A dual perspective on risk perception and its effect on safety behavior: A moderated mediation model of safety motivation, and supervisor's and coworkers' safety climate.
This study aims to clarify this conflict and the mechanism through which risk perception can have an impact on safety behavior. From the perspective of the dual attribute of the job demand concept in job demands-resources theory, we posit that risk perception can be considered as a job hindrance or a job challenge depending on the context, thereby resulting in a negative or positive impact on safety behavior, respectively. The current research context is the construction industry and the hypotheses were tested using hierarchically nested data collected from 311 workers in 35 workgroups. Risk perception was demonstrated to ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - November 9, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Xia N, Xie Q, Hu X, Wang X, Meng H Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Spanish validation of the mindful organizing scale: A questionnaire for the assessment of collective mindfulness.
CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish version of the Mindful Organizing Scale has shown to be a valid and reliable scale that can be used to measure mindful organizing. CONTRIBUTIONS: The validation of the unidimensional Spanish version of Vogus and Sutcliffe's (2007) Mindful Organizing Scale provides researchers and practitioners with a reliable and valid tool to use in Spanish speaking organizations to measure mindful organizing, which has been shown to result in more reliable performance. Theoretically, this study offers four contributions. Firstly, it validates a scale that operationalizes the 'mindful organizing' construct in...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - November 9, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Renecle M, Tomás I, Gracia FJ, Peiró JM Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Innovative countermeasures for red light running prevention at signalized intersections: A driving simulator study
In conclusion, the R-LED and the RW-gantry treatments are recommended as effective tools to improve safety at signalized intersections. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Trends in mortality from road traffic injuries in South Korea, 1983–2017: Joinpoint regression and age-period-cohort analyses
This study aimed to describe the trends in mortality from RTIs and examine APC effects on RTI mortality in Korea. Using the national death certificate and census mid-year population estimates data during 1983–2017, trends in age-standardized mortality rates from RTIs were analyzed using Joinpoint regression. Intrinsic estimator regression models were used to estimate APC effects on RTI mortality. Consistent with the trend in period effects, RTI mortality increased sharply with the economic growth in the 1980s, decelerated after the implementation of road safety policies in the early 1990s, plummeted owing to the 1997...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Detecting motorcycle helmet use with deep learning
Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Felix Wilhelm Siebert, Hanhe LinAbstractThe continuous motorization of traffic has led to a sustained increase in the global number of road related fatalities and injuries. To counter this, governments are focusing on enforcing safe and law-abiding behavior in traffic. However, especially in developing countries where the motorcycle is the main form of transportation, there is a lack of comprehensive data on the safety-critical behavioral metric of motorcycle helmet use. This lack of data prohibits targeted enforcement and educat...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Pedestrians distracted by their smartphone: Are in-ground flashing lights catching their attention? A laboratory study.
Abstract Pedestrian distraction is a growing road safety concern worldwide. While there are currently no studies linking distraction and pedestrian crash risk, distraction has been shown to increase risky behaviours in pedestrians, for example, through reducing visual scanning before traversing an intersection. Illuminated in-ground Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) embedded into pathways are an emerging solution to address the growing distraction problem associated with mobile use while walking. The current study sought to determine if such an intervention was effective in attracting the attention of distracted pedest...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - November 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Larue GS, Watling CN, Black AA, Wood JM, Khakzar M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Adult moped-related injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments.
Conclusions: Moped injuries increased in all adult age groups during the study period. However, there were significant differences in contributing factors, crash mechanism, and outcomes by sex, race, and age. These findings suggest the need for targeted injury prevention interventions. PMID: 31697571 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Johnson NK, Johnson BM, Denning GM, Jennissen CA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Innovative countermeasures for red light running prevention at signalized intersections: A driving simulator study.
