Safety benefit assessment of autonomous emergency braking and steering systems for the protection of cyclists and pedestrians based on a combination of computer simulation and real-world test results.
This study proposes a new prospective framework for quantifying safety benefit of AEBSS for the protection of cyclists and pedestrians in terms of saved lives and reduction in the number of people suffering serious injuries. The core of the framework is a novel application of Bayesian inference in such a way that prior information from counterfactual simulation is updated with new observations from real-world testing of a prototype AEBSS. As an illustration of the method, the framework is applied for safety benefit assessment of the AEBSS developed in the European Union (EU) project PROSPECT. In this application of the fra...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kovaceva J, Bálint A, Schindler R, Schneider A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Risk factors of road accident severity and the development of a new system for prevention: New insights from China.
Abstract Road accident fatalities and accident severity costs have become top priorities and concerns for Chinese policymakers. Understanding the principal factors that explain accident severity is considered to be the first step towards the adequate design of an accident prevention strategy. In this paper, we examine the contribution of various types of factors (vehicle, driver and others) in explaining accident severity in China. Unlike previous studies, the analysis gives a particular focus on fatal accidents. Using a large sample of 405,177 observations for 4-wheeled vehicles in the year 2017 and various stati...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 3, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Benlagha N, Charfeddine L Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 316: Snowboarders ’ Knowledge of the FIS Rules for Conduct on Ski Slopes
The objective of the present study is to assess snowboarders’ general perceptions of safety and knowledge of existing rules and both active and passive knowledge of the International Ski Federation (FIS) regulations in order to contribute to defining target groups for specific educational interventions in the field of injury prevention. Data were drawn from random interviews conducted with 918 snowboarders during the 2017–2018 winter season at five ski resorts located in the Spanish Pyrenees. To collect the data, a questionnaire assessing personal characteristics (gender, age, origin, and self-r...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - January 2, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Luis Carus Isabel Castillo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Adaptation of the multidimensional driving styles inventory for Spanish drivers: Convergent and predictive validity evidence for detecting safe and unsafe driving styles
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): Jose-Luis Padilla, Candida Castro, Pablo Doncel, Orit Taubman - Ben-AriAbstractThe Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory (MDSI; Taubman – Ben-Ari et al., 2004) is a well-known and useful instrument that allows us to identify not only “maladaptive” Driving Styles (DS) in order to modify them, but also “adaptive” DS to encourage safe driving. The aim of this study was to adapt the MDSI to the Spanish spoken in Spain and to the rules and driving habits of Spaniards. The Argentinian version of the MDSI ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - January 1, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 308: Injury Prevention: Freestylers ’ Awareness of FIS Code of Conduct for Snow Parks
The objectives of the present study were to assess general perceptions of safety in snow parks (SPs), general knowledge of rules existence, and both active and passive awareness of the International Ski Federation (FIS) rules contained in its Code of Conduct for SPs in order to define target groups for injury prevention-specific education interventions. Data were drawn from 436 freestylers randomly interviewed. The study was conducted during the 2018–2019 winter season in the SP of a major winter resort located in the Spanish Pyrenees. A questionnaire assessing personal data (gender, age, gear used, self-repo...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - January 1, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Luis Carus Isabel Castillo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Adaptation of the multidimensional driving styles inventory for Spanish drivers: Convergent and predictive validity evidence for detecting safe and unsafe driving styles.
