Introducing accompanied driving in Denmark. Safety-related differences between youth licensing with immediate or delayed access to solo driving
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Sep 20;162:106394. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106394. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn Denmark, the legal license age was lowered from 18 to 17, to allow practice with an experienced driver before solo driving from age 18. The change gives the candidate driver a choice between: a) licensing at age 17 followed by a phase of accompanied driving until solo driving at age 18 (L17), and b) licensing at age 18 (or older) giving immediate access to solo driving (L18). The purpose of this study is: First, to explore safety-related differences between youth choosing the L17 or the L18 option, with a particular fo...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 23, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mette M øller Kira Hyldek ær Janstrup Katrine Hjorth Divera A M Twisk Source Type: research

Balancing safety on the road with risk from COVID-19: A content analysis of policy adaptations by Divisions of Motor Vehicles
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide insight into policy adaptations made by state DMVs to reduce the spread of COVID-19 and may inform future policy adaptations in DMVs and other government agencies during public health emergencies.PMID:34555593 | PMC:PMC8440168 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106400 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 23, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Robyn Feiss Amanda Hautmann Nicole Asa Cara Hamann Corinne Peek-Asa Jingzhen Yang Source Type: research

Driver behavior and performances on in-vehicle display based speed compliance
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Sep 18;162:106390. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106390. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTraffic safety, and the inherent risks associated with speeding, continue to remain a national priority. Advances in both roadway and vehicle technology have created potential mechanisms to mitigate speeding behaviors. This driving simulator study evaluated the effects of alternative ways to increase driver safety by investigating the characteristics of specific driving cues and drivers' response rates to those cues. The study builds upon existing approaches to symbolically deliver Traffic Control Devices (TCDs), specific...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 21, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Aamani Ramanathan Parthasarthy Shashank Mehrotra Cole Fitzpatrick Shannon Roberts Eleni Christofa Michael Knodler Source Type: research

Fuel prices and road deaths: Motorcyclists are different
This study estimates the effect of gasoline prices on road deaths by vehicle mode using annual data for 62 countries for 2000-2018 and all states of the United States (US) for 1998-2018. Higher gasoline prices are associated with fewer overall road deaths. The proportional effect on motorcyclist deaths tends to be smaller or even have the opposite sign, especially in countries that are not highly dependent on motorcycles. For the US, a positive effect of gasoline prices on motorcyclist deaths is found, with an elasticity of about 0.3. There is also a positive relationship between gasoline prices and motorcycle registration...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 21, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tong Zhang Paul J Burke Source Type: research

Driver behavior and performances on in-vehicle display based speed compliance
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Sep 18;162:106390. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106390. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTraffic safety, and the inherent risks associated with speeding, continue to remain a national priority. Advances in both roadway and vehicle technology have created potential mechanisms to mitigate speeding behaviors. This driving simulator study evaluated the effects of alternative ways to increase driver safety by investigating the characteristics of specific driving cues and drivers' response rates to those cues. The study builds upon existing approaches to symbolically deliver Traffic Control Devices (TCDs), specific...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 21, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Aamani Ramanathan Parthasarthy Shashank Mehrotra Cole Fitzpatrick Shannon Roberts Eleni Christofa Michael Knodler Source Type: research

Fuel prices and road deaths: Motorcyclists are different
This study estimates the effect of gasoline prices on road deaths by vehicle mode using annual data for 62 countries for 2000-2018 and all states of the United States (US) for 1998-2018. Higher gasoline prices are associated with fewer overall road deaths. The proportional effect on motorcyclist deaths tends to be smaller or even have the opposite sign, especially in countries that are not highly dependent on motorcycles. For the US, a positive effect of gasoline prices on motorcyclist deaths is found, with an elasticity of about 0.3. There is also a positive relationship between gasoline prices and motorcycle registration...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 21, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tong Zhang Paul J Burke Source Type: research

Driver behavior and performances on in-vehicle display based speed compliance
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Sep 18;162:106390. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106390. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTraffic safety, and the inherent risks associated with speeding, continue to remain a national priority. Advances in both roadway and vehicle technology have created potential mechanisms to mitigate speeding behaviors. This driving simulator study evaluated the effects of alternative ways to increase driver safety by investigating the characteristics of specific driving cues and drivers' response rates to those cues. The study builds upon existing approaches to symbolically deliver Traffic Control Devices (TCDs), specific...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 21, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Aamani Ramanathan Parthasarthy Shashank Mehrotra Cole Fitzpatrick Shannon Roberts Eleni Christofa Michael Knodler Source Type: research

