Brucella abortus Infection Modulates 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Inflammatory Response and Inhibits Adipogenesis
In conclusion, B. abortus is able to alter adipogenesis process in adipocytes and its precursors directly after their infection, or merely their exposure to the B. abortus lipoproteins, and indirectly through soluble factors released by B. abortus-infected macrophages. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

5P Strategies for Management of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2: A Paradigm of Precision Medicine
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is a neuroendocrine cancer syndrome characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, in combination or not with pheochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism, and extra-endocrine features. MEN2 syndrome includes two clinically distinct forms subtyped as MEN2A and MEN2B. Nearly all MEN2 cases are caused by germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. In this review, we propose “5P” strategies for management of MEN2: prevention, prediction, personalization, psychological support, and participation, which could effectively improve clinical outcomes of patients. Based on RET mutatio...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Bariatric Surgery and Type 1 Diabetes: Unanswered Questions
In recent decades there has been an alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity in patients with type 1 diabetes leading to the development of insulin resistance and cardiometabolic complications, with mechanisms poorly clarified. While bariatric surgery has long been considered an effective treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes, the evidence regarding its benefits on weight loss and the prevention of complications in T1DM patients is scarce, with controversial outcomes. Bariatric surgery has been associated with a significant reduction in daily insulin requirement, along with a considerable reduction in bo...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease as a Canonical Example of Metabolic Inflammatory-Based Liver Disease Showing a Sex-Specific Prevalence: Relevance of Estrogen Signaling
There is extensive evidence supporting the interplay between metabolism and immune response, that have evolved in close relationship, sharing regulatory molecules and signaling systems, to support biological functions. Nowadays, the disruption of this interaction in the context of obesity and overnutrition underlies the increasing incidence of many inflammatory-based metabolic diseases, even in a sex-specific fashion. During evolution, the interplay between metabolism and reproduction has reached a degree of complexity particularly high in female mammals, likely to ensure reproduction only under favorable conditions. Sever...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Chronic Neurobehavioral Impairments and Decreased Hippocampal Expression of Genes Important for Brain Glucose Utilization in a Mouse Model of Mild TBI
Glucose is an essential cellular fuel for maintaining normal brain functions. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) decreases brain glucose utilization in both human and experimental animals during the acute or subacute phase of TBI. It remains unclear as to how the damages affect brain glucose utilization and its association with persistent neurobehavioral impairments in the chronic phase of mild TBI (mTBI). Accordingly, we compared expression of selected genes important to brain glucose utilization in different brain regions of mice during the chronic phase in mTBI vs. sham operated mice. These genes included hexokinase-1 (HK1), ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Quantitative Ultrashort Echo Time (UTE) Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bone: An Update
Bone possesses a highly complex hierarchical structure comprised of mineral (~45% by volume), organic matrix (~35%) and water (~20%). Water exists in bone in two forms: as bound water (BW), which is bound to bone mineral and organic matrix, or as pore water (PW), which resides in Haversian canals as well as in lacunae and canaliculi. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been increasingly used for assessment of cortical and trabecular bone. However, bone appears as a signal void on conventional MR sequences because of its short T2*. Ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences with echo times (TEs) 100–1,000 times shorter than...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Risk Factors of Recurrent Ectopic Pregnancy in Patients Treated With in vitro Fertilization Cycles: A Matched Case-Control Study
Objective: To study the risk factors for recurrent ectopic pregnancy (REP) in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF).Methods: This was a 1:4 matched case-control study that enrolled 227 REP patients and 908 matched intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) patients from the assisted reproductive technology (ART) center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2012 to November 2019. Univariate analysis was carried out between the two groups for the occurrence of REP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors of REP after IVF.Results: The results of univariate an...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Transcriptional Role of Vitamin A and the Retinoid Axis in Brown Fat Function
