Geographically weighted poisson regression under linear model of coregionalization assistance: Application to a bicycle crash study
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 18;159:106230. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106230. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWhile cycling benefits individuals and society, cyclists are vulnerable road users, and their safety concerns arouse more macro-level spatial crash studies. Our study intends to investigate the spatial effects of population, land use, and bicycle lane infrastructures on bicycle crashes. This was done by developing a semi-parametric Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (sGWPR) model which deals with the issue of spatial correlation and spatial non-stationarity simultaneously. It is a model that combines both constant...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 21, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Shujuan Ji Yuanqing Wang Yao Wang Source Type: research

Impact of Mexican Road Safety Strategies implemented in the context of the UN's Decade of Action
CONCLUSIONS: Results showed some potential gains of Mexico's road safety strategies: RTI in four + wheelers decreased. Efforts should be put in place urgently to prevent the growing number of RTI in motorcyclists.PMID:34153641 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106227 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 21, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ricardo P érez-Núñez Elisa Hidalgo-Sol órzano Martha H íjar Source Type: research

Incorporating conflict risks in pedestrian-motorist interactions: A game theoretical approach
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 18;159:106254. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106254. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAt "semi-controlled" crosswalks with yield signs and markings, negotiations as to the right-of-way occur frequently between pedestrians and motorists, to determine who should proceed first. This kind of "negotiation" often leads to traffic delay and potential conflicts. To minimize misunderstandings between pedestrian and motorist that can have serious safety consequences, it is essential that we understand the decision-making process as the "players" interact in real street-crossing situatio...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 21, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yunchang Zhang Jon D Fricker Source Type: research

Geographically weighted poisson regression under linear model of coregionalization assistance: Application to a bicycle crash study
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 18;159:106230. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106230. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWhile cycling benefits individuals and society, cyclists are vulnerable road users, and their safety concerns arouse more macro-level spatial crash studies. Our study intends to investigate the spatial effects of population, land use, and bicycle lane infrastructures on bicycle crashes. This was done by developing a semi-parametric Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (sGWPR) model which deals with the issue of spatial correlation and spatial non-stationarity simultaneously. It is a model that combines both constant...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 21, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Shujuan Ji Yuanqing Wang Yao Wang Source Type: research

Impact of Mexican Road Safety Strategies implemented in the context of the UN's Decade of Action
CONCLUSIONS: Results showed some potential gains of Mexico's road safety strategies: RTI in four + wheelers decreased. Efforts should be put in place urgently to prevent the growing number of RTI in motorcyclists.PMID:34153641 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106227 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 21, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ricardo P érez-Núñez Elisa Hidalgo-Sol órzano Martha H íjar Source Type: research

Incorporating conflict risks in pedestrian-motorist interactions: A game theoretical approach
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 18;159:106254. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106254. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAt "semi-controlled" crosswalks with yield signs and markings, negotiations as to the right-of-way occur frequently between pedestrians and motorists, to determine who should proceed first. This kind of "negotiation" often leads to traffic delay and potential conflicts. To minimize misunderstandings between pedestrian and motorist that can have serious safety consequences, it is essential that we understand the decision-making process as the "players" interact in real street-crossing situatio...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 21, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yunchang Zhang Jon D Fricker Source Type: research

Extending the Heston model to forecast motor vehicle collision rates
We present an alternative approach to the forecasting of motor vehicle collision rates. We adopt an oft-used tool in mathematical finance, the Heston Stochastic Volatility model, to forecast the short-term and long-term evolution of motor vehicle collision rates. We incorporate a number of extensions to the Heston model to make it fit for modelling motor vehicle collision rates. We incorporate the temporally-unstable and non-deterministic nature of collision rate fluctuations, and introduce a parameter to account for periods of accelerated safety. We also adjust estimates to account for the seasonality of collision pattern...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 20, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Darren Shannon Grigorios Fountas Source Type: research

How can regulatory authorities improve safety in organizations by influencing safety culture? A conceptual model of the relationships and a discussion of implications
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 17;159:106228. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106228. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRegulators have increasingly started to focus on safety culture. The causal link between regulatory initiatives to improve safety culture and a potential decline in accidents may, however, appear like a "black box", involving social processes that seem hard to foresee and influence. We need a better conceptual understanding of this. The aims of our study are to: 1) Map studies of regulatory efforts to influence safety culture in companies, 2) Use the identified studies to develop a conceptual model of the analyt...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 20, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tor-Olav N ævestad Ingeborg Storesund Hesjevoll Rune Elvik Source Type: research

