Interleukin-35 Is Involved in Angiogenesis/Bone Remodeling Coupling Through T Helper 17/Interleukin-17 Axis
ConclusionsWe demonstrated for the first time the immuno-suppressive function of IL-35 on RANKL and M-CSF-induced osteoclastogenesis and angiogenesis through Th17/IL-17 axis. Therapeutic approach involving augmentation of IL-35 regulatory response may serve as a novel treatment option for osteoporosis, especially by suppressing bone resorption and angiogenesis. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 16, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cytokines as Targets of Novel Therapies for Graves ’ Ophthalmopathy
In conclusion, large, controlled and randomized studies are needed to evaluate new possible targeted therapies for GO. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 16, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Comparison of Pregnancy and Neonatal Outcomes of Single Frozen Blastocyst Transfer Between Letrozole-Induction and HRT Cycles in Patients With Abnormal Ovulation
ConclusionFor patients with abnormal ovulation, the L-FET regimen has a higher LBR and lower miscarriage rate than HRT. The neonatal outcomes were similar between the two groups. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 16, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Case Report: Extended Clinical Spectrum of the Neonatal Diabetes With Congenital Hypothyroidism Syndrome
ConclusionsOur report expands the phenotypic spectrum of patients with GLIS3 mutations and adds important information on the clinical course, highlighting the possible beneficial effects of pancreatic enzyme and antioxidative vitamin substitutions on characteristic NDH syndrome manifestations such as TSH resistance and cholestasis. We recommend to carefully screen infants with GLIS3 mutations for subtle biochemical signs of partial exocrine pancreatic deficiency or to discuss exploratory administration of pancreatic enzymes and antioxidative vitamins, even in case of good weight gain and fecal elastase concentrations in th...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 16, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Case Report: Re-Treatment With Lu-DOTATATE in Neuroendocrine Tumors
We present a 26-year-old man who started with pelvic pain and after a biopsy of a retro-rectal mass observed in a magnetic resonance was diagnosed with an advanced neuroendocrine tumour. After progression to lanreotide, everolimus and sunitinib, treatment with 177Lu-DOTATATE was initiated, achieving an excellent response with a progression free survival (PFS) of 38 months. At the time of progression, re-treatment with 177Lu-DOTATATE was decided, showing a new partial response, which is currently stable after 15 months. The patient had not presented significant treatment-related toxicity. Although there are no randomized ph...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pituitary Apoplexy: A Retrospective Study of 33 Cases From a Single Center
ConclusionOur study confirmed the rarity and the symptoms of this condition. Surprisingly, only 3 patients needed acute neurosurgical intervention, perhaps due to milder cases and a general intensified treatment of precipitating factors. An early awareness and in severe cases decision on pituitary surgery is of utmost importance to avoid severe complications. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Predictive Factors of Conception and the Cumulative Pregnancy Rate in Subfertile Couples Undergoing Timed Intercourse With Ultrasound
The aim of this study was to determine predictive factors for pregnancy and assess the cumulative pregnancy rate (CPR) and live birth rate (CLBR) in subfertile couples undergoing timed intercourse (TI) using ultrasound. This retrospective cohort study included 285 women (854 cycles) who started TI with ultrasound between January 2017 and October 2019. The overall clinical pregnancy rate was 28.1% (80/285) per couple and 9.4% (80/854) per cycle. Pregnant women had a higher body mass index (BMI), higher percentage of irregular menstrual cycles, a shorter duration of subfertility, lower serum follicle-stimulating hormone leve...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Triglyceride Induced Metabolic Inflammation: Potential Connection of Insulin Resistance and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss
The underlying correlative mechanisms between Insulin resistance (IR) and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in patients without polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) remain inconclusive. To investigate the association between triglyceride (TG) levels, lymphocyte subsets, and IR in RPL patients without PCOS and obesity. Eighty-nine subjects with an unexplained RPL, independent of PCOS/obesity were enrolled in this study. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed on each subject with plasma tested for glucose and insulin. The fasting venous blood of all subjects was collected for routine clinical chemistry analysis. Lymphoc...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Adiponectin and Sarcopenia: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis
ConclusionsOur meta-analysis found evidence that sarcopenia is associated with higher adiponectin levels. However, caution is warranted on the interpretation of these findings, and future longitudinal research is required to disentangle and better understand the topic. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Detour Ahead: Incretin Hormone Signaling Alters Its Intracellular Path as β-Cell Failure Progresses During Diabetes
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Case Report: Hyperplastic Callus of the Femur Mimicking Osteosarcoma in Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type V
ConclusionThe history of OI and lack of rapid progression suggested OI-V with a hyperplastic callus. Combined with genetic testing, the diagnosis was OI-V. Although the patient was at a predisposing age for osteosarcoma, diagnosis and treatment should be based on the medical history of the patient, imaging,and genetic testing, and sometimes even time-consuming retrospective observation. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

microRNA-214-3p Suppresses Ankylosing Spondylitis Fibroblast Osteogenesis via BMP –TGFβ Axis and BMP2
This study may offer a novel insight for AS treatment. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: New Weapons Against Medullary Thyroid Cancer?
Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm that originates from thyroid C cells. Surgery, with complete resection of the tumor, is the only curative approach. However, in most cases, the tumor recurs at locoregional or metastatic level. In this setting, the management remains challenging. In recent years, the immune checkpoint inhibitors have provided promise for changing the cancer treatment paradigm through the application of new approaches that enhance the body’s natural antitumor defenses. The aim of this review is to summarize and discuss available data on efficacy and safety of the Food and D...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Can Inhibin B Reflect Ovarian Reserve of Healthy Reproductive Age Women Effectively?
This study aimed to define the variation trend of inhibin B in healthy women with age and explore its value in the reflection of ovarian reserve.MethodsA total of 2524 healthy reproductive age women from eight medical institutes nationwide were recruited. The variation tendency of inhibin B with age was primarily established in the first group of 948 women and validated in another 605. We evaluated the relationship between inhibin B and classic ovarian reserve and function markers. The potency of inhibin B in predicting AFC
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Plasma Free Amino Acids and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Chinese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
ConclusionsElevated factor 3 composed of glutamate and tryptophan was associated with increased CVD, especially stroke in T2D in China. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Relationship Between Vitamin D and Hormones Important for Human Fertility in Reproductive-Aged Women
Vitamin D deficiency is very common in women of reproductive age. Studies in animals suggests a link between vitamin D and reproductive hormone biosynthesis. A systematic analysis of the correlation of reproductive hormones in reproductive-aged women with both total and free vitamin D was, however, not done so far. This cross-sectional study was performed in 351 healthy reproductive age Caucasian women (median age, 28.0 years; interquartile ranges, 24.7-31.0 years). We measured serum levels of both total and free 25(OH)D, endocrinological, hematological and biochemical parameters. Spearman’s rank correlations were pe...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Emerging Role of Caveolin-1 in GLP-1 Action
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone mainly produced in the intestinal epithelial endocrine L cells, involved in maintaining glucose homeostasis. The use of GLP-1 analogous and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors is well-established in Type 2 Diabetes. The efficacy of these therapies is related to the activation of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), which is widely expressed in several tissues. Therefore, GLP-1 is of great clinical interest not only for its actions at the level of the beta cells, but also for the extra-pancreatic effects. Activation of GLP-1R results in intracellular signaling that is regulated b...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Role of FGF System in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Potential Therapeutic Applications
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors originating from neuroendocrine cells dispersed in different organs. Receptor tyrosine kinases are a subclass of tyrosine kinases with a relevant role in several cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, motility and metabolism. Dysregulation of these receptors is involved in neoplastic development and progression for several tumors, including NENs. In this review, we provide an overview concerning the role of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) system in the development and progression of NENs, th...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Small Fibre Neuropathy Is Associated With Impaired Vascular Endothelial Function in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
In conclusion, endothelial dysfunction as revealed by impaired RH-PAT was significantly associated with CCM parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. This association may indicate that small fibre neuropathy results from impaired endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. CCM parameters may be considered surrogate markers of autonomic nerve damage, which is related to diabetic endothelial dysfunction. This study is the first to report the relationship between corneal nerve parameter as small fibre neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes and RH-PAT as a marker of endothelial dysfunction. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Preterm Birth and Birth Weight and the Risk of Type 1 Diabetes in Chinese Children