In recent years, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has gained significance as a metabolic organ dissipating energy through heat production. Promotion of a thermogenic program in fat holds great promise as potential therapeutic tool to counteract weight gain and related sequelae. Current research efforts are aimed at identifying novel pathways regulating brown fat function and the transformation of white adipocytes into BAT-like cells, a process called “browning.” Besides numerous genetic factors some circulating molecules can act as mediators of adipose tissue thermogenesis. Vitamin A metabolites, the retinoids, are p...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

β-arrestin 2 Is a Prognostic Factor for Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients Upregulating Cell Proliferation
Establishing reliable prognostic factors as well as specific targets for new therapeutic approaches is an urgent requirement in advanced ovarian cancer. For several tumor entities, the ubiquitously spread scaffold protein β-arrestin 2, a multifunctional scaffold protein regulating signal transduction and internalization of activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), has been considered with rising interest for carcinogenesis. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the prognostic impact of β-arrestin 2 and its functional role in ovarian cancer. β-arrestin 2 expression was analyzed in a subset of 156 samples of o...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

SH2 Domain Binding: Diverse FLVRs of Partnership
The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain has a special role as one of the cornerstone examples of a “modular” domain. The interactions of this domain are very well-conserved, and have long been described as a bidentate, or “two-pronged plug” interaction between the domain and a phosphotyrosine (pTyr) peptide. Recent work has, however, highlighted unusual features of the SH2 domain that illustrate a greater diversity than was previously appreciated. In this review we discuss some of the novel and unusual characteristics across the SH2 family, including unusual peptide binding pockets, multiple pTyr recognitio...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Serum Trace Elements in Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is reported to be associated with certain trace elements. However, previous data are inconsistent and potentially biased due to small sample sizes. The potential utility of trace element levels for screening of PCOS remains to be established. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the potential relationships between PCOS and serum levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe) and ferritin. We carried out a literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science for relevant cross-sectional/case-control studies published prior to October 2019. Random-effect models wer...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Maternal High Fat Diet and Diabetes Disrupts Transcriptomic Pathways That Regulate Cardiac Metabolism and Cell Fate in Newborn Rat Hearts
Conclusion: This study provides the first data accounting for the compounding effects of maternal hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia on the developmental cardiac transcriptome, and elucidates nuanced and novel features of maternal diabetes and diet on regulation of heart health. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Ostarine and Ligandrol Improve Muscle Tissue in an Ovariectomized Rat Model
In postmenopausal women, hormonal decline changes muscle function and structure. The non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) Ostarine (OS) and Ligandrol (LG) have been shown to increase muscle mass and physical function while showing a relative low risk profile. Information about their effects on muscle structure and metabolism is lacking. To analyze this, two experiments were performed using ovariectomized rats as a standard model for postmenopausal conditions. In each experiment, 3-month old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n = 12 to 15). One group remained intact (Non-OVX), the oth...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Obesity, Diabetes and COVID-19: An Infectious Disease Spreading From the East Collides With the Consequences of an Unhealthy Western Lifestyle
The pandemic of COVID-19, caused by the coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has had a global impact not seen for an infectious disease for over a century. This acute pandemic has spread from the East and has been overlaid onto a slow pandemic of metabolic diseases of obesity and diabetes consequent from the increasing adoption of a Western-lifestyle characterized by excess calorie consumption with limited physical activity. It has become clear that these conditions predispose individuals to a more severe COVID-19 with increased morbidity and mortality. There are many features of diabetes and obesity that may accentuate the clinical r...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 to Adiponectin Ratio: A Potential Biomarker to Monitor Liver Fat in Children With Obesity
Conclusions: Higher value in percent increase in FAR is positively associated with higher level of IHTG percent value at 6 months in children with baseline NAFLD. FAR could be a potential biomarker to monitor the changes in IHTG in children with NAFLD. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Identification and Characterization of Neuropeptides and Their G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) in the Cowpea Aphid Aphis craccivora
This study will help to deepen our understanding of the neuropeptide signaling systems in aphids, thus laying the foundation for the development of new methods for aphid control targeting these signaling systems. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Assisted Reproductive Technology in China: Results Generated From Data Reporting System by CSRM From 2013 to 2016