Extending the Heston model to forecast motor vehicle collision rates
We present an alternative approach to the forecasting of motor vehicle collision rates. We adopt an oft-used tool in mathematical finance, the Heston Stochastic Volatility model, to forecast the short-term and long-term evolution of motor vehicle collision rates. We incorporate a number of extensions to the Heston model to make it fit for modelling motor vehicle collision rates. We incorporate the temporally-unstable and non-deterministic nature of collision rate fluctuations, and introduce a parameter to account for periods of accelerated safety. We also adjust estimates to account for the seasonality of collision pattern...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 20, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Darren Shannon Grigorios Fountas Source Type: research

How can regulatory authorities improve safety in organizations by influencing safety culture? A conceptual model of the relationships and a discussion of implications
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 16;159:106228. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106228. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRegulators have increasingly started to focus on safety culture. The causal link between regulatory initiatives to improve safety culture and a potential decline in accidents may, however, appear like a "black box", involving social processes that seem hard to foresee and influence. We need a better conceptual understanding of this. The aims of our study are to: 1) Map studies of regulatory efforts to influence safety culture in companies, 2) Use the identified studies to develop a conceptual model of the analyt...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 20, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tor-Olav N ævestad Ingeborg Storesund Hesjevoll Rune Elvik Source Type: research

Understanding context sensitivity regarding the use of child restraint systems in daily life in Japan
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 16;159:106236. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106236. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34146936 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106236 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 19, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mikiko Oono Koji Kitamura Yoshifumi Nishida Tatsuhiro Yamanaka Source Type: research

Validation of the attention-related driving errors scale in novice adolescent drivers
This study sought to validate the ARDES in novice adolescent drivers by investigating its underlying factor structure and its relations with self-reported measures of daily inattention, performance-based attention assessments, and a self-report measure of driving behavior.RESULTS: Replicating earlier work in adults, results suggested ARDES items can be classified according to their operational level of the driving. The ARDES had good internal reliability and construct validity, suggesting it is a valid self-report measure of the propensity for adolescents' attentional errors while driving.DISCUSSION: The ARDES provides a u...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 19, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bria Gresham Benjamin McManus Sylvie Mrug Kristina Visscher Thomas Anthony Despina Stavrinos Source Type: research

Young and older adult pedestrians' behavior when crossing a street in front of conventional and self-driving cars
This study highlights the potential risks for pedestrians of introducing AVs into current road traffic, complicating the street-crossing task for young and older people alike. Future studies should look further into the role of repeated practice and trust in AVs. The design of these vehicles must also be addressed. Some practical recommendations are provided.PMID:34146938 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106256 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 19, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Aur élie Dommes Ga ëtan Merlhiot R égis Lobjois Nguyen-Thong Dang Fabrice Vienne Joris Boulo Anne-H élène Oliver Armel Cr étual Viola Cavallo Source Type: research

Are bicycle lanes effective? The relationship between passing distance and road characteristics
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 16;159:106184. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106184. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAn on-road observational study of 162 cyclists was conducted in the Australian cities of Melbourne, Perth, Geelong, and Bendigo. Participants had a distance sensor and two video cameras fitted to their bicycle for two weeks while they cycled on their usual routes, producing 46,769 events where a motor vehicle passed a bicycle. This was the largest study to-date to record passing behavior on public roads, and a large number of road and traffic attributes that might affect passing distance were included in the analysis. Whe...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 18, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jonathan Nolan James Sinclair Jim Savage Source Type: research

Effectiveness of resampling methods in coping with imbalanced crash data: Crash type analysis and predictive modeling
This study focuses on comparing the effects of resampling techniques on the performance of both machine learning and classical statistical models for classifying and predicting different crash types on freeways. Specifically, a mixed sampling approach featuring a cluster-based under-sampling coupled with three popular over-sampling methods (i.e., random over-sampling, synthetic minority over-sampling, and adaptive synthetic sampling) were investigated with respect to four crash classification models, including three ensemble machine learning models (CatBoost, XGBoost, and Random Forests) and one classic statistical model (...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 18, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Clint Morris Jidong J Yang Source Type: research

