The MAPK Pathway-Based Drug Therapeutic Targets in Pituitary Adenomas
This article reviews the advances in understanding the role of MAPK signaling in pituitary tumorigenesis, and the MAPK pathway-based potential therapeutic drugs for PAs. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 22, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Modulation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuron Activity and Secretion in Mice by Non-peptide Neurotransmitters, Gasotransmitters, and Gliotransmitters
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron activity and GnRH secretion are essential for fertility in mammals. Here, I review findings from mouse studies on the direct modulation of GnRH neuron activity and GnRH secretion by non-peptide neurotransmitters (GABA, glutamate, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, histamine, ATP, adenosine, and acetylcholine), gasotransmitters (nitric oxide and carbon monoxide), and gliotransmitters (prostaglandin E2 and possibly GABA, glutamate, and ATP). These neurotransmitters, gasotransmitters, and gliotransmitters have been shown to directly modulate activity and/or GnRH secr...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 22, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Bariatric Surgery Modulates Urinary Levels of MicroRNAs Involved in the Regulation of Renal Function
Conclusions: Bariatric surgery increased miR 192 and miR 200 urinary levels, key anti-fibrotic microRNAs that could contribute to a renal-protective mechanism and may be of value as urinary biomarkers following surgery. These findings suggest that urinary microRNAs may represent potential novel biomarkers for obesity-associated renal function. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Dynamics of Insulin Signaling in the Black-Legged Tick, Ixodes scapularis
Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have been identified in several invertebrates, particularly insects, and work on these ILPs has revealed many roles including regulators of energy homeostasis, growth, development and lifespan to name a few. However, information on arthropod ILPs outside of insects is sparse. Studies of Ixodid tick ILPs are particularly scarce, despite their importance as vectors of infectious agents, most notably Lyme disease. The recent publication of the genome of the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, has advanced opportunities to study this organism from a molecular standpoint, a resource sorely needed ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Pathophysiology and Treatment of Hypertension in Patients With Cushing's Syndrome
This article discusses the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of CS and the pros and the cons of the various antihypertensive agents that are presently available to treat these patients. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

O-GlcNacylation Links TxNIP to Inflammasome Activation in Pancreatic β Cells
Thioredoxin interacting protein (TxNIP), which strongly responds to glucose, has emerged as a central mediator of glucotoxicity in pancreatic β cells. TxNIP is a scaffold protein interacting with target proteins to inhibit or stimulate their activity. Recent studies reported that high glucose stimulates the interaction of TxNIP with the inflammasome protein NLRP3 (NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3) to increase interleukin-1 β (IL1β) secretion by pancreatic β cells. To better understand the regulation of TxNIP by glucose in pancreatic β cells, we investigated the implication of O-linked β-N...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Central Mechanism Controlling Pubertal Onset in Mammals: A Triggering Role of Kisspeptin
Pubertal onset is thought to be timed by an increase in pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/gonadotropin secretion in mammals. The underlying mechanism of pubertal onset in mammals is still an open question. Evidence accumulated in the last 15 years suggests that kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin A (KNDy) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus play a key role in pubertal onset by triggering pulsatile GnRH/gonadotropin secretin in mammals. Specifically, KNDy neurons are now considered a part of GnRH pulse generator, in which neurokinin B facilitates and dynorphin A inhibits, the synchronized discharge of KN...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Resistance Are Induced via the IRE1 α/XBP-1 Pathway in Subclinical Hypothyroidism
In this study, we firstly re-analyzed the data of a mature database (NHANES, 1999 ~ 2002) and found that both fasting plasma glucose levels and the proportion of hyperglycemic subjects in SCH patients were higher than those in euthyroid controls. And SCH was associated with a 2.29-time increased risk for diabetes. Then, we established an SCH mouse model and applied OGTT and ITT. SCH mice exhibited impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. Increased HOMA-IR index and decreased ISI index, indicating insulin resistance (IR), were also observed in the SCH state. Hepatic ERp29 and Bip, as well as IRE1α and XBP-1s induced si...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Countering the Modern Metabolic Disease Rampage With Ancestral Endocannabinoid System Alignment
