A priori prediction of the probability of survival in vehicle crashes using anthropomorphic test devices and human body models.
Conclusions: The method showed an excellent predictive capability when disregarding the restraint system, or restraint-specific subgroups, for the considered validation cases. PMID: 31194597 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Büchner S, Junge M, Marini G, Fürst F, Schick S, Peldschus S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of interventions to make top tether hardware more visible during child restraint system (CRS) installations.
Conclusions: Conditions in this study including tether color, tether labeling, storage location, and vehicle labeling did not significantly affect tether attachment rates. High rates of tether misuse and nonuse warrant further exploration to find effective solutions to this usability problem. PMID: 31194584 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mansfield JA, Zaragoza-Rivera YN, Baker GH, Bolte JH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Marijuana trajectories and associations with driving risk behaviors in Canadian youth.
Conclusions: Harm reduction strategies and legislative approaches targeting impaired driving risks associated with marijuana use should include approaches to target these high-risk groups and to reduce simultaneous use of alcohol. PMID: 31194581 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sukhawathanakul P, Thompson K, Brubacher J, Leadbeater B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A multinomial logit analysis of factors associated with severity of motorcycle crashes in Ghana.
Conclusions: This study provides further empirical evidence to support motorcycle crash modeling research, which is lacking in developing countries. The ability to understand the various factors that influence motorcycle crash severity is a step forward in providing an appropriate basis upon which informed motorcycle crash policies can be developed. Particular attention should be given to the provision of road signage at junctions and speed humps and controlling traffic during the weekend. In addition, road maintenance should be carried out periodically to address motorcycle safety in Ghana. PMID: 31194580 [PubMed - a...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wahab L, Jiang H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Road Safety on Five Continents - Conference in Jeju, South Korea 2018.
PMID: 31204001 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Vadeby A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Publisher’s Note
Publication date: June 2019Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research, Volume 22Author(s): (Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research)
Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research - June 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Young driver fatal motorcycle accident analysis by jointly maximizing accuracy and information
Publication date: August 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 129Author(s): Dan Halbersberg, Boaz LernerAbstractWhile young drivers (YDs) constitute ∼10% of the driver population, their fatality rate in motorcycle accidents is up to three times higher. Thus, we are interested in predicting fatal motorcycle accidents (FMAs), and in identifying their key factors and possible causes. Accurate prediction of YD FMAs from data by risk minimization using the 0/1 loss function (i.e., the ordinary classification accuracy) cannot be guaranteed because these accidents are only ∼1% of all YD motorcycle accide...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Safer cycling and the urban road environment: A case control study
This study aimed to identify features of the road environment that increased the risk of on-road bicycle crashes in Perth, Australia between 2014-2017. This case-control study used a combination of an in-depth crash study and naturalistic study to compare the road environment characteristics of 100 case (crash) sites and 300 control sites where no crash occurred using conditional logistic regression. For intersection sites, roundabouts (adjusted OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.18, 7.56) and traffic lights (adjusted OR: 3.86, 95% CI 1.29, 11.63) significantly increased the risk of a bicycle crash, compared to priority control/uncontrol...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Unintentional injury and role of different predictors among 1-5 years children: a community based cross sectional study in a rural population of a developing country.
Authors: Paul S, Mehra S, Prajapati P, Malhotra V, Verma KC, Sidhu TK Abstract Injury has been increasing exponentially, especially in children, and it has become a public health concern. The present study was conducted with the objective of determining the prevalence and profile of unintentional injury among children of 1-5-year age group in a rural community of India and also to find out the predictors. Primary caregiver was interviewed by using a structured interview schedule. Parent supervisory behaviour was assessed using Parent Supervision Attributes Profile Questionnaire (PSAPQ), and child injury risk-taking...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Unintentional injury deaths in adult Finnish population: nationwide statistics between 1971 and 2016.
This study determined the nationwide trends in unintentional injury deaths of adult Finns. For this purpose, we obtained from the Finnish Official Cause-of-Death Statistics the data for persons 15 years of age or older whose deaths occurred between 1971 and 2016 due to an unintentional injury. During the study period, a steep decline occurred in road traffic crashes. The death rate (per 100,000 persons) of women's road traffic crashes was 16 in 1971 but only 2 in 2016. Traffic caused much more deaths in men than women, but the declining trend in men's death rates was also clear, from 46 in 1971 to 7 in 2016. Concurr...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Are sociodemographic characteristics and attitude good predictors of speeding behavior among drivers on Malaysia federal roads?