Assessing subjective criticality of take-over situations: Validation of two rating scales
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 15;159:106216. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106216. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAssessing subjective criticality of take-over situations is crucial for understanding of take-over behavior and comparing studies. However, no validated rating scales exist that assess subjective criticality of take-over situations. In a driving simulator study, two rating scales, the Scale of Criticality Assessment of driving situations from Neukum et al. (2008) and the Criticality Rating Scale, were tested on their validity to assess the subjective criticality of take-over situations. Besides, the subjective and behavio...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 18, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fabienne Roche Source Type: research

Erratum to "Propensity score methods for road safety evaluation: Practical suggestions from a simulation study" [Accid. Anal. Prev. 158 (2021) 106200]
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 16;159:106257. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106257. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34144227 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106257 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 18, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yingheng Zhang Haojie Li N N Sze Gang Ren Source Type: research

Are bicycle lanes effective? The relationship between passing distance and road characteristics
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 16;159:106184. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106184. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAn on-road observational study of 162 cyclists was conducted in the Australian cities of Melbourne, Perth, Geelong, and Bendigo. Participants had a distance sensor and two video cameras fitted to their bicycle for two weeks while they cycled on their usual routes, producing 46,769 events where a motor vehicle passed a bicycle. This was the largest study to-date to record passing behavior on public roads, and a large number of road and traffic attributes that might affect passing distance were included in the analysis. Whe...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 18, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jonathan Nolan James Sinclair Jim Savage Source Type: research

Effectiveness of resampling methods in coping with imbalanced crash data: Crash type analysis and predictive modeling
This study focuses on comparing the effects of resampling techniques on the performance of both machine learning and classical statistical models for classifying and predicting different crash types on freeways. Specifically, a mixed sampling approach featuring a cluster-based under-sampling coupled with three popular over-sampling methods (i.e., random over-sampling, synthetic minority over-sampling, and adaptive synthetic sampling) were investigated with respect to four crash classification models, including three ensemble machine learning models (CatBoost, XGBoost, and Random Forests) and one classic statistical model (...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 18, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Clint Morris Jidong J Yang Source Type: research

Assessing subjective criticality of take-over situations: Validation of two rating scales
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 15;159:106216. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106216. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAssessing subjective criticality of take-over situations is crucial for understanding of take-over behavior and comparing studies. However, no validated rating scales exist that assess subjective criticality of take-over situations. In a driving simulator study, two rating scales, the Scale of Criticality Assessment of driving situations from Neukum et al. (2008) and the Criticality Rating Scale, were tested on their validity to assess the subjective criticality of take-over situations. Besides, the subjective and behavio...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 18, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fabienne Roche Source Type: research

Erratum to "Propensity score methods for road safety evaluation: Practical suggestions from a simulation study" [Accid. Anal. Prev. 158 (2021) 106200]
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 16;159:106257. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106257. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34144227 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106257 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 18, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yingheng Zhang Haojie Li N N Sze Gang Ren Source Type: research

The who, what and when of drug driving in Queensland: Analysing the results of roadside drug testing, 2015-2020
The objective of this paper was to explore trends and characteristics of the 60,551 positive results detected in Queensland's RDT program (from January 2015 to June 2020), which focuses on the detection of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine (MA). The analysis indicated that (over the entire testing period) MA was the most common drug detected in isolation (39.4%), followed by THC (34%) and the combination of MA and THC (21.9%). When considering detections with two or more drugs, MA was present in 64% of detections, THC in 59% and MDMA in 1.8%. THC was most commonl...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Laura Mills James Freeman Jeremy Davey Benjamin Davey Source Type: research

Speeding through the pandemic: Perceptual and psychological factors associated with speeding during the COVID-19 stay-at-home period
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 12;159:106225. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106225. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDuring the COVID-19 stay-at-home period there were observed increases in both the percentage of cars engaged in extreme speeding, and the percentage of cars traveling below the speed limit. These changes have been attributed to unusually low traffic volume during the stay-at-home period. We develop a novel theoretical account, based on existing empirical research, of perceptual and psychological processes that may account for changes in speeding behavior under low traffic volume conditions. These include impaired ability ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: A Tucker K L Marsh Source Type: research

Quantifying effects of reverse linear perspective as a visual cue on vehicle and platoon crash risk variations in car-following using path analysis
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 12;159:106215. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106215. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRoad markings are prevalent in practice as perceptual countermeasures to crashes, and a great deal of them have been used for speed reduction. However, there is rare seen any equivalent measures especially for distance control. More importantly, the visual perceptual mechanism of road markings on driving behaviors and crash risk is still blur. Given this, in the present study, we comprehensively quantified the effects of reverse linear perspective (RLP) from its origin as a visual cue, produced by a kind of transverse lin...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Naikan Ding Zhaoyou Lu Nisha Jiao Zhiguang Liu Linsheng Lu Source Type: research