Conclusions: The current study gives valuable information for both physicians and patients to know better about the outcome, as well as for administrators for policy development. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Association Between Vitamin D Status and Diabetic Complications in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study in Hunan China
Background: Vitamin D status has been linked to diabetes-related complications due to multiple extraskeletal effects. We aimed to investigate the association between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and diabetic vascular complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR), diabetic kidney disease (DKD), and diabetic foot ulcers (DFU).Methods: A total of 4,284 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled into the cross-sectional study. VDD was defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mediterranean Diet and COVID-19: Hypothesizing Potential Benefits in People With Diabetes
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Miscarriage Rate Is High With Frozen-Thawed Blastocysts Arising From Poor-Quality Cleavage Stage Embryos
Embryos with low morphological scores can still develop to the blastocyst stage and result in good clinical outcomes. However, no studies have reported the possible effects of transferring cryopreserved blastocysts developed from poor-quality cleavage stage embryos on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. In this retrospective study, the clinical value of transferring blastocysts derived from day 3 poor-quality cleavage stage embryos during in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer procedures was evaluated. According to the quality of embryos on day 3 from which the transferred blastocyst originated, patients were divided int...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cellular Senescence as the Pathogenic Hub of Diabetes-Related Wound Chronicity
Diabetes is constantly increasing at a rate that outpaces genetic variation and approaches to pandemic magnitude. Skin cells physiology and the cutaneous healing response are progressively undermined in diabetes which predisposes to lower limb ulceration, recidivism, and subsequent lower extremities amputation as a frightened complication. The molecular operators whereby diabetes reduces tissues resilience and hampers the repair mechanisms remain elusive. We have accrued the notion that diabetic environment embraces preconditioning factors that definitively propel premature cellular senescence, and that ulcer cells senesce...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Development and Interpretation of Multiple Machine Learning Models for Predicting Postoperative Delayed Remission of Acromegaly Patients During Long-Term Follow-Up
Conclusions: ML-based models can serve as an effective non-invasive approach to predicting DR and could aid in determining individual treatment and follow-up strategies for acromegaly patients who have not achieved remission within 6 months of surgery. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pancreatic Alpha-Cells Contribute Together With Beta-Cells to CXCL10 Expression in Type 1 Diabetes
In conclusion, we show that in T1D CXCL10 is expressed by alpha-cells both in NOD mice and in T1D patients, thus pointing to an additional novel role for alpha-cells in T1D pathogenesis and progression. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Studying Brown Adipose Tissue in a Human in vitro Context
New treatments for obesity and associated metabolic disease are increasingly warranted with the growth of the obesity pandemic. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) may represent a promising therapeutic target to treat obesity, as this tissue has been shown to regulate energy expenditure through non-shivering thermogenesis. Three different strategies could be employed for therapeutic targeting of human thermogenic adipocytes: increasing BAT mass through stimulation of BAT progenitors, increasing BAT function through regulatory pathways, and increasing WAT browning through promotion of beige adipocyte formation. However, these strate...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Severe Hypoglycemia: Is It Still a Threat for Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes?
Severe hypoglycemia is defined as a condition with serious cognitive dysfunction, such as a convulsion and coma, requiring external help from other persons. This condition is still lethal and is reported to be the cause of death in 4–10% in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The incidence of severe hypoglycemia in the pediatric population was previously reported as high as more than 50–100 patient-years; however, there was a decline in the frequency of severe hypoglycemia during the past decades, and relationship with glycemic control became weaker than previously reported. A lot of studies have sho...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Infliximab Therapy Could Decrease the Risk of the Development of Thyroid Disorders in Pediatric Patients With Crohn's Disease
Autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), may be associated with Crohn's disease (CD). Taking into consideration the role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the immune-mediated inflammation that underlies both diseases, we evaluated an ultrasound of thyroid gland in pediatric CD patients, naïve, and treated with infliximab (IFX), an anti-TNF-alpha antibody, to assess the risk for AITD and evaluated the usefulness of ultrasonography to diagnose AITD in patients with CD. Sixty-one patients with CD were enrolled in the study, including 36 patients (mean age 14.5 ± 3.5 years) tr...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Upregulation of G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor by Chrysin-Nanoparticles Inhibits Tumor Proliferation and Metastasis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Xenograft Model