When primitive vertebrates evolved from ancestral members of the animal kingdom and acquired complex locomotive and neurological toolsets, a constant supply of energy became necessary for their continued survival. To help fulfill this need, the endocannabinoid (eCB) system transformed drastically with the addition of the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) to its gene repertoire. This established an eCB/CB1R signaling mechanism responsible for governing the whole organism’s energy balance, with its activation triggering a shift towards energy intake and storage in the brain and the peripheral organs (i.e. liver and adipose...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Regulation of Gastrointestinal Motility by Motilin and Ghrelin in Vertebrates
The energy balance of vertebrates is regulated by the difference in energy input and energy expenditure. Generally, most vertebrates obtain their energy from nutrients of foods through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Therefore, food intake and following food digestion including motility of the GI tract, secretion and absorption are crucial physiological events for energy homeostasis. GI motility changes depending on feeding, and GI motility is divided into fasting and postprandial contraction patterns. GI motility is controlled by contraction of smooth muscles of the GI tract, enteric and intrinsic neurons (motor and sens...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial: Fresh Ideas, Foundational Experiments: Immunology and Diabetes
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial: Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Non-islet Cell Hypoglycemia: Case Series and Review of the Literature
We present two cases of NICH with different outcomes. A 33 year old male patient admitted with altered mental. He was found walking naked outside his house. Laboratory assessment revealed severe hypoglycemia. Further evaluation showed low levels of insulin, C-peptide, and beta-hydroxy butyrate along with an elevated IGF-2/IGF-1 ratio confirming the diagnosis of NICH. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed a massive tumor of the liver consistent with hepatocellular carcinoma. Since the patient refused surgery, he was started on prednisone however the hypoglycemia persisted. A 54 year old female patient with a ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Testicular Cancer —Surgical Treatment
Testicular Germ Cell Tumor (GCT) is the most common solid tumor in men between the ages of 20-44. Men diagnosed with GCT have excellent survival rates due to advances in the multimodal treatment paradigm of chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery. When considering the adequate treatment, several variables should be investigated and known to select the proper procedure. Therefore, when considering Testicular Intra-Epithelial Neoplasia, organ-sparring treatment, such as radiotherapy or organ-sparring surgery should be considered, reaching a cure rate of 98%. However, when the case is of a seminoma or a non-seminoma, orch...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Abnormal Thyroid Hormone Status Differentially Affects Bone Mass Accrual and Bone Strength in C3H/HeJ Mice: A Mouse Model of Type I Deiodinase Deficiency
C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice are deficient of type I deiodinase (D1), an enzyme that activates thyroid hormone (TH), converting thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3). Nevertheless, C3H mice present normal serum T3 and a gross euthyroid phenotype. To investigate if a global D1 deficiency interferes in the TH effects on bone, we compared bone growth, bone mass accrual and bone strength of C3H and C57BL/6J (B6) mice under abnormal TH status. Four-week-old female mice of both strains were grouped as Euthyroid, Hypothyroid (pharmacologically-induced), 1xT4 and 10xT4 (hypothyroid animals receiving 1- or 10-fold the physiological dose of...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effect of Oxytocin on Hunger Discrimination
Centrally and peripherally administered oxytocin (OT) decreases food intake and activation of the endogenous OT systems is associated with termination of feeding. Evidence gathered thus far points to OT as facilitator of early satiation, thus, a peptide that reduces a meal that has already begun. It is not known, however, whether OT can diminish a feeling of hunger, thereby decreasing a perceived need to seek calories. Therefore, in the current project, we first confirmed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) OT at 0.3-1 mg/kg reduces food intake in deprived and non-deprived rats. We then used those OT doses in a unique hunger discr...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Evolutionary Perspective in Rickets and Vitamin D