Influencing factors of observed speed and rule compliance of speed-pedelec riders in high volume cycling areas: Implications for safety and legislation
In conclusion, s-pedelec riders in the Netherlands frequently ride on the bicycle paths although it is illegal. On the bicycle paths their speeds are much higher than those of conventional cyclists. On the 50 km/h-roadways, however, s-pedelec riders are apparently too slow for the traffic conditions. Overall, the speed profiles of 350 W types were better suited to the bicycle paths, whereas those of 500 W types to the roadways.PMID:34130058 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106239 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Agnieszka Stelling Willem Vlakveld Divera Twisk Source Type: research

Characteristics of driving self-assessments and factors related to inaccurate self-assessment in Japanese older adults
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 12;159:106235. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106235. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOlder adults are considered to decide their driving behaviors based their own assessment of their driving performance, and thus it is important that these self-assessments be accurate. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify how older drivers assess their driving performance and examine factors related to the level of inaccuracy in their self-assessments. Japanese drivers aged 70 years or older (N = 181) were asked to assess their own driving performance by questionnaire and then to drive on a public road while wearing an ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ritsu Kosuge Kazuko Okamura Yukako Nakano Goro Fujita Source Type: research

The who, what and when of drug driving in Queensland: Analysing the results of roadside drug testing, 2015-2020
The objective of this paper was to explore trends and characteristics of the 60,551 positive results detected in Queensland's RDT program (from January 2015 to June 2020), which focuses on the detection of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine (MA). The analysis indicated that (over the entire testing period) MA was the most common drug detected in isolation (39.4%), followed by THC (34%) and the combination of MA and THC (21.9%). When considering detections with two or more drugs, MA was present in 64% of detections, THC in 59% and MDMA in 1.8%. THC was most commonl...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Laura Mills James Freeman Jeremy Davey Benjamin Davey Source Type: research

Speeding through the pandemic: Perceptual and psychological factors associated with speeding during the COVID-19 stay-at-home period
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 12;159:106225. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106225. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDuring the COVID-19 stay-at-home period there were observed increases in both the percentage of cars engaged in extreme speeding, and the percentage of cars traveling below the speed limit. These changes have been attributed to unusually low traffic volume during the stay-at-home period. We develop a novel theoretical account, based on existing empirical research, of perceptual and psychological processes that may account for changes in speeding behavior under low traffic volume conditions. These include impaired ability ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: A Tucker K L Marsh Source Type: research

Quantifying effects of reverse linear perspective as a visual cue on vehicle and platoon crash risk variations in car-following using path analysis
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 12;159:106215. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106215. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRoad markings are prevalent in practice as perceptual countermeasures to crashes, and a great deal of them have been used for speed reduction. However, there is rare seen any equivalent measures especially for distance control. More importantly, the visual perceptual mechanism of road markings on driving behaviors and crash risk is still blur. Given this, in the present study, we comprehensively quantified the effects of reverse linear perspective (RLP) from its origin as a visual cue, produced by a kind of transverse lin...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Naikan Ding Zhaoyou Lu Nisha Jiao Zhiguang Liu Linsheng Lu Source Type: research

Influencing factors of observed speed and rule compliance of speed-pedelec riders in high volume cycling areas: Implications for safety and legislation
In conclusion, s-pedelec riders in the Netherlands frequently ride on the bicycle paths although it is illegal. On the bicycle paths their speeds are much higher than those of conventional cyclists. On the 50 km/h-roadways, however, s-pedelec riders are apparently too slow for the traffic conditions. Overall, the speed profiles of 350 W types were better suited to the bicycle paths, whereas those of 500 W types to the roadways.PMID:34130058 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106239 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Agnieszka Stelling Willem Vlakveld Divera Twisk Source Type: research

Characteristics of driving self-assessments and factors related to inaccurate self-assessment in Japanese older adults
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 12;159:106235. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106235. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOlder adults are considered to decide their driving behaviors based their own assessment of their driving performance, and thus it is important that these self-assessments be accurate. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify how older drivers assess their driving performance and examine factors related to the level of inaccuracy in their self-assessments. Japanese drivers aged 70 years or older (N = 181) were asked to assess their own driving performance by questionnaire and then to drive on a public road while wearing an ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ritsu Kosuge Kazuko Okamura Yukako Nakano Goro Fujita Source Type: research