Fuel prices and road deaths: Motorcyclists are different
This study estimates the effect of gasoline prices on road deaths by vehicle mode using annual data for 62 countries for 2000-2018 and all states of the United States (US) for 1998-2018. Higher gasoline prices are associated with fewer overall road deaths. The proportional effect on motorcyclist deaths tends to be smaller or even have the opposite sign, especially in countries that are not highly dependent on motorcycles. For the US, a positive effect of gasoline prices on motorcyclist deaths is found, with an elasticity of about 0.3. There is also a positive relationship between gasoline prices and motorcycle registration...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 21, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tong Zhang Paul J Burke Source Type: research

Spatio-temporal patterns in pedestrian crashes and their determining factors: Application of a space-time cube analysis model
This study also indicates that illegal parking poses a threat to pedestrian safety. Lastly, this study confirms some positive impacts of redeveloped or newly developed areas and pedestrian environment enhancement projects on pedestrian safety.PMID:34543783 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106291 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 20, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Junho Yoon Sugie Lee Source Type: research

Retaliatory aggressive driving: A justice perspective
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Sep 15;162:106393. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106393. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDriving anger and roadway aggression have previously been conceptualized using attributional theory, the theory of planned behavior, and the general aggression model (GAM) framework. The current study builds on these findings, testing the applicability of the attribution-of-blame model of perceptions of injustice and expanding existing models of retaliatory driving aggression to include unjust world beliefs and sensitivity to injustice. A sample of 269 participants from a large urban Canadian university viewed five animat...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 18, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: James E W Roseborough Christine M Wickens David L Wiesenthal Source Type: research

Retaliatory aggressive driving: A justice perspective
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Sep 15;162:106393. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106393. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDriving anger and roadway aggression have previously been conceptualized using attributional theory, the theory of planned behavior, and the general aggression model (GAM) framework. The current study builds on these findings, testing the applicability of the attribution-of-blame model of perceptions of injustice and expanding existing models of retaliatory driving aggression to include unjust world beliefs and sensitivity to injustice. A sample of 269 participants from a large urban Canadian university viewed five animat...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 18, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: James E W Roseborough Christine M Wickens David L Wiesenthal Source Type: research

Malignant mixes: The overlap of motor vehicle crashes and crime in Stockholm, Sweden
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Sep 13;161:106361. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106361. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPlaces that concentrate both motor vehicle crashes and crime in Stockholm, Sweden were examined for common socio-economic, land use, and neighborhood characteristics. Using vehicle crash (N = 3,700) and non-traffic crime (N = 605,052) data from 2016 to 2018, hot spots of these two sets of events and their overlap were identified. Crash hot spots captured 14% of the crashes in only 0.5% of Stockholm's area while crime hot spots captured 27% of the recorded offences in less than 1% of the area. There was overlap in these ho...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 16, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ned Levine Vania Ceccato Source Type: research

Analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on collisions, fatalities and injuries using time series forecasting: The case of Greece
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Sep 4;162:106391. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106391. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe current study aims to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on road traffic collisions, fatalities, and injuries using time series analyses. To that aim, a database containing road collisions, fatalities, and slight injuries data from Greece were derived from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (HSA) and covered a ten-year timeframe (from January 2010 to August 2020. The chosen time period contained normal operations, as well as the period of the first COVID-19-induced lockdown period in Greece. Three differen...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Marios Sekadakis Christos Katrakazas Eva Michelaraki Fotini Kehagia George Yannis Source Type: research

Analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on collisions, fatalities and injuries using time series forecasting: The case of Greece
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Sep 4;162:106391. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106391. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe current study aims to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on road traffic collisions, fatalities, and injuries using time series analyses. To that aim, a database containing road collisions, fatalities, and slight injuries data from Greece were derived from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (HSA) and covered a ten-year timeframe (from January 2010 to August 2020. The chosen time period contained normal operations, as well as the period of the first COVID-19-induced lockdown period in Greece. Three differen...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Marios Sekadakis Christos Katrakazas Eva Michelaraki Fotini Kehagia George Yannis Source Type: research

Analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on collisions, fatalities and injuries using time series forecasting: The case of Greece
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Sep 4;162:106391. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106391. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe current study aims to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on road traffic collisions, fatalities, and injuries using time series analyses. To that aim, a database containing road collisions, fatalities, and slight injuries data from Greece were derived from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (HSA) and covered a ten-year timeframe (from January 2010 to August 2020. The chosen time period contained normal operations, as well as the period of the first COVID-19-induced lockdown period in Greece. Three differen...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Marios Sekadakis Christos Katrakazas Eva Michelaraki Fotini Kehagia George Yannis Source Type: research

Analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on collisions, fatalities and injuries using time series forecasting: The case of Greece
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Sep 4;162:106391. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106391. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe current study aims to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on road traffic collisions, fatalities, and injuries using time series analyses. To that aim, a database containing road collisions, fatalities, and slight injuries data from Greece were derived from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (HSA) and covered a ten-year timeframe (from January 2010 to August 2020. The chosen time period contained normal operations, as well as the period of the first COVID-19-induced lockdown period in Greece. Three differen...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 15, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Marios Sekadakis Christos Katrakazas Eva Michelaraki Fotini Kehagia George Yannis Source Type: research

Assessment of commercial truck driver injury severity based on truck configuration along a mountainous roadway using hierarchical Bayesian random intercept approach
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Sep 9;162:106392. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106392. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFor the last decade, disaggregate modeling approach has been frequently practiced to analyze truck-involved crash injury severity. This included truck-involved crashes based on single and multi-vehicles, rural and urban locations, time of day variations, roadway classification, lighting, and weather conditions. However, analyzing commercial truck driver injury severity based on truck configuration is still missing. This paper aims to fill this knowledge gap by undertaking an extensive assessment of truck driver injury seve...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Muhammad Tahmidul Haq Milan Zlatkovic Khaled Ksaibati Source Type: research

Assessment of commercial truck driver injury severity based on truck configuration along a mountainous roadway using hierarchical Bayesian random intercept approach
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Sep 9;162:106392. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106392. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFor the last decade, disaggregate modeling approach has been frequently practiced to analyze truck-involved crash injury severity. This included truck-involved crashes based on single and multi-vehicles, rural and urban locations, time of day variations, roadway classification, lighting, and weather conditions. However, analyzing commercial truck driver injury severity based on truck configuration is still missing. This paper aims to fill this knowledge gap by undertaking an extensive assessment of truck driver injury seve...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Muhammad Tahmidul Haq Milan Zlatkovic Khaled Ksaibati Source Type: research

Assessment of commercial truck driver injury severity based on truck configuration along a mountainous roadway using hierarchical Bayesian random intercept approach
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Sep 9;162:106392. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106392. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFor the last decade, disaggregate modeling approach has been frequently practiced to analyze truck-involved crash injury severity. This included truck-involved crashes based on single and multi-vehicles, rural and urban locations, time of day variations, roadway classification, lighting, and weather conditions. However, analyzing commercial truck driver injury severity based on truck configuration is still missing. This paper aims to fill this knowledge gap by undertaking an extensive assessment of truck driver injury seve...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Muhammad Tahmidul Haq Milan Zlatkovic Khaled Ksaibati Source Type: research

A model for naturalistic glance behavior around Tesla Autopilot disengagements
CONCLUSION: Visual behavior patterns change before and after AP disengagement. Before disengagement, drivers looked less on road and focused more on non-driving related areas compared to after the transition to manual driving. The higher proportion of off-road glances before disengagement to manual driving were not compensated by longer glances ahead.APPLICATION: The model can be used as a reference for safety assessment or to formulate design targets for driver management systems.PMID:34492560 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106348 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 7, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Alberto Morando Pnina Gershon Bruce Mehler Bryan Reimer Source Type: research

