Road traffic crashes at night-time: characteristics and risk factors.
Authors: Ackaah W, Apuseyine BA, Afukaar FK Abstract The study was to examine the nature and risk factors associated with road traffic crashes at night in Ghana and identify potential measures to control them. Crash and injury data for the period 2013-2017 were analyzed. The fatality index and fatal crash ratio measures were employed to assess the severity of injuries among traffic participants. Statistical analysis was carried out for the variables using contingency tables and the chi-square (χ2) tests to assess statistical significance. Generally, night-time traffic crashes resulted in severer injury outcomes...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 27, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Analysis of fatal injuries in Serbian underground coal mines - 50 years review.
Authors: Ivaz J, Stojadinović S, Petrović D, Stojković P Abstract The study presented here analyzes mining accidents and fatal injuries in Serbian underground coal mines over a period of 50 years, in order to assess the effectiveness of legislation changes in the overall safety of work environment. Two distinct periods, prior to 2000 and after 2000 were compared. The data from the period after 2000 were further analyzed to provide better understanding of the results. In order to assess the overall state of safety in Serbian mines, the data on fatal injuries were also compared to the international data. It...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 19, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Living arrangements and fire-related mortality amongst older people in Europe.
Authors: Nilson F, Lundgren L, Bonander C Abstract In Europe, a demographic transition has occurred meaning that countries have larger older adult populations who are increasingly living alone and receiving homecare rather than institutional care. Given that living alone is the greatest individual risk factor for fire mortality amongst older adults and that large differences exist in terms of both fire mortality risk and living arrangements between countries, this study investigates the association between co-living rates and fire mortality rates among older adults in Europe. Freely available datasets with aggregat...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 17, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Child injuries in land vehicles that do not require restraints.
Authors: Russell K, Selci E, Piotrowski CC, McFaull SR, Richmond SA, Snider C Abstract The goal of this study was to determine the injury profiles of Canadian children who presented to the Emergency Department from 1990 to 2016 due to an injury caused while traveling in a form of land transportation that did not require child restraint. A case series was conducted using data from the electronic Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (eCHIRPP). Children who were injured while travelling on land transportation for which child restraint is not required, who presented to a Canadian Emergency Departm...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 17, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

School safety assessment in Bengaluru and Kolar districts, India.
Authors: Gautham MS, Gururaj G, Nadig K, Roy A, Nair L Abstract Ensuring optimum safety in schools to prevent injuries and promote safety of children is a mandate by the Constitution of India. However, there is limited evidence regarding safety and injury prevention in schools. This safety appraisal was conducted on a sample of 131 schools, selected by stratified random sampling in Bengaluru and Kolar districts in India. Trained investigators collected data using smart phone-assisted interview, observational methods and record review between 1 January and 31 March 2019. Safety was assessed across the domains of mac...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 13, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Victims of road accidents with serious injuries and dependence on some individual, climatic and infrastructure factors on federal highways in Brazil.
Authors: de Oliveira RP, Achcar JA Abstract Road or urban traffic accidents in Brazil have a large presence in external causes of mortality. The main goal of this study is to discover significant factors in the incidence of accidents on Brazilian highways based on a database with information on each person injured on federal highways in Brazil reported by the Federal Highway Police. Some factors are considered in the study as cause of the accident, type of accident, stage of the day, weather condition, highway type, highway facility, age of the victim, gender of the victim and type of vehicle. From the obtained res...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 13, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Challenges related to pedestrian safety: a qualitative study identifying Iranian residents' perspectives.
This study was conducted to explain the challenges associated with pedestrian safety by taking into account the perspectives of Iranian residents in Tabriz. In this qualitative study, applying purposeful sampling approach, we recruited 49 residents to participate in structured qualitative interviews. To collect data, 3 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with 28 participants, and 21 individual interviews were conducted. Data analysis was performed applying conventional content analysis. MAXQDA10 was applied for the purpose of data management. After data analysis, six themes emerged including: (a) Pedestrians' own obstacles and ...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 10, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Exploring the factors influencing pedestrian-vehicle crash severity in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Authors: Zafri NM, Prithul AA, Baral I, Rahman M Abstract Although the rate of road crashes and their severity is relatively higher in developing countries, there is still a lack of research on pedestrian-vehicle crash severity in these contexts, particularly in Bangladesh. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the contributing environmental, road, and vehicular factors that influenced pedestrian-single-vehicle crash severity in Dhaka, a megacity and the capital of Bangladesh. A binary logistic regression model was developed in this study by analyzing a data set of pedestrian-single-vehicle crashes involving casu...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Determinants of severe injury and mortality from road traffic accidents among motorcycle and car users in Southern Thailand.
