Evaluation of a hospital-based injury surveillance system for monitoring road traffic deaths in Phuket, Thailand.
CONCLUSION: An efficient and comprehensive road traffic injury and death surveillance system is critical for monitoring Phuket's road traffic burden. The hospital-based IS system is a useful system for monitoring road traffic deaths and assessing risk behaviors. However, the complexity of data collection and limited coverage hinders the ability of IS to fully represent road traffic deaths in Phuket Province. Combining data sources could improve coverage and should be considered. PMID: 31050566 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nittayasoot N, Peterson AB, Thammawijaya P, Parker EM, Sathawornwiwat A, Boonthanapat N, Chantian T, Voradetwitaya L, Jiraphongsa C, Sagarasaeranee O, Sansilapin C, Rattanathamsakul T, Ketgudee L, Tantiworrawit P Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pattern of road traffic crash hot zones versus probable hot zones in Tunisia: A geospatial analysis
This study examines the stability of the performance of two spatial autocorrelation measures on the basis of a Road Safety Risk Index (RSRI) through the comparison of the results for three regions (North-West, Center-East, and Center-West) and for three time periods (2002–2005, 2006–2009 and 2010–2013) in Tunisia. Our study differs from others in that it discusses the identification of probable hot zones and enhances the capability to examine a given highway by determining “dangerous probable lengths”, which aims to anticipate the traffic crashes in the future. The identified hot zones and pro...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - May 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Street-crossing workload in young and older pedestrians
Publication date: July 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 128Author(s): Aurélie DommesAbstractAlthough several studies have sought to identify both gap-acceptance difficulties with aging and gait differences, few have examined the extent to which crossing the street is physically and cognitively demanding for older pedestrians, in such a way that street crossing can be seen as a dual task. To gain insight into this issue, this study reports an experiment with 15 young (ages 19–26), 19 younger-old (ages 60–72), and 21 older-old (ages 73–82) adults. The participants carried out th...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - April 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Modeling correlation and heterogeneity in crash rates by collision types using full bayesian random parameters multivariate Tobit model
Publication date: July 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 128Author(s): Yanyong Guo, Zhibin Li, Pan Liu, Yao WuAbstractCrashes present different collision types. There usually exist unobserved risk factors which could jointly affect crash rates of different types, resulting in correlation and heterogeneity issues across observations. The primary objective of the study is to propose a novel random parameters multivariate Tobit (RPMV-Tobit) model for evaluating risk factors on crash rates of different collision types. Crash data from 367 freeway diverge areas in a three-year period were obtained for model...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - April 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Quantifying driver cell phone use at signalized intersections using software-defined radio.
CONCLUSIONS: Once characterized, the frequency of driver cell phone use can be used to justify changes to signal timing protocols. These adjustments could include extending the signal's "all-red time" or holding "yellow time" longer in order to properly clear the intersection. These data can also be used to identify locations that may require more enforcement measures to dissuade driver cell phone use. Furthermore, the impact of anti-cell phone campaigns or new laws can be quantified by measuring before and after cell phone use in the near term rather than waiting for crash studies at intersections to b...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Brennan TM, Jesson JE, Furlanetto PGA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

First evaluation of the possibility of testing for drugged driving using exhaled breath sampling.