Conclusion: In conclusion, sociodemographic characteristics and attitude have been proven to affect speeding behavior among drivers on Malaysian federal roads. The findings have important implications in designing driver risk profiles on federal roads to develop suitable countermeasures based on the 4E approach (engagement, education, enforcement, and engineering) to enhance road safety. PMID: 31188019 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mohamad FF, Abdullah AS, Mohamad J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Young driver fatal motorcycle accident analysis by jointly maximizing accuracy and information.
Abstract While young drivers (YDs) constitute ∼10% of the driver population, their fatality rate in motorcycle accidents is up to three times higher. Thus, we are interested in predicting fatal motorcycle accidents (FMAs), and in identifying their key factors and possible causes. Accurate prediction of YD FMAs from data by risk minimization using the 0/1 loss function (i.e., the ordinary classification accuracy) cannot be guaranteed because these accidents are only ∼1% of all YD motorcycle accidents, and classifiers tend to focus on the majority class of minor accidents at the expense of the minority class...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Halbersberg D, Lerner B Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Scenarios of crashes involving light mopeds on urban bicycle paths
Publication date: August 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 129Author(s): R.J. Davidse, K. van Duijvenvoorde, M.J. Boele-Vos, W.J.R. Louwerse, A. Stelling-Konczak, C.W.A.E. Duivenvoorden, A.J. AlgeraAbstractIn the Netherlands, cyclists have to share the bicycle path with light moped riders. These riders are allowed to ride 25 km/h and do not have to wear a helmet (Dutch regulation). Due to several trends such as traffic congestion and the introduction of the scooter model, light mopeds have become more popular, both among older and younger people. This has led to an increased traffic density on bicycl...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Motorcycle taxi programme is associated with reduced risk of road traffic crash among motorcycle taxi drivers in Kampala, Uganda.
Authors: Muni K, Kobusingye O, Mock C, Hughes JP, Hurvitz PM, Guthrie B Abstract SafeBoda is a transportation company that provides road safety training and helmets to its motorcycle taxi drivers in Kampala. We sought to determine whether risk of road traffic crash (RTC) was lower in SafeBoda compared to regular (non-SafeBoda) motorcycle taxi drivers during a 6-month follow-up period. We collected participant demographic and behavioural data at baseline using computer-assisted personal interview, and occurrence of RTC every 2 months using text messaging and telephone interview from a cohort of 342 drivers. The...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Safer cycling and the urban road environment: A case control study.
This study aimed to identify features of the road environment that increased the risk of on-road bicycle crashes in Perth, Australia between 2014-2017. This case-control study used a combination of an in-depth crash study and naturalistic study to compare the road environment characteristics of 100 case (crash) sites and 300 control sites where no crash occurred using conditional logistic regression. For intersection sites, roundabouts (adjusted OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.18, 7.56) and traffic lights (adjusted OR: 3.86, 95% CI 1.29, 11.63) significantly increased the risk of a bicycle crash, compared to priority control/uncontrol...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Meuleners LB, Stevenson M, Fraser M, Oxley J, Rose G, Johnson M Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

An investigation of driver, pedestrian, and environmental characteristics and resulting pedestrian injury.
Conclusion: These findings identify several factors associated with pedestrian injury, and public health efforts that could influence pedestrian safety are discussed. PMID: 31180735 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kemnitzer CR, Pope CN, Nwosu A, Zhao S, Wei L, Zhu M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Deformation patterns in WorldSID 50th percentile dummy instrumented with IR-TRACC and RibEye ™ in different loading configurations.
Conclusions: For similar physical insults, dummies with the IR-TRACC and RibEye systems showed varying results for both length changes and the shoulder forces depending on the severity and direction of loading. Under purely lateral loading, the mid-length changes with the RibEye and the 1D IR-TRACC were comparable. In the oblique loading conditions, more differences were seen with the 2 systems depending on the impact direction. The shoulder forces consistently differed between the 2 systems. In the frontal oblique low-severity cases, the ribs pivoted along the spine end and the length change was not found to be a suitable...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kalra A, Greb J, Kim A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A novel driver hazard perception sensitivity model based on drivers' characteristics: A simulator study.