This study aimed to identify factors associated with severe injury and mortality from road traffic accidents (RTA) among motorcycle and car users in southern Thailand. The data were obtained from the Office of Disease Prevention and Control, Thailand, for years 2008-2013. Chi-squared tests were used to assess associations between determinants and outcomes and these associations were then estimated after adjusting for possible confounding with other factors using logistic regression. Severe injury and mortality contributed 11.6% and 5% to RTA of motorcycle users, and 14.3% and 7.5% for car users. Among motorcycle users, mal...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

An analysis of risk factors associated with road crash severities in Namibia.
Authors: Adanu EK, Riehle I, Odero K, Jones S Abstract Road crash is a leading cause of death and disabilities in Namibia and other developing countries. Based on recent trends, the World Health Organization indicated that progress to realize Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target 3.6 - which calls for a 50% reduction in the number of road traffic deaths by 2020 - remains far from sufficient. To contribute to efforts in reducing road fatalities in Namibia, this study examined risk factors associated with the severity of crashes recorded in the country. Mixed logit modelling methodology was adopted to address the...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Seatbelt and child restraint use among vehicle occupants in Ho Chi Minh City: an observational study in Vietnam.
Authors: Adetunji O, Li Q, Pham CV, Thi NT, Bachani AM Abstract This paper presents the trend of seatbelt use, disaggregated by vehicle occupants, in Ho Chi Minh City between 2016 and 2018. We conducted statistical analyses to identify the determinants of seatbelt use, including the effect of a new fine imposed against seatbelt law violation in the rear seats that became effective in January 2018. Seatbelt use was observed in at least half of all vehicle occupants, and drivers were more likely to use seatbelts than passengers. Only 4.4% of children younger than 5-years and 2.5% of 5 to12-year-olds used a child rest...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - June 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Accident risk analysis based on motorway exposure: an application of benchmarking technique for human safety.
This study includes the concept of considering road segments as decision-making units for application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique which has no compulsion of the distribution function and critical assumptions, unlike the multiple regression models. According to the proposed methodology, a section of Motorway (M-2) Lahore-Islamabad has been analyzed. Out of 200 segments under consideration, 99 segments were selected with at least one accident and one injury or fatality. Furthermore, for risk calculation and ranking of road segments, the DEA technique along with the cross-risk matrix method was applied. This ...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - May 31, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Injury research in the midst of a global pandemic.
Authors: Tiwari G PMID: 32366197 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - May 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

A comparison of parent and child perspectives about barriers to and facilitators of bicycle helmet and booster seat use.
Authors: Piotrowski CC, Warda L, Pankratz C, Dubberley K, Russell K, Assam H, Carevic M Abstract To date, little work has compared similarities and differences between parent and young people's perceptions of barriers to and facilitators of bicycle helmet and booster seat usage. Our goal was to conduct such a comparison in order to inform future safety campaigns. Eleven focus groups with a total of 68 parents and 11 focus groups with a total of 76 young people were conducted. Recruitment was conducted and focus groups were held in diverse neighbourhoods to facilitate participation by families from a variety of cult...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - May 3, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

A machine-learning method for improving crash injury severity analysis: a case study of work zone crashes in Cairo, Egypt.
Authors: Yahaya M, Fan W, Fu C, Li X, Su Y, Jiang X Abstract The quality of vehicular collision data is crucial for studying the relationship between injury severity and collision factors. Misclassified injury severity data in the crash dataset, however, may cause inaccurate parameter estimates and consequently lead to biased conclusions and poorly designed countermeasures. This is particularly true for imbalanced data where the number of samples in one class far outnumber the other. To improve the classification performance of the injury severity, the paper presents a robust noise filtering technique to deal with ...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - April 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Statement of Retraction: cost of two-wheeler road accidents in India.
Authors: PMID: 32241212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - April 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Application of multi-group structural equation modelling for investigation of traffic barrier crash severity.