The who, what and when of drug driving in Queensland: Analysing the results of roadside drug testing, 2015-2020
The objective of this paper was to explore trends and characteristics of the 60,551 positive results detected in Queensland's RDT program (from January 2015 to June 2020), which focuses on the detection of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine (MA). The analysis indicated that (over the entire testing period) MA was the most common drug detected in isolation (39.4%), followed by THC (34%) and the combination of MA and THC (21.9%). When considering detections with two or more drugs, MA was present in 64% of detections, THC in 59% and MDMA in 1.8%. THC was most commonl...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Laura Mills James Freeman Jeremy Davey Benjamin Davey Source Type: research

Speeding through the pandemic: Perceptual and psychological factors associated with speeding during the COVID-19 stay-at-home period
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 12;159:106225. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106225. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDuring the COVID-19 stay-at-home period there were observed increases in both the percentage of cars engaged in extreme speeding, and the percentage of cars traveling below the speed limit. These changes have been attributed to unusually low traffic volume during the stay-at-home period. We develop a novel theoretical account, based on existing empirical research, of perceptual and psychological processes that may account for changes in speeding behavior under low traffic volume conditions. These include impaired ability ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: A Tucker K L Marsh Source Type: research

Quantifying effects of reverse linear perspective as a visual cue on vehicle and platoon crash risk variations in car-following using path analysis
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 12;159:106215. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106215. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRoad markings are prevalent in practice as perceptual countermeasures to crashes, and a great deal of them have been used for speed reduction. However, there is rare seen any equivalent measures especially for distance control. More importantly, the visual perceptual mechanism of road markings on driving behaviors and crash risk is still blur. Given this, in the present study, we comprehensively quantified the effects of reverse linear perspective (RLP) from its origin as a visual cue, produced by a kind of transverse lin...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Naikan Ding Zhaoyou Lu Nisha Jiao Zhiguang Liu Linsheng Lu Source Type: research

Influencing factors of observed speed and rule compliance of speed-pedelec riders in high volume cycling areas: Implications for safety and legislation
In conclusion, s-pedelec riders in the Netherlands frequently ride on the bicycle paths although it is illegal. On the bicycle paths their speeds are much higher than those of conventional cyclists. On the 50 km/h-roadways, however, s-pedelec riders are apparently too slow for the traffic conditions. Overall, the speed profiles of 350 W types were better suited to the bicycle paths, whereas those of 500 W types to the roadways.PMID:34130058 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106239 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Agnieszka Stelling Willem Vlakveld Divera Twisk Source Type: research

Characteristics of driving self-assessments and factors related to inaccurate self-assessment in Japanese older adults
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 12;159:106235. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106235. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOlder adults are considered to decide their driving behaviors based their own assessment of their driving performance, and thus it is important that these self-assessments be accurate. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify how older drivers assess their driving performance and examine factors related to the level of inaccuracy in their self-assessments. Japanese drivers aged 70 years or older (N = 181) were asked to assess their own driving performance by questionnaire and then to drive on a public road while wearing an ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ritsu Kosuge Kazuko Okamura Yukako Nakano Goro Fujita Source Type: research

Reducing distracted pedestrian behavior using Bluetooth beacon technology: A crossover trial
DISCUSSION: StreetBit, an innovative app designed to prevent distracted pedestrian behavior through a mostly-passive primary prevention strategy relying on intrusive reminders, proved effective among smartphone users who received a warning blocking the full screen and who were frequently distracted at baseline, but not among other users. The results appear to reflect the confluence of two influencing factors. First, due to software development limitations, visually-distracted Android users received a highly intrusive app warning that blocked their smartphone screen whereas iOS users received a less intrusive banner notific...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 14, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: David C Schwebel Ragib Hasan Russell Griffin Raiful Hasan Mohammad Aminul Hoque Md Yasser Karim Kevin Luo Anna Johnston Source Type: research