Modern lifestyle limits our exposure to sunlight, which photosynthesizes vitamin D in the skin, and the incidence of nutritional rickets has been resurging. Vitamin D is one of the oldest hormones; it is photosynthesized in all forms of life from the phytoplankton to mammals. A selective sweep of the promoter of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) happened as soon as Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa; it co-adapted with skin color genes to provide a fine-scale adaptation to latitudes and the levels of exposure to ultraviolet (UV)B radiation along the route out of Africa. Exposure to UVB radiation balances the need for vitamin D...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Role of 17 β-Estradiol and Estrogen Receptors in Regulation of Ca2+ Channels and Mitochondrial Function in Cardiomyocytes
Numerous epidemiological, clinical and animal studies showed that cardiac function and manifestation of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are different between males and females. The underlying reasons for these sex differences are definitely multifactorial, but major evidence points to a causal role of the sex steroid hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) and its receptors (ER) in the physiology and pathophysiology of the heart. Interestingly, it has been shown that cardiac calcium (Ca2+) ion channels and mitochondrial function are regulated in a sex-specific manner. Accurate mitochondrial function and Ca2+ signaling are of utmost...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

New Insights Into the Role of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone in Sex Differentiation of the Protogynous Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides
In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term and short-term FSH injection on sex differentiation in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Long-term FSH treatment initially promoted the formation of ovaries but subsequently induced a male fate. The expression of female pathway genes was initially increased but then decreased, whereas the expression of male pathway genes was up-regulated only during long-term FSH treatment. The genes related to the synthesis of sex steroid hormones, as well as serum 11-ketotestosterone and estradiol, were also up-regulated during long-term FSH treatment. S...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Competing Endogenous RNA Network Analysis Reveals Pivotal ceRNAs in Adrenocortical Carcinoma
Conclusion This study has constructed ceRNA networks in ACC. The study provides a set of pivotal ceRNAs for future investigation into the molecular mechanisms. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Role of Osteocytes in Inflammatory Bone Loss
Osteoimmunology investigations to-date have demonstrated the significant interactions between bone surface cells, osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and immune cells. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on osteocytes, cells embedded in the bone matrix, and their role in inflammation and inflammatory bone loss. Osteocytes communicate through various mechanisms; directly via dendritic processes and through secretion of proteins that can influence the formation and activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Some osteocyte proteins (e.g., interleukin-6 and RANKL) also have roles within the immune system. In the context of mechani...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Relationship Between Vertebral Fractures, Bone Mineral Density, and Osteometabolic Profile in HIV and Hepatitis B and C-Infected Patients Treated With ART
Conclusions: HIV patients suffer from bone fragility, particularly at the spine, independently by bone density level. In this population, the T-score threshold for the risk of fracture is higher than in the general population. This value could be used as a cut-off, below which the execution of a radiography of the dorso-lumbar spine is indicated to evaluate the presence of vertebral fractures. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Contaminant and Environmental Influences on Thyroid Hormone Action in Amphibian Metamorphosis
Aquatic and terrestrial environments are increasingly contaminated by anthropogenic sources releasing industrial and agricultural chemicals including pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Many of these substances have the potential to disrupt endocrine function, yet thyroid hormone (TH) action has garnered relatively little attention. Anuran postembryonic metamorphosis is strictly dependent on TH and perturbation of this process can serve as a sensitive barometer for the detection and mechanistic elucidation of TH disrupting activities of chemical contaminants and their complex mixtures. The ecological th...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effects of Melatonin Supplementation on Hormonal, Inflammatory, Genetic, and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Purpose: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin administration on clinical, hormonal, inflammatory and genetic parameters in women with PCOS. Methods: The present randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted among 56 patients with PCOS, aged 18-40 years old. Subjects were randomly allocated to take either 5 mg melatonin supplements (n=28) or placebo (n=28) twice a day for 12 weeks. Results: Melatonin administration significantly reduced hirsutism (β -0.47; 95% CI, -0.86, -0.09; P=0.01), serum total testosterone (β -0.11 ng/mL; 95% CI, -0.21, -0.02; ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Epigenomics of Pituitary Adenoma