This study was conducted by adopting multi-group SEM to unlock the complicated relationship between confounding factors and traffic barrier crash severity by considering differences across two important groups. Due to the possible difference across different highway systems, multi-group SEM was used instead of standard SEM to account for the differences across highway and interstate roadway system. SEM is a combination of confirmatory and path analysis, which could examine relationship between different observed and latent factors. Besides using factor analysis for identification of latent factors, item/variable cluster an...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - March 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Epidemiology of fatal crashes in an underdeveloped city for the decade 2008-2017.
Authors: Liang M, Zhang Y, Qu G, Yao Z, Min M, Shi T, Duan L, Sun Y Abstract The road traffic accident is an important public health issue affecting social development and public safety. The purpose of this study is to describe the situation of traffic accidents, and to explore the relationship between fatal traffic accidents and risk factors in Suzhou city of Anhui province in China. The accident data was obtained from the Traffic Police Detachment of the Suzhou Public Security Bureau. Other vehicle, population and road information are derived from Suzhou Statistical Yearbook. Descriptive analysis was used to summ...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - March 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Analysis of the effects of visibility and warning devices on driver injury severity at highway-rail grade crossings considering temporal transferability of data.
This study explores the joint effect of visibility and warning devices on driver injury severity at the highway-rail grade crossings (HRGCs), while also considering other contributing factors. For this purpose, four mixed logit models are developed to estimate the determinants of driver injury severity considering the combinations of visibility conditions (daylight vs. no daylight) and type of warning devices (active vs. passive warning). The models were calibrated using the data obtained from the USDOT Federal Railroad Administration for HRGC crashes that occurred over a ten-year period 2008-2017 across the United States....
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - March 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Road traffic crash experience among commercial motorcyclists in Kigali, Rwanda.
Conclusions: Rwandan commercial motorcyclists demonstrate generally proper safety behaviors, but remain a high-risk occupational group. Road safety policy initiatives have been effective in changing driver behavior regardless of driver safety beliefs. PMID: 32138575 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - March 8, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Modelling risk factors for fatal pedestrian crashes in Kolkata, India.
Authors: Mukherjee D, Mitra S Abstract In developing countries, pedestrian safety is an issue of major concern. Although an extensive body of literature is available on the identification of elements related to the pedestrian's risk; the studies are primarily conducted in urban areas of developed countries. The findings from these studies may only be partially relevant to the cities of an emerging country such as India. The present study analyzes historical crash records obtained from the "Kolkata Police" and identifies the risk factors at the road network level for the hazardous corridors posing a high r...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - February 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Understanding motorcyclist-related accidents in Colombia.
Authors: Ospina-Mateus H, Quintana Jiménez LA, Lopez-Valdes FJ Abstract In 2016, Colombia's position regarding motorcyclist fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants was tenth worldwide and second in South America. In the seven years from 2012-2018, the proportion of deceased and injured motorcyclists among all road users was 50%. To analyse the significant aspects of the accident rate of motorcyclists in Colombia from 2016 to 2018 and estimate cost social value of motorcycle-related deaths. The global numbers of fatalities and injuries were compared to the Colombian context. Descriptive and inferential statistics ...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - February 14, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

An application of the theory of planned behaviour to understand compliance with daytime running headlights law among motorcycle riders.
Authors: Payani S, Law TH Abstract Fatal motorcycle crashes are a persistent problem in Southeast Asia. In many respects, road safety experts have acknowledged conspicuity issue as one of the main causes of such accidents. To mitigate this deficiency, daytime running headlights (DRHs) law has been documented among the widely exercised countermeasures. The present study aimed to explore socio-psychological factors shaping intentions towards use of DRHs among Malaysian motorcyclists, because compliance level with this rule has remained constant since 1996 (80%). For this purpose, a model was constructed through the T...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - February 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Safety of motorized two-wheeler riders in the formal and informal transport sector.
Authors: Gutierrez MI, Mohan D Abstract Road fatalities are largely preventable problem with large socioeconomic impact. Due to the rapidly increasing population, transport systems and road infrastructure have not met the demand. The use of motorized two-wheeler vehicles has increased, as informal transport. However, evidence on their safety is scarce. The aim of this article is to examine the safety and social equity issues in MTW in the informal transport sector. Factors can be used to explain traffic collisions in MTW in the formal/informal transport sectors: design, rider behavior, road design, enforcement, and...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - February 1, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Global road safety: a well-travelled road?
Authors: Stevenson M, Bhalla K PMID: 31983269 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - January 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Progress in pedestrian safety research.
