Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors Reduce the Risk of Heart Failure Hospitalization in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
AimTo evaluate the impact of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) on risk of heart failure hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe searched the PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang, CBM, and other web knowledge databases for data from randomized controlled trials. We performed statistical analyses by using review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 and STATA 12.0 for meta-analysis.ResultsEight randomized controlled trials that compared SGLT-2i versus placebo met our inclusion criteria and were included in the study. The final meta-analysis included a total of 55,763 type 2 diabetes patient...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Functional Characterization of the Human Islet Microvasculature Using Living Pancreas Slices
In this study, we used living pancreas slices from non-diabetic human donors to examine the function of human islet blood vessels. Living human pancreas slices were incubated with a membrane permeant calcium indicator and pericytes/smooth muscle cells were visualized with a fluorescent antibody against the mural cell marker NG2 proteoglycan. By confocal microscopy, we simultaneously recorded changes in the diameter of lectin-labeled blood vessels and cytosolic calcium levels in mural cells in islets. We tested several stimuli with vasoactive properties, such as norepinephrine, endothelin-1 and adenosine and compared human ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cumulative Live Birth Rate and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone-Antagonist Protocol and Multiple Minimal Ovarian Stimulation in Poor Responders
BackgroundThe overall cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) of poor ovarian responders (POR) is extremely low. Minimal ovarian stimulation (MOS) provides a relatively realistic solution for ovarian stimulation in POR. Our study aimed to investigate whether multiple MOS strategies resulted in higher CLBR compared to conventional gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists in POR.MethodsThis retrospective study included 699 patients (1,058 cycles) from one center, who fulfilled the Bologna criteria between 2010 and 2018. Overall, 325 women (325 cycles) were treated with one-time conventional GnRH antagonist ovarian stimula...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cancer Treatment by Caryophyllaceae-Type Cyclopeptides
Cancer is one of the leading diseases, which, in the most cases, ends with death and, thus, continues to be a major concern in human beings worldwide. The conventional anticancer agents used in the clinic often face resistance among many cancer diseases. Moreover, heavy financial costs preclude patients from continuing treatment. Bioactive peptides, active in several diverse areas against man’s health problems, such as infection, pain, hypertension, and so on, show the potential to be effective in cancer treatment and may offer promise as better candidates for combating cancer. Cyclopeptides, of natural or synthetic ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Immune System Effects of Insulin-Like Peptide 5 in a Mouse Model
ConclusionWe propose that INSL5-RXFP4 play a novel role in both central and peripheral immune cell signaling. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Associations of Prenatal Exposure to Triclosan and Maternal Thyroid Hormone Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ConclusionThe results indicated that exposure to triclosan during pregnancy has no significant influence on maternal levels of thyroid hormone. On account of the inconsistency of existing research designs and study locations, further studies and replication are necessary to confirm these findings. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Metformin Use Is Associated With Reduced Mortality in a Diverse Population With COVID-19 and Diabetes
BackgroundCoronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a growing pandemic with an increasing death toll that has been linked to various comorbidities as well as racial disparity. However, the specific characteristics of these at-risk populations are still not known and approaches to lower mortality are lacking.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective electronic health record data analysis of 25,326 subjects tested for COVID-19 between 2/25/20 and 6/22/20 at the University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital, a tertiary health care center in the racially diverse Southern U.S. The primary outcome was mortality in COVID-19-positive subjec...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Observations on Glucose Excursions With the Use of a Simple Protocol for Insulin, Following Antenatal Betamethasone Administration
ConclusionsThis small study demonstrated preliminary safety of the protocol. Enhanced surveillance is necessary for 72 h after initiation of betamethasone. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mendacity: The Tendency to Lie or Deceive. A Cautionary Tale in Obesity Research, Stigma, and Headlining