CONCLUSION: The promising results from this study provide support to exhaled breath as a viable specimen for testing of drugged driving. The rapid, easy, and convenient sampling procedure offers the possibility to collect a drug test specimen at the roadside. The analytical investigation must be done in a laboratory at present because of the need for a highly sensitive instrument, which is already in use in forensic laboratories. The analytical work is not more challenging than for blood or oral fluid and should not cause an increase in cost. However, more studies need to be done before exhaled breath drug testing can be a...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Beck O, Ullah S, Kronstrand R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effect of alcohol use on accelerating and braking behaviors of drivers.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study revealed that drivers tend to be more aggressive and impulsive under the influence of alcohol, which deteriorates their driving performance. Impairment in accelerating and braking behaviors of drivers under the influence of alcohol leads to increased crash probabilities. The conclusions may provide reference in making countermeasures against drinking and driving and contribute to traffic safety. PMID: 31039040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yadav AK, Velaga NR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Gap acceptance behavior at unsignalized intersections: Effects of using a phone and a music player while driving.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results suggest that drivers are more likely to adopt a compensatory measure in complex driving situations only if they perceive a high risk. Hence, drivers are exposed to a greater risk while operating a music player, because this is not perceived as risky behavior. PMID: 31039038 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Choudhary P, Velaga NR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Organizational networks in road safety: Case studies of U.S. Vision Zero cities.
CONCLUSIONS: Organizational network analyses, enriched with coalition member interviews, can elucidate key aspects of coalition creation, attributes, and relationship structure. The case studies of leading VZ coalition networks presented here highlight the use of these tools. Ultimately, understanding associations between VZ network structures and attributes and road safety outcomes could help inform effective coalition adoption, implementation, and maintenance to optimize safety outcomes. PMID: 31039036 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Naumann RB, Heiny S, Evenson KR, LaJeunesse S, Cooper JF, Doggett S, Marshall SW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A safety analysis of roundabouts and turbo roundabouts based on Petri nets.
CONCLUSIONS: The reduced complexity of the turbo roundabout is due to the strict limitations in lane changes, turning turbo roundabouts into a safer model: A lower number of possible movements that can be performed by drivers and a smaller number of trajectories with collision risk. Petri nets have proven to be perfectly applicable to the representation of traffic circular systems (such as roundabouts and turbo roundabouts) and to measure the complexity and security of the system. PMID: 31039035 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Balado J, Díaz-Vilariño L, Arias P, Novo A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Identification of critical causes of construction accidents in China using a model based on system thinking and case analysis
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2019Source: Safety ScienceAuthor(s): Wei Zhang, Shuangna Zhu, Xiao Zhang, Tingsheng ZhaoAbstractHundreds of accidents occur each year in the construction industry and result in large numbers of injuries, deaths, and loss of property. Although construction safety management aims for zero accidents, this is difficult to achieve because of multiple factors influencing the occurrence of accidents. To clarify the framework for construction accident prevention, this study uses accident causation theory and the system thinking method to build a construction accident causation system (CA...
Source: Safety Science - April 29, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of the effectiveness of traffic calming measures on vehicle speeds and pedestrian injury severity in Ghana.
CONCLUSION: It was clearly evident that traffic calming devices reduce vehicular speeds and, thus, the incidence and severity of pedestrian injuries in built-up areas in Ghana. However, the fact that they are deployed on arterial roads is increasingly becoming a road safety concern. Given the emerging safety challenges associated with speed calming measures, we recommend that their use be restricted to residential streets but not on arterial roads. Long-term solutions for improving pedestrian safety proposed herein include bypassing settlements along the highways to reduce pedestrians' exposure to traffic collisions and ad...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Damsere-Derry J, Ebel BE, Mock CN, Afukaar F, Donkor P, Kalowole TO Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Street-crossing workload in young and older pedestrians.
Abstract Although several studies have sought to identify both gap-acceptance difficulties with aging and gait differences, few have examined the extent to which crossing the street is physically and cognitively demanding for older pedestrians, in such a way that street crossing can be seen as a dual task. To gain insight into this issue, this study reports an experiment with 15 young (ages 19-26), 19 younger-old (ages 60-72), and 21 older-old (ages 73-82) adults. The participants carried out three tasks: (i) a simple walking task, (ii) a dual task involving walking while scanning (walking while pressing a button ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Dommes A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Modeling correlation and heterogeneity in crash rates by collision types using full bayesian random parameters multivariate Tobit model.