Identification and analysis of misclassified work-zone crashes using text mining techniques
The objective of this study is to develop a classifier that applies text mining techniques to quickly find missed work zone (WZ) crashes through the unstructured text saved in the crash narratives. The study used three-year crash data from 2017 to 2019. The data from 2017 to 2018 was used as training data, and the 2019 data was used as testing data. A unigram + bigram noisy-OR classifier was developed and proven to be an efficient and effective means of classifying work zone crashes based on key information in the crash narrative. The ad-hoc analysis of misclassified work zone crashes sheds light on when, where and the pla...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 14, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Md Abu Sayed Xiao Qin Rohit J Kate D M Anisuzzaman Zeyun Yu Source Type: research

Reducing distracted pedestrian behavior using Bluetooth beacon technology: A crossover trial
DISCUSSION: StreetBit, an innovative app designed to prevent distracted pedestrian behavior through a mostly-passive primary prevention strategy relying on intrusive reminders, proved effective among smartphone users who received a warning blocking the full screen and who were frequently distracted at baseline, but not among other users. The results appear to reflect the confluence of two influencing factors. First, due to software development limitations, visually-distracted Android users received a highly intrusive app warning that blocked their smartphone screen whereas iOS users received a less intrusive banner notific...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 14, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: David C Schwebel Ragib Hasan Russell Griffin Raiful Hasan Mohammad Aminul Hoque Md Yasser Karim Kevin Luo Anna Johnston Source Type: research

Identification and analysis of misclassified work-zone crashes using text mining techniques
The objective of this study is to develop a classifier that applies text mining techniques to quickly find missed work zone (WZ) crashes through the unstructured text saved in the crash narratives. The study used three-year crash data from 2017 to 2019. The data from 2017 to 2018 was used as training data, and the 2019 data was used as testing data. A unigram + bigram noisy-OR classifier was developed and proven to be an efficient and effective means of classifying work zone crashes based on key information in the crash narrative. The ad-hoc analysis of misclassified work zone crashes sheds light on when, where and the pla...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 14, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Md Abu Sayed Xiao Qin Rohit J Kate D M Anisuzzaman Zeyun Yu Source Type: research

On random-parameter count models for out-of-sample crash prediction: Accounting for the variances of random-parameter distributions
In this study, by virtue of the Taylor series expansion, we proposed a straightforward yet analytic solution to include both the means and variances of random parameters for unbiased prediction. We then theoretically quantified the systematic bias arising from the omission of the variances of random parameters. Our numerical experiment further demonstrated that simply using the means of random parameters to predict the number of crashes for out-of-sample observations is fundamentally incorrect, which necessarily results in the underprediction of crash counts. Given the widespread use and ongoing prevalence of the random-pa...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 13, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pengpeng Xu Hanchu Zhou S C Wong Source Type: research

Safety improvements by intelligent connected vehicle technologies: A meta-analysis considering market penetration rates
This study aims to estimate the ICVs' safety effects by market penetration rate (MPR) adopting a meta-analysis approach. The results from the meta-analysis indicate that the number of conflicts is exponentially reduced as the MPR goes up. For example, compared to the environment without ICVs, 4.2% and 17.4% of conflicts would decrease at the MPR of 10% and 50%, respectively. The effects are more obvious at higher MPR-43.4% of conflicts are expected to decrease at the MPR of 90%. From the case study in the United States based on the meta-analysis, it is expected that the MPR would reach 17-20% in the near future (2025) and ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 13, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Guiming Xiao Jaeyoung Lee Qianshan Jiang Helai Huang Mohamed Abdel-Aty Ling Wang Source Type: research

Wielding and evaluating the removal composition of common artefacts in EEG signals for driving behaviour analysis
This study addresses this problem by investigating a simulator-based driving behaviour analysis using a car-following scenario to correlate the EEG-based mental features with behavioural responses. The study develops an architecture for an artefact composition pool and proposes three integrated prediction models to evaluate the removal compositions of the EEG artefacts. Three errors (mean absolute, root mean square, mean absolute percentage) and R-squared index are considered for measuring the performance of the models. The results show that the best-performing composition outperformed the no-removal and all-removal cases ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 13, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Geqi Qi Shuo Zhao Avishai Avi Ceder Wei Guan Xuedong Yan Source Type: research

On random-parameter count models for out-of-sample crash prediction: Accounting for the variances of random-parameter distributions
In this study, by virtue of the Taylor series expansion, we proposed a straightforward yet analytic solution to include both the means and variances of random parameters for unbiased prediction. We then theoretically quantified the systematic bias arising from the omission of the variances of random parameters. Our numerical experiment further demonstrated that simply using the means of random parameters to predict the number of crashes for out-of-sample observations is fundamentally incorrect, which necessarily results in the underprediction of crash counts. Given the widespread use and ongoing prevalence of the random-pa...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 13, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pengpeng Xu Hanchu Zhou S C Wong Source Type: research