Mental fatigue delays visual search behaviour in young cyclists when negotiating complex traffic situations: A study in virtual reality
CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this was the first study to investigate the effect of mental fatigue in young cyclists with an innovative VR hazard perception simulator. Due to increased mental fatigue, young cyclists might have experienced more episodes of fatigue-related mind-wandering and a deterioration of selective attention for the task at hand. This resulted in a less thorough visual inspection of the scene and delayed braking responses.PMID:34492561 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106387 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 7, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Linus H R H Zeuwts Evelien Iliano Mitchell Smith Frederik Deconinck Matthieu Lenoir Source Type: research

A model for naturalistic glance behavior around Tesla Autopilot disengagements
CONCLUSION: Visual behavior patterns change before and after AP disengagement. Before disengagement, drivers looked less on road and focused more on non-driving related areas compared to after the transition to manual driving. The higher proportion of off-road glances before disengagement to manual driving were not compensated by longer glances ahead.APPLICATION: The model can be used as a reference for safety assessment or to formulate design targets for driver management systems.PMID:34492560 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106348 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 7, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Alberto Morando Pnina Gershon Bruce Mehler Bryan Reimer Source Type: research

Mental fatigue delays visual search behaviour in young cyclists when negotiating complex traffic situations: A study in virtual reality
CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this was the first study to investigate the effect of mental fatigue in young cyclists with an innovative VR hazard perception simulator. Due to increased mental fatigue, young cyclists might have experienced more episodes of fatigue-related mind-wandering and a deterioration of selective attention for the task at hand. This resulted in a less thorough visual inspection of the scene and delayed braking responses.PMID:34492561 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106387 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 7, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Linus H R H Zeuwts Evelien Iliano Mitchell Smith Frederik Deconinck Matthieu Lenoir Source Type: research

A model for naturalistic glance behavior around Tesla Autopilot disengagements
CONCLUSION: Visual behavior patterns change before and after AP disengagement. Before disengagement, drivers looked less on road and focused more on non-driving related areas compared to after the transition to manual driving. The higher proportion of off-road glances before disengagement to manual driving were not compensated by longer glances ahead.APPLICATION: The model can be used as a reference for safety assessment or to formulate design targets for driver management systems.PMID:34492560 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106348 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 7, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Alberto Morando Pnina Gershon Bruce Mehler Bryan Reimer Source Type: research

Mental fatigue delays visual search behaviour in young cyclists when negotiating complex traffic situations: A study in virtual reality
CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this was the first study to investigate the effect of mental fatigue in young cyclists with an innovative VR hazard perception simulator. Due to increased mental fatigue, young cyclists might have experienced more episodes of fatigue-related mind-wandering and a deterioration of selective attention for the task at hand. This resulted in a less thorough visual inspection of the scene and delayed braking responses.PMID:34492561 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106387 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 7, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Linus H R H Zeuwts Evelien Iliano Mitchell Smith Frederik Deconinck Matthieu Lenoir Source Type: research

Developing a grouped random parameter beta model to analyze drivers' speeding behavior on urban and suburban arterials with probe speed data
This study aims to explore the different effects of the speed management strategies on the speeding proportions at urban and suburban arterials. Probe speed data was used to calculate the speeding proportions. To overcome the variability of probe speed data caused by the signalized intersections, a new method was suggested to calculate the speeding proportion, and a fractional split model was estimated to adjust the probe speed data. A Beta regression model was developed to analyze the speeding proportion. A grouped random parameter modeling structure was adopted to realize the different effects of speed management strateg...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 4, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Qing Cai Mohamed Abdel-Aty Nada Mahmoud Jorge Ugan Ma'en M A Al-Omari Source Type: research

A conflict-based approach for real-time road safety analysis: Comparative evaluation with crash-based models
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Aug 31;161:106382. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106382. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAn innovative approach for real-time road safety analysis is presented in this work. Unlike traditional real-time crash prediction models (RTCPMs), in which crash data are used in the training phase, a real-time conflict prediction model (RTConfPM) is proposed. This model can be trained using surrogate measures of safety, and can therefore be applied even in situations in which highly spatial/temporal-accurate crash data are unavailable or unreliable. The application of an RTConfPM consists of using a set of input variabl...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 3, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Federico Orsini Gregorio Gecchele Riccardo Rossi Massimiliano Gastaldi Source Type: research