Abstract Crashes present different collision types. There usually exist unobserved risk factors which could jointly affect crash rates of different types, resulting in correlation and heterogeneity issues across observations. The primary objective of the study is to propose a novel random parameters multivariate Tobit (RPMV-Tobit) model for evaluating risk factors on crash rates of different collision types. Crash data from 367 freeway diverge areas in a three-year period were obtained for modeling. Three major types of collisions including rear-end, sideswipe, and angle collisions were considered. The RPMV-Tobit ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Guo Y, Li Z, Liu P, Wu Y Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The relationship between sleep quality and lifestyle in postmenopausal Iranian women: a cross-sectional study.
This study aimed to determine the relationship between sleep quality and lifestyle factors in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women (n = 252) in Ahvaz, Iran with an age range of 45-55 years, were enrolled from April to December 2015. The study tools included the Lifestyle Questionnaire (LSQ) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The LSQ contains 10 lifestyle factors: physical health, physical activity, weight control and nutrition, psychological health, spiritual health, social health, medications and narcotics avoidance, illness prevention, accident prevention, and environmental health. Data were analyzed using, chi-sq...
Source: Women and Health - April 28, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Tadayon M, Ilkhani M, Abedi P, Haghighi Zadeh M Tags: Women Health Source Type: research

Are successful safety devices being used universally?
Authors: Forjuoh SN PMID: 31012374 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - April 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Real-time locating systems and safety in construction sites: A literature review
This study aims to conduct a systematic literature review to investigate predominant research streams, achievements, and limitations to the all existing applications of RTLS technology in construction safety management, and suggest potential areas for future research on the integration of RTLS applications into wider scopes of onsite safety management. The main contribution of this review lies on providing a more comprehensive knowledge of the current utilization and further development of RTLS applications on improving construction safety management. RTLSs have aided safety management process in eight major research strea...
Source: Safety Science - April 25, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Identifying the crash characteristics on freeway segments based on different ramp influence areas.
CONCLUSIONS: Investigation of crash types and factors contributing to crashes on different freeway segments is based on multiple ramp influence segments, which can promote a better understanding of the safety performance of various freeway segments. PMID: 31021664 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yang B, Liu P, Chan CY, Xu C, Guo Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Adequacy of negative binomial models for managing safety on rural local roads
Publication date: July 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 128Author(s): Thomas Hall, Andrew P. TarkoAbstractCount models, such as negative binomial regression, are well-established statistical methods for analyzing road safety. Although count models are widely used for arterial roads, their application to rural local roads is sparse, partly due to the concern of possible estimation bias caused by low crash counts. This paper revisits the matter to further evaluate the suitability of negative binomial models for rural local roads with low crash frequencies, comparing the performance of the model to proba...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - April 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Traffic safety: Rights and obligations
Discussion only revolves around the number of deaths and injuries we are willing to accept. The partial departure from this mode of thinking is ‘Vision Zero’ for road safety that was adopted by the Swedish parliament in 1997. The long-term objective is that no one shall be killed or seriously injured in traffic and that the design, function and use of the transport system shall be adapted to the standards this requires. In this article we try to understand the concept of RTI as a public health problem and why that understanding has led to the introduction of Vison Zero and then sporadic attempts to establish ro...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - April 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Associating Vehicles Automation With Drivers Functional State Assessment Systems: A Challenge for Road Safety in the Future
Conclusion Research into the effects of automation on DFS is expending due to understanding that in the near future, the human factor will remain an important component in driving and in monitoring automation. This manuscript points on: (1) The need of accurately assessing DFS, (2) Estimating the DFS may have different strategies given the level of automation, (3) Estimating the DFS can infer on interventions that are also related to automation (e.g., switching between levels of automation). Based on these understandings (points 1–3), we reviewed methods for estimating the DFS and described the potential characteris...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Crash risk of ESC-fitted passenger cars.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that modern passenger cars provide a significant crash risk reduction, which depends on both ESC and passive safety features introduced. Results also show that exposure evaluation in terms of registration years (or vehicle population) instead of true mileage can provide an overly pessimistic view of the crash risk. PMID: 31013176 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Koisaari T, Kari T, Vahlberg T, Sihvola N, Tervo T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Hazard perception of stroke drivers in a video-based Japanese hazard perception task.