Conclusion: The results of this research may be useful in educating and advertising programs. It also could enhance sensitivity to perception of hazards such as pedestrians, animals, and fixed obstacles among young and novice drivers. PMID: 31180727 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Asadamraji M, Saffarzadeh M, Ross V, Borujerdian A, Ferdosi T, Sheikholeslami S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Acute injuries resulting from accidents involving powered mobility devices (PMDs)-Development and outcomes of PMD-related accidents in Sweden.
Conclusions: The present study shows that further research on PMD accidents is required, with regard to both single accidents and collision events. To ensure that appropriate decisions are made, future work should follow up on injury trends and further improve the quality of PDM-related accident data. Improved vehicle stability and design, increased usage of safety equipment, proper training programs, effective maintenance services, and development of a supporting infrastructure would contribute to increased safety for PMD drivers. PMID: 31180723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Carlsson A, Lundälv J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Scenarios of crashes involving light mopeds on urban bicycle paths.
Abstract In the Netherlands, cyclists have to share the bicycle path with light moped riders. These riders are allowed to ride 25 km/h and do not have to wear a helmet (Dutch regulation). Due to several trends such as traffic congestion and the introduction of the scooter model, light mopeds have become more popular, both among older and younger people. This has led to an increased traffic density on bicycle paths as well as concerns about the safety of cyclists. In response to these concerns, several Dutch cities would like to ban light moped riders (LMRs) from the bicycle path and let them ride on the carriage...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Davidse RJ, van Duijvenvoorde K, Boele-Vos MJ, Louwerse WJR, Stelling-Konczak A, Duivenvoorden CWAE, Algera AJ Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Road user hazard perception tests: A systematic review of current methodologies
ConclusionsWhilst there was a high level of heterogeneity of studies, video methodology utilising temporal responses (e.g. press a button when detecting the potential hazard) are a consistent measure of hazard perception across road user groups, whereas spatial measures (e.g. locate potential hazard in the scenario) were inconsistent. Staged footage was found to discriminate as well as unstaged footage, with static images also adding valuable information on hazard perception. There were considerable inconsistencies in the categorising of participants based on age and experience, limited application of theoretical framework...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Integration of hazard rectification efficiency in safety assessment for proactive management
This study proposes an evidence-based methodology incorporating hazard rectification efficiency for project safety assessment.MethodFirst, we theoretically introduced hazard rectification efficiency as a proxy for hazard exposure. Later, based on set-pair analysis, we proposed a safety assessment model that incorporates hazard occurrence and rectification efficiency. Subsequently, we collected site investigation records from seven building projects in Qingdao, Shandong. The data were used to develop a safety performance index (SPI) with the proposed model and a default model. The results were compared and discussed accordi...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Modeling fatal traffic accident occurrences in small Indian cities, Patiala, and Rajpura.
This article investigates the effects of highway-related correlates such as geometric design features and traffic factors on fatal accident occurrences in small-sized Indian cities, Patiala and Rajpura, by estimating Negative Binomial regression models. Between 2013 and 2015, 61 and 188 fatal accidents were recorded in Rajpura and Patiala, respectively. The study reveals that the number of traffic lanes positively influences accident occurrences in Rajpura. On the other hand, in Patiala, the width of paved road surface, segment length and average daily traffic (ADT) are positively correlated with accident rates. Intercity ...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Exploring the factors contribute to the injury severities of vulnerable roadway user involved crashes.
Authors: Dong C, Khattak AJ, Shao C, Xie K Abstract The vehicle to pedestrian (V2P) applications will enable safety, mobility, and environmental advancements for the vulnerable roadway user (VRU) that current technologies are unable to provide. The present research aims to explore the use of random parameters in logit models to examine factors that significantly influence injury severity of VRU involved crashes. Two types of logit models, the mixed generalized ordered logit (MGOL) models and mixed logit models are proposed to provide insights on reducing injury severities of pedestrian and bicyclist involved crashe...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Interaction between motor vehicles and bicycles at two-lane roundabouts: a driving volatility-based analysis.