Investigating yielding behavior of heterogeneous vehicles at a semi-controlled crosswalk
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Aug 31;161:106381. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106381. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIt is well known that pedestrians are vulnerable road users. Their risk of being injured or killed in road traffic crashes is even higher as vehicle drivers often violate traffic rules and do not slow down or yield in front of crosswalks. In order to reduce this risk, many countries have issued strict regulations requiring vehicles to yield to pedestrians in front of crosswalks. While extensive literature exists on the interaction between vehicles and pedestrians, the consideration of heterogeneity in the behavior of vehi...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 3, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yongjie Wang Qian Su Chao Wang Carlo G Prato Source Type: research

Influence of traffic context and information presentation on evaluation of autonomous highway journeys
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Aug 31;161:106385. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106385. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPrevious research into perceptions of autonomous vehicles has largely focused on a priori attitudes, with little work on the perception of specific traffic situations, context and driving styles. The present study used three simulator experiments (total N = 150) to examine the combined effects of vehicle speed, lane position, information presentation and traffic context on occupants' levels of satisfaction with autonomous highway journeys. Overall, occupants preferred being in a vehicle that was mostly overtaking compared...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 3, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Owain T Ritchie Derrick G Watson Nathan Griffiths Zhou Xu Alex Mouzakitis Source Type: research

Alcohol-related traffic laws and drunk-driving fatal accidents
We present robust evidence that the conventional approaches that are typically utilized in the literature may erroneously estimate the effectiveness of several alcohol-related laws.PMID:34474333 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106358 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 2, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nicholas A Wright La-Troy Lee Source Type: research

Investigating the effect of marking and delineation treatments on driver behavior at highway exit gore areas
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Aug 30;161:106362. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106362. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHighway exit gore areas are common and essential components of highway networks everywhere. Drivers need to navigate, decelerate, and change lanes at exit gore areas through specified and compacted geometry. This makes exit gore areas potentially crash-prone locations. Studies analyzed factors contributing to crashes at exit gore areas. Although marking and delineation techniques can play a major role in enhancing safety, traffic control devices that serve this end were not given sufficient attention in recent research. F...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 2, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Veerle Ross Nora Reinolsmann Amjad Dehman Karin Van Vlierden Kristof Mollu Erik De Bisschop Wim Ectors Tom Brijs Source Type: research

Special issue on road safety and simulation 2017
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Aug 30;161:106384. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106384. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34474335 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106384 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 2, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Haneen Farah Marjan Hagenzieker Tom Brijs Source Type: research

User experience and usability when the automated driving system fails: Findings from a field experiment
We examined AV and ADS user experience and usability, ADS failures' influence on them, and their influences on re-riding willingness. We conducted a field study using a real AV and a large-scale test track. We invited participants (N = 261) to travel in the AV as passengers in a low-speed environment. Participants were randomly assigned into the normal condition or the fault condition (its participants were exposed to an ADS failure). We measured participants' positive experience (feeling relaxed, safe, and comfortable) and negative experience (feeling tense and risky) while riding in the AV and perceived usability of the ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - September 1, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Peng Liu Zijun Jiang Tingting Li Guanqun Wang Runmin Wang Zhigang Xu Source Type: research

Odds ratios for reclined seating positions in real-world crashes
This study is among the first to show an association between body posture and injury severity at MAIS3+ and MAIS4+ injury level in real-world crashes for reclined seating postures.PMID:34464840 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106357 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 31, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Luise C Schaefer Mirko Junge Ill és Vörös Kaan Ko çaslan Uwe Becker Source Type: research

Modeling pedestrian behavior in pedestrian-vehicle near misses: A continuous Gaussian Process Inverse Reinforcement Learning (GP-IRL) approach
This study is a crucial step in developing a safety-oriented microsimulation tool for pedestrians in mixed traffic conditions.PMID:34461394 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106355 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 30, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Payam Nasernejad Tarek Sayed Rushdi Alsaleh Source Type: research

Estimating the effect of vehicle speeds on bicycle and pedestrian safety on the Georgia arterial roadway network
This study uses probe vehicle speed data to examine the impact of vehicle speeds on bicycle and pedestrian crashes on the state of Georgia's network of major arterial roadways. The analysis examines 7000 road segments throughout the state in 2017. A Negative Binomial model relates annual crash and speed data on each segment. Models using speed percentiles (85th, 50th and 15th) are contrasted with models using speed differences (85th-50th and 50th-15th percentile). A small set of covariates are included: segment length, number of lanes, Average Annual Daily Traffic, and urbanicity. Results indicate that larger differences i...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 30, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Daniel Arias David Ederer Michael O Rodgers Michael P Hunter Kari E Watkins Source Type: research