CONCLUSIONS: Firstly, HP in stroke patients is low compared to age-matched drivers. Secondly, even if stroke patients notice hazards, their response may be delayed in a BP situation, due to a slower visual information processing speed. Thirdly, the lesion side does not appear to affect HP. PMID: 31013171 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sasaki T, Nogawa T, Yamada K, Kojima T, Kanaya K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characterizing trunk muscle activations during simulated low-speed rear impact collisions.
CONCLUSIONS: Results from this investigation demonstrate that during an unanticipated low-speed rear-end collision, the peak activation of muscles in the lumbar spine are low in magnitude. As such, muscle activation likely has minimal contribution to the internal joint loads that are experienced in the lumbar intervertebral joints during low-speed rear impact collisions. These findings justify the use of simplified joint models in estimating the joint loads in the lumbar spine during low-speed rear impact collisions and support the application of cadaveric and anthropomorphic test device (ATD) testing in understanding the ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fewster KM, Viggiani D, Gooyers CE, Parkinson RJ, Callaghan JP Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Population-based assessment of a vehicle fleet with seat belts providing lower shoulder belt forces than today.
CONCLUSIONS: Because the number of fatal injuries rises dramatically due to lower belt force, the reduction in the number of MAIS 2+ injuries comes at a very high cost. Therefore, whether reducing the belt force limit is the right approach is questionable. PMID: 31013169 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Krampe J, Junge M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Psychotropic substance abuse and fitness to hold a driving license in Italy.
CONCLUSION: Cocaine and cannabinoids were the most used substances in the analyzed population, alone and in combination. Benzodiazepines were the most commonly detected prescription medication, raising questions about prescribed medication and driving risk that are not addressed by current legislation. PMID: 31013165 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pascali JP, Vaiano F, Palumbo D, Umani Ronchi F, Mari F, Bertol E Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Traffic safety: Rights and obligations.
Discussion only revolves around the number of deaths and injuries we are willing to accept. The partial departure from this mode of thinking is 'Vision Zero' for road safety that was adopted by the Swedish parliament in 1997. The long-term objective is that no one shall be killed or seriously injured in traffic and that the design, function and use of the transport system shall be adapted to the standards this requires. In this article we try to understand the concept of RTI as a public health problem and why that understanding has led to the introduction of Vison Zero and then sporadic attempts to establish road safety as...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mohan D Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Adequacy of negative binomial models for managing safety on rural local roads.
Abstract Count models, such as negative binomial regression, are well-established statistical methods for analyzing road safety. Although count models are widely used for arterial roads, their application to rural local roads is sparse, partly due to the concern of possible estimation bias caused by low crash counts. This paper revisits the matter to further evaluate the suitability of negative binomial models for rural local roads with low crash frequencies, comparing the performance of the model to probabilistic regression (ordered probit) proposed in the past. The negative binomial model was estimated to predic...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hall T, Tarko AP Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Red light cameras revisited. Recent evidence on red light camera safety effects
Publication date: July 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 128Author(s): Charles Goldenbeld, Stijn Daniels, Govert SchermersAbstractThe aim of this paper is to update the most recent published evidence on road safety estimates of recent red light camera (RLC) and speed/red light camera studies (SRLC).A literature search was carried out on RLC studies in the period 2013–2017 which, after screening, identified 18 recent studies on red light cameras (RLCs) and speed/red light cameras (SRLCs). The methodology and results of these studies were further examined and summary safety estimates were derived a...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - April 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Operational Safety of an Ammonia Process Network via Model Predictive Control
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Chemical Engineering Research and DesignAuthor(s): Zhihao Zhang, Zhe Wu, David Rincon, Panagiotis D. ChristofidesAbstractProcess safety is a crucial issue in the area of process systems engineering as accident prevention is a top priority in process operations. Operational safety needs to be directly incorporated into control system design to handle disturbances in the process. Motivated by the above considerations, this paper presents a practical application simulating multiple model predictive controllers within a multi-unit ammonia process, all of which integrate s...