Safety improvements by intelligent connected vehicle technologies: A meta-analysis considering market penetration rates
This study aims to estimate the ICVs' safety effects by market penetration rate (MPR) adopting a meta-analysis approach. The results from the meta-analysis indicate that the number of conflicts is exponentially reduced as the MPR goes up. For example, compared to the environment without ICVs, 4.2% and 17.4% of conflicts would decrease at the MPR of 10% and 50%, respectively. The effects are more obvious at higher MPR-43.4% of conflicts are expected to decrease at the MPR of 90%. From the case study in the United States based on the meta-analysis, it is expected that the MPR would reach 17-20% in the near future (2025) and ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 13, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Guiming Xiao Jaeyoung Lee Qianshan Jiang Helai Huang Mohamed Abdel-Aty Ling Wang Source Type: research

Wielding and evaluating the removal composition of common artefacts in EEG signals for driving behaviour analysis
This study addresses this problem by investigating a simulator-based driving behaviour analysis using a car-following scenario to correlate the EEG-based mental features with behavioural responses. The study develops an architecture for an artefact composition pool and proposes three integrated prediction models to evaluate the removal compositions of the EEG artefacts. Three errors (mean absolute, root mean square, mean absolute percentage) and R-squared index are considered for measuring the performance of the models. The results show that the best-performing composition outperformed the no-removal and all-removal cases ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 13, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Geqi Qi Shuo Zhao Avishai Avi Ceder Wei Guan Xuedong Yan Source Type: research

A correlated random parameters approach to investigate large truck rollover crashes on mountainous interstates
This study's results will assist transportation officials in efficiently identifying appropriate countermeasures to mitigate the impact of truck rollovers particularly during adverse weather conditions.PMID:34116427 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106233 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 11, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Anas Alrejjal Ahmed Farid Khaled Ksaibati Source Type: research

A correlated random parameters approach to investigate large truck rollover crashes on mountainous interstates
This study's results will assist transportation officials in efficiently identifying appropriate countermeasures to mitigate the impact of truck rollovers particularly during adverse weather conditions.PMID:34116427 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106233 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 11, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Anas Alrejjal Ahmed Farid Khaled Ksaibati Source Type: research

Alcohol-impaired Walking in 16 Countries: A Theory-Based Investigation
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 4;159:106212. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106212. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAlcohol is a global risk factor for road trauma. Although drink driving has received most of the scholarly attention, there is growing evidence of the risks of alcohol-impaired walking. Alcohol-impaired pedestrians are over-represented in fatal crashes compared to non-impaired pedestrians. Additionally, empirical evidence shows that alcohol intoxication impairs road-crossing judgements. Besides some limited early research, much is unknown about the global prevalence and determinants of alcohol-impaired walking. Understandi...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 7, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios Ali Kemal Çelik Ana Marti-Belda Anna W łodarczyk Daniel Demant Duy Q Nguyen-Phuoc Elisabeth Rubie Erkan Oktay Gabriel Dorantes Argandar J E Rod Jean Carlos Natividade Joonha Park Jorge Tiago Bastos Laura Mart ínez-Buelvas Mari Source Type: research

Alcohol-impaired Walking in 16 Countries: A Theory-Based Investigation
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Jun 4;159:106212. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106212. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAlcohol is a global risk factor for road trauma. Although drink driving has received most of the scholarly attention, there is growing evidence of the risks of alcohol-impaired walking. Alcohol-impaired pedestrians are over-represented in fatal crashes compared to non-impaired pedestrians. Additionally, empirical evidence shows that alcohol intoxication impairs road-crossing judgements. Besides some limited early research, much is unknown about the global prevalence and determinants of alcohol-impaired walking. Understandi...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 7, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios Ali Kemal Çelik Ana Marti-Belda Anna W łodarczyk Daniel Demant Duy Q Nguyen-Phuoc Elisabeth Rubie Erkan Oktay Gabriel Dorantes Argandar J E Rod Jean Carlos Natividade Joonha Park Jorge Tiago Bastos Laura Mart ínez-Buelvas Mari Source Type: research