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Opportunistic Osteoporosis Screening Reveals Low Bone Density in Patients With Screw Loosening After Lumbar Semi-Rigid Instrumentation: A Case-Control Study
ObjectiveDecreased bone mineral density (BMD) impairs screw purchase in trabecular bone and can cause screw loosening following spinal instrumentation. Existing computed tomography (CT) scans could be used for opportunistic osteoporosis screening for decreased BMD. Purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the association of opportunistically assessed BMD with the outcome after spinal surgery with semi-rigid instrumentation for lumbar degenerative instability.MethodsWe reviewed consecutive patients that had primary surgery with semi-rigid instrumentation in our hospital. Patients that showed screw loosening in ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The p53/miR-145a Axis Promotes Cellular Senescence and Inhibits Osteogenic Differentiation by Targeting Cbfb in Mesenchymal Stem Cells
The osteogenic differentiation capacity of senescent bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is reduced. p53 not only regulates cellular senescence but also functions as a negative regulator in bone formation. However, the role of p53 in MSCs senescence and differentiation has not been extensively explored. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of p53 in MSCs senescence and osteogenic differentiation. We found that p53 was upregulated during cellular senescence and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs respectively induced by H2O2 and BMP9. Similarly, the expression of p53-induced miR-145a was increa...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Bola3 Regulates Beige Adipocyte Thermogenesis via Maintaining Mitochondrial Homeostasis and Lipolysis
This study demonstrates that Bola3 is associated with adipose tissue oxidative capacity both in mice and human, and it plays an indispensable role in beige adipocyte thermogenesis via maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and adrenergic signaling-induced lipolysis. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effects of Melatonin on Anterior Pituitary Plasticity: A Comparison Between Mammals and Teleosts
Melatonin is a key hormone involved in the photoperiodic signaling pathway. In both teleosts and mammals, melatonin produced in the pineal gland at night is released into the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, providing rhythmic information to the whole organism. Melatonin acts via specific receptors, allowing the synchronization of daily and annual physiological rhythms to environmental conditions. The pituitary gland, which produces several hormones involved in a variety of physiological processes such as growth, metabolism, stress and reproduction, is an important target of melatonin. Melatonin modulates pituitary cellular ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Progesterone's Effects on Cognitive Performance of Male Mice Are Independent of Progestin Receptors but Relate to Increases in GABAA Activity in the Hippocampus and Cortex
Progestogens' (e.g., progesterone and its neuroactive metabolite, allopregnanolone), cognitive effects and mechanisms among males are not well-understood. We hypothesized if progestogen's effects on cognitive performance are through its metabolite allopregnanolone, and not actions via binding to traditional progestin receptors (PRs), then progesterone administration would enhance performance in tasks mediated by the hippocampus and cortex, coincident with increasing allopregnanolone concentrations, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and/or muscimol binding of PR knock out (PRKO) and wild-type PR replete mice. Experim...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial: Fertility Preservation in Asia
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Serum Ratio of Free Triiodothyronine to Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone: A Novel Index for Distinguishing Graves ’ Disease From Autoimmune Thyroiditis
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the usefulness of thyroid-related parameters for distinguishing GD from AIT and identify a novel index for differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis.DesignThis retrospective study was performed using electronic medical records in Peking University People’s Hospital (Beijing, China).MethodsIn total, 650 patients with GD and 155 patients with AIT from December 2015 to October 2019 were included in cohort 1. Furthermore, 133 patients with GD and 14 patients with AIT from December 2019 to August 2020 were included in cohort 2 for validation of the novel index identified in coh...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Adrenal Cortex, an Underestimated Site of SARS-CoV-2 Infection
ConclusionWe demonstrate that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are colocalized in adrenocortical cells, and that the cortisol levels are lower in critically ill patients with COVID-19 as compared to those of non-COVID-19 critically ill patients. Based on our findings, we recommend measuring plasma cortisol level to guide hormonal therapy. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Sensory Symptoms in Diabetes Patients in Taiwan