Abstract The Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory (MDSI; Taubman - Ben-Ari et al., 2004) is a well-known and useful instrument that allows us to identify not only "maladaptive" Driving Styles (DS) in order to modify them, but also "adaptive" DS to encourage safe driving. The aim of this study was to adapt the MDSI to the Spanish spoken in Spain and to the rules and driving habits of Spaniards. The Argentinian version of the MDSI was taken as the source version. The sample consisted of 1173 drivers, who completed the Spanish version of the MDSI. The factor structure was analysed by means of ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Padilla JL, Castro C, Doncel P, Taubman-Ben-Ari O Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The effects of Chile’s 2005 traffic law reform and in-country socioeconomic differences on road traffic deaths among children aged 0-14 years: A 12-year interrupted time series analysis
ConclusionsLarge-scale legislative actions can be effective road safety measures if they are aimed at promoting behavioral change in developing countries, improving the safety of children on the road. Additionally, regional socioeconomic differences are associated with higher RTD rates in this population, making this an argument in favor of road safety policies that consider these inequalities. The number of road traffic tickets processed and the investment in road infrastructure were not significant. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Exploring the who, what, when, where, and why of automated vehicle disengagements
This study comprehensively examines the safety performances (159,840 disengagements, 124 crashes, and 3,669,472 automated vehicle miles traveled by the manufacturers) documented since the inauguration of the testing program. The reported disengagements were categorized as control discrepancy, environmental conditions and other road users, hardware and software discrepancy, perception discrepancy, planning discrepancy, and operator takeover. An applicable subset of disengagements was then used to identify and quantify the 5 W’s of these safety-critical events: who (disengagement initiator), when (the maturity of the A...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Enhancement of unsafe behaviors in simulated moped-riding performance under the influence of low dose of alcohol
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): Carmela Centola, Mariaelena Tagliabue, Andrea Spoto, Marco Palpacelli, Arianna Giorgetti, Raffaele Giorgetti, Giulio VidottoAbstractThe effects of low levels of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) on motorcyclist performance are still not fully comprehended. The great majority of the studies are, in fact, focused on car driving. So far, it is known that even BAC levels below the legal limit negatively affect riding motor skills correlated with crash rate. In the present study, we used a moped riding simulator to investigate the effec...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Tailings dam safety monitoring and early warning based on spatial evolution process of mud-sand flow
Publication date: April 2020Source: Safety Science, Volume 124Author(s): Sumin Li, Liwei Yuan, Hua Yang, Huaming An, Guangjin WangAbstractAnalyze the spatial evolution process of the mud-sand flow and reasonably judge and estimate the mud-sand flow disaster after tailings dam-break are the premise for the construction and safety management of tailings ponds. In this paper, mainly focus on tailings dam safety monitoring and early warning by establishing three dimensional according to real terrain and the present situation of backfilling stockpiling. Take Qinglong tailing dam as example, the mud-sand flow hazard scope, exten...
Source: Safety Science - December 28, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Modelling braking behaviour and accident probability of drivers under increasing time pressure conditions
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): Nishant Mukund Pawar, Rashmeet Kaur Khanuja, Pushpa Choudhary, Nagendra R. VelagaAbstractDrivers apply brakes to reduce the speed of a vehicle based on the perceived risk while approaching a certain event. Inadequate or excessive braking can lead to serious consequences. The current study analyses the braking behaviour and accident probability of the drivers under increasing time pressure conditions. Two perilous events (pedestrian crossing and obstacle overtaking) were designed to examine Brake Pedal Force (BPF) and Brake-To-Maxim...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 28, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Enhancement of unsafe behaviors in simulated moped-riding performance under the influence of low dose of alcohol.
Abstract The effects of low levels of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) on motorcyclist performance are still not fully comprehended. The great majority of the studies are, in fact, focused on car driving. So far, it is known that even BAC levels below the legal limit negatively affect riding motor skills correlated with crash rate. In the present study, we used a moped riding simulator to investigate the effects of low alcohol dosages (under the limits established in Italy, and in most European countries) on the defensive riding ability of light drinkers, particularly focusing on the degree of danger characterizi...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 28, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Centola C, Tagliabue M, Spoto A, Palpacelli M, Giorgetti A, Giorgetti R, Vidotto G Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 221: Exploring the Impact of Unsafe Behaviors on Building Construction Accidents Using a Bayesian Network
This study is of theoretical and practical significance for on-site behavioral management and accident prevention. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - December 27, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Guo He Li Tang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Exploring the who, what, when, where, and why of automated vehicle disengagements.