This study presents a summary of the progress we have made in understanding pedestrian crash patterns. Pedestrian behaviour observed in different regions of the world tend to have similarity in pedestrian behaviour: gap acceptance, preferences of route choice and location for crossing roads. High income countries(HIC) have reported reduction in pedestrian fatalities as compared to low and middle income countries(LMICs), however pedestrian trips have also reduced in these countries leading to concerns about the effectiveness of 'known' strategies. Speed control through active measures have been found to have themaximal bene...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - January 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Prehospital trauma care evolution, practice and controversies: need for a review.
Authors: Varghese M Abstract Modern medicine and surgery is historically very recent, and most interventions that are so commonly done in a hospital now are only 60 to 70 years old. Understanding of emergency care of the injured is more recent; however, for the sake of temporal convenience trauma care has become compartmentalized into phases: first aid, bystander care, prehospital care, emergency care, definitive levels of care and rehabilitation. The injured patient's body physiology is changing continuously from the time of the impact at the injury site.. The outcome of trauma is dependent not only on what...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - January 28, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

ICoRSI's comments on WHO's draft global targets for road safety risk factors.
Authors: Independent Council for Road Safety International Abstract A recent United Nations General Assembly resolution has asked the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop voluntary global performance targets on key road safety risk factors. These targets will be used to track how well countries are doing in reducing deaths and injuries from traffic crashes. WHO has produced a draft set of country-level targets and invited feedback from state and nonstate actors. This document provides feedback from ICoRSI about the targets proposed by WHO. PMID: 31902283 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Intern...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - January 8, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

How much would low- and middle-income countries benefit from addressing the key risk factors of road traffic injuries?
Authors: Bhalla K, Mohan D, O'Neill B Abstract Despite strong advocacy, the UN Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-2020) is ending with most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) no closer to the Sustainable Development Goals target of reducing traffic mortality by half. In contrast, most high-income countries (HICs) have seen large benefits in recent decades from large-scale safety interventions. We aimed to assess how much LMICs would benefit from interventions that address six key risk factors related to helmet use, seatbelt use, speed control, drink driving, and vehicle design for safety of occupants and ...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - January 8, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Opportunities to reduce road traffic injury: new insights from the study of urban areas.
This study demonstrates the utility of employing image recognition methods to discover new insights that afford urban and transport planning opportunities to mitigate road traffic injury at a regional and global scale. PMID: 31870197 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - December 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

What can we learn from the historic road safety performance of high-income countries?
Authors: Bhalla K, Mohan D, O'Neill B Abstract Road traffic deaths in high-income countries (HICs) have been steadily declining for five decades, but are rising or stable in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We use time-series cross-sectional methods to assess how age- and sex- specific death rates evolved in 20 HICs during 1955-2015, controlling for income, population density and urbanization. Past work has attributed improvements in safety in HICs to income growth, suggesting that countries intervene when they become richer (Kuznets hypothesis). In contrast, we show that HICs had statistically significant...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - December 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Preventing motor vehicle crash injuries and deaths: science vs. folklore lessons from history.
Authors: O'Neill B, Mohan D Abstract Not long after the beginnings of motorization in the early 1900s, deaths and injuries from motor vehicle crashes became a problem in a number of high-income-countries (HIC)s, especially the United States. With the biggest problem the US led early efforts to address this issue, and for six decades these efforts were based on folklore (ie a body of widely held but false or unsubstantiated beliefs). They were not evaluated, but clearly were unsuccessful as crash deaths and injuries continued to rise. It was not until the 1970s that a broader range of countermeasures began to be ado...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - December 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Driver education: how effective?
Authors: O'Neill B Abstract In the early 20th century, the numbers of motor vehicles in use grew rapidly in the USA, Canada, and many European countries. By the 1930s, the number of automobile crashes and the resulting deaths and injuries was a significant problem and various safety organizations tried to address it with education and publicity programs aimed at changing driver behaviour. It is not clear when the high crash risks of young drivers were first identified, but in the early 1930s driver education courses began to be offered in US high schools (feasible because US licensing ages were 16 or younger) and s...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - December 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Dealing with existing theory: national fatality rates, vehicle standards and personal safety.