Source: Chemical Engineering Research and Design - April 20, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Evaluate driver response to active warning system in level-2 automated vehicles
This study focuses on driver’s response when experiencing prompts after two seconds of inattention while operating a Level 2 vehicle in automated mode. The results show that on average, the frequency of prompts the participants received decreased over the course of the experiment from 29.9 in the first ten minutes to 18.1/10 min after 110 min. The decrease levelled off after about two hours. The fact that participants received fewer prompts over time suggests that they had fewer instances of inattention lasting at least two seconds as the experiment progressed. This suggests that drivers would adapt to ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - April 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Red light cameras revisited. Recent evidence on red light camera safety effects.
Abstract The aim of this paper is to update the most recent published evidence on road safety estimates of recent red light camera (RLC) and speed/red light camera studies (SRLC). A literature search was carried out on RLC studies in the period 2013-2017 which, after screening, identified 18 recent studies on red light cameras (RLCs) and speed/red light cameras (SRLCs). The methodology and results of these studies were further examined and summary safety estimates were derived and compared to earlier meta-analysis summary estimates. The primary conclusion is that the new safety estimates from this paper show a 12%...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Goldenbeld C, Daniels S, Schermers G Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Motorcycle helmet visor-related facial injury and its potential mechanism of injury: Evidence-based case study.
CONCLUSION: This injury affects facial aesthetics and early referral to the facial surgery team is advocated. Documentation of the mechanism of injury, the patient's helmet and visor is obligatory, so that this information can be delivered to the regional road safety authority for preventive measures. PMID: 30995129 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ramli R, Oxley JA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluate driver response to active warning system in level-2 automated vehicles.
This study focuses on driver's response when experiencing prompts after two seconds of inattention while operating a Level 2 vehicle in automated mode. The results show that on average, the frequency of prompts the participants received decreased over the course of the experiment from 29.9 in the first ten minutes to 18.1/10 min after 110 min. The decrease levelled off after about two hours. The fact that participants received fewer prompts over time suggests that they had fewer instances of inattention lasting at least two seconds as the experiment progressed. This suggests that drivers would adapt to the al...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Atwood JR, Guo F, Blanco M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Estimation of heavy vehicle-involved rear-end crash potential using WIM data
This study processes per-vehicle data from a WIM (weight-in-motion) sensor to investigate the heavy vehicle-involved crash risk potential (CRP) on freeways. To estimate rear-end CRP, one of the previously developed models is modified to use WIM data. In addition, this study proposes a technique for estimating the crash risk level, which is determined by comparing the estimated crash risk probability with the maximum expected risk probability at a given level of service (LOS). A time-series investigation reveals that there is clear difference in the CRP and crash risk level between lanes and there are two major time windows...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - April 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Effects of longitudinal pavement edgeline condition on driver lane deviation
Publication date: July 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 128Author(s): Kevin Chang, Marvin V. Ramirez, Brian Dyre, Maged Mohamed, Ahmed Abdel-RahimAbstractSingle vehicle crashes, particularly those classified as run-off-the-road, are very common on two-lane rural highways. One method to potentially reduce such crashes is to provide additional driver information in the form of wider longitudinal edgeline pavement markings. However, since these markings deteriorate over time, the primary objective of this research was to study the effects of longitudinal edgeline pavement markings with varying deteriorat...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - April 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

On the relationship between road safety research and the practice of road design and operation