This study comprehensively examines the safety performances (159,840 disengagements, 124 crashes, and 3,669,472 automated vehicle miles traveled by the manufacturers) documented since the inauguration of the testing program. The reported disengagements were categorized as control discrepancy, environmental conditions and other road users, hardware and software discrepancy, perception discrepancy, planning discrepancy, and operator takeover. An applicable subset of disengagements was then used to identify and quantify the 5 W's of these safety-critical events: who (disengagement initiator), when (the maturity of the ADS), w...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Boggs AM, Arvin R, Khattak AJ Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The effects of Chile's 2005 traffic law reform and in-country socioeconomic differences on road traffic deaths among children aged 0-14 years: A 12-year interrupted time series analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale legislative actions can be effective road safety measures if they are aimed at promoting behavioral change in developing countries, improving the safety of children on the road. Additionally, regional socioeconomic differences are associated with higher RTD rates in this population, making this an argument in favor of road safety policies that consider these inequalities. The number of road traffic tickets processed and the investment in road infrastructure were not significant. PMID: 31887459 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Martínez P, Contreras D Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Application and modification of the Tripod Beta method for analyzing the causes of oil and gas industries accidents.
Conclusions: The results of the present study added to the knowledge of the causes of the accident. These results can help increase the capabilities of the Tripod Beta method for analyzing accident causes such as supervision factors and unsafe condition, which have been ignored in the analysis performed using Tripod Beta method. PMID: 31872789 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics)
Source: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics - December 26, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Tags: Int J Occup Saf Ergon Source Type: research

What can we learn from the historic road safety performance of high-income countries?
Authors: Bhalla K, Mohan D, O'Neill B Abstract Road traffic deaths in high-income countries (HICs) have been steadily declining for five decades, but are rising or stable in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We use time-series cross-sectional methods to assess how age- and sex- specific death rates evolved in 20 HICs during 1955-2015, controlling for income, population density and urbanization. Past work has attributed improvements in safety in HICs to income growth, suggesting that countries intervene when they become richer (Kuznets hypothesis). In contrast, we show that HICs had statistically significant...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - December 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Opportunities to reduce road traffic injury: new insights from the study of urban areas.
This study demonstrates the utility of employing image recognition methods to discover new insights that afford urban and transport planning opportunities to mitigate road traffic injury at a regional and global scale. PMID: 31870197 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - December 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Modelling braking behaviour and accident probability of drivers under increasing time pressure conditions.
Abstract Drivers apply brakes to reduce the speed of a vehicle based on the perceived risk while approaching a certain event. Inadequate or excessive braking can lead to serious consequences. The current study analyses the braking behaviour and accident probability of the drivers under increasing time pressure conditions. Two perilous events (pedestrian crossing and obstacle overtaking) were designed to examine Brake Pedal Force (BPF) and Brake-To-Maximum Brake (BTMB) transition time on a driving simulator. Eighty-five Indian licensed drivers drove the simulator in three different time pressure conditions: No Time...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pawar NM, Khanuja RK, Choudhary P, Velaga NR Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: February 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 135Author(s): (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Analyzing the ability of crash-prone highways to handle stochastically modelled driver demand for stopping sight distance
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): Suliman A. Gargoum, Karim El-BasyounyAbstractStopping Sight Distance (SSD) is the distance defined in most highway design guides as the distance required by drivers to safely come to a complete stop in case of an emergency. Accordingly, design guides define theoretical values for SSD and recommend that these requirements are satisfied at all points along a highway corridor. SSD is estimated as a function of speed, driver reaction time, and deceleration rate, which are all factors that vary by both driver and driving conditions. Des...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Impact of right-turn channelization on pedestrian safety at signalized intersections
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): Chaozhe Jiang, Rui Qiu, Ting Fu, Liping Fu, Binglei Xiong, Zhengyang LuAbstractChannelized right turns or slip lanes have been widely implemented as an effective countermeasure of reducing traffic delay and number of conflicts between vehicles at signalized intersections. However, only a few studies have investigated the impact of channelized right turns (in left-band driving countries) on pedestrian safety. Channelized right turns may increase the risks for pedestrians since they bring pedestrian-vehicle interactions in a fully no...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Determinants of the congestion caused by a traffic accident in urban road networks
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): Zhenjie Zheng, Zhengli Wang, Liyun Zhu, Hai JiangAbstractNon-recurrent congestion is frustrating to travelers as it often causes unexpected delay, which would result in missing important meetings or appointments. Major causes of non-recurrent congestion include adverse weather conditions, natural hazards, and traffic accidents. Although there has been a proliferation of studies that investigate how adverse weather conditions and natural hazards impact road congestion in urban road networks, studies that look into determinants of th...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Analyzing the ability of crash-prone highways to handle stochastically modelled driver demand for stopping sight distance.