In conclusion, the R-LED and the RW-gantry treatments are recommended as effective tools to improve safety at signalized intersections. PMID: 31707167 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - November 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hussain Q, Alhajyaseen WKM, Brijs K, Pirdavani A, Brijs T Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Pedestrian safety at signalized intersections: Modelling spatial effects of exposure, geometry and signalization on a large urban network
Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Joshua Stipancic, Luis Miranda-Moreno, Jillian Strauss, Aurélie LabbeAbstractIntersections represent the most dangerous sites in the road network for pedestrians: not only is modal separation often impossible, but elements of geometry, traffic control, and built environment further exacerbate crash risk. Evaluating the safety impact of intersection features requires methods to quantify relationships between different factors and pedestrian injuries. The purpose of this paper is to model the effects of exposure, geometry, a...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The epidemiology of pedestrian fatalities and substance use in Georgia, United States, 2007–2016
This study explores the epidemiology of pedestrian fatalities in Georgia over a 10-year period with an emphasis on reported substance use among cases. The study employed 10-year data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) administered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Descriptive methods were used to explore drug screens by person, place, and time. We also examined trends in total drug screens over the examination period. Between 2007 and 2016, 1781 pedestrian crashes were reported to FARS; the fatality rate for this period was 94.5%. Of these, most were male with Blacks and Whites equally ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Are riders of electric two-wheelers safer than bicyclists in collisions with motor vehicles?
The objective of this study is to investigate the factors influencing kinematics and head injury risks of two-wheeler rides in two-wheeler-vehicle collisions and compare between E2W-vehicle and bicycle-vehicle collisions. Via multi-body modeling of two two-wheeler types, two vehicle types, and three rider statures in MADYMO, twelve collision scenarios were developed. A simulation matrix considering a range of impact velocities and relative positions was performed for each scenario. A subsequent parametric analysis was conducted with focus on the kinematics and head injury risks of two-wheeler riders. Results show that the ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Assessing pedestrian safety across modalities via a simulated vehicle time-to-arrival task
Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Brian J. Pugliese, Benjamin K. Barton, Shane J. Davis, Gerardo LopezAbstractPedestrians must use a variety of visual and auditory cues when determining safe crossing opportunities. Although vision has received a bulk of the attention in research on pedestrian safety, the examination of both vision and audition are important to consider. Environmental, intrapersonal, and cognitive qualities of a pedestrian context may limit the use of one or both perceptual modalities. Across two experiments, we examined the impact of perceptual c...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Detecting motorcycle helmet use with deep learning.
Abstract The continuous motorization of traffic has led to a sustained increase in the global number of road related fatalities and injuries. To counter this, governments are focusing on enforcing safe and law-abiding behavior in traffic. However, especially in developing countries where the motorcycle is the main form of transportation, there is a lack of comprehensive data on the safety-critical behavioral metric of motorcycle helmet use. This lack of data prohibits targeted enforcement and education campaigns which are crucial for injury prevention. Hence, we have developed an algorithm for the automated regist...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - November 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Siebert FW, Lin H Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Trends in mortality from road traffic injuries in South Korea, 1983-2017: Joinpoint regression and age-period-cohort analyses.
This study aimed to describe the trends in mortality from RTIs and examine APC effects on RTI mortality in Korea. Using the national death certificate and census mid-year population estimates data during 1983-2017, trends in age-standardized mortality rates from RTIs were analyzed using Joinpoint regression. Intrinsic estimator regression models were used to estimate APC effects on RTI mortality. Consistent with the trend in period effects, RTI mortality increased sharply with the economic growth in the 1980s, decelerated after the implementation of road safety policies in the early 1990s, plummeted owing to the 1997-1998 ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - November 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Eun SJ Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The epidemiology of pedestrian fatalities and substance use in Georgia, United States, 2007-2016.
This study explores the epidemiology of pedestrian fatalities in Georgia over a 10-year period with an emphasis on reported substance use among cases. The study employed 10-year data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) administered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Descriptive methods were used to explore drug screens by person, place, and time. We also examined trends in total drug screens over the examination period. Between 2007 and 2016, 1781 pedestrian crashes were reported to FARS; the fatality rate for this period was 94.5%. Of these, most were male with Blacks and Whites equally ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - November 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Thomas M, Williams T, Jones J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Assessing pedestrian safety across modalities via a simulated vehicle time-to-arrival task.
Abstract Pedestrians must use a variety of visual and auditory cues when determining safe crossing opportunities. Although vision has received a bulk of the attention in research on pedestrian safety, the examination of both vision and audition are important to consider. Environmental, intrapersonal, and cognitive qualities of a pedestrian context may limit the use of one or both perceptual modalities. Across two experiments, we examined the impact of perceptual constraints on pedestrian safety by measuring the accuracy of vehicle time-to-arrival estimates in a virtual environment when vehicles were only visible, ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - November 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pugliese BJ, Barton BK, Davis SJ, Lopez G Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Are riders of electric two-wheelers safer than bicyclists in collisions with motor vehicles?
The objective of this study is to investigate the factors influencing kinematics and head injury risks of two-wheeler rides in two-wheeler-vehicle collisions and compare between E2W-vehicle and bicycle-vehicle collisions. Via multi-body modeling of two two-wheeler types, two vehicle types, and three rider statures in MADYMO, twelve collision scenarios were developed. A simulation matrix considering a range of impact velocities and relative positions was performed for each scenario. A subsequent parametric analysis was conducted with focus on the kinematics and head injury risks of two-wheeler riders. Results show that the ...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - November 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Huang Y, Zhou Q, Koelper C, Li Q, Nie B Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Pedestrian safety at signalized intersections: Modelling spatial effects of exposure, geometry and signalization on a large urban network.
Abstract Intersections represent the most dangerous sites in the road network for pedestrians: not only is modal separation often impossible, but elements of geometry, traffic control, and built environment further exacerbate crash risk. Evaluating the safety impact of intersection features requires methods to quantify relationships between different factors and pedestrian injuries. The purpose of this paper is to model the effects of exposure, geometry, and signalization on pedestrian injuries at urban signalized intersections using a Full Bayes spatial Poisson Log-Normal model that accounts for unobserved hetero...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - November 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Stipancic J, Miranda-Moreno L, Strauss J, Labbe A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Type 2 diabetes can undermine driving performance of middle-aged male drivers through its deterioration of perceptual and cognitive functions
Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Shu Ma, Jingyu Zhang, Xianzhong Zeng, Changxu Wu, Guozhen Zhao, Chunhui Lv, Xianghong SunAbstractIt has been widely agreed that it is risky for patients with diabetes to drive during hypoglycemia. However, driving during non-hypoglycemia may also bring certain safety hazards for some patients with diabetes. Based on previous studies on diabetes-related to early aging effect, as well as gender differences in health belief and driving behavior, we have hypothesized that middle-aged male drivers with type 2 diabetes, compared with t...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

High-speed helmeted head impacts in motorcycling: A computational study
This study used a finite element head model coupled with a motorcycle helmet model to simulate head-first falls at travelling speed (or tangential velocity at impact) from 0 to 216 km/h. The effect of different falling heights (1.6 m and 0.25 m) and coefficient of frictions (0.20 and 0.45) between the helmet outer shell and ground were also examined. The simulation results were analysed together with the analytical model to better comprehend rolling and/or sliding phenomena that are often observed in helmet oblique impacts.Three types of helmet-to-ground interactions are found when the helmet impacts ground from low ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Different demographic and drinking profiles of motorcyclists and car drivers with the first-time offense of driving/riding under the influence of alcohol
ConclusionsDistinct strategies may be required for motorcyclists and car drivers for DUI recidivism prevention, and drinking place interventions should also be considered. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - November 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Type 2 diabetes can undermine driving performance of middle-aged male drivers through its deterioration of perceptual and cognitive functions.
Abstract It has been widely agreed that it is risky for patients with diabetes to drive during hypoglycemia. However, driving during non-hypoglycemia may also bring certain safety hazards for some patients with diabetes. Based on previous studies on diabetes-related to early aging effect, as well as gender differences in health belief and driving behavior, we have hypothesized that middle-aged male drivers with type 2 diabetes, compared with the control healthy ones, may experience a decline in driving performance without awareness. And the decline is caused by impaired perceptual and cognitive driving-related fun...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - November 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ma S, Zhang J, Zeng X, Wu C, Zhao G, Lv C, Sun X Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Correlation of EEG biomarkers of cannabis with measured driving impairment.
Conclusions: These results, combined with our prior reported results, suggest that EEG and electrocardiogram (ECG) acquired concurrent with neuropsychological tests hold potential to provide a highly sensitive, specific, and dose-dependent profile of cannabis intoxication and level of impairment. PMID: 31674856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Brown T, McConnell M, Rupp G, Meghdadi A, Richard C, Schmitt R, Gaffney G, Milavetz G, Berka C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Safer vehicles and technology for older adults.
Conclusions: The findings showed an overall low awareness and acceptance of in-vehicle safety features; however, where there was some awareness, there was greater interest in purchasing vehicles with safety features. More effort should be undertaken to develop and prioritize a set of recommendations to increase use of safe vehicles by older drivers. PMID: 31674855 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Oxley J, Charlton J, Logan D, O'Hern S, Koppel S, Meuleners L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Compression-based injury variables from chestbands in far-side impact THOR sled tests.
Conclusions: Though the present study is limited in scope, the predetermined placement of the internal sensors in the THOR dummy underpredicted chest deflection-related injury variables, and the viscous criterion was the least reliable variable in these lateral and oblique far-side impact sled tests. PMID: 31674854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Purushothaman Y, Humm J, Jebaseelan D, Yoganandan N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Variability of baseline vehicle control among sober young adult cannabis users: A simulator-based exploratory study.
Conclusions: Young adult drivers who use cannabis in our study drove slower and produced significantly less frequent steering and accelerator pedal inputs than drivers who did not use cannabis. This suggests that lasting effects of cannabis use persist and may lead to detrimental driving behaviors even after intoxication has subsided. These findings have implications for legislation in support of legalizing cannabis because sober cannabis-using drivers may still be a public health concern. Further study is needed to evaluate whether these differences persist even with longer term abstinence and whether differences are foun...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Brown T, Banz B, Li K, Camenga D, Vaca F, Gaffney G, Milavetz G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Low speed limits in residential areas in Melbourne, Australia.
Conclusions: These findings give support to the expectation that lower speed limits on local streets may be possible with good community support. PMID: 31674839 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fildes B, Lawrence B, Oxley J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Sarcopenia and osteosarcopenia in seriously injured motor vehicle crash occupants.
Conclusions: Sarcopenia and osteosarcopenia may be associated with more serious injuries and fractures in MVCs. PMID: 31674830 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Weaver AA, Costa C, Ambrosini A, Tan J, Maez L, Ye X, Stitzel JD, Lenchik L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Feasibility study of a safe sled environment for reclined frontal deceleration tests with human volunteers.
Conclusions: A maximum speed of 7.1 km/h and peak deceleration of 3.0 g was found to be a safe pulse for volunteer testing in frontal impacts with a rigid reclined seat. Larger soft tissue deformations were observed when reclined, possibly associated with higher shear loads within the soft tissue. Preliminary results highlight trade-offs between the degree of seat angulation, friction force, and restraint capability of a 3-point seat belt, thus causing forward translation and/or axial spinal compression of the occupant that may need to be addressed in the future. PMID: 31674808 [PubMed - as supplied by p...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Muehlbauer J, Schick S, Draper D, Lopez-Valdes FJ, Symeonidis I, Peldschus S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Crash patterns in two Chinese secondary cities, with comparisons to crash patterns in the United States.
Conclusions: Compared to published data, crash rates are similar among licensed drivers in the United States and these Chinese cities. The percentage of crashes that involved injury did not differ significantly between the 2 countries. Injury crashes were well reported in both. Crashes involving property damage only were significantly less likely to be reported to the police in the Chinese cities. Alcohol involvement rates in crashes were similar. Although our crash sample was small, some crash parameters appear to be transferable between these 2 countries. PMID: 31674807 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: T...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Miller TR, Ringwalt C, Kaner E, Paschall MJ, Grube JW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Neurocognitive and behavioral markers in DUI recidivists.
Abstract Objective: Driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol recidivism may be a risk-taking behavior motivated by a change in decision-making capacity. Decision-making capacity has been investigated by event-related potentials (ERPs) acquisition and specifically by analyzing feedback-related negativity (FRN) reflecting the activity of medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, the aim of our study was to test the role of FRN as a possible neurophysiological marker of underestimation of risk associated with DUI recidivism to provide novel insights into the influence of neurocognitive aspects of driving ability.Methods: T...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Terranova C, Tagliabue M, Cona G, Gianfranchi E, Di Pietra L, Vidotto G, Montisci M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Who is more vulnerable in crashes between motorized 2-wheelers and pedestrians?
Conclusions: This study shows that M2Ws pose a considerable risk to pedestrians in terms of causing fatal and serious injuries in such inter-vulnerable road user (VRU) crashes. Though helmet enforcement could aid in mitigating injuries among M2W riders, proper infrastructure planning would benefit both. Further study is warranted to explore other dimensions of inter-VRU crashes. PMID: 31674801 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jayaraman A, Soni J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

High-speed helmeted head impacts in motorcycling: A computational study.
This study used a finite element head model coupled with a motorcycle helmet model to simulate head-first falls at travelling speed (or tangential velocity at impact) from 0 to 216 km/h. The effect of different falling heights (1.6 m and 0.25 m) and coefficient of frictions (0.20 and 0.45) between the helmet outer shell and ground were also examined. The simulation results were analysed together with the analytical model to better comprehend rolling and/or sliding phenomena that are often observed in helmet oblique impacts. Three types of helmet-to-ground interactions are found when the helmet impacts ground from low...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - November 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Meng S, Cernicchi A, Kleiven S, Halldin P Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Do We Need Multivariate Modeling Approaches to Model Crash Frequency by Crash Types? A Panel Mixed Approach to Modeling Crash Frequency by Crash Types
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Analytic Methods in Accident ResearchAuthor(s): Tanmoy Bhowmik, Shamsunnahar Yasmin, Naveen EluruAbstractIn safety literature, simulation-based multivariate framework is the most commonly employed approach for analyzing multiple crash frequency dependent variables. The current research effort contributes to literature on crash frequency analysis by suggesting an alternative and mathematically simpler approach for analyzing multiple crash frequency variables for the same study unit. The proposed recasts a multivariate distributional problem as a repeated measure univ...
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Evaluating pedestrian vehicle interaction dynamics at un-signalized intersections: A proactive approach for safety analysis
This study demonstrates an improvement over the conventional grid-based analysis to estimate surrogate safety measures (SSM). An advanced pattern-based approach to categorize pedestrian-vehicle interactions based on the road user behavior is proposed in the study. A concept of a two-interaction pattern has been applied, which deals with the responsive and non -responsive behavior of the road users, respectively. The behavior-based patterns were categorized based on the SSM like Speed, Time to Collision, and Gap Time profiles of the pedestrian and vehicle interacting on an un-signalized intersection. On conducting a variabl...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4738: Intelligent Image-Based Railway Inspection System Using Deep Learning-Based Object Detection and Weber Contrast-Based Image Comparison
Joonki Paik For sustainable operation and maintenance of urban railway infrastructure, intelligent visual inspection of the railway infrastructure attracts increasing attention to avoid unreliable, manual observation by humans at night, while trains do not operate. Although various automatic approaches were proposed using image processing and computer vision techniques, most of them are focused only on railway tracks. In this paper, we present a novel railway inspection system using facility detection based on deep convolutional neural network and computer vision-based image comparison approach. The proposed system aim...
Source: Sensors - October 31, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jinbeum Jang Minwoo Shin Sohee Lim Jonggook Park Joungyeon Kim Joonki Paik Tags: Article Source Type: research

Inventory of child bicycle education programs reveals need for age, development, and skill-level considerations.
Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive list of program components and approaches that can be used as a foundation upon which child bicycle education standards can be evaluated and built, with the long-term goal of increased childhood safety. PMID: 31670979 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hamann CJ, Conrad A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effects of child restraint misuse on dynamic performance.
Conclusion: The study provides strong evidence for prioritizing tight restraint installation and proper tether use for FF restraints. In particular, use of the tether helped offset the adverse effects of loose installation or loose harness. Because the results show that performance of a RF child restraint system (CRS) installation is less affected by user error, they also provide support for extended RF restraint use. In addition, packaging convertible child restraints with the LATCH belt routed through the RF belt path could help prevent the most consequential RF CRS misuse. PMID: 31670975 [PubMed - as supplied by pu...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Manary MA, Flannagan CAC, Reed MP, Orton NR, Klinich KD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Different demographic and drinking profiles of motorcyclists and car drivers with the first-time offense of driving/riding under the influence of alcohol.
CONCLUSIONS: Distinct strategies may be required for motorcyclists and car drivers for DUI recidivism prevention, and drinking place interventions should also be considered. PMID: 31678785 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kuo YC, Chen LY, Chang HM, Yang TW, Huang MC, Cheng WJ Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A correlated random parameters tobit model to analyze the safety effects and temporal instability of factors affecting crash rates
Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Qinzhong Hou, Xiaoyan Huo, Junqiang LengAbstractNumerous studies have previously used a variety of count-data models to investigate factors that affect the number of crashes over a certain period of time on roadway segments. Unlike past studies which deal with crash frequency, this study views the crash rates directly as a continuous variable left-censored at zero and explores the application of an alternate approach based on tobit regression. To thoroughly investigate the factors affecting freeway crash rates and the potentially...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Age and gender differences in emergency takeover from automated to manual driving on simulator.
Conclusions: The results from the simulation drives show that humans lose focus when they do not actively drive so that their response in an emergency does not allow them to reclaim control quickly enough to avoid a crash. PMID: 31663790 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Loeb H, Belwadi A, Maheshwari J, Shaikh S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effect of the Q10 dummy upgrade kit in UN Regulation No. 129 front and side impact tests.
Conclusions: The original Q10 and the Q10 upgrade kit generated very similar kinematics and loadings in both front and side impact. Adoption of the kit for UN Regulation No. 129 would be unlikely to have significant effects on the type approval of booster seats. However, it would also appear not to offer any specific benefits. This will be verified in a larger program of experiments with a broader range of booster systems. PMID: 31663788 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Visvikis C, Thurn C, Müller T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Comparing consequences of using two different definitions for body regions for the improvement of personal protective equipment for powered two-wheelers.
Conclusions: Body regions need to be defined carefully to avoid misinterpretations. Publications that use body regions for their analysis to present injury frequencies should clearly define what they include in each region. PMID: 31663779 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Schick S, Piantini S, Wisch M, Brown J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Impaired driving: A case report. Pickup truck centerline crossover collision with medium-size bus on U.S. Highway 83, Concan, Texas, United States.
Conclusions: The failure of the truck driver to maintain control of his vehicle was due to impairment stemming from his use of marijuana in combination with misuse of a prescribed medication, clonazepam. Following the crash, the pickup driver was sentenced to 55 years in prison. Improved countermeasures including guidance and access to improved roadside testing methods, expanded law enforcement training to detect impaired drivers, enhanced enforcement regarding impairment by combinations of drugs or drugs and alcohol, as well an evaluation and implementation of data-driven strategies are needed to reduce fatalities,...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: McKay MP, Poland K, Karol D, Marshall R, Kaminski R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluating pedestrian vehicle interaction dynamics at un-signalized intersections: A proactive approach for safety analysis.
This study demonstrates an improvement over the conventional grid-based analysis to estimate surrogate safety measures (SSM). An advanced pattern-based approach to categorize pedestrian-vehicle interactions based on the road user behavior is proposed in the study. A concept of a two-interaction pattern has been applied, which deals with the responsive and non -responsive behavior of the road users, respectively. The behavior-based patterns were categorized based on the SSM like Speed, Time to Collision, and Gap Time profiles of the pedestrian and vehicle interacting on an un-signalized intersection. On conducting a variabl...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kathuria A, Vedagiri P Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Speed in a high-speed society.
Authors: Hydén C Abstract Speed control is the most important aspect of promoting road safety world-wide. The question is how are speeds developing? The European Transport Safety Council concludes: There is little progress on reducing speeds in Europe. Similar conclusions can be drawn from the US and Australia. Attitude surveys show that people's answers are not very consistent and represent statements without any strong bearing on norms or behaviour. Many factors are 'pro-speed': higher performance vehicles, more comfort, media coverage, etc. Enforcement, particularly with cameras and with section control i...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - October 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

A correlated random parameters tobit model to analyze the safety effects and temporal instability of factors affecting crash rates.
Abstract Numerous studies have previously used a variety of count-data models to investigate factors that affect the number of crashes over a certain period of time on roadway segments. Unlike past studies which deal with crash frequency, this study views the crash rates directly as a continuous variable left-censored at zero and explores the application of an alternate approach based on tobit regression. To thoroughly investigate the factors affecting freeway crash rates and the potentially temporal instability in the effects of crash factors involving traffic volume, freeway geometries and pavement conditions, a...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - October 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hou Q, Huo X, Leng J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Road safety of passing maneuvers: A bivariate extreme value theory approach under non-stationary conditions
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & PreventionAuthor(s): Joana Cavadas, Carlos Lima Azevedo, Haneen Farah, Ana FerreiraAbstractObserved accidents have been the main resource for road safety analysis over the past decades. Although such reliance seems quite straightforward, the rare nature of these events has made safety difficult to assess, especially for new and innovative traffic treatments. Surrogate measures of safety have allowed to step away from traditional safety performance functions and analyze safety performance without relying on accident records. In recent years, t...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - October 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

When policy meets the pedal: A reduction in motorcyclist fatalities following the implementation of a road traffic law in Lagos, Nigeria.
Abstract Objective: The Lagos State Road Traffic Law of 2012 sought to curb reckless okada use and the objective of this study is to determine its impact on motorcyclist fatalities in Nigeria's most densely populated state. This is the first study to date that analyzes the potential impact of the Law on motorcyclist fatalities across Lagos State. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed monthly motorcyclist fatalities in Lagos between January 2012 and December 2015. We analyzed the data using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software, and used Quantum GIS ver. 2.16.2 to create maps illustrating the spatial-epidemi...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Venkatraman C, Kim H, Idowu A, Idris J, Hynan L, Kim D, Nwariaku FE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Does the inclusion of vehicle impoundment in provincial short-term administrative driver's license suspension programs reduce total and alcohol-related fatal collisions in Canada?
Conclusions: While mandatory vehicle impoundment programs for driving in the "warn" range (0.05%-0.08% BAC) have shown success in reducing fatal crashes in British Columbia, similar reductions in two other provinces with short-term vehicle impoundment were not observed. Moreover, large reductions in fatal crashes were observed in two provinces without vehicle impoundment as part of their short-term ADLS programs. Collectively, these findings suggest that vehicle impoundment, alone, has limited impact on fatal crash rates and that other factors help to explain the observed trends. Further analysis of new vehicle i...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Smith NK, Brubacher J, Andreou P, Asbridge M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research