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with a high mortality rate among women globally. TNBC shows a high rate of recurrence and distant metastasis. Particularly, the chemotherapy is limited because hormone therapy of breast cancer is ineffective. Thus, an effective chemotherapeutic agent is needed for tumor suppression. Chrysin-nanoparticles (chrysin-NPs) were investigated for their inhibitory effect on a MDA-MB-231-derived xenograft model. To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms, we conducted human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) array, western blot, and immunohistochemistry analysis. Furthermore, in vi...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Molecular Footprints of the Immune Assault on Pancreatic Beta Cells in Type 1 Diabetes
We presently evaluated the transcriptomic signature observed in beta cells in early T1D and compared it with the signatures observed following in vitro exposure of human islets to inflammatory or metabolic stresses, with the aim of identifying “footprints” of the immune assault in the target beta cells. We detected similarities between the beta cell signatures induced by cytokines present at different moments of the disease, i.e., interferon-α (early disease) and interleukin-1β plus interferon-γ (later stages) and the beta cells from T1D patients, identifying biological process and signaling pa...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Early Progesterone Change Associated With Pregnancy Outcome After Fresh Embryo Transfer in Assisted Reproduction Technology Cycles With Progesterone Level of > 1.5 ng/ml on Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Trigger Day
This study attempted to determine that the P4 level on 2 days before hCG administration and P4 ratio can serve as indicators for fresh ET in normal responders with an elevated P4 level of>1.5 ng/ml on the hCG administration day. This was a retrospective cohort study involving 337 ART cycles with fresh ET for normal responders. Serum P4 levels were measured 2 days prior to hCG day (P4 level I) and on the hCG administration day (P4 level II). The P4 ratio was calculated as follows: P4 ratio = P4 level II / P4 level I. The primary outcome is live birth rate of fresh ET cycles. The ROC curves established that the optimal P4...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Sphingolipids in the Heart: From Cradle to Grave
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide and this has largely been driven by the increase in metabolic disease in recent decades. Metabolic disease alters metabolism, distribution, and profiles of sphingolipids in multiple organs and tissues; as such, sphingolipid metabolism and signaling have been vigorously studied as contributors to metabolic pathophysiology in various pathological outcomes of obesity, including cardiovascular disease. Much experimental evidence suggests that targeting sphingolipid metabolism may be advantageous in the context of cardiometabolic disease. The heart, however, i...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Timing of Maximal Weight Reduction Following Bariatric Surgery: A Study in Chinese Patients
Conclusion: Chinese patients undergoing bariatric surgery tend to achieve maximal weight loss and stabilization between 12 and 24 months postoperatively, instead of at>2 years. The finding of the shorter stabilization interval has importance to earlier intervention of weight loss related conditions and women's conception planning. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Acute Phase Serum Leptin, Adiponectin, Interleukin-6, and Visfatin Are Altered in Chinese Children With Febrile Seizures: A Cross-Sectional Study
Adipokines, including leptin, visfatin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6 (IL)-6, play multiple roles in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and febrile seizures (FS). We aimed to investigate the associations among plasma adipokines, mainly leptin, visfatin, adiponectin, or IL-6, and the prognosis of FS. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2017 to December 2018 at the Wuxi Second People' Hospital China. The levels of serum leptin, visfatin, adiponectin, and IL-6 in 55 children with FS (FS group) were compared with 42 febrile children without seizure (FC group) and 48 healthy children (HC group) in an...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Efficacy of a 2-Month Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) Compared to a Standard Low-Calorie Diet in Reducing Visceral and Liver Fat Accumulation in Patients With Obesity
Background: Currently the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is based on weight loss through lifestyle changes, such as exercise combined with calorie-restricted dieting.Objectives: To assess the effects of a commercially available weight loss program based on a very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver fat content compared to a standard low-calorie (LC) diet. As a secondary aim, we evaluated the effect on liver stiffness measurements.Methods: Open, randomized controlled, prospective pilot study. Patients were randomized and treated either with an LC or a VLCKD a...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Endothelial Dysfunction in Pre-eclampsia and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Windows Into Future Cardiometabolic Health?