Abstract Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) is the distance defined in most highway design guides as the distance required by drivers to safely come to a complete stop in case of an emergency. Accordingly, design guides define theoretical values for SSD and recommend that these requirements are satisfied at all points along a highway corridor. SSD is estimated as a function of speed, driver reaction time, and deceleration rate, which are all factors that vary by both driver and driving conditions. Despite the anticipated uncertainty in those variables, they are all modelled deterministically. Unfortunately, this is an ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gargoum SA, El-Basyouny K Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A numerical investigation of factors affecting lumbar spine injuries in frontal crashes
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): Liang Tang, Jiajia Zheng, Jingwen HuAbstractRecent field data analyses have shown that lumbar spine fractures occurred more frequently in late model vehicles than the early ones in frontal crashes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with lumbar spine fractures in frontal crashes.Parametric simulations were conducted using a set of validated vehicle driver compartment model, restraint system model, and a HIII mid-size male crash test dummy model. Risk factors considered in the study inc...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Characteristics of the road infrastructure and injurious cyclist crashes resulting in a hospitalisation
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): Lynn B. Meuleners, Michelle Fraser, Marilyn Johnson, Mark Stevenson, Geoffrey Rose, Jennie OxleyAbstractFaced with the current growth and change to Western Australia’s road network as well as the promotion and increased uptake of cycling, further investigation into crash, injury and road infrastructure characteristics is necessary. An in-depth study was conducted of 100 cyclists who were injured due to involvement in a crash that occurred on-road and resulted in an admission to a hospital. Information collected included a res...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Impact of right-turn channelization on pedestrian safety at signalized intersections.
Abstract Channelized right turns or slip lanes have been widely implemented as an effective countermeasure of reducing traffic delay and number of conflicts between vehicles at signalized intersections. However, only a few studies have investigated the impact of channelized right turns (in left-band driving countries) on pedestrian safety. Channelized right turns may increase the risks for pedestrians since they bring pedestrian-vehicle interactions in a fully non-signalized environment. Furthermore, the increased turning radius at channelized lanes can lead to higher vehicle speeds. This paper investigates the im...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jiang C, Qiu R, Fu T, Fu L, Xiong B, Lu Z Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Determinants of the congestion caused by a traffic accident in urban road networks.
Abstract Non-recurrent congestion is frustrating to travelers as it often causes unexpected delay, which would result in missing important meetings or appointments. Major causes of non-recurrent congestion include adverse weather conditions, natural hazards, and traffic accidents. Although there has been a proliferation of studies that investigate how adverse weather conditions and natural hazards impact road congestion in urban road networks, studies that look into determinants of the congestion caused by a traffic accident are scarce. This research fills in this gap in the literature. When a traffic accident occ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zheng Z, Wang Z, Zhu L, Jiang H Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Toward safer highways, application of XGBoost and SHAP for real-time accident detection and feature analysis
In this study, we use eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost)—a Machine Learning (ML) technique—to detect the occurrence of accidents using a set of real time data comprised of traffic, network, demographic, land use, and weather features. The data used from the Chicago metropolitan expressways was collected between December 2016 and December 2017, and it includes 244 traffic accidents and 6073 non-accident cases. In addition, SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanation) is employed to interpret the results and analyze the importance of individual features. The results show that XGBoost can detect accidents robustly with an...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Characteristics of the road infrastructure and injurious cyclist crashes resulting in a hospitalisation.