ConclusionsTaiwanese diabetes patients may have a high prevalence of SS if a structured questionnaire is used for screening. Female sex, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, and hypertension are associated with SS. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Lessons Learned From a Program to Reduce Diabetes Risk Among Low-Income Hispanic Women in a Community Health Clinic
This report describes the methodology used to develop and implement De Por Vida, the cultural adaptations made, the community–academic partnership formed to carry out this program, and the barriers and challenges encountered through the implementation process.MethodsOur goal was to translate the DPP and Look AHEAD programs into an intervention to prevent diabetes and reduce diabetes complications among high-risk Hispanic women at a federally qualified health center in Hillsboro, Oregon, where more than half of clinic patients are Spanish-speaking, and nearly all live in poverty. This randomized clinical trial targete...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pyroptosis in Osteoblasts: A Novel Hypothesis Underlying the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis has become a worldwide disease characterized by a reduction in bone mineral density and the alteration of bone architecture leading to an increased risk of fragility fractures. And an increasing number of studies have indicated that osteoblasts undergo a large number of programmed death events by many different causes in osteoporosis and release NLRP3 and interleukin (e.g., inflammatory factors), which play pivotal roles in contributing to excessive differentiation of osteoclasts and result in exaggerated bone resorption. NLRP3 is activated during pyroptosis and processes the precursors of IL-1β and IL-18...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Role of Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 in the Pathogenesis of Graves ’ Orbitopathy in Orbital Fibroblasts
ConclusionsPCSK9 plays a significant role in GO. The PCSK9 inhibition attenuated the pro-inflammatory cytokines production, oxidative stress, and fibroblast differentiation into adipocytes. PCSK9 may serve as a therapeutic target and biomarker for GO. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients With Hyperthyroidism
BackgroundLeft ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction has been demonstrated to be an independent predictor of the future heart failure. Heart failure is one of the severe complications caused by overt hyperthyroidism. However, the effects of overt hyperthyroidism on diastolic dysfunction are conflicting, and little is known about the prevalence and risk factors of the diastolic dysfunction in patients with overt hyperthyroidism.MethodsA total of 388 patients with overt hyperthyroidism were included and compared with 388 age- and gender- matched euthyroid control subjects. LV diastolic function was evaluated by traditional ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Growth Hormone and Neuronal Hemoglobin in the Brain —Roles in Neuroprotection and Neurodegenerative Diseases
In recent years, evidence for hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis in both animal and human brains has been accumulating. While circulating Hb originating from cerebral hemorrhage or other conditions is toxic, there is also substantial production of neuronal Hb, which is influenced by conditions such as ischemia and regulated by growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and other growth factors. In this review, we discuss the possible functions of circulating and brain Hb, mainly the neuronal form, with respect to the neuroprotective activities of GH and IGF-I against ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases. The mole...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Progressive Shifts in the Gut Microbiome Reflect Prediabetes and Diabetes Development in a Treatment-Naive Mexican Cohort
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global epidemic that affects more than 8% of the world’s population and is a leading cause of death in Mexico. Diet and lifestyle are known to contribute to the onset of T2D. However, the role of the gut microbiome in T2D progression remains uncertain. Associations between microbiome composition and diabetes are confounded by medication use, diet, and obesity.Here we present data on a treatment-naive cohort of 405 Mexican individuals across varying stages of T2D severity. Associations between gut bacteria and more than 200 clinical variables revealed a defined set of bacterial genera that w...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Image-Guided Thermal Ablation as an Alternative to Surgery for Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma: Preliminary Results of an Italian Experience
PurposeTo report the results of our preliminary experience in treating patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) with image-guided thermal ablation, in particular estimating the feasibility, safety and short-term efficacyMaterials and MethodsFrom 2018 patients with cytologically proven PTMC
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Amylin and Calcitonin: Potential Therapeutic Strategies to Reduce Body Weight and Liver Fat