Authors: Bahmankhah B, Fernandes P, Teixeira J, Coelho MC Abstract Drivers' instantaneous decisions regarding speed and acceleration/deceleration, as well as the time rate of acceleration change (jerk) can result in a volatility driving behaviour with significant impact on cyclist safety. The contribution of this article is the assessment of driving volatility in motor vehicle (MV)-bicycle interactions at two-lane roundabouts. Traffic flow and bicycle GPS data were collected from two two-lane roundabouts. Then, traffic, emissions and safety models were used to evaluate volatility impacts on safety, pollutant emissi...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Quantifying visual road environment to establish a speeding prediction model: An examination using naturalistic driving data
Publication date: August 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 129Author(s): Bo Yu, Yuren Chen, Shan BaoAbstractSpeeding is one of the major contributors to traffic crashes. To solve this problem, speeding prediction is recognized as a critical step in a pre-warning system. While previous studies have shown that speeding is affected by road environmental design, research in predicting speeding behavior through road environment features has not yet been conducted. Furthermore, there is a large discrepancy between actual and perceived road environmental information given that a driver’s visual percepti...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Incorporating behavioral variables into crash count prediction by severity: A multivariate multiple risk source approach
Publication date: August 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 129Author(s): Mohammad Razaur Rahman Shaon, Xiao Qin, Amir Pooyan Afghari, Simon Washington, Md Mazharul HaqueAbstractThe frequency and severity of traffic crashes have commonly been used as indicators of crash risk on transport networks. Comprehensive modeling of crash risk should account for both frequency and injury severity—capturing both the extent and intensity of transport risk for designing effective safety improvement programs. Previous research has revealed that crashes are correlated across severity categories because of the co...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Occupational injury burden among gold miners in Ghana.
Authors: Nakua EK, Owusu-Dabo E, Newton S, Adofo K, Otupiri E, Donkor P, Mock C Abstract The mining environment is particularly dangerous in low- and middle-income countries. We sought to better understand the burden, characteristics and risk factors associated with gold mining, through a household survey of 1,029 miners in four districts, in Ghana. We found a high burden of injuries, with 25.5% of workers injured in the past year, giving an incidence of 19.67 injuries per 200,000 hours worked. Notably, an increase in injury risk was associated with work in the informal mining sector (galamsey), with an adju...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Transferability of real-time safety performance functions for signalized intersections
Publication date: August 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 129Author(s): Mohamed Essa, Tarek Sayed, Passant ReyadAbstractOptimizing traffic signals in real-time for safety performance can be executable in the era of Connected Vehicles (CVs) when real-time information on vehicle positions and trajectories is available. To achieve this, real-time safety models are needed to understand how changes in signal controllers affect safety in real-time. Recently, several real-time safety models were developed for signalized intersections that relate various dynamic traffic parameters to the number of rear-end tr...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Using latent class analysis and mixed logit model to explore risk factors on driver injury severity in single-vehicle crashes
This study provides an insightful understanding of the impacts of these variables on driver injury severity in single-vehicle crashes, and a beneficial reference for developing effective countermeasures and strategies for mitigating driver injury severity. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

The relationship between impact speed and the probability of pedestrian fatality during a vehicle-pedestrian crash: A systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsThe results of the meta-analysis support setting speed limits of 30–40 km/h for high pedestrian active areas. These speed limits are commonly used by best practice countries that have the lowest road fatality rates and that practice a Safe System Approach to road safety. (Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention)
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Using trajectory-level SHRP2 naturalistic driving data for investigating driver lane-keeping ability in fog: An association rules mining approach
This study adopted an association rules mining method, a promising data mining technique, to investigate driver lane-keeping ability in foggy weather conditions using big trajectory-level SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) datasets. A total of 124 trips in fog with their corresponding 248 trips in clear weather (i.e., 2 clear trips: 1 foggy weather trip) were considered for the study. The results indicated that affected visibility was associated with poor lane-keeping performance in several rules. Furthermore, additional factors including male drivers, a higher number of lanes, the presence of horizontal curves, etc. w...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Road user hazard perception tests: A systematic review of current methodologies.
CONCLUSIONS: Whilst there was a high level of heterogeneity of studies, video methodology utilising temporal responses (e.g. press a button when detecting the potential hazard) are a consistent measure of hazard perception across road user groups, whereas spatial measures (e.g. locate potential hazard in the scenario) were inconsistent. Staged footage was found to discriminate as well as unstaged footage, with static images also adding valuable information on hazard perception. There were considerable inconsistencies in the categorising of participants based on age and experience, limited application of theoretical framewo...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Moran C, Bennett JM, Prabhakharan P Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Fatally injured drivers in Norway 2005-2015-Trends in substance use and crash characteristics.
Conclusion: The observed changes toward more safety installations in cars and motorcycles and lower prevalence of driver-related risk factors like alcohol use, speeding, and nonuse of seat belts/helmets among fatally injured drivers/riders may have contributed to the decrease in road traffic deaths. PMID: 31169405 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Valen A, Bogstrand ST, Vindenes V, Frost J, Larsson M, Holtan A, Gjerde H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Integration of hazard rectification efficiency in safety assessment for proactive management.
This study proposes an evidence-based methodology incorporating hazard rectification efficiency for project safety assessment. METHOD: First, we theoretically introduced hazard rectification efficiency as a proxy for hazard exposure. Later, based on set-pair analysis, we proposed a safety assessment model that incorporates hazard occurrence and rectification efficiency. Subsequently, we collected site investigation records from seven building projects in Qingdao, Shandong. The data were used to develop a safety performance index (SPI) with the proposed model and a default model. The results were compared and discussed...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Liu M, Liao PC Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Quantifying visual road environment to establish a speeding prediction model: An examination using naturalistic driving data.
Abstract Speeding is one of the major contributors to traffic crashes. To solve this problem, speeding prediction is recognized as a critical step in a pre-warning system. While previous studies have shown that speeding is affected by road environmental design, research in predicting speeding behavior through road environment features has not yet been conducted. Furthermore, there is a large discrepancy between actual and perceived road environmental information given that a driver's visual perception plays a crucial role as the dominant source of information in determining driver's behavior. Thus, this paper aims...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yu B, Chen Y, Bao S Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Incorporating behavioral variables into crash count prediction by severity: A multivariate multiple risk source approach.
Abstract The frequency and severity of traffic crashes have commonly been used as indicators of crash risk on transport networks. Comprehensive modeling of crash risk should account for both frequency and injury severity-capturing both the extent and intensity of transport risk for designing effective safety improvement programs. Previous research has revealed that crashes are correlated across severity categories because of the combined influence of risk factors, observed or unobserved. Moreover, crashes are the outcomes of a multitude of factors related to roadway design, traffic operations, pavement conditions,...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rahman Shaon MR, Qin X, Afghari AP, Washington S, Haque MM Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Calibration of highway safety manual predictive models for Kansas freeway segments.
Authors: Matarage IC, Dissanayake S Abstract The Safety Performance Functions (SPFs) in the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) are statistical formulas developed based on limited data gathered from selected few states. Therefore, the HSM recommends calibrating the HSM-default SPFs to local conditions or developing local SPFs to enhance the accuracy of crash prediction. This paper demonstrates the HSM calibration procedure for freeway segments and the quality assessment of the calibration process using Kansas freeway geometric and crash data. A minimum sample size of 446 freeway segments was calculated corresponding to 95%...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Exploring simulated driving performance among varsity male soccer players.
Conclusion: Preventive driving measures should be enforced in this high-risk population to develop strategies for risk reduction in male team athletes. PMID: 31166121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tremblay M, Lavallière M, Albert WJ, Boudreau SR, Johnson MJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Working conditions and sleepiness while driving among truck drivers.
Conclusions: Distance traveled and a formal labor contract with productivity-based earnings were the working conditions associated with sleepiness while driving, regardless of other working or behavioral characteristics, age, consumption of illicit psychoactive substances, and sleep duration. PMID: 31166118 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Girotto E, Bortoletto MSS, González AD, Mesas AE, Peixe TS, Guidoni CM, de Andrade SM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Transferability of real-time safety performance functions for signalized intersections.
Abstract Optimizing traffic signals in real-time for safety performance can be executable in the era of Connected Vehicles (CVs) when real-time information on vehicle positions and trajectories is available. To achieve this, real-time safety models are needed to understand how changes in signal controllers affect safety in real-time. Recently, several real-time safety models were developed for signalized intersections that relate various dynamic traffic parameters to the number of rear-end traffic conflicts at the signal cycle level. The traffic parameters included: traffic volume, maximum queue length, shock wave...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Essa M, Sayed T, Reyad P Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Using trajectory-level SHRP2 naturalistic driving data for investigating driver lane-keeping ability in fog: An association rules mining approach.