Publication date: July 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 128Author(s): Hauer EzraAbstractHow do the findings of road safety research affect the practice by which the road infrastructure is built and operated? The question is seldom asked. I discuss the complexities of the research-practice symbiosis in the light of two historical anecdotes. These allow me to point out several issues of concern.My general conclusion is that the relationship, as it evolved over time, is unpremeditated and occasionally dysfunctional. Issues of concern are the lightness with which decisions affecting road-user safety can b...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - April 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Exploring the effects of critical driving situations on driver perception time (PT) using SHRP2 naturalistic driving study data
This study seeks to shed light on how critical driving situations influence driver PT, as well as how the driving environment and driver behavior affect PT during real-world driving by utilizing the Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2) NDS data. An NDS consists of two primary features that distinguish it from retrospective approaches: vehicles are equipped with video camera technologies that observe the driver and the road ahead of the vehicle continuously while driving, and drivers are asked to drive as they normally would. To best study PT while minimizing the effects of confounding factors, this study focus...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - April 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Development and validation of a questionnaire to assess public receptivity toward autonomous vehicles and its relation with the traffic safety climate in China
Publication date: July 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 128Author(s): Weina Qu, Jing Xu, Yan Ge, Xianghong Sun, Kan ZhangAbstractThe advent of autonomous vehicles (AVs) has gained increasing attention in China. Although auto manufacturers and innovators have attempted to confirm that AVs are safe and have introduced them on public roads, it is vital to understand end-users’ acceptance of AVs. A total of 1453 participants voluntarily and validly completed a series of questionnaires. The questionnaires included the Autonomous Vehicle Acceptability Scale (AVAS), the Traffic Climate Scale (TCS), and...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - April 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Effect of the zero-tolerance drinking and driving law on mortality due to road traffic accidents according to the type of victim, sex, and age in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: An interrupted time series study.
The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of the Brazilian zero-tolerance drinking and driving law on mortality rates due to road traffic accidents according to the type of victim, sex, and age. METHODS: An interrupted time series design was used to compare yearly mortality rates due to road traffic accidents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, before and after the zero-tolerance drinking and driving law came into effect on June 19, 2008. Yearly mortality rates were compared according to the type of victim: pedestrian, cyclist, motorcyclist, and vehicle occupant. We used the Prais-Winsten procedure of autoregressi...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jomar RT, Ramos DO, Fonseca VAO, Junger WL Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An assessment of child passenger safety levels of service in Michigan.
CONCLUSIONS: Child passenger safety resources in Michigan are not evenly distributed yet most regions and counties meet intermediate levels of service. Reallocating resources to areas that are providing basic levels of service could help reduce disparities in child passenger safety behaviors. PMID: 30985220 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Macy ML, Brines SJ, Gebremariam A, Manary MA, Olaniyan H, Klinich KD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Alcohol and risky behavior in traffic among motorcyclists involved in accidents in a city in northeastern Brazil.
CONCLUSION: This study showed that, in the population studied, riding a motorcycle under the effects of alcoholic drinks was associated with other risky forms of behavior in traffic: speeding, not using a helmet, and not having a motorcycle driver's license. We believe that the interaction between these behaviors may lead to greater occurrence and greater severity of accidents. PMID: 30985213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Dos Santos WJ, Coêlho VMDS, Bonfim CVD, de Ceballos AGDC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characterizing the child passenger safety workforce in Michigan: A statewide survey in 2015.
In this study, we assessed the number of child passenger safety technicians (CPSTs) in Michigan over 4 years and characterized the CPST workforce in 2015 to identify factors associated with high productivity and longevity in the field. METHODS: We determined the number of CPSTs and those newly certified using lists from the Michigan Office of Highway Safety Planning (OHSP) from 2012 to 2015. We conducted a statewide survey of Michigan CPSTs in October 2015. Analyses were conducted in 2016. The survey assessed demographic characteristics, reasons to enter the field and maintain certification, and motivations to conduct...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Macy ML, Manary MA, Klinich KD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Adaptation of a Canadian culpability scoring tool to Alberta police traffic collision report data.