Placental insufficiency and adipose tissue dysregulation are postulated to play key roles in the pathophysiology of both pre-eclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A dysfunctional release of deleterious signaling motifs can offset an increase in circulating oxidative stressors, pro-inflammatory factors and various cytokines. It has been previously postulated that endothelial dysfunction, instigated by signaling from endocrine organs such as the placenta and adipose tissue, may be a key mediator of the vasculopathy that is evident in both adverse obstetric complications. These signaling pathways also have s...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

ABCC8-Related Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY12): A Report of a Chinese Family
Maturity-onset diabetes mellitus of the young (MODY) is a monogenic diabetes characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance. Its atypical clinical features make diagnosis difficult and it can be misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Fourteen subtypes of MODY have been diagnosed so far, of which MODY12 is caused by mutation of the ABCC8 (ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily C Member 8) gene, which is rarely reported in China. This paper reports a Chinese family of MODY12 caused by a rare missense mutation on the ABCC8 gene, which has not been reported to be associated with MODY in China or in other countries, with the aim o...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Circadian Genes as Therapeutic Targets in Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide due to its symptoms, early metastasis, and chemoresistance. Thus, the mechanisms contributing to pancreatic cancer progression require further exploration. Circadian rhythms are the daily oscillations of multiple biological processes regulated by an endogenous clock. Several evidences suggest that the circadian clock may play an important role in the cell cycle, cell proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, timing of chemotherapy or radiation treatment can influence the efficacy and toxicity treatment. Here, we revisit the studies on circadian clock as an emerg...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Incidence and Risk Factors of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study in Qingdao, China
The objectives of this cohort study included: (1) to determine the current incidence of GDM in Qingdao; and (2) to evaluate the risk factors for GDM, such as the interaction between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and age.Methods: The cohort included 17,145 pregnant women who registered at 15 to 20 gestational weeks from August 1, 2018, to March 1, 2019. A 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted for each participant at 24–28 gestational weeks. The age-adjusted incidence of GDM was calculated using logistic regression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors. I...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Bisphenols Threaten Male Reproductive Health via Testicular Cells
Male reproductive function and health are largely dependent on the testes, which are strictly regulated by their major cell components, i. e., Sertoli, Leydig, and germ cells. Sertoli cells perform a crucial phagocytic function in addition to supporting the development of germ cells. Leydig cells produce hormones essential for male reproductive function, and germ cell quality is a key parameter for male fertility assessment. However, these cells have been identified as primary targets of endocrine disruptors, including bisphenols. Bisphenols are a category of man-made organic chemicals used to manufacture plastics, epoxy r...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Ghrelin Protects Against Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia in a Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin-induced hypoglycemia is a major limiting factor in maintaining optimal blood glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes and advanced type 2 diabetes. Luckily, a counterregulatory response (1) system exists to help minimize and reverse hypoglycemia, although more studies are needed to better characterize its components. Recently, we showed that the hormone ghrelin is permissive for the normal CRR to insulin-induced hypoglycemia when assessed in mice without diabetes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ghrelin also is protective against insulin-induced hypoglycemia in the streptozotocin (2) mouse model of type 1 diabe...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Supercomplexes: Physiological Organization and Dysregulation in Age-Related Neurodegenerative Disorders
Several studies suggest that the assembly of mitochondrial respiratory complexes into structures known as supercomplexes (SCs) may increase the efficiency of the electron transport chain, reducing the rate of production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the study of the (dis)assembly of SCs may be relevant for the understanding of mitochondrial dysfunction reported in brain aging and major neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we briefly reviewed the biogenesis and structural properties of SCs, the impact of mtDNA mutations and mitochondrial dynamics on SCs ass...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Practical Considerations for the Management of Cushing's Disease and COVID-19: A Case Report
Conclusion: Adrenal insufficiency might be a clinical challenge that needs a prompt treatment also in CS patients during COVID-19 infection. We should consider the possibility to titrate or temporary halt medical therapies of CS in the context of COVID-19 infection. Unexpected hyperkalemia in CS patients under treatment with heparin might be the signal of aldosterone suppression. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Molecular Mechanisms of Pituitary Cell Plasticity
The mechanisms that mediate plasticity in pituitary function have long been a subject of vigorous investigation. Early studies overcame technical barriers and challenged conceptual barriers to identify multipotential and multihormonal cell populations that contribute to diverse pituitary stress responses. Decades of intensive study have challenged the standard model of dedicated, cell type-specific hormone production and have revealed the malleable cellular fates that mediate pituitary responses. Ongoing studies at all levels, from animal physiology to molecular analyses, are identifying the mechanisms underlying this cell...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The “IAG-Switch”—A Key Controlling Element in Decapod Crustacean Sex Differentiation