Authors: Mohan D, O'Neil B Abstract In this paper we discuss some of the weaknesses in exiting theories and understandings behind road safety interventions and policy making. The paper deals with four main issues: road traffic fatality rates and per capita income of countries, vehicle crashworthiness standards, role of pedestrian and powered two-wheeler share in traffic on fatalities, and safety standards for vehicles other than cars. Recent data indicate that there may not be a strong relationship between income and road safety performance and it is possible for low and middle-income countries (LMIC) to decrease d...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - December 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Significance of attitudes, passion and cultural factors in driver's speeding behavior in Oman: application of theory of planned behavior.
This study aims to identify the significant factors that play an important role in the speeding behavior of drivers. A comprehensive questionnaire was designed and conducted with the students and employees of the University of Nizwa. The questionnaire items were designed considering the theoretical background of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and local socio-cultural aspects of the driving environment. A total of 303 usable samples were obtained. The collected data were analyzed using factor analysis and structural equation modelling technique. The extracted factors of speeding passion and culture, speeding attitudes...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - December 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Modelling driver propensity for traffic accidents: a comparison of multiple regression analysis and fuzzy approach.
Authors: Čubranić-Dobrodolac M, Švadlenka L, Čičević S, Dobrodolac M Abstract This research proposes an assessment and decision support model to use when a driver should be examined about their propensity for traffic accidents, based on an estimation of the driver's psychological traits. The proposed model was tested on a sample of 305 drivers. Each participant completed four psychological tests: the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), the Aggressive Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (ADBQ), the Manchester Driver Attitude Questionnaire (DAQ) and the Questionnaire for Self-assessment of Driving Ability. ...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - November 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Bold actions needed to improve civil registration data for road traffic deaths.
Authors: Iaych K, Khayesi M Abstract Persisting problems of underreporting and poor quality of road traffic mortality data exist. Bold and sustained actions need to be undertaken by countries to improve civil registration data collection and reporting. Countries need to implement three specific actions to improve civil registration and vital statistics data systems and/or road traffic injury data collection: Ensure that civil registration and vital statistics systems produce high-quality cause of death data by working with the health sector to improve medical certification of cause of death and statistical coding i...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - November 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Investigation of pedestrian crashes using multiple correspondence analysis in India.
This study used the data from Government of Tamilnadu Road Accident Traffic Management System (RADMS) database, to analyse accident data of nine years (2009-2017) related to pedestrian crashes. The results of the study show that crashes occurring on the express highways on a multilane road are often associated with hit-and-run behaviour among drivers. Factors such as lighting conditions, location, pedestrian behaviour, crossings, and physical separation are also significantly contributing to pedestrian crashes. The key advantage of MCA is that it identifies a possible association between various contributing factors. The f...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - November 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Speed in a high-speed society.
Authors: Hydén C Abstract Speed control is the most important aspect of promoting road safety world-wide. The question is how are speeds developing? The European Transport Safety Council concludes: There is little progress on reducing speeds in Europe. Similar conclusions can be drawn from the US and Australia. Attitude surveys show that people's answers are not very consistent and represent statements without any strong bearing on norms or behaviour. Many factors are 'pro-speed': higher performance vehicles, more comfort, media coverage, etc. Enforcement, particularly with cameras and with section control i...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - October 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Addressing the human toll from motor vehicle traffic crashes.
Authors: PMID: 31609160 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - October 16, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Studying the effect of interventions in injury research: experimental design options.
Authors: Bangdiwala SI PMID: 31591932 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - October 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Post encroachment time threshold identification for right-turn related crashes at unsignalized intersections on intercity highways under mixed traffic.
Authors: Paul M, Ghosh I Abstract Unsignalized intersections in developing countries experience many serious conflicts between cross-traffic due to indiscipline traffic manoeuvrability. Historically, Post Encroachment Time (PET) has gained attention as a proximal indicator to analyze crossing conflicts. However, identifying an appropriate PET threshold to classify critical conflicts for highly heterogeneous traffic scenario is still an unexplored area. Consequently, this study proposes a novel approach of PET threshold identification with proof of application by collecting data from ten intersections located on fou...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Prevalence of mortality in cannabis consumer motorcyclists: meta-analysis of international studies.
Authors: Asgarian FS, Namdari M, Soori H Abstract The purpose of this study was to estimate prevalence of mortality in cannabis consumer motorcyclists across the world. A systematic review was conducted from publications PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, Scopus, and Google Scholar from August 2010 to March2019. The variances of each study were calculated using the binomial distribution formula and the heterogeneity among the studies was analyzed by Q-Cochran test with a significant level less than 0.1 and the index of changes attributed to I2 heterogeneity. The prevalence of mortality in cannabis consum...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Bayesian hierarchical statistics for traffic safety modelling and forecasting.
In this study, a Bayesian hierarchical model was utilized for accident counts forecasting in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. This work will help traffic planners and decision makers to enhance road safety levels and decrease accident fatality rate. Accidents data along 5 years from 2008 to 2012 at 143 road sites in Abu Dhabi with 5,511 accidents were used. The proposed model considered a number of covariates; speed limit, type of road, number of lanes, type of area, weather, time, surface condition and seat belt usage. Five sites with the highest numbers of accidents were studied. Year 2012 was used to validate prediction...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Effects of ethyl alcohol on injuries severity according to injury severity scales in pedestrian fatal injury in traffic crashes.
CONCLUSIONS: The studies show that ethyl alcohol concentration may harm injury severity, especially in the case of women. The assessment of the severity of injuries in traffic crash victims is significantly influenced by their age and gender. The more risk factors the scale takes into consideration, the more precise is the assessment. PMID: 31524049 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion)
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Estimating the avoidable burden and population attributable fraction of human risk factors of road traffic injuries in iran: application of penalization, bias reduction and sparse data analysis.
Authors: Bakhtiyari M, Mehmandar MR, Khezeli M, Latifi A, Jouybari TA, Mansournia MA Abstract The aim of this study was to prioritize human risk factors for preventive interventions by estimating the avoidable burden and population attributable fraction (PAF) of each risk factor using penalization and data augmentation method. To avoid the sparse data bias, Bayesian logistic regression via data augmentation methods, were used for multivariable analysis. Informative normal priors adopted from the studies were used for the studied human risk factors. Weakly informative log-f was used for the covariates. The populatio...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

The role of perceived risk, reasons for non-seat belt use and demographic characteristics for seat belt use on urban and rural roads.
Authors: Zabihi F, Davoodi SR, Nordfjærn T Abstract Despite the well-documented benefits of seat belt use, a large number of drivers fail to fasten their seat belts in Iran. Efforts to improve seat belt use can be enhanced by identifying factors that motivate seat belt use. The main aims of this study were to assess the relationship between perceived risk of being ticketed and seat belt use among adult drivers on urban and rural roads and to identify reasons for not wearing a seat belt while exploring the relationship between these reasons and demographic information of adult drivers. An additional aim was to...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Patterns of pre-crash behaviour in railway suicides and the effect of corridor fencing: a natural experiment in New South Wales.
This study tested the hypothesis that higher standards of corridor fencing reduce the proportion of train suicides in the non-jumping category. Data was analyzed as a natural experiment for 171 cases of apparent railway suicides in New South Wales (NSW) for the period 2011-2018. Results were congruent with the hypothesis. A higher level of corridor fencing in metropolitan Sydney was associated with a lower proportion in the non-jumping category (33%) compared with regional areas (74%). The article contributes by showing that: (i) fencing appears to lead to a reduction in some types of rail suicides and thus; (ii) contribut...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Effects of driver sleepiness and fatigue on violations among truck drivers in India.
This study aims at capturing the influence of driver drowsiness on prevalence of traffic violations among long-haul truck drivers. The study is based on a roadside survey of 453 long-haul truck drivers, stopping at eateries and rest locations on highways connected to three Indian cities- Mumbai, Indore and Nagpur. The survey questionnaire was categorized into three sections: driver demographics, work-rest schedules and safety critical driver behavior (violations and lapses) in the last five years. The questions regarding unsafe driving practices like speeding, overtaking were combined to form a single factor 'violations' u...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - September 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research

Gender differences in cyclists' crashes: an analysis of routinely recorded crash data.
In this study, we investigated gender differences in bicycle crashes, using routinely recorded crash data. The present paper focussed on characteristics related to the type of crashes (type of collision and opponent vehicle), the infrastructure (road type and type of road segment), the environmental (season, road surface condition and weather) and time period (time of the day and day of the week). Results revealed that, compared to women cyclists, men cyclists were more likely to be involved in a crash regardless the cyclists' age. Moreover, we found gender differences in terms of type of road segment, type of opponent veh...
Source: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion - August 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot Source Type: research