Travel speed and the risk of serious injury in vehicle crashes
This study aimed to produce risk curves that relate travel speed to the risk of serious injury in light vehicle impacts in order to contribute to the process of selecting acceptable travel speeds. Serious injury was defined in this study as any injury having a maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS) of three or greater, or a fatal injury (MAIS3+F). In the context of a crash, travel speed is defined as the vehicle's speed before the driver reacts to the crash situation. Travel speed was determined by selecting the highest pre-impact speed recorded by an Event Data Recorder (EDR) in the seconds before the crash. A total of 1...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 29, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sam D Doecke Jeffrey K Dutschke Matthew R J Baldock Craig N Kloeden Source Type: research

Quantifying the effect of roadway, driver, vehicle, and location characteristics on the frequency of longitudinal and lateral accelerations
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Aug 26;161:106356. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106356. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study is to understand and quantify the simultaneous effects of roadway speed category, driver age, driver gender, vehicle class, and location on the rates of longitudinal and lateral acceleration epochs. The rate of usual as well as harsh acceleration epochs are used to extract insights on driving risk and driver comfort preferences. However, an analysis of acceleration rates at multiple thresholds incorporating various effects while using a large-scale and diverse dataset is missing. This analysis wi...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 29, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gibran Ali Shane McLaughlin Mehdi Ahmadian Source Type: research

Travel speed and the risk of serious injury in vehicle crashes
This study aimed to produce risk curves that relate travel speed to the risk of serious injury in light vehicle impacts in order to contribute to the process of selecting acceptable travel speeds. Serious injury was defined in this study as any injury having a maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS) of three or greater, or a fatal injury (MAIS3+F). In the context of a crash, travel speed is defined as the vehicle's speed before the driver reacts to the crash situation. Travel speed was determined by selecting the highest pre-impact speed recorded by an Event Data Recorder (EDR) in the seconds before the crash. A total of 1...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 29, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sam D Doecke Jeffrey K Dutschke Matthew R J Baldock Craig N Kloeden Source Type: research

Quantifying the effect of roadway, driver, vehicle, and location characteristics on the frequency of longitudinal and lateral accelerations
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Aug 26;161:106356. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106356. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study is to understand and quantify the simultaneous effects of roadway speed category, driver age, driver gender, vehicle class, and location on the rates of longitudinal and lateral acceleration epochs. The rate of usual as well as harsh acceleration epochs are used to extract insights on driving risk and driver comfort preferences. However, an analysis of acceleration rates at multiple thresholds incorporating various effects while using a large-scale and diverse dataset is missing. This analysis wi...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 29, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gibran Ali Shane McLaughlin Mehdi Ahmadian Source Type: research

Distracting tasks have persisting effects on young and older drivers' braking performance
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Aug 25;161:106363. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106363. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIt is well established that car driving performance suffers when the driver concurrently engages in a distracting activity, such as talking on a cell phone. The present study investigates whether the effects of driver distraction are short-lived, or rather persist for some time. Age-related differences are evaluated as well. Sixty-three young and 61 older adults were tested in a driving simulator. They were asked to follow a lead car that drove at a constant speed, and to concurrently engage in a pseudorandom sequence of ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 28, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Otmar Bock Robert Stojan Konstantin Wechsler Melanie Mack Claudia Voelcker-Rehage Source Type: research

Safety and health perceptions of location-based augmented reality gaming app and their implications
This study seeks to understand the potential safety and health implications of location-based augmented reality gaming apps ("LAR apps") through studying people perception of Pokémon GO, a popular LAR gaming app. These perceptions can affect app usage behavior, app retention rate, and market share which can be critical to policymakers and app developers. An online survey is conducted to capture the impacts of Pokémon GO regarding: (i) perceived risk of using the app and opinion of prohibiting its usage while driving and cycling, (ii) frequency of app-related distracted driving and cycling, (iii) fre...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 28, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yuntao Guo Shubham Agrawal Srinivas Peeta Irina Benedyk Source Type: research