AimsFindings from previous studies about the association of preterm birth as well as birth weight with the risk of T1DM were still inconsistent. We aimed to further clarify these associations based on Chinese children and explore the role of gender therein.MethodsA nationwide multicenter and population-based large cross-sectional study was conducted in China from 2017 to 2019. Children aged between 3 and 18 years old with complete information were included in this analysis. Multiple Poisson regression models were used for evaluating the associations of birth weight as well as preterm birth with T1DM in children.ResultsOut ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Efficacy of Weight Reduction on Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Opportunities to Improve Treatment Outcomes Through Pharmacotherapy
Obesity is the single greatest risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Without intervention, most pediatric patients with NAFLD continue to gain excessive weight, making early, effective weight loss intervention key for disease treatment and prevention of NAFLD progression. Unfortunately, outside of a closely monitored research setting, which is not representative of the real world, lifestyle modification success for weight loss in children is low. Bariatric surgery, though effective, is invasive and can worsen NAFLD postoperatively. Thus, there is an evolving and underutilized role for pharmacotherapy in...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Brown Adipose Tissue Function: Sex Hormones, Glucocorticoids, and Their Crosstalk
Excessive fat accumulation in the body causes overweight and obesity. To date, research has confirmed that there are two types of adipose tissue with opposing functions: lipid-storing white adipose tissue (WAT) and lipid-burning brown adipose tissue (BAT). After the rediscovery of the presence of metabolically active BAT in adults, BAT has received increasing attention especially since activation of BAT is considered a promising way to combat obesity and associated comorbidities. It has become clear that energy homeostasis differs between the sexes, which has a significant impact on the development of pathological conditio...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Maternal Serum Angiopoietin-Like 3 Levels in Healthy and Mild Preeclamptic Pregnant Women
ConclusionsWe describe for the first time the profile of ANGPTL3 throughout pregnancy and postpartum as well as and discussed about explore their potential contribution interactions with lipoprotein metabolism throughout pregnancy and postpartum. Thus, low levels of ANGPTL3 during pregnancy might favor lipid uptake in oxidative tissues as the main maternal energy source, while may helping to preserve glucose for use by the fetus and placenta. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Characteristics, Treatment, Outcomes, and Survival in Neuroendocrine G1 and G2 Pancreatic Tumors: Experiences From a Single Tertiary Referral Center
PurposeNeuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (Pan-NETs) are usually hormonally inactive with a capacity to metastasize. Since Pan-NETs are rare, more knowledge is needed.MethodsWe reviewed all patients’ medical files with Pan-NET treated at a tertiary center (2006-2019). Grade 1 (G1) and grade 2 (G2) tumors were compared. The latter group was subdivided arbitrarily based on proliferation index into G2a (3-9.9%) and G2b (10-19.9%).ResultsWe found 137 patients (76 females, 61 males; G1 n=66, G2 n=42), the median age at diagnosis 61 years (interquartile range (IQR) 50–71), and tumor size 2 cm (1.3–5 cm)...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Step-Down of FSH- Dosage During Ovarian Stimulation – Basic Lessons to Be Learnt From a Randomized Controlled Trial
A rise in serum progesterone in the late follicular phase is a well described adverse effect of ovarian stimulation for IVF/ICSI. Previous data suggest, that enhanced gonadotropin stimulation causes progesterone elevation and the incidence of premature progesterone elevation can be reduced by declining gonadotropin dosages. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed to achieve a significant reduction of the progesterone level on the day of final oocyte maturation by a daily reduction of 12.5 IU rec-FSH from a follicle size of 14 mm in a GnRH-antagonist protocol. A total of 127 patients had been recruited (Control gr...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Disrupted Lipid Metabolism in Multiple Sclerosis: A Role for Liver X Receptors?
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease driven by autoimmune, inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes leading to neuronal demyelination and subsequent degeneration. Systemic lipid metabolism is disturbed in people with MS, and lipid metabolic pathways are crucial to the protective process of remyelination. The lipid-activated transcription factors liver X receptors (LXRs) are important integrators of lipid metabolism and immunity. Consequently, there is a strong interest in targeting these receptors in a number of metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including MS. We have reviewed the evidence for in...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Coexistence of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Induced Autoimmune Diabetes and Pancreatitis
Autoimmune diabetes is a rare but severe endocrine toxicity induced by immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment. It is unclear if ICI causes selective islet toxicity or non-selective pancreas toxicity. We analyzed 11 patients treated with ICI who developed ICI-related autoimmune diabetes. Eight patients had lipase and/or amylase tested on the same day of diagnosis of autoimmune diabetes. Among them, 75% (6/8) had normal lipase and 100% (6/6) had normal amylase. There was no correlation between glucose level at onset and biochemical pancreatitis. We characterized the clinical features of ICI-induced autoimmune diabetes. ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

In-Silico Study of Immune System Associated Genes in Case of Type-2 Diabetes With Insulin Action and Resistance, and/or Obesity
Type-2 diabetes and obesity are among the leading human diseases and highly complex in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and are among the most frequent and highly complex and heterogeneous in nature. Based on epidemiological evidence, it is known that the patients suffering from obesity are considered to be at a significantly higher risk of type-2 diabetes. There are several pieces of evidence that support the hypothesis that these diseases interlinked and obesity may aggravate the risk(s) of type-2 diabetes. Multi-level unwanted alterations such as (epi-) genetic alterations, changes at the transcriptional l...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Asperuloside Enhances Taste Perception and Prevents Weight Gain in High-Fat Fed Mice
Asperuloside is an iridoid glycoside found in many medicinal plants that has produced promising anti-obesity results in animal models. In previous studies, three months of asperuloside administration reduced food intake, body weight, and adipose masses in rats consuming a high fat diet (HFD). However, the mechanisms by which asperuloside exerts its anti-obesity properties were not clarified. Here, we investigated homeostatic and nutrient-sensing mechanisms regulating food intake in mice consuming HFD. We confirmed the anti-obesity properties of asperuloside and, importantly, we identified some mechanisms that could be resp...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A Diagnostic Model for Screening Diabetic Retinopathy Using the Hand-Held Electroretinogram Device RETeval
PurposeTo construct a proper model to screen for diabetic retinopathy (DR) with the RETeval.MethodThis was a cross-sectional study. Two hundred thirty-two diabetic patients and seventy controls were recruited. The DR risk assessment protocol was performed to obtain subjects’ DR risk score using the RETeval. Afterwards, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the best cutoff for diagnosing DR. Random forest and decision tree models were constructed.ResultsWith increasing DR severity, the DR score gradually increased. When the DR score was used to diagnose DR, the ROC curve had an area u...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 12, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Maternal Vitamin B12 Status During Pregnancy and Its Association With Outcomes of Pregnancy and Health of the Offspring: A Systematic Review and Implications for Policy in India
ConclusionIn the Indian population low maternal vitaminB12 status, is associated with adverse maternal and child health outcomes. The level of evidence supports adding vitamin B12 to existing nutritional programs in India for extended benefits on outcomes in pregnancy and offspring health besides control of anaemia.Systematic Review Registration[website], identifier [registration number] (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 12, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Decreased Treg Cell and TCR Expansion Are Involved in Long-Lasting Graves ’ Disease
Graves’ disease (GD) is a T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disorder. GD patients who have taken anti-thyroid drugs (ATDs) for more than 5 years with positive anti-thyroid stimulating hormone receptor autoantibodies value were defined as persistent GD (pGD). To develop novel immunotherapies for pGD, we investigated the role of T cells in the long-lasting phase of GD. Clinical characteristics were compared between the pGD and newly diagnosed GD (nGD) (N = 20 respectively). Flow cytometric analysis was utilized to determine the proportions of Treg and Th17 cells (pGD, N = 12; nGD, N = 14). T cell receptor seque...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 12, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Predictive Factors for  Live Birth in Fresh In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Treatment in Poor Ovarian Reserve Patients Classified by the POSEIDON Criteria
The mechanisms underlying poor ovarian response (POR) in assisted reproductive technology remain unclear, there is no consensus on the management of poor responders, the POSEIDON stratification classifies infertility patients into “expected” or “unexpected” groups to provide a more nuanced picture of POR, but few researchers have discussed the independent predictive factors (smoothed plots and the threshold effect) for live birth in POR patients classified by the new criteria. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical data from 6,580 POR patients classified by the POSEIDON criteria in...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 12, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Should Adrenal Venous Sampling Be Performed in PA Patients Without Apparent Adrenal Tumors?
IntroductionSome aldosterone-producing micro-adenomas cannot be detected through image inspection. Therefore, adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is often performed, even in primary aldosteronism (PA) patients who have no apparent adrenal tumors (ATs) on imaging. In most of these cases, however, the PA is bilateral.ObjectiveTo clarify the clinical need for AVS in PA patients without apparent ATs, taking into consideration the rates of adrenalectomy.MethodsThis is a retrospective cross-sectional study assessing 1586 PA patients without apparent ATs in the multicenter Japan PA study (JPAS). We analyzed which parameters could be us...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 12, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Identification and In Vitro Functional Verification of Two Novel Mutations of GHR Gene in the Chinese Children with Laron Syndrome
PurposeLaron syndrome (LS) is a severe growth disorder caused by GHR gene mutation or post-receptor pathways defect. The clinical features of these patients collected in our present study were summarized, GHR gene variants were investigated and further in vitro functional verification was carried out.MethodsFour patients with LS were collected, their clinical characteristics were summarized, genomic DNA was extracted, and GHR gene was amplified and sequenced. GHR wild type (GHR-WT) and mutant GHR expression plasmids were constructed, and transiently transfected into HepG2 cells and HEK293T cells to observe the subcellular ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 12, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) Concentrations Among Children and Adolescents With Diabetes in Middle- and Low-Income Countries, 2010 –2019: A Retrospective Chart Review and Systematic Review of Literature
ObjectivesTo explore the glycemic control [represented by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations] in children with diabetes mellitus (DM) in east China and middle- and low-income countries, from 2010 to 2019.MethodsRetrospective data of children with DM from two hospital-based health records were reviewed. Data on HbA1c concentrations, hospitalization due to diabetic ketoacidosis, and patient demographics were collected and analyzed. A systematic review was subsequently performed to analyze publications that report HbA1c concentrations in patients aged
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 12, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

LncRNA FENDRR Inhibits ox-LDL Induced Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism Disorder in Aortic Endothelial Cells via miR-18a-5p/PGC-1 α Signaling Pathway
In conclusion, these findings suggested that FENDRR/miR-18a-5p/PGC-1α signaling pathway regulated mitochondrial energy metabolism in HAECs; ox-LDL downregulated the expression of PGC-1α and cause mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder by inhibiting this signal pathway. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 12, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Fine Needle Biopsy Versus Core Needle Biopsy Combined With/Without Thyroglobulin or BRAF 600E Mutation Assessment for Detecting Cervical Nodal Metastasis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
ConclusionThe sensitivity and specificity of FNAB-C could be increased if combined with FNAB-Tg. CNB-T alone could provide satisfactory diagnostic reliability. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 12, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Islet-Resident Dendritic Cells and Macrophages in Type 1 Diabetes: In Search of Bigfoot ’s Print
The classical view of type 1 diabetes assumes that the autoimmune mediated targeting of insulin producing ß-cells is caused by an error of the immune system. Malfunction and stress of beta cells added the target tissue at the center of action. The innate immune system, and in particular islet-resident cells of the myeloid lineage, could function as a link between stressed ß-cells and activation and recognition by the adaptive immune system. We survey the role of islet-resident macrophages and dendritic cells in healthy islet homeostasis and pathophysiology of T1D. Knowledge of islet-resident antigen presenting ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 12, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Endocrine Disruptor Compounds —A Cause of Impaired Immune Tolerance Driving Inflammatory Disorders of Pregnancy?
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are prevalent and ubiquitous in our environment and have substantial potential to compromise human and animal health. Amongst the chronic health conditions associated with EDC exposure, dysregulation of reproductive function in both females and males is prominent. Human epidemiological studies demonstrate links between EDC exposure and infertility, as well as gestational disorders including miscarriage, fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia, and preterm birth. Animal experiments show EDCs administered during gestation, or to either parent prior to conception, can interfere with gamete...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 12, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Novel Roles of Follistatin/Myostatin in Transforming Growth Factor- β Signaling and Adipose Browning: Potential for Therapeutic Intervention in Obesity Related Metabolic Disorders
Obesity is a global health problem and a major risk factor for several metabolic conditions including dyslipidemia, diabetes, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity develops from chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Stimulation of cellular energy burning process has the potential to dissipate excess calories in the form of heat via the activation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in white and brown adipose tissues. Recent studies have shown that activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway significantly contributes to the development of obesity, and...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 9, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis
ConclusionWith a high prevalence of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist treatment shows promise in improving both diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease phenotype. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 9, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Gut-Based Strategies to Reduce Postprandial Glycaemia in Type 2 Diabetes
Postprandial glycemic control is an important target for optimal type 2 diabetes management, but is often difficult to achieve. The gastrointestinal tract plays a major role in modulating postprandial glycaemia in both health and diabetes. The various strategies that have been proposed to modulate gastrointestinal function, particularly by slowing gastric emptying and/or stimulating incretin hormone GLP-1, are summarized in this review. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 9, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mining Gut Microbiota From Bariatric Surgery for MAFLD
The progression of metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) leads to steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus far, there have been no FDA-approved medications for MAFLD. Bariatric surgery (BS) has been found to improve insulin resistance, steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis but is not recommended for treating MAFLD due to its invasiveness. Recent studies suggest the improved glucose metabolism after BS is a result of, at least partly, alterations to the gut microbiota and its associated metabolites, including short chain fatty acids and bile acids. It makes sense the improved st...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 9, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Modulating the Microbiota as a Therapeutic Intervention for Type 2 Diabetes
Mounting evidence suggested that the gut microbiota has a significant role in the metabolism and disease status of the host. In particular, Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), which has a complex etiology that includes obesity and chronic low-grade inflammation, is modulated by the gut microbiota and microbial metabolites. Current literature supports that unbalanced gut microbial composition (dysbiosis) is a risk factor for T2D. In this review, we critically summarize the recent findings regarding the role of gut microbiota in T2D. Beyond these associative studies, we focus on the causal relationship between microbiota and T2D establis...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 7, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Case Report: A New Entity: Multiple Differentiated Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma With Advanced Clinical Behavior
In conclusions, we identified a new entity of PTC as a multiple differentiated variant of PTC (MDV-PTC) with an aggressive clinical nature. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 7, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Comparison of Surgical Complications Rates Between LigaSure Small Jaw and Clamp-and-Tie Hemostatic Technique in 1,000 Neuro-Monitored Thyroidectomies
This study investigates a novel LigaSure Small Jaw (LSJ) technique for sutureless thyroidectomy and compares the surgical complication rates between LSJ and conventional clamp-and-tie technique in one thousand consecutive neuro-monitored thyroidectomy patients. Five hundred patients received sutureless thyroidectomy performed with LSJ (Group L), and 500 patients received surgery performed with conventional clamp-and-tie technique (Group C). Complication rates of postoperative hematoma, hypocalcemia and recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy were compared between groups. The overall complication rates of hematoma, hypocalcem...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 7, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Levoketoconazole in the Treatment of Patients With Cushing ’s Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus: Results From the SONICS Phase 3 Study
ConclusionsTreatment with levoketoconazole led to sustained normalization of mUFC and improvement in glycemic control that was more pronounced in patients with DM.Clinical Trial Registration(ClinicalTrials.gov), NCT01838551. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 7, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

PCOS and Inositols: Controversial Results and Necessary Clarifications. Basic Differences Between D-Chiro and Myo-Inositol
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Obese Youth With Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes
Currently, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent form of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents worldwide. Simultaneously to the epidemic spreading of childhood obesity, the rate of affected young has dramatically increased in the last decades with an estimated prevalence of NAFLD of 3%–10% in pediatric subjects in the world. The continuous improvement in NAFLD knowledge has significantly defined several risk factors associated to the natural history of this complex liver alteration. Among them, Insulin Resistance (IR) is certainly one of the main features. As well, not surprising...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research