The objective of this study was to adapt a previously validated Canadian Culpability Scoring Tool (CCST) to Alberta police report data. METHODS: Police traffic collision reports from motor vehicle (MV) collisions in Calgary and Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) from 2010 to 2014 were used. Adaptation of the CCST was completed with input from personnel within Alberta Transportation, contributing to face and content validity. Two research assistants, given only the information necessary for scoring, evaluated 175 randomly selected MV-MV collisions. Interrater agreement was estimated using kappa (k) and reported with 95% confid...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pitt TM, Aucoin J, Nettel-Aguirre A, McCormack GR, Howard AW, Graff P, Rowe BH, Hagel BE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The need to improve information on road user type in National Vital Statistics System mortality data.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the unspecified road user MVC deaths in NVSS look similar to those of MVC occupants according to selected characteristics. Additional study is needed to identify documentation and reporting challenges in individual states and over time and to identify opportunities for improvement in the coding of road user type in NVSS. PMID: 30985191 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mack KA, Hedegaard H, Ballesteros MF, Warner M, Eames J, Sauber-Schatz E Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Exploring the effects of critical driving situations on driver perception time (PT) using SHRP2 naturalistic driving study data.
This study seeks to shed light on how critical driving situations influence driver PT, as well as how the driving environment and driver behavior affect PT during real-world driving by utilizing the Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2) NDS data. An NDS consists of two primary features that distinguish it from retrospective approaches: vehicles are equipped with video camera technologies that observe the driver and the road ahead of the vehicle continuously while driving, and drivers are asked to drive as they normally would. To best study PT while minimizing the effects of confounding factors, this study focus...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wu KF, Lin YJ Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Effects of longitudinal pavement edgeline condition on driver lane deviation.
Abstract Single vehicle crashes, particularly those classified as run-off-the-road, are very common on two-lane rural highways. One method to potentially reduce such crashes is to provide additional driver information in the form of wider longitudinal edgeline pavement markings. However, since these markings deteriorate over time, the primary objective of this research was to study the effects of longitudinal edgeline pavement markings with varying deterioration levels and widths and to assess a driver's ability to maintain lane position. The University of Idaho's driving simulator was used to examine these effect...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chang K, Ramirez MV, Dyre B, Mohamed M, Abdel-Rahim A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

On the relationship between road safety research and the practice of road design and operation.
Abstract How do the findings of road safety research affect the practice by which the road infrastructure is built and operated? The question is seldom asked. I discuss the complexities of the research-practice symbiosis in the light of two historical anecdotes. These allow me to point out several issues of concern. My general conclusion is that the relationship, as it evolved over time, is unpremeditated and occasionally dysfunctional. Issues of concern are the lightness with which decisions affecting road-user safety can be based on opinion that is unsupported by evidence, that such opinions can trump inconvenie...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ezra H Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Estimation of heavy vehicle-involved rear-end crash potential using WIM data.
This study processes per-vehicle data from a WIM (weight-in-motion) sensor to investigate the heavy vehicle-involved crash risk potential (CRP) on freeways. To estimate rear-end CRP, one of the previously developed models is modified to use WIM data. In addition, this study proposes a technique for estimating the crash risk level, which is determined by comparing the estimated crash risk probability with the maximum expected risk probability at a given level of service (LOS). A time-series investigation reveals that there is clear difference in the CRP and crash risk level between lanes and there are two major time windows...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - April 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jo Y, Oh C, Kim S Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The effects of driver fatigue, gender, and distracted driving on perceived and observed aggressive driving behavior: A correlated grouped random parameters bivariate probit approach
This study aims to provide further insights in the variations of these two behavioral components arising from driver’s fatigue, gender as well as internal and external distractions (such as, rushing to destination, listening to music and solving logical problems) during the driving task. To identify how the factors determining perceived and observed aggressive behavior may vary across groups of drivers associated with such sources of aggressive driving, survey and simulation data are statistically analyzed. Separate models of perceived and observed aggressive driving behavior are estimated for fatigued and non-fatigu...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - April 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research