, Arvin R, Khattak AJ Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Research on intervention methods for children's street-crossing behaviour: Application and expansion of the theory of "behaviour spectrums".
This study provides valuable information for the development and evaluation of intervention programmes to improve children's street-crossing skills. PMID: 33548586 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 3, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jiang K, Wang Y, Feng Z, Cui J, Huang Z, Yu Z, Sze NN Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of vehicle skidding potential on horizontal curves.
This study analyzed the mechanisms of three possible modes of vehicle skidding on horizontal curves based on theories of mechanics. The three modes of skidding analyzed were: (i) forward skidding of front steering wheel, (ii) sideway skidding of front steering wheel, and (iii) sideway skidding of rear wheel. The main objective was to provide useful information to researchers and practitioners in identifying the important factors that contribute to horizontal curve crashes. A computer simulation procedure was developed to evaluate the maximum safe vehicle speeds against the three modes of skidding on wet horizontal curved p...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 2, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Peng J, Chu L, Wang T, Fwa TF Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of Street-Crossing Behavior: Comparing a CAVE Simulator and a Head-Mounted Display among Younger and Older Adults.
ler K Abstract Interactive pedestrian simulators have become a valuable research tool for investigating street-crossing behavior and developing solutions for improving pedestrian safety. There are two main kinds of pedestrian simulators: one uses a technology based on rear-projection screens (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment, or CAVE), the other a head-mounted display (HMD). These devices are used indiscriminately, regardless of the research objective, and it is not yet known whether they are equally effective for studying street crossing. The present study was aimed at comparing the street crossing behavior and...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - February 1, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pala P, Cavallo V, Dang NT, Granié MA, Schneider S, Maruhn P, Bengler K Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Defining crash configurations for Powered Two-Wheelers: Comparing ISO 13232 to recent in-depth crash data from Germany, India and China.
Abstract The motorcyclist safety standard ISO 13232, based on crash data from Europe and the USA from the 1970s, still sets the direction for the development and evaluation of protective measures today. However, it is unclear how relevant the crash configurations in the standard are to present-day motorcycle crashes in Europe, the USA and other parts of the world. We analyzed recent in-depth crash data from Germany, India and China, examining powered two-wheeler (PTW) crash configurations in which at least one police-reported serious injury was present. After assessing the relevance of the ISO's PTW crash configur...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 30, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Puthan P, Lubbe N, Shaikh J, Sui B, Davidsson J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Association between higher-order driving instruction and risky driving behaviours: Exploring the mediating effects of a self-regulated safety orientation" [Accid. Anal. Prev. 131 (2019) 275-283].
Corrigendum to "Association between higher-order driving instruction and risky driving behaviours: Exploring the mediating effects of a self-regulated safety orientation" [Accid. Anal. Prev. 131 (2019) 275-283]. Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jan 27;152:106005 Authors: Watson-Brown N, Scott-Parker B, Senserrick T PMID: 33515935 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 27, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Watson-Brown N, Scott-Parker B, Senserrick T Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Fusing crash data and surrogate safety measures for safety assessment: Development of a structural equation model with conditional autoregressive spatial effect and random parameters.
This study proposes a new safety performance measure-Risk Status (RS), by fusing crash data and SSMs. Real-world connected vehicle data collected in the Safety Pilot Model Deployment (SPMD) project in Ann Arbor, Michigan is used to extract SSMs. With RS treated as a latent variable, a structural equation model with conditional autoregressive spatial effect and corridor-level random parameters is developed to model the interrelationship among RS, crash frequency, risk identified by SSMs, and contributing factors. The modeling results confirm the proposed interrelationship and the necessity to account for both spatial autoco...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 25, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yang D, Xie K, Ozbay K, Yang H Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Factors that influence parents' intentions of using autonomous vehicles to transport children to and from school.
This study has two primary aims: 1) Exploring parents' intentions and their potential determinants. 2) Making recommendations for manufacturers to develop and market AVs suitable for school travel based on the research results. Research results show that face consciousness with Chinese characteristics can significantly affect parents' intentions. Knowledge of AVs is the most significant factor in influencing parents' intentions. Perceived usefulness, attitude towards school travel in AVs, and perceived risk can significantly affect parents' intentions. The direct impact of perceived ease of use and public engagement on par...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 25, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jing P, Du L, Chen Y, Shi Y, Zhan F, Xie J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A thousand years of crash experience in three hours: An online hazard perception training course for drivers.
Abstract A key goal of driver training is to teach drivers to avoid crashes. However, in traditional driver training, drivers are unlikely to see even a single example of the class of event that we want them to learn to avoid. We developed a six-session automated online hazard perception training course for drivers, which incorporates a range of evidence-based strategies and employs extensive video footage of real crashes. We evaluated this course in a randomized control trial by examining its effects on previously-validated computer-based measures of hazard perception, hazard prediction, speed choice, following d...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 23, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Horswill MS, Hill A, Silapurem L, Watson MO Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Investigating the safety and operational benefits of mixed traffic environments with different automated vehicle market penetration rates in the proximity of a driveway on an urban arterial.
Abstract Traffic congestion is monotonically increasing, especially in large cities, due to rapid urbanization. Traffic congestion not only deteriorates traffic operation and degrades traffic safety, but also imposes costs to the road users. The concerns associated with traffic congestion increase when considering more complicated situations such as unsignalized intersections and driveways at which maneuvers are entirely dependent upon drivers' judgment. Urban arterials are characterized by closely spaced signalized and unsignalized intersections and high traffic volumes, which make them a priority while analyzing...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 23, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mousavi SM, Osman OA, Lord D, Dixon KK, Dadashova B Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Differences in rural and urban drivers' attitudes and beliefs about seat belts.
Abstract In the United States, a disproportionate number of motor vehicle crash fatalities occur in rural areas. While many factors likely contribute to the discrepancy between fatality rates in rural and urban areas, prior studies suggest that rural drivers may be more likely to engage in risky driving behaviors like seat belt non-use. Although having favorable attitudes or beliefs about seat belts increases the likelihood of wearing them, few studies have investigated the possibility that lower rates of seat belt use in rural areas may result from a greater prevalence of unfavorable seat belt attitudes and belie...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 23, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Watson CE, Austin RA Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

At what stages of licensing do graduated driver licensing systems reduce crashes? Example from Queensland, Australia.
The objective of the current research was to conduct complementary modelling to identify at what points through the licensing process had particular GLS policies contributed to reductions. Crash trends were explored for learner and provisional drivers under the new GLS versus previous system for three time periods relative to the month of acquiring a provisional licence: the preceding learner period, the first month of provisional licensure (when crashes typically peak), and the overall provisional period. Interrupted time series analyses were conducted for the log ratio of crashes per 10,000 licensed (learner and provisio...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 22, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Senserrick T, Boufous S, Olivier J, Hatfield J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Frequency and cost of crashes, fatalities, and injuries involving disabled vehicles.
CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of people die or are injured in low conspicuity events every year; an estimated 1.55 deaths and nearly 40 injuries per day. This analysis highlights the risks to a special subset of pedestrians: motorists who exited their vehicles to attend to a disabled or stopped vehicle. These deaths and injuries that result from crashes related to low-conspicuity events are preventable. Countermeasures to reduce the incidence and severity of the crash scenarios studied should be explored. PMID: 33493939 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 22, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Spicer R, Bahouth G, Vahabaghaie A, Drayer R Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Applying machine learning, text mining, and spatial analysis techniques to develop a highway-railroad grade crossing consolidation model.
Abstract The consolidation of Highway-Railroad Grade Crossing (HRGC) is one of the effective approaches to decrease the number of crashes between trains and vehicles. From 2015-2019, there were 57 HRGC crashes at crossings in East Baton Rouge Parish (EBRP), resulting in thirteen injuries with $346,875 cost of vehicle damages. Consolidation programs help to close redundant crossings and thereby decrease the crash risks; however, it is difficult to find the best crossing in a neighborhood for closure. In our previous research working on HRGC consolidation models in 2019, from among four Machine Learning algorithms, ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 22, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Soleimani S, Leitner M, Codjoe J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Safety analysis of freeway on-ramp merging with the presence of autonomous vehicles.
Abstract Freeway on-ramp merging areas are high-risk areas for motor vehicle crashes and conflicts due to the variety of driving styles, the difference in mainline and ramp traffic states, and factors related to roadway design and traffic control. The emerging Autonomous Vehicle (AV) technologies are expected to bring substantial improvements in ramp merging operations in general, including the possibility to reduce traffic conflicts and crashes by partially or fully eliminating the critical factors related to the human drivers. In order to investigate the potential safety impacts of AVs at on-ramp merging, this s...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 22, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zhu J, Tasic I Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A GIS approach to the development of a segment-level derailment prediction model.
Abstract Train related accidents, particularly derailments, can lead to severe consequences especially when they involve injuries or fatalities or when they involve hazardous materials that might result in environmental impacts. Whereas numerous road safety studies have suggested appropriate approaches to predicting vehicle-to-vehicle collisions, very few railway safety studies have considered predicting the number of derailments on rail tracks in North America. In addition, the existing few rail safety assessment and derailment prediction models have often been constrained by aggregated data limiting the safety a...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 22, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chow T, Shah TI, Park PY, Fu L Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Modeling the system of beliefs that influence driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) in Washington State.
Abstract Cannabis use is increasing in the U.S. Driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) may be increasing as well potentially resulting in fatal and serious injury crashes. The purpose of this article is to explore the belief system associated with driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) using structural equation modeling (SEM). A sample (n = 2,084) of surveys collected from adults in the U.S. was analyzed using SEM to reveal the latent structure of the belief system associated with DUIC. The results of this analysis indicated that reported DUIC behavior (frequency and recency) was predicted by willi...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 21, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Scott B, Ward N, Otto J, Finley K Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Observational-based study to explore pedestrian crossing behaviors at signalized and unsignalized crosswalks.
This study aims to comprehensively examine the influence of gender, age group, group-crossing, technological devices and carrying items on pedestrians crossing behaviors at signalized and unsignalized crosswalks simultaneously. Observational data of 552 pedestrians at two signalized and two unsignalized crosswalks in Tehran were collected. Temporal and spatial violations, conflict experience and collision avoidance, situational awareness, and pedestrians crossing speed were used as pedestrians crossing behaviors indicators. To model crossing behaviors, linear mixed models (LMMs) and Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 20, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Aghabayk K, Esmailpour J, Jafari A, Shiwakoti N Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Mechanisms, mediators, and surrogate estimation of crash modification factors.
Abstract In road safety, a commonly-used measure of treatment effectiveness is the crash modification factor, usually defined as a ratio of the expected crash frequency with the treatment to the expected frequency without. This paper explores the possibility of using surrogates to estimate crash modification factors. As in other situations where observational data are used to estimate causal effects, it is necessary to leverage background causal knowledge with the observational results. When the background knowledge is such that a crash-generating mechanism can be represented with a directed acyclic graph, the con...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 20, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Davis GA Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research