Abstract Faced with the current growth and change to Western Australia's road network as well as the promotion and increased uptake of cycling, further investigation into crash, injury and road infrastructure characteristics is necessary. An in-depth study was conducted of 100 cyclists who were injured due to involvement in a crash that occurred on-road and resulted in an admission to a hospital. Information collected included a researcher-administered questionnaire, crash details from the Integrated Road Information System (IRIS), injury information from the State Trauma Registry and a virtual on-line site inspec...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Meuleners LB, Fraser M, Johnson M, Stevenson M, Rose G, Oxley J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A numerical investigation of factors affecting lumbar spine injuries in frontal crashes.
Abstract Recent field data analyses have shown that lumbar spine fractures occurred more frequently in late model vehicles than the early ones in frontal crashes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with lumbar spine fractures in frontal crashes. Parametric simulations were conducted using a set of validated vehicle driver compartment model, restraint system model, and a HIII mid-size male crash test dummy model. Risk factors considered in the study included occupant seating posture, crash pulse, vehicle pitch angle, seat design, anchor pre-tensioner, dynamic locking t...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tang L, Zheng J, Hu J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Differences in visual-spatial working memory and driving behavior between morning-type and evening-type drivers
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): Yan Ge, Biying Sheng, Weina Qu, Yuexing Xiong, Xianghong Sun, Kan ZhangAbstractCircadian rhythms are changes in life activities over a cycle of approximately 24 hours. Studies on chronotypes have found that there are significant differences in physiology, personality, cognitive ability and driving behavior between morning-type and evening-type people. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between visual-spatial working memory and driving behavior between morning-type and evening-type drivers in China. A total of ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A systematic review of the association between fault or blame-related attributions and procedures after transport injury and health and work-related outcomes
Publication date: February 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 135Author(s): Melita J. Giummarra, Georgina Lau, Genevieve Grant, Belinda J. GabbeAbstractAttributions of fault are often associated with worse injury outcomes; however, the consistency and magnitude of these impacts is not known. This review examined the prognostic role of fault on health, mental health, pain and work outcomes after transport injury. A systematic search of five electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library) yielded 16,324 records published between 2000 and January 2018. Eligibility criteria were: ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Driver education: how effective?
Authors: O'Neill B Abstract In the early 20th century, the numbers of motor vehicles in use grew rapidly in the USA, Canada, and many European countries. By the 1930s, the number of automobile crashes and the resulting deaths and injuries was a significant problem and various safety organizations tried to address it with education and publicity programs aimed at changing driver behaviour. It is not clear when the high crash risks of young drivers were first identified, but in the early 1930s driver education courses began to be offered in US high schools (feasible because US licensing ages were 16 or younger) and s...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - December 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Preventing motor vehicle crash injuries and deaths: science vs. folklore lessons from history.
Authors: O'Neill B, Mohan D Abstract Not long after the beginnings of motorization in the early 1900s, deaths and injuries from motor vehicle crashes became a problem in a number of high-income-countries (HIC)s, especially the United States. With the biggest problem the US led early efforts to address this issue, and for six decades these efforts were based on folklore (ie a body of widely held but false or unsubstantiated beliefs). They were not evaluated, but clearly were unsuccessful as crash deaths and injuries continued to rise. It was not until the 1970s that a broader range of countermeasures began to be ado...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - December 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

A multivariate analysis of environmental effects on road accident occurrence using a balanced bagging approach
In this study, a methodology to obtain robust and unbiased results when modeling imbalanced, high-resolution accident data is described. Based on a data set covering the whole highway network of Austria in a fine spatial (250 m) and temporal (1 h) scale, the effects of 48 covariates on accident occurrence are analyzed, with a special emphasis on real-time weather variables obtained through meteorological re-analysis. A balanced bagging approach is employed to cope with the issue of class imbalance. By fitting different tree-based classifiers to a large number of bootstrapped training samples, ensembles of binary classi...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Toward safer highways, application of XGBoost and SHAP for real-time accident detection and feature analysis.
In this study, we use eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost)-a Machine Learning (ML) technique-to detect the occurrence of accidents using a set of real time data comprised of traffic, network, demographic, land use, and weather features. The data used from the Chicago metropolitan expressways was collected between December 2016 and December 2017, and it includes 244 traffic accidents and 6073 non-accident cases. In addition, SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanation) is employed to interpret the results and analyze the importance of individual features. The results show that XGBoost can detect accidents robustly with an accuracy, d...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Parsa AB, Movahedi A, Taghipour H, Derrible S, Mohammadian AK Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A bivariate random effects spatial model of traffic fatalities and injuries across Provinces of Iran
In this study, a statistical model was developed within a Bayesian framework with the aim of examining the annual fatal and non-fatal injury counts in the provinces of Iran during the period 2005–2015. Specifically, a bivariate spatial negative binomial Bayesian model with random effects was specified and estimated to account for unobserved heterogeneity due to the simultaneity effect between fatal and non-fatal injuries, the presence of province-specific factors, and the spatial correlation between neighboring provinces. All the three effects were found to significantly relate to the frequency of both injury types. ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 18, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Predicting the monitoring/reading of communications on a smartphone among young drivers using an extended theory of planned behaviour
Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 136Author(s): Georgia Murphy, Cassandra Gauld, Ioni LewisAbstractAustralian drivers aged 17–25 years are overrepresented in road crashes, with many crashes resulting from smartphone use. The current study, based on a prospective design and an extended TPB framework, predicted young drivers’ intentions to, and actual behaviour of, monitoring/reading social interactive technology via a smartphone while driving. An online survey at Time 1 (N = 167) assessed the TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm and perceived beha...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 18, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A systematic review of the association between fault or blame-related attributions and procedures after transport injury and health and work-related outcomes.
Abstract Attributions of fault are often associated with worse injury outcomes; however, the consistency and magnitude of these impacts is not known. This review examined the prognostic role of fault on health, mental health, pain and work outcomes after transport injury. A systematic search of five electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library) yielded 16,324 records published between 2000 and January 2018. Eligibility criteria were: adult transport injury survivors; prospective design; multivariable analysis; fault-related factor analysed; pain, mental health, general health or work-r...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 18, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Giummarra MJ, Lau G, Grant G, Gabbe BJ Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Riding behavior and electric bike traffic crashes: A Chinese case-control study.
Abstract Objective: The present case-control study sought to explore at-risk riding behaviors associated with e-bike related traffic crashes among e-bike riders in China.Methods: Cases were recruited from residents aged 16 years and over in communities which stated "selected e-bikes as travel tools and experienced traffic crashes in the last year". Two controls for each case were randomly selected from a population of e-bike riders who had not experienced a traffic crash in the past year. The cases and controls were matched by gender, age (within 5 years) and school education level. Data we...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Qian Y, Sun Q, Fei G, Li X, Stallones L, Xiang H, Zhang X Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Modeling head-on crash severity with drivers under the influence of alcohol or drugs (DUI) and non-DUI.
Conclusions: The results of this study identify various factors that significantly affect the severity of head-on crashes with drivers under and not under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Also, the mixed logit model examines the heterogeneous effects and correlation in unobserved factors by allowing coefficients to be randomly distributed. The findings of this study call for more attention to head-on crashes and provide a reference for planners and engineers when developing and selecting countermeasures to reduce and/or mitigate head-on crashes. PMID: 31846587 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Liu P, Fan WD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Differences in visual-spatial working memory and driving behavior between morning-type and evening-type drivers.
Abstract Circadian rhythms are changes in life activities over a cycle of approximately 24 hours. Studies on chronotypes have found that there are significant differences in physiology, personality, cognitive ability and driving behavior between morning-type and evening-type people. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between visual-spatial working memory and driving behavior between morning-type and evening-type drivers in China. A total of 42 Chinese drivers were selected to participate in this study according to their score on the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, including 22 morning-...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ge Y, Sheng B, Qu W, Xiong Y, Sun X, Zhang K Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A bivariate random effects spatial model of traffic fatalities and injuries across Provinces of Iran.
In this study, a statistical model was developed within a Bayesian framework with the aim of examining the annual fatal and non-fatal injury counts in the provinces of Iran during the period 2005-2015. Specifically, a bivariate spatial negative binomial Bayesian model with random effects was specified and estimated to account for unobserved heterogeneity due to the simultaneity effect between fatal and non-fatal injuries, the presence of province-specific factors, and the spatial correlation between neighboring provinces. All the three effects were found to significantly relate to the frequency of both injury types. Result...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 16, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Besharati MM, Tavakoli Kashani A, Li Z, Washington S, Prato CG Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Predicting the monitoring/reading of communications on a smartphone among young drivers using an extended theory of planned behaviour.
Abstract Australian drivers aged 17-25 years are overrepresented in road crashes, with many crashes resulting from smartphone use. The current study, based on a prospective design and an extended TPB framework, predicted young drivers' intentions to, and actual behaviour of, monitoring/reading social interactive technology via a smartphone while driving. An online survey at Time 1 (N = 167) assessed the TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behaviour control (PBC), and the additional factors of habit, mindfulness and cognitive capture. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis s...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 16, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Murphy G, Gauld C, Lewis I Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A multivariate analysis of environmental effects on road accident occurrence using a balanced bagging approach.
In this study, a methodology to obtain robust and unbiased results when modeling imbalanced, high-resolution accident data is described. Based on a data set covering the whole highway network of Austria in a fine spatial (250 m) and temporal (1 h) scale, the effects of 48 covariates on accident occurrence are analyzed, with a special emphasis on real-time weather variables obtained through meteorological re-analysis. A balanced bagging approach is employed to cope with the issue of class imbalance. By fitting different tree-based classifiers to a large number of bootstrapped training samples, ensembles of binary classi...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - December 16, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Schlögl M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Highway crash detection and risk estimation using deep learning
Publication date: February 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 135Author(s): Tingting Huang, Shuo Wang, Anuj SharmaAbstractCrash Detection is essential in providing timely information to traffic management centers and the public to reduce its adverse effects. Prediction of crash risk is vital for avoiding secondary crashes and safeguarding highway traffic. For many years, researchers have explored several techniques for early and precise detection of crashes to aid in traffic incident management. With recent advancements in data collection techniques, abundant real-time traffic data is available for use....
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Drivers adapt – Be prepared for It!
Publication date: February 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 135Author(s): Alison Smiley, Christina Rudin-BrownAbstractBehavioral adaptation refers to the change in road user behavior in response to new conditions (Kulmala & Rämä, 2013). Behavioral adaptation can improve safety, but it can also reduce or even eliminate anticipated safety benefits of many well-intentioned road safety countermeasures. To expect driver behavior to remain the same after the implementation of a change in the road, vehicle, or driving environment, is naïve. Empirical studies that do not consider the full r...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Safety climate: Systematic literature network analysis of 38 years (1980-2018) of research
The objective of this paper is to examine the safety climate knowledge epistemology using bibliometric and systematic literature network analysis. For this purpose, bibliometric information of research article published on safety climate topic was retrieved from Scopus databases. In total, 494 articles published between 1980 and 2018 were retrieved. These articles cover 1373 authors, 203 journals and 2511 keywords. Information collected was analyzed employing bibliometric and network analysis approach using an open source computer program R and VOSviewer.The main findings of the study reveal the publication trends in safet...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Probabilistic temporal prediction of the deaths caused by traffic in Colombia. Mortality caused by traffic prediction
Conclusionsthe applicability of the developed methodology to predict the dynamic behaviour of deaths caused by traffic injuries in Colombia for 2010 by means of a probabilistic random walk was confirmed with a good precision, suggesting that this methodology could be useful to verify the efficacy of national road safety strategies implemented to reduce mortality rates. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - December 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research