The androgenic gland (AG)–a unique crustacean endocrine organ that secretes factors such as the insulin-like androgenic gland (IAG) hormone—is a key player in crustacean sex differentiation processes. IAG expression induces masculinization, while the absence of the AG or a deficiency in IAG expression results in feminization. Therefore, by virtue of its universal role as a master regulator of crustacean sexual development, the IAG hormone may be regarded as the sexual “IAG-switch.” The switch functions within an endocrine axis governed by neuropeptides secreted from the eyestalks, and interacts down...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Persistent Hypercalcemia Crisis and Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis Due to Multiple Ectopic Parathyroid Carcinomas: Case Report and Literature Review of Mediastinal Parathyroid Carcinoma
Mediastinal parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare entity in primary hyperparathyroidism. The aim of this report is to demonstrate a case of mediastinal PC, and to provide a systemic literature review of this rare condition. A 34-year-old woman who had already undergone two cervical operations for hyperparathyroidism suffered from another recurrence, presenting with recurrent acute pancreatitis and persistent hypercalcemic crisis. Technetium-99 methoxyisobutylisonitrile imaging (MIBI) and computed tomography scanning (CT) identified three possible parathyroid tumors, one of which was the recurrence of residual tumor locating...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Metabolic Improvement via Enhancing Thermogenic Fat-Mediated Non-shivering Thermogenesis: From Rodents to Humans
Brown and beige adipose tissues play a large role in non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) in mammals, and subsequently have been studied for decades as potential therapeutic targets to treat obesity and its related metabolic diseases. However, the mechanistic regulation of brown/beige adipose tissue induction and maintenance in humans is very limited due to the ethical reasons. In fact, metabolic signaling has primarily been investigated using rodent models. A better understanding of non-shivering thermogenesis in humans is thus vital and urgent in order to treat obesity by targeting human brown adipose tissue (BAT). In this ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Individual Response Variation in the Effects of Weight Loss and Exercise on Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiometabolic Risk in Older Adults
The objectives of our study were to (1) examine the effect of weight loss with or without exercise on the variability of responses in insulin sensitivity and cardiometabolic risk factors and (2) to explore whether baseline phenotypic characteristics are associated with response. Sedentary older obese (BMI 36.3 ± 5.0 kg/m2) adults (68.6 ± 4.7 years) were randomized to one of 3 groups: health education control (HED); diet-induced weight loss (WL); or weight loss and exercise (WL + EX) for 6 months. Composite Z-scores were calculated for changes in insulin sensitivity (C_IS: rate of glucose disposal/insulin at s...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Artificial Light at Night (ALAN): A Potential Anthropogenic Component for the COVID-19 and HCoVs Outbreak
The origin of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is zoonotic. The circadian day–night is the rhythmic clue to organisms for their synchronized body functions. The “development for mankind” escalated the use of artificial light at night (ALAN). In this article, we tried to focus on the possible influence of this anthropogenic factor in human coronavirus (HCoV) outbreak. The relationship between the occurrences of coronavirus and the ascending curve of the night-light has also been delivered. The ALAN influences the physiology and behavior of bat, a known nocturnal natural reservoir of many Co...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Role of Anti-M üllerian Hormone in the Pathogenesis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Besides its interest for diagnosis, the finding of an elevated serum AMH level in PCOS has open major pathophysiological issues. This review addresses the three most important issues: 1- the role of AMH in the disturbed folliculogenesis of PCOS; 2- the role of AMH in the gonadotropin dysregulation of PCOS and 3- the role of AMH in the trans-generational transmission of PCOS. For each of those issues, the clinical and experimental evidences currently available are discussed and pathophysiological hypothesis are proposed. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Perinatal Exposure to Methoxychlor Affects Reproductive Function and Sexual Behavior in Mice
Numerous chemicals derived from human activity are now disseminated in the environment where their exert estrogenic endocrine disrupting effects, and therefore represent major health concerns. The present study explored whether Methoxychlor (MXC), an insecticide with xenoestrogens activities, given during the perinatal period (from gestational day 11 to postnatal day 8) and at an environmentally dose [20 μg/kg (body weight)/day], would affect reproductive physiology and sexual behavior of the offspring in mice. While MXC exposure did not induce any differences in the weight gain of animals from birth to 4 months of age,...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Progesterone Regulation of Milk Fat Globule Size Is VLDL Dependent
Progesterone plays a pivotal role during mammogenesis and serves as an inhibitor of the secretory activation of mammary cells in the last days of gestation. However, its role during lactogenesis, in particular its involvement in lipid metabolism, and milk fat content and composition, is unknown. Here, we provide new evidence of progesterone's involvement in the regulation of milk fat globule (MFG) synthesis and secretion. Findings from both in vivo and in vitro studies indicated that the concentration and the direction (increase vs. decrease) of progesterone concentration to which the mammary epithelial cells (MECs) are ex...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research