This study adopted an association rules mining method, a promising data mining technique, to investigate driver lane-keeping ability in foggy weather conditions using big trajectory-level SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) datasets. A total of 124 trips in fog with their corresponding 248 trips in clear weather (i.e., 2 clear trips: 1 foggy weather trip) were considered for the study. The results indicated that affected visibility was associated with poor lane-keeping performance in several rules. Furthermore, additional factors including male drivers, a higher number of lanes, the presence of horizontal curves, etc. w...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Das A, Ahmed MM, Ghasemzadeh A Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

The relationship between impact speed and the probability of pedestrian fatality during a vehicle-pedestrian crash: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the meta-analysis support setting speed limits of 30-40 km/h for high pedestrian active areas. These speed limits are commonly used by best practice countries that have the lowest road fatality rates and that practice a Safe System Approach to road safety. PMID: 31176144 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hussain Q, Feng H, Grzebieta R, Brijs T, Olivier J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Using latent class analysis and mixed logit model to explore risk factors on driver injury severity in single-vehicle crashes.
This study provides an insightful understanding of the impacts of these variables on driver injury severity in single-vehicle crashes, and a beneficial reference for developing effective countermeasures and strategies for mitigating driver injury severity. PMID: 31176143 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Li Z, Wu Q, Ci Y, Chen C, Chen X, Zhang G Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

A bivariate probit analysis of child passenger’s sitting behaviour and restraint use in motor vehicle
This study investigated sitting behaviour and restraint use among child passengers through cross-sectional observational surveys conducted in Kumasi, Ghana. A bivariate probit model was developed for simultaneous determination of the contributing factors influencing child passenger’s sitting behaviour and restraint use. The results showed that 26% of the child passengers observed were occupying the front seat and the prevalence rate of restraint use was 4.5%. The developed bivariate probit model clearly highlights the existence of interrelationship between child passenger’s sitting position and restraint use. T...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Real-time accident detection: Coping with imbalanced data
This study compares the performance of two popular machine learning models, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), to detect the occurrence of accidents on the Eisenhower expressway in Chicago. Accordingly, since the detection of accidents should be as rapid as possible, seven models are trained and tested for each machine learning technique, using traffic condition data from 1 to 7 min after the actual occurrence. The main sources of data used in this study consist of weather condition, accident, and loop detector data. Furthermore, to overcome the problem of imbalanced data (i.e., underrep...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

Assessing right-turning vehicle-pedestrian conflicts at intersections using an integrated microscopic simulation model
This study helps verify how the simulation as an innovative approach can be utilized for right-turning vehicle-pedestrian conflict assessment at intersection crosswalks prior to implementation. Various behavior models such as vehicle turning path, turning speed, gap acceptance model and pedestrian behavior model, have been established. Through integrating the calibrated models into one simulation platform, the stochastic behavior of vehicles and pedestrians under different geometric layouts and operational conditions can be reproduced. Based on the field data collected by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) at two urban inter...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - June 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research

A bivariate probit analysis of child passenger's sitting behaviour and restraint use in motor vehicle.
This study investigated sitting behaviour and restraint use among child passengers through cross-sectional observational surveys conducted in Kumasi, Ghana. A bivariate probit model was developed for simultaneous determination of the contributing factors influencing child passenger's sitting behaviour and restraint use. The results showed that 26% of the child passengers observed were occupying the front seat and the prevalence rate of restraint use was 4.5%. The developed bivariate probit model clearly highlights the existence of interrelationship between child passenger's sitting position and restraint use. The key facto...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - June 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Aidoo EN, Ackaah W, Appiah SK, Appiah EK, Addae J, Alhassan H Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Pediatric electric bicycle injuries and comparison to other pediatric traffic injuries.
The objective of this study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of demographics, injury characteristics and hospital resource utilization of significant pediatric electric bicycle (e-bike) injuries leading to hospitalization following an emergency department visit in comparison to pediatric injuries caused by other traffic related mechanisms. Methods: A retrospective review of all pediatric traffic injury hospitalizations following an emergency department visit to a level I trauma center between October 2014 and September 2016 was conducted. Data regarding age, sex, number of computed tomography (CT) scans obtained, nu...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zmora O, Peleg K, Klein Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving under the influence of alcohol and the effects of alcohol prohibition-Case study in Serbia.
Conclusions: This study suggests that the required legal BAC limit for nonprofessional drivers should be the same. The prohibition of selling alcoholic drinks in Belgrade after 10 p.m. does not decrease the prevalence of DUI. PMID: 31157552 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pešić D, Antić B, Smailović E, Marković N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research