Modeling and prediction of driving performance measures based on multi-output convolutional Gaussian process
Discussions and interpretations of the results are also provided.PMID:34450343 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106360 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 27, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pranaykumar Kasarla Chao Wang Timothy L Brown Daniel McGehee Source Type: research

Modeling and prediction of driving performance measures based on multi-output convolutional Gaussian process
Discussions and interpretations of the results are also provided.PMID:34450343 | DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106360 (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 27, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pranaykumar Kasarla Chao Wang Timothy L Brown Daniel McGehee Source Type: research

Quantitative Analysis of the Social Costs of Road Traffic Crashes Literature
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Aug 21:106282. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106282. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDespite recent improvements in tackling road safety challenges, particularly in developed countries, road traffic crashes account for 1.35 million deaths annually and cost over 65 us$ billion. This paper reviews the existing socio-economic costs literature, highlights research gaps, and draws attention to the lack of analysis in developing countries, which account for 90% of the fatalities. We rely on both simple descriptive analyses and formal econometric analyses. Our descriptive results show an upward trend over the recent...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 25, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Th éophile Bougna Gursmeep Hundal Peter Taniform Source Type: research

Quantitative Analysis of the Social Costs of Road Traffic Crashes Literature
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Aug 21:106282. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106282. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDespite recent improvements in tackling road safety challenges, particularly in developed countries, road traffic crashes account for 1.35 million deaths annually and cost over 65 us$ billion. This paper reviews the existing socio-economic costs literature, highlights research gaps, and draws attention to the lack of analysis in developing countries, which account for 90% of the fatalities. We rely on both simple descriptive analyses and formal econometric analyses. Our descriptive results show an upward trend over the recent...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 25, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Th éophile Bougna Gursmeep Hundal Peter Taniform Source Type: research

Quantitative Analysis of the Social Costs of Road Traffic Crashes Literature
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Aug 21:106282. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106282. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDespite recent improvements in tackling road safety challenges, particularly in developed countries, road traffic crashes account for 1.35 million deaths annually and cost over 65 us$ billion. This paper reviews the existing socio-economic costs literature, highlights research gaps, and draws attention to the lack of analysis in developing countries, which account for 90% of the fatalities. We rely on both simple descriptive analyses and formal econometric analyses. Our descriptive results show an upward trend over the recent...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 25, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Th éophile Bougna Gursmeep Hundal Peter Taniform Source Type: research

A relative approach to the validation of surrogate measures of safety
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Aug 20;161:106350. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106350. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSurrogate measures of safety (SMoS) are meant to be an alternative/complement to crash data that enables a proactive approach to traffic safety. Validity is a fundamental property of SMoS that describes how well they reflect the quality of interest - traffic safety. However, typical validation studies are extremely resource demanding. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore a relative approach to validity that uses fewer resources and does not rely on crash records from the observed locations. The core idea of a r...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 23, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Carl Johnsson Aliaksei Laureshyn Carmelo D ágostino Source Type: research

A relative approach to the validation of surrogate measures of safety
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Aug 20;161:106350. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106350. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSurrogate measures of safety (SMoS) are meant to be an alternative/complement to crash data that enables a proactive approach to traffic safety. Validity is a fundamental property of SMoS that describes how well they reflect the quality of interest - traffic safety. However, typical validation studies are extremely resource demanding. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore a relative approach to validity that uses fewer resources and does not rely on crash records from the observed locations. The core idea of a r...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 23, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Carl Johnsson Aliaksei Laureshyn Carmelo D ágostino Source Type: research

Development and application of connected vehicle technology test platform based on driving simulator: Case study
Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Aug 19;161:106330. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106330. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTo ensure safety, it is necessary to test the connected vehicle (CV) technology before application. The goal of this study is to provide a case reference for the testing of the connected vehicle technology. The connected vehicle technology test platform is built based on the driving simulator. Taking fog zone, tunnel zone, and work zone as analysis cases, drivers were invited to participate in driving simulation experiments, related data was collected, and the impact of connected vehicle technology on driving behavior and...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - August 22, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Xiaohua Zhao Haolin Chen Haijian Li Xuewei Li Xin Chang Xiaofan Feng Yufei Chen Source Type: research