Conclusions: The limited clinical predictive capacity of the current pituitary tumor classification system suggests that tumor subclasses likely remain to be discovered. Ongoing epigenetic studies could provide a basis for adding methylation and/or acetylation screening to standard pituitary tumor workups. Identifying robust correlations between tumor epigenetics and corresponding histological, radiographic, and clinical course information could ultimately inform clinical decision-making. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Molecular Mechanisms of Action of FSH
The glycoprotein follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) acts on gonadal target cells, hence regulating gametogenesis. The transduction of the hormone-induced signal is mediated by the FSH-specific G protein-coupled receptor (FSHR), of which the action relies on the interaction with a number of intracellular effectors. The stimulatory Gαs protein is a long-time known transducer of FSH signaling, mainly leading to intracellular cAMP increase and protein kinase A (PKA) activation, the latter acting as a master regulator of cell metabolism and sex steroid production. While in vivo data clearly demonstrate the relevance of PK...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Potential Anti-obesogenic Effects of Ginkgo biloba Observed in Epididymal White Adipose Tissue of Obese Rats
Exacerbated expansion of adipose tissue seen in diet-induced obesity leads to endocrine dysfunction and disturbance in adipokine secretion, with such abnormal profile positively associated with type 2 diabetes and other mild chronic inflammatory conditions. Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE), a mixture of polyphenols with antioxidant properties, has been recently investigated in a variety of experimental models of endocrine dysfunction, with several potentially beneficial effects identified, including improvement in insulin sensitivity in obese rats, and reduction of weight gain in ovariectomy-induced obesity and diet-induced obe...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 10, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial: Insulin and The Brain
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 10, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Kisspeptin and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Conclusion: Overall, kisspeptin level is higher in PCOS population, which supports the hypothesis that over-activated KISS1 system lead to an enhanced HPG-axis activity, thereby cause irregular menstrual cycle and excessive androgen release in PCOS women. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 10, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Effects of Soy Protein and Cocoa With or Without Isoflavones on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study
Objective. Soy and cocoa have been suggested to be beneficial for diabetes. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of soy protein, isoflavones and cocoa on glycemic control parameters. Research design and methods. The study was a parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled study where patients with diet or metformin controlled type 2 diabetes were randomized to, casein soy protein with or without isoflavones (SPI, SP), and with or without cocoa (SPIC, SPC) arms for an eight week period. Glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed prior to and after the completion of the dietary intervention. 6...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Insufficiency of Thyroid Hormone in Frog Metamorphosis and the Role of Glucocorticoids
Thyroid hormone (TH) is the most important hormone in frog metamorphosis, a developmental process which will not occur in the absence of TH but can be induced precociously by exogenous TH. However, such treatments including in-vitro TH treatments often do not replicate the events of natural metamorphosis in many organs, including lung, brain, blood, intestine, pancreas, tail, and skin. A potential explanation for the discrepancy between natural and TH-induced metamorphosis is the involvement of glucocorticoids (GCs). GCs are not able to advance development by themselves but can modulate the rate of developmental progress i...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

O-GlcNAcylation Is Involved in the Regulation of Stem Cell Markers Expression in Colon Cancer Cells
In this study we confirmed the previous reports showing that colon cancer cells exhibit higher O-GlcNAc basal levels than non-malignant cells, and investigated the role played by O-GlcNAcylation in the regulation of CSC phenotype. We found that the modification of O-GlcNAcylation levels by pharmacological inhibition of the O-GlcNAc-transferase enzyme that adds O-GlcNAc (OGT), but not of the enzyme that removes it (OGA), increased the expression of all stem cell markers tested in our colon malignant cell lines, and induced the appearance of a double positive (CD44+/CD133+) small stem cell-like subpopulation (which correspon...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

An Observational Retrospective Cohort Trial on 4,828 IVF Cycles Evaluating Different Low Prognosis Patients Following the POSEIDON Criteria
Conclusions: In clinical practice, women with worst prognosis factors are generally treated with a combination of LH and FSH. Despite low prognosis women showed a reduced number of oocytes retrieved, the final ICSI outcome, in terms of pregnancy, is similarly among treatment group. This result suggests that the LH addition to FSH during COS could improve the quality of oocytes retrieved, balancing those differences that are evident at baseline. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Creating Prognostic Systems for Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Using Machine Learning
Updates to staging models are needed to reflect a greater understanding of tumor behavior and clinical outcomes for well differentiated thyroid carcinomas. We used a machine learning algorithm and disease-specific survival data of differentiated thyroid carcinoma from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute to integrate clinical factors to improve prognostic accuracy. The concordance statistic (C-index) was used to cut dendrograms resulting from the learning process to generate prognostic groups. We created one computational prognostic model (7 prognostic groups with C-index...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Effect of Wnt Pathway Modulators on Human iPSC-Derived Pancreatic Beta Cell Maturation
In this study, we stimulated hiPSC-derived S7 cells with canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways with synthetic proteins including WNT3A, WNT4, WNT5A and WNT5B as well as inhibition of endogenous Wnt signaling with the Tankyrase inhibitor G007-LK (TKi). Our data show that neither canonical nor non-canonical Wnt stimulation alone is enough to mature β-cells, however, global proteomics profiling of TKi-treated S7 cells showed more similarity to adult human islets, suggesting that inhibition of endogenous Wnt contribute towards final β-cell maturation. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Ovarian Reserve Markers to Identify Poor Responders in the Context of Poseidon Classification
It is well known that poor ovarian reserve is a cause of infertility, poor response to gonadotrophin stimulation and poor success rate after in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Some years ago a consensus was elaborated on precise criteria which can lead to a correct identification of poor responders (the Bologna criteria). More recently, the POSEIDON group has proposed a new stratified classification of patients with low prognosis, also with the aim of providing clinical indications for the management of these patients. A literature search was carried out for studies that investigated the ability of ovarian reserve marker...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Polycystin-2 Is Required for Starvation- and Rapamycin-Induced Atrophy in Myotubes
This study provides novel evidence regarding the role of PC2 in skeletal muscle cell atrophy. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mouse Models and Online Resources for Functional Analysis of Osteoporosis Genome-Wide Association Studies
Osteoporosis is a complex genetic disease in which the number of loci associated with the bone mineral density, a clinical risk factor for fracture, has increased at an exponential rate in the last decade. The identification of the causative variants and candidate genes underlying these loci has not been able to keep pace with the rate of locus discovery. A large number of tools and data resources have been built around the use of the mouse as model of human genetic disease. Herein, we describe resources available for functional validation of human Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) loci using mouse models. We specifical...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Tanycyte Gene Expression Dynamics in the Regulation of Energy Homeostasis
Animal survival relies on a constant balance between energy supply and energy expenditure, which is controlled by numerous neuroendocrine functions that integrate metabolic inputs and adapt the response of the organism to physiological demands. Polarized ependymoglial cells lining the floor of the third ventricle and sending a single process within metabolic hypothalamic parenchyma, tanycytes are henceforth described as key components of the hypothalamic neural network controlling energy balance. Their strategic position and peculiar properties convey them diverse physiological functions ranging from blood/brain traffic co...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hypogonadism and Sexual Dysfunction in Testicular Tumor Survivors: A Systematic Review
Testicular tumor is the most common malignancy in men of reproductive age. According to the tumor histology and staging, current treatment options include orchiectomy alone or associated with adjuvant chemