Androgen Deficiency and Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Expression Changes in Aging Male: Therapeutic Implications

Conclusions Aging leads to a progressive decrease in androgen production that, in turn, leads to the development of LOH, defined by significant low T serum levels (in the lowest quartile) in the presence of signs and symptoms of hypogonadism (51). LOH could be due to both testicular and hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction (32), and ED is one of its main symptoms. ED in LOH is linked to increased oxidative stress, subclinical inflammation, and subsequent endothelial dysfunction (101). In elderly men, it has been shown that LOH is also linked to lower cAMP pool and to an alteration of the cGMP signaling pathway. PDE5 gene lower expression is associated to aging and hypogonadism at the corpus cavernosum level. TRT is able to restore the expression of PDE5 gene and this effect is initially attributed to a direct regulation of the gene expression by T (38). Subsequently, this hypothesis was not confirmed, and the authors hypothesized that the lower expression of PDE5 in hypogonadism was due to the decreased smooth muscle cell content in corpora cavernosa. Therefore, T could able to increase PDE5 content by reversing these anatomical changes (39). Anyway, the increased PDE5 gene expression explains the reason for the possible failure of PDE5i administration in hypogonadal patients with ED. The timing of treatment with T and PDE5is in patients with hypogonadism and ED is a matter of debate (102). The initial approach to patients with ED encompasses the use of PDE5is (72) (Figure 2...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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This study aimed to devise a nomogram to predict the conditional probability of cancer-specific survival (CPCS) in gastric cancer (GC) patients after D2 lymphadenectomy.MethodsClinicopathological data for 2,596 GC patients who underwent D2 lymphadenectomy in an Eastern institution (the training cohort) were retrospectively analysed. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) was predicted using Cox regression models. A nomogram was constructed to predict CPCS at 3 and 5 years post-gastrectomy. Two external validations were performed using a cohort of 2,198 Chinese patients and a cohort of 504 Italian patients.ResultsIn the training ...
Source: European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO) - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
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Source: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Ecotoxicol Environ Saf Source Type: research
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Source: Human Pathology: Case Reports - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe literature supports the need for awareness of bone health in patients with epilepsy. The pathophysiological mechanisms are many and various wanting for further research in the less well-characterized areas. Furthermore, great responsibility rests on the healthcare professionals in implementing comprehensive patient care and in assuring bone protective measures in clinical practice to prevent bone loss in patients with epilepsy.
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) associated with loss of myelin sheaths. The role of Schwan cells in the remyelination of MS lesions has been documented. However, the detailed steps of this process are unknown.Ninjurin 2 (NINJ2) encodes an adhesion protein with high expression in Schwann cells adjoining the distal piece of injured nerve. Based on the role of this protein in neurite outgrowth, it might participate in the process of nerve regeneration after nerve damage. In the present study, we genotyped twoNINJ2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractMultiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease causing demyelination and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). Although the exact etiology of MS is still unclear, both genetic and environmental elements are regarded as causative factors. Environmental factors can induce a cascade of events in immune system leading to neuronal death and nerve demyelination. This paper aims to compare the peripheral transcript levels ofErmin (ERMN) (a gene with putative role in cytoskeletal rearrangements during myelinogenesis) andListerin E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase 1 (LTN1) (a gene with functions in regu...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research
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