The hormones amylin and calcitonin interact with receptors within the same family to exert their effects on the human organism. Calcitonin, derived from thyroid C cells, is known for its inhibitory effect on osteoclasts. Calcitonin of mammalian origin promotes insulin sensitivity, while the more potent calcitonin extracted from salmon additionally inhibits gastric emptying, promotes gallbladder relaxation, increases energy expenditure and induces satiety as well as weight loss. Amylin, derived from pancreatic beta cells, regulates plasma glucose by delaying gastric emptying after meal ingestion, and modulates glucagon secr...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Case Report: Pituitary Morphology and Function Are Preserved in Female Patients With Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Under Pharmacological Treatment
In conclusion, this case series shows that, despite the high prevalence of ES, the pituitary function of IIH patients treated with acetazolamide is preserved. To date, there is no evidence regarding the trend over time or upon treatment discontinuation in regard to the pituitary function of patients with IIH, and it is therefore not possible to infer whether our finding would be replicable in such settings. We therefore suggest an endocrine follow-up over time in order to monitor for potential pituitary dysfunction. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Clinical and Genetic Features of a Large Monocentric Series of Familial Non-Medullary Thyroid Cancers
In conclusion, we report genetic and clinical data in a large series of FNMTC kindreds. Our families are negative for variants reported as likely causative, namely those lying in the HABP2, MAP2K5 and DUOX2 genes. The extensive review of the current knowledge on the genetic risk factors for non-syndromic FNMTCs underlies how the management of these tumors remains mainly clinical. Despite the more aggressive presentation of familial cases, an appropriate treatment leads to an outcome similar to that observed for sporadic cases. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 7, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

In “Vitro” Lps-Stimulated Sertoli Cells Pre-Loaded With Microparticles: Intracellular Activation Pathways
This study sought to investigate the effects of external stimuli in the form of polymeric microparticles (MP) and bacteria derived endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), in order to identify the pathways potentially involved in cell phenotype modifications. Compared to single stimulation, when combined, MP and LPS provoked a significant increase in the gene expression of IDO, PD-L1, FAS-L, TLR-3, TLR-4, MHC-II, ICAM-1, TFGβ1, BDF123, BDF129, BDF3 and pEP2C. Western Blotting analysis demonstrated up-regulation of the ERK 1–2 and NF-kB p65 phosphorylation ratios. Our study, showing the exponential increase...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 7, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Circulating Adipokine Levels in Nonobese Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and in Nonobese Control Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Levels of circulating adipokines in nonobese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have been reported in many studies. However, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess whether the levels of circulating adipokines are changed in nonobese PCOS relative to nonobese healthy controls. To identify eligible studies, a literature research was performed in the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases without restricting by region, journal, or language. A total of 81 studies met the eligibility criteria. The meta-analysis showed that the circulating level of adiponectin (standardized mean dif...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 7, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

An Unexpected Case Report of Adrenal Lymphangioma: Mimicking Metastatic Tumor on Imaging in a Patient With Pancreatic Cancer
Adrenal lymphangioma is a very rare benign lesion worldwide and remains challenging for early diagnosis, especially when the patient has some complicated clinical disease. This is an unusual case of a 68-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with a history of pancreatic tumor. Computed tomography (CT) images and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass located in the left adrenal gland, presenting a similar enhancement pattern of the pancreatic tumor, and according to the imaging features, the patient was suspected to have an adrenal metastatic tumor originating from the pancreatic tumor. Th...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

New Insights Into the Role of Autoreactive CD8 T Cells and Cytokines in Human Type 1 Diabetes
Since the establishment of the network for pancreatic organ donors with diabetes (nPOD), we have gained unprecedented insight into the pathology of human type 1 diabetes. Many of the pre-existing “dogmas”, mostly derived from studies of animal models and sometimes limited human samples, have to be revised now. For example, we have learned that autoreactive CD8 T cells are present even in healthy individuals within the exocrine pancreas. Furthermore, their “attraction” to islets probably relies on beta-cell intrinsic events, such as the over-expression of MHC class I and resulting presentation of aut...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Is Seed and Soil Theory Suitable for Metastatic Spread of Pituitary Carcinomas?
