Rare Variants in Genes Linked to Appetite Control and Hypothalamic Development in Early-Onset Severe Obesity
Context: The hypothalamic circuit has an essential role in the regulation of appetite and energy expenditure. Pathogenic variants in genes involved in the hypothalamic leptin–melanocortin pathway, including melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R), have been associated with monogenic obesity.Objective: To determine the rate and spectrum of rare variants in genes involved in melanocortin pathway or hypothalamic development in patients with severe early-onset obesity (height-adjusted weight>60% before age 10 years).Methods: We used a custom-made targeted exome sequencing panel to assess peripheral blood DNA samples for rare (...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Fatty Acid Metabolite Profiling Reveals Oxylipins as Markers of Brown but Not Brite Adipose Tissue
Metabolites of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are important signaling molecules implicated in the control of adipogenesis and energy balance regulation. Some of these metabolites belonging to the group of oxylipins have been associated with non-shivering thermogenesis in mice mediated by brown or brite adipose tissue. We aimed to identify novel molecules with thermogenic potential and to clarify the relevance of these findings in a translational context. Therefore, we characterized and compared the oxylipin profiles of murine and human adipose tissues with different abundance of brown or brite adipocytes. ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effect of Weight Loss Medications on Hepatic Steatosis and Steatohepatitis: A Systematic Review
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common comorbidity in individuals with obesity. Although multiple pharmacotherapeutics are in development, currently there are limited strategies specifically targeting NAFLD. This systematic review summarizes the existing literature on hepatic effects of medications used for weight loss. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists are the best-studied in this regard, and evidence consistently demonstrates reduction in liver fat content, sometimes accompanied by improvements in histological features of steatohepatitis and reductions in serum markers of hepatic injury such as alan...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Technical Feasibility and Physiological Relevance of Hypoxic Cell Culture Models
Hypoxia is characterized as insufficient oxygen delivery to tissues and cells in the body and is prevalent in many human physiology processes and diseases. Thus, it is an attractive state to experimentally study to understand its inner mechanisms as well as to develop and test therapies against pathological conditions related to hypoxia. Animal models in vivo fail to recapitulate some of the key hallmarks of human physiology, which leads to human cell cultures; however, they are prone to bias, namely when pericellular oxygen concentration (partial pressure) does not respect oxygen dynamics in vivo. A search of the current ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rates Calculated by New and Old Equations in Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes —What to Do With the Results?
Background: To apply and evaluate various equations for estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in a large paediatric type 1 diabetes population and compare the eGFR values with urinary creatinine clearances (UCC) in a subset of patients.Methods: Six eGFR formulae applicable for children and adolescents were used for calculation of eGFR values in 36,782 children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Via regression models, factors influencing eGFR values were identified. eGFR values were compared with measured UCC in 549 patients. Spearman correlation coefficients were given to assess the relation of eGFR and UCC values. B...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric Patients With Sellar and Suprasellar Lesions Who Initially Present With Central Diabetes Insipidus: A Retrospective Study of 55 Cases From a Large Pituitary Center in China
Conclusion: For pediatric SSR lesions that first manifest as CDI, we should comprehensively consider clinical characteristics and imaging features to aid in their early differential diagnosis. Tumor markers and surgical histopathology are also great complements for the differential diagnosis. Additionally, various treatment strategies should be adopted according to different causes to improve the child's prognosis and quality of life. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial: Updates on Osteoimmunology: What's New on the Crosstalk Between Bone and Immune Cells
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Spexin and a Novel Cichlid-Specific Spexin Paralog Both Inhibit FSH and LH Through a Specific Galanin Receptor (Galr2b) in Tilapia
Spexin (SPX) is a 14 amino acid peptide hormone that has pleiotropic functions across vertebrates, one of which is involvement in the brain-pituitary-gonad axis of fish. SPX(1) has been identified in each class of vertebrates, and a second SPX (named SPX2) has been found in some non-mammalian species. We have cloned two spexin paralogs, designated as Spx1a and Spx1b, from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) that have varying tissue distribution patterns. Spx1b is a novel peptide only identified in cichlid fish, and is more closely related to Spx1 than Spx2 homologs as supported by phylogenetic, synteny, and functional ana...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Future of Cryopreservation in Assisted Reproductive Technologies
Societal changes and the increasing desire and opportunity to preserve fertility have increased the demand for effective assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and have increased the range of scenarios in which ART is now used. In recent years, the “freeze-all” strategy of cryopreserving all oocytes or good quality embryos produced in an IVF cycle to transfer later—at a time that is more appropriate for reasons of medical need, efficacy, or desirability—has emerged as an accepted and valuable alternative to fresh embryo transfer. Indeed, improvements in cryopreservation techniques (vitrification) ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid Metabolism in Obesity and Following Weight Loss
Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex and are essential for the maintenance of various metabolic and homeostatic functions. Their function is regulated at the tissue level by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and they signal through the glucocorticoid receptor, a ligand-dependent transcription factor. Clinical observations have linked excess glucocorticoid levels with profound metabolic disturbances of intermediate metabolism resulting in abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. In this review, we discuss the physiological mechanisms of glucocorticoid secretion, regulation...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Metabolic Health, Insulin, and Breast Cancer: Why Oncologists Should Care About Insulin
Studies investigating the potential link between adult pre-menopausal obesity [as measured by body mass index (BMI)] and triple-negative breast cancer have been inconsistent. Recent studies show that BMI is not an exact measure of metabolic health; individuals can be obese (BMI> 30 kg/m2) and metabolically healthy or lean (BMI
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Associations Between Gonadal Hormones and Serum Uric Acid Levels in Men and Postmenopausal Women With Diabetes
The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between gonadal hormones and uric acid (UA) levels in diabetic adults, paying particular attention to the association between DHEA and UA levels.Methods: We analyzed 4,426 participants out of 4,813 diabetic adults enrolled from seven communities in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2018. Participants underwent several examinations, including assessments of anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, glucose, lipid profiles, UA, total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2), the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the luteinizing hormone (LH), and dehydroepiandros...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Experimental Evidence and Clinical Implications of Pituitary Adenoma Stem Cells
Pituitary adenomas, accounting for 15% of diagnosed intracranial neoplasms, are usually benign and pharmacologically and surgically treatable; however, the critical location, mass effects and hormone hypersecretion sustain their significant morbidity. Approximately 35% of pituitary tumors show a less benign course since they are highly proliferative and invasive, poorly resectable, and likely recurring. The latest WHO classification of pituitary tumors includes pituitary transcription factor assessment to determine adenohypophysis cell lineages and accurate designation of adenomas, nevertheless little is known about molecu...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Live Birth in Woman With Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Receiving Ovarian Administration of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) in Combination With Gonadotropin: A Case Report
In this study, we present a 37-year-old woman with POI who had secondary amenorrhea for 6 months. The clinical manifestations and evaluation of this women with a diminished ovarian function were an undetectable serum level of AMH (
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Asprosin: A Novel Player in Metabolic Diseases
Asprosin, a novel glucogenic adipokine, is encoded by two exons (exon 65 and exon 66) of the gene Fibrillin 1 (FBN1) and mainly synthesized and released by white adipose tissue during fasting. Asprosin plays a complex role in the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral tissues, and organs. It is involved in appetite, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance (IR), cell apoptosis, etc. In this review, we will summarize the newly discovered roles of asprosin in metabolic diseases including diabetes, obesity, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may contribute to future clinical diagnosis ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Expression Analysis of Cnidarian-Specific Neuropeptides in a Sea Anemone Unveils an Apical-Organ-Associated Nerve Net That Disintegrates at Metamorphosis
Neuropeptides are ancient neuronal signaling molecules that have diversified across Cnidaria (e.g., jellyfish, corals, and sea anemones) and its sister group Bilateria (e.g., vertebrates, insects, and worms). Over the course of neuropeptide evolution emerged lineage-specific neuropeptides, but their roles in the evolution and diversification of nervous system function remain enigmatic. As a step toward filling in this knowledge gap, we investigated the expression pattern of a cnidarian-specific neuropeptide—RPamide—during the development of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, using in situ hybridiza...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Macrophage Polarization in Insulin Signaling and Sensitivity
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of two etiologies: metabolic and inflammatory. At the cross-section of these etiologies lays the phenomenon of metabolic inflammation. Whilst metabolic inflammation is characterized as systemic, a common starting point is the tissue-resident macrophage, who's successful physiological or aberrant pathological adaptation to its microenvironment determines disease course and severity. This review will highlight the key mechanisms in macrophage polarization, inflammatory and non-inflammatory signaling that dictates the development and progression of insulin resistance and T2D. We first descri...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Interfering Role of ER α on Adiponectin Action in Breast Cancer
Obesity is characterized by an excess of adipose tissue, due to adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ producing many bioactive molecules, called adipokines. During obesity, dysfunctional adipocytes alter adipokine secretion, contributing to pathophysiology of obesity-associated diseases, including metabolic syndrome, type 2-diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and many types of malignancies. Circulating adiponectin levels are inversely correlated with BMI, thus adiponectin concentrations are lower in obese than normal-weight subjects. Many clinical investigations highlight that low adipon...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Temozolomide Is a Potential Therapeutic Tool for Patients With Metastatic Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma —Case Report and Review of the Literature
Conclusions: TMZ is effective and safe in MPP patients, and, it may work better on patients with SDHB-related MPP. Measurement of MGMT expression might help assess the tumor sensitivity to TMZ but this needs further systematic investigation. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pre- and Post-diagnosis Diabetes as a Risk Factor for All-Cause and Cancer-Specific Mortality in Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer Survivors: a Prospective Cohort Study
Conclusions: Diabetes increased the risk of all-cause mortality among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors, not for pre- or post-diagnosis diabetes. Greater attention on diabetes management is warranted in cancer survivors with diabetes. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A Novel Risk Stratification System for Thyroid Nodules With Indeterminate Cytology —A Pilot Cohort Study
Background: Thyroid ultrasound (US), fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), and molecular testing have been widely used to stratify the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules. The goal of this study was to investigate a novel diagnostic approach for cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITN) based upon a combination of US features and genetic alterations.Methods: We performed a pilot cohort study of patients with ITN (Bethesda III/IV), who underwent surgical treatment. Based on standardized sonographic patterns established by the American Thyroid Association (ATA), each ITN received an US score (XUS), ranging between ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial: Molecular Network Study of Pituitary Adenomas
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Antibodies Against Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland in Childhood-Onset Brain Tumors and Pituitary Dysfunction
Conclusions: Brain tumors especially germinoma are associated with the development of hypothalamic–pituitary antibodies and pituitary defects. The correct interpretation of APA/AHA antibodies is essential to avoid a misdiagnosis of an autoimmune infundibulo-neurohypophysitis or pituitary hypophysitis in patients with germinoma. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

An Integrated Analysis of mRNA and lncRNA Expression Profiles Indicates Their Potential Contribution to Brown Fat Dysfunction With Aging
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) can convert fatty acids and glucose into heat, exhibiting the potential to combat obesity and diabetes. The mass and activity of BAT gradually diminishes with aging. As a newly found regulator of gene expression, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) exhibit a wide range of functions in life processes. However, whether long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) involves in BAT dysfunction with aging is still unclear. Here, using RNA-sequencing technology, we identified 3237 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and 1312 lncRNAs as differentially expressed in BAT of 10-months-old mice compared with 6- to 8-week-old. The protein-prot...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correlation Between Hashimoto's Thyroiditis –Related Thyroid Hormone Levels and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D
Objective: The purpose of this study was to further clarify the association of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and vitamin D deficiency, and to seek the connection between them and related influencing factors.Methods: Data were obtained from subjects who underwent health examinations from January 2018 to December 2018. The diagnosis of HT was based on: antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) levels>35 IU/ml and/or antithyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab) levels>40 IU/ml. Based on the Endocrine Society guidelines, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels ≥30.0 ng/ml were classified as a vitamin D sufficiency; those between 20 ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Congenital Generalized Lipoatrophy (Berardinelli-Seip Syndrome) Type 1: Description of Novel AGPAT2 Homozygous Variants Showing the Highly Heterogeneous Presentation of the Disease
Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipoatrophy (BSCL) is characterized by near total fat atrophy, associated with the progressive development of metabolic complications. BSCL type 1 (BSCL1) is caused by mutations in AGPAT2, encoding 1-acylglycerol-3phosphate-O-acyltransferase β (recently renamed lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase beta), which catalyzes the transformation of lysophosphatidic acid in phosphatidic acid, the precursor of glycerophospholipids and triglycerides. BSCL1 is an autosomal recessive disease due to AGPAT2 pathogenic variants leading to a depletion of triglycerides inside the adipose organ, and to a d...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Tako-tsubo Syndrome as First Manifestation in a Case of Pheochromocytoma Developed From a Non-functional Adrenal Incidentaloma
Conclusions: The development of a pheochromocytoma from an adrenal non functional adenoma is an extremely rare event, but potentially life-threating because of the catecholamine-associated cardiovascular toxicity. In particular, TTS is a form of cardiomyopathy that has been increasingly described as associated with catecholamine-secreting tumors. The exclusion of pheochromocytoma in a patient with TTS has important therapeutic implications, since the administration of β-blockers may be extremely harmful in patients with catecholamine surge in the absence of adequate α-blockage. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Potential Role of Growth Hormone on the Endometrium in Assisted Reproductive Technology
Growth hormone (GH) has been considered as an adjuvant treatment in human assisted reproductive technology (ART) for several years. Its action was largely attributed to an improvement of ovarian function and less emphasis was paid to its role in the uterus. However, there is increasing evidence that GH and its receptors are expressed and have actions in the endometrium and may play an important role in modifying endometrial receptivity. Thus, in this review, we firstly describe the existence of GH receptors in endometrium and then summarize the effects of GH on the endometrium in clinical situations and the underlying mech...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Thyroid Cancer With Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration and Core-Needle Biopsy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core-needle biopsy (CNB) in diagnosing thyroid cancer. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were retrieved up to May 2019, and the overall accuracy of FNA and CNB in diagnosing thyroid cancer was evaluated by meta-analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were calculated. The summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was estimated, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated. Ten eligible studies, involving 10,078 p...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Associations of Serum Cathepsin K and Polymorphisms in CTSK Gene With Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism Markers in Postmenopausal Chinese Women
Cathepsin K plays an important role in bone resorption. The reports of the association of serum cathepsin K with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers are conflicting and the role of serum cathepsin K as a bone turnover marker is unclear. The aims of the study were as follows: (1) to investigate the association of serum cathepsin K with BMD and markers of bone turnover and (2) to evaluate the correlations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CTSK gene with serum cathepsin K, BMD, and markers of bone metabolism in postmenopausal Chinese women. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1752 po...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Altered Gray Matter Volume in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrates that gray matter volume decreases in T1DM patients were mainly locates in the cortical regions and cerebellum. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Both JNK1 and JNK2 Are Indispensable for Sensitized Extracellular Matrix Mineralization in IKK β-Deficient Osteoblasts
In this study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 system to permanently inactivate IKKβ in preosteoblast cells and confirmed that such cells displayed dramatic increase in extracellular matrix mineralization associated with JNK phosphorylation. Such observation was also found in our study using IKKβ-deficient primary murine osteoblasts. Interestingly, we found that in Ikbkb−/−Mapk8−/− or Ikbkb−/−Mapk9−/− double knockout cells, the enhanced mineralization caused by IKKβ deficiency was completely abolished, and deletion of either Mapk8 or Mapk9 was sufficient to dampen c-Jun ph...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 12, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Radiotherapy in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature
In conclusion, available reports suggest no contraindication to radiotherapy in FOP patients; although the number of cases was small, systematic toxicity reports often were not available, and none of the reports described high-dose, high-energy radiation treatment at locations such as muscle and joint regions. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 12, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Seviteronel, a Novel CYP17 Lyase Inhibitor and Androgen Receptor Antagonist, Radiosensitizes AR-Positive Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells
Increased rates of locoregional recurrence (LR) have been observed in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) despite multimodality therapy, including radiation (RT). Recent data suggest inhibiting the androgen receptor (AR) may be an effective radiosensitizing strategy, and AR is expressed in 15–35% of TNBC tumors. The aim of this study was to determine whether seviteronel (INO-464), a novel CYP17 lyase inhibitor and AR antagonist, is able to radiosensitize AR-positive (AR+) TNBC models. In cell viability assays, seviteronel and enzalutamide exhibited limited effect as a single agent (IC50> 10 μM). Using clonogen...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Acute Mono-Arthritis Activates the Neurohypophysial System and Hypothalamo-Pituitary Adrenal Axis in Rats
Various types of acute/chronic nociceptive stimuli cause neuroendocrine responses such as activation of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial [oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP)] system and hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Chronic multiple-arthritis activates the OXT/AVP system, but the effects of acute mono-arthritis on the OXT/AVP system in the same animals has not been simultaneously evaluated. Further, AVP, not corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), predominantly activates the HPA axis in chronic multiple-arthritis, but the participation of AVP in HPA axis activation in acute mono-arthritis remains unkno...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial: Vitamin D Binding Protein, Total and Free Vitamin D Levels in Different Physiological and Pathophysiological Conditions
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management of Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the term used to describe a group of rare inherited skeletal disorders characterized by a greatly increased risk of fragility fractures (1). Mutations in several genes can cause OI but the condition is most commonly caused by mutations of COLIA1 or COL1A2 resulting in the production of collagen which is abnormal or present in reduced amounts. Fractures in OI are particularly common during childhood but the elevated fracture risk continues throughout life. Bone mineral density (BMD) can be reduced in OI but the magnitude of increase in fracture risk is far greater than can be accounted for by...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial: Testicular Cancer: New Insights on the Origin, Genetics, Treatment, Fertility, General Health, Quality of Life and Sexual Function
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Risk Factors Associated With the Metabolically Healthy Obese (MHO) Phenotype Compared to the Metabolically Unhealthy Obese (MUO) Phenotype in Children
Background: In pediatric age the prevalence of obesity is high. Obese children who do not have other risk factors than excess weight have been defined as “metabolically healthy obese” (MHO).Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate, in a population of obese children, the prevalence of the MHO and “metabolically unhealthy obese” (MUO) phenotype. Furthermore, we evaluated the distribution of Uric Acid, HOMA index and Waist-Height ratio (W-Hr) in the MHO and MUO sub-groups and the impact of these non-traditional risk factors on the probability to be MUO.Methods: In 1201 obese children and adolescents [...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Added Value of Impact Microindentation in the Evaluation of Bone Fragility: A Systematic Review of the Literature
The current gold standard for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and the prediction of fracture risk is the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A low BMD is clearly associated with increased fracture risk, but BMD is not the only determinant of bone strength, particularly in secondary osteoporosis and metabolic bone disorders in which components other than BMD are affected and DXA often underestimates true fracture risk. Material properties of bone which significantly contribute to bone strength have become evaluable in vivo with the impact microindentation (IMI) technique usi...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Allelic Variants of ARMC5 in Patients With Adrenal Incidentalomas and in Patients With Cushing's Syndrome Associated With Bilateral Adrenal Nodules
Conclusion: The rarity of germline ARMC5 mutations in AI points to other molecular mechanisms involved in this common adrenal disorder and should be investigated. In contrast, patients with overt Cushing's syndrome and bilateral adrenal nodules had the presence of ARMC5 mutations that were with high prevalence and similar to the literature. Therefore, we recommend the genetic analysis of ARMC5 for patients with established Cushing's syndrome and bilateral adrenal nodules rather than patients with unilateral AI. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Overexpression of Galectin 3 in Pancreatic β Cells Amplifies β-Cell Apoptosis and Islet Inflammation in Type-2 Diabetes in Mice
Conclusions/Interpretation: By complementary in vivo and in vitro approaches, we have shown that galectin 3-overexpression facilitates β-cell damage, enhances cytokine and palmitate-triggered β-cell apoptosis, and increases NO2−-induced oxidative stress in β cells. Further, the results suggest that increased expression of galectin 3 in the pancreatic β cells affects the metabolism of glucose and glycoregulation in mice on a high-fat diet, affecting both fasting glycemic values and glycemia after glucose loading. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cardiometabolic Risk in Acromegaly: A Review With a Focus on Pasireotide
Acromegaly is a disease due to chronic GH excess and a consequent rise in IGF-1 levels. This rare endocrine condition is associated with metabolic alterations such as hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, and systemic arterial hypertension, which, in addition to GH excess-related cardiovascular changes, play critical roles in increasing cardiovascular risk and mortality rates. Biochemical control of acromegaly, achieved by means of surgical, and/or medical treatment, positively impacts on cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic alterations, reducing overall patient mortality. However, treatment modalities of acromegaly and dise...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Levels of adiponectin expression in peri-renal and subcutaneous adipose tissue and its determinants in human biopsied samples
Background: The interactions of adipose tissue with the kidney are hypothesized to affect to kidney function. Also, excessive peri-renal fat may increase the risk of cardiometabolic risk. However, role(s) of peri-renal fat adipocytokine has never been evaluated. Objectives: To elucidate levels of adiponectin expression in peri-renal and subcutaneous adipose tissue and its determinants in human biopsied samples. Methods: A pair of subcutaneous and perirenal fat tissue samples were collected from 80 patients (men: 54; women: 26) who underwent urological operations. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) area, visceral adipose ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Child Head Circumference and Placental MFSD2a Expression Are Associated to the Level of MFSD2a in Maternal Blood During Pregnancy
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a world-wide health challenge, which prevalence is expected to increase in parallel to the epidemic of obesity. Children born from GDM mothers have lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in cord blood, which might influence their neurodevelopment. Recently, the membrane transporter Major Family Super Domain 2a (MFSD2a) was associated with the selective transportation of DHA as lysophospholipids. The expression of the DHA membrane transporter MFSD2a is lower in GDM placentas, which could affect materno-fetal DHA transport. Humans with homozygous inactivating mutations in the MFSD2a...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A Large Skull Defect Due to Gorham-Stout Disease: Case Report and Literature Review on Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment
A 24-year old man was referred to the Erasmus MC Bone Center because of an asymptomatic increasing skull defect of the left parietal bone. The defect was first noticed at the age of six, and gradually increased over the years. His medical history was unremarkable, without any known trauma and a negative family history for bone diseases. Laboratory tests showed a low vitamin D level without other abnormalities. Particularly, there was no increase in markers of inflammation or bone turnover. CT-scans of the skull showed an osteolytic region of the parietal skull bone, with a two-centimeter increase in diameter over 9 years. ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Simple Skeletal Muscle Mass Estimation Formulas: What We Can Learn From Them
One century ago Harris and Benedict published a short report critically examining the relations between body size, body shape, age, and basal metabolic rate. At the time, basal metabolic rate was a vital measurement in diagnosing diseases such as hypothyroidism. Their conclusions and basal metabolic rate prediction formulas still resonate today. Using the Harris-Benedict approach as a template, we systematically examined the relations between body size, body shape, age, and skeletal muscle mass (SM), the main anatomic feature of sarcopenia. The sample consisted of 12,330 non-Hispanic (NH) white and NH black participants in...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Higher Blood Urea Nitrogen and Urinary Calcium: New Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Aldosteronism Patients
Conclusions: PA patients were more likely to have DM compared with general population. Apart from older age, overweight and dyslipidemia, higher BUN and excessive excretion of urinary Ca may also be the new potential risk factors for DM in PA patients. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Commentary: Management Strategies for POSEIDON Groups 3 and 4
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Stathmin-2 Mediates Glucagon Secretion From Pancreatic α-Cells
Inhibition of glucagon hypersecretion from pancreatic α-cells is an appealing strategy for the treatment of diabetes. Our hypothesis is that proteins that associate with glucagon within alpha cell secretory granules will regulate glucagon secretion, and may provide druggable targets for controlling abnormal glucagon secretion in diabetes. Recently, we identified a dynamic glucagon interactome within the secretory granules of the α cell line, αTC1-6, and showed that select proteins within the interactome could modulate glucagon secretion. In the present study, we show that one of these interactome proteins...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - February 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research