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Radiation Exposure to the Thyroid After the Chernobyl Accident
ConclusionThe 131I was the most radiologically important radionuclide that resulted in radiation exposure to the thyroid gland and cause an increase in the of rate of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in population exposed after the Chernobyl accident. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Reduced Fragmentation of IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 as a Potential Mechanism for Decreased Ratio of IGF-II to IGFBPs in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Response to Repeated Intrathecal Administration of Triamcinolone Acetonide in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the brain and spinal cord causing a wide range of symptoms such as impaired walking capability, spasticity, fatigue, and pain. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has regulatory functions for the induction of inflammatory pathways in experimental encephalomyelitis. We have therefore assessed expression and regulation of the IGF system on the level of IGFs and IGFBPs in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the course of four repeated triamcinolone acetonide (TCA) administrations in two female and four male MS patients. Sample series of 20 treatment cycles ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - January 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mini-Review: The Contribution of Adipokines to Joint Inflammation in Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases
Inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) are complex disorders characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints and related skeletal structures. The most common forms of IRD are rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA), including axial SpA (axSpA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Obesity is a frequent comorbidity in RA and PsA, and to a lesser extend in axial SpA. The association between obesity and IRD may be explained by the release from fat tissue of several bioactive proteins, namely adipokines. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of various processes such as lipid or glucose metabolism, but also infla...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - December 24, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effects of Obesity and Thrombophilia on the Risk of Abortion in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization
ConclusionsObese women undergoing IVF have a high risk of abortion which seems further amplified by the concomitant presence of thrombophilia. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - December 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Disorders of Sex Development in Individuals Harbouring MAMLD1 Variants: WES and Interactome Evidence of Oligogenic Inheritance
In this study, we have described a clinical series on children from unrelated families with 46,XY DSD harbouring MAMLD1 variants. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed for each patient. WES data were filtered using common tools and disease customisation algorithms, including comparison against lists of known and candidate MAMLD1-related and DSD-related genes. Lastly, we investigated the hypothesis that MAMLD1-related DSD may follow an oligogenic mode of inheritance. Forty-three potentially deleterious/candidate variants of 18 genes (RET, CDH23, MYO7A, NOTCH2, MAML1, MAML2, CYP1A1, WNT9B, GLI2, GLI3, MAML3, WNT9A, FRAS...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - December 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Body Weight Alteration and Incidence of Neoplasm in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
ConclusionsAdditional weight change achieved by current hypoglycemic agents or strategies in short and medium periods was not associated with incidence of most neoplasm in patients with T2D. However, a decreased incidence of prostate, bladder, and uterine neoplasm was shown in T2D patients with weight reduction difference while an increased risk of thyroid neoplasm was observed in T2D patients on GLP-1RA treatments with weight reduction difference. A more sustained and persistent weight reduction process may confer reduced risk of neoplasm in patients with T2D. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - December 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diabetes in Patients With Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
ObjectiveDiabetes mellitus (DM) is probably a risk factor for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs). However, the prevalence of DM in PNEN patients remains inconclusive. In the present study we observed the prevalence of DM and possible risk factors in PNEN patients.MethodsAfter excluding those with insulinoma, a total of 197 patients with PNENs were included. The demographic data, pathological characteristics, and data of blood biochemical tests were recorded. DM was considered if there was evidence of a fasting plasma glucose level of ≥7.0 mmol/L or a 2-h plasma glucose level of ≥11.1 mmol/L, or a history of ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - December 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Uncovering the Role of p38 Family Members in Adipose Tissue Physiology
The complex functions of adipose tissue have been a focus of research interest over the past twenty years. Adipose tissue is not only the main energy storage depot, but also one of the largest endocrine organs in the body and carries out crucial metabolic functions. Moreover, brown and beige adipose depots are major sites of energy expenditure through the activation of adaptive, non-shivering thermogenesis. In recent years, numerous signaling molecules and pathways have emerged as critical regulators of adipose tissue, in both homeostasis and obesity-related disease. Among the best characterized are members of the p38 kina...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - December 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Gene Expression Analysis of the Pre-Diabetic Pancreas to Identify Pathogenic Mechanisms and Biomarkers of Type 1 Diabetes
In this study, we performed gene expression analysis on human pancreas tissues obtained from the Network of Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (nPOD), and showed that 155 genes were differentially expressed by ≥2-fold in the pancreata of autoantibody-positive (AA+) at-risk individuals compared to healthy controls. Only 48 of these genes remained changed by ≥2-fold in the pancreata of established T1D patients. Pathway analysis of these genes showed a significant association with various immune pathways. We were able to validate the differential expression of eight disease-relevant genes by QPCR analysis: A signific...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - December 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Harnessing Muscle –Liver Crosstalk to Treat Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has reached epidemic proportions, affecting an estimated one-quarter of the world’s adult population. Multiple organ systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of NAFLD; however, the role of skeletal muscle has until recently been largely overlooked. A growing body of evidence places skeletal muscle—via its impact on insulin resistance and systemic inflammation—and the muscle-liver axis at the center of the NAFLD pathogenic cascade. Population-based studies suggest that sarcopenia is an effect-modifier across the NAFLD spectrum in that it is tightly linke...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - December 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Evidence That Baseline Levels of Low-Density Lipoproteins Cholesterol Affect the Clinical Response of Graves ’ Ophthalmopathy to Parenteral Corticosteroids
DiscussionWe found that, in patients with active GO, both an early clinical response to ivGC therapy and baseline LDLc levels are significant determinants of GO outcome (W12CAS). These data support the need of a cholesterol-lowering treatment before addressing these patients to ivGC therapy. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - December 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

L-T4 Therapy in the Presence of Pharmacological Interferents
Pharmacological interference on L-thyroxine (L-T4) therapy can be exerted at several levels, namely from the hypothalamus/pituitary through the intestine, where the absorption of exogenous L-T4 takes place. A number of medications interfere with L-T4 therapy, some of them also being the cause of hypothyroidism. The clinician should be aware that some medications simply affect thyroid function tests with no need of modifying the dose of L-T4 that the patient was taking prior to their prescription. Usually, the topic of pharmacological interference on L-T4 therapy addresses the patient with primary hypothyroidism, in whom pe...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - December 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

FGF19 and FGF21 for the Treatment of NASH —Two Sides of the Same Coin? Differential and Overlapping Effects of FGF19 and FGF21 From Mice to Human
FGF19 and FGF21 analogues are currently in clinical development for the potential treatment of NASH. In Phase 2 clinical trials analogues of FGF19 and FGF21 decrease hepatic steatosis with up to 70% (MRI-PDFF) after 12 weeks and as early as 12–16 weeks of treatment an improvement in NASH resolution and fibrosis has been observed. Therefore, this class of compounds is currently of great interest in the field of NASH. FGF19 and FGF21 belong to the endocrine FGF19 subfamily and both require the co-receptor beta-klotho for binding and signalling through the FGF receptors. FGF19 is expressed in the ileal enterocytes and i...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - December 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Obesity Increases the Severity and Mortality of Influenza and COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Since December 2019, COVID-19 has aroused global attention. Studies show the link between obesity and severe outcome of influenza and COVID-19. Thus, we aimed to compare the impacts of obesity on the severity and mortality of influenza and COVID-19 by performing a meta-analysis. A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, EMASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Web of Science from January 2009 to July 2020. The protocol was registered onto PROSPERO (CRD42020201461). After selection, 46 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were analyzed. We found obesity was ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - December 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Relationship Between Type 2 Diabetes and White Matter Hyperintensity: A Systematic Review
White matter (WM) disease is recognized as an important cause of cognitive decline and dementia. White matter lesions (WMLs) appear as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain. Previous studies have shown that type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with WMH. In this review, we reviewed the literature on the relationship between T2DM and WMH in PubMed and Cochrane over the past five years and explored the possible links among the presence of T2DM, the course or complications of diabetes, and WMH. We found that: (1) Both from a macro- and micro-scopic point of view,...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - December 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Effect of Oligopin Supplementation on Hormonal and Metabolic Profiles in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial
ConclusionOligopin supplementation does not seem to be exerting a beneficial effect on both hormonal and metabolic parameters in the women with PCOS.Clinical Trial Registrationwww.irct.ir, identifier IRCT20140406017139N3. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - December 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Adult Body Height and Cardiometabolic Disease Risk: The China National Health Survey in Shaanxi
ObjectivesBased on data from the China National Health Survey, we aimed to examine the association between body height and cardiometabolic disease (CMD) in a large adult population from Shaanxi province, and further to test whether this association was hinged upon other population characteristics.MethodsThis population-based study was conducted in 2014 in Shaanxi Province, China. Utilizing a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method, total 5,905 adults with complete data were eligible for analysis, and 1,151 (19.5%) of them had CMD. Of 1,151 CMD patients, 895 (15.1%) had one disorder and 256 (4.4%) had ≥2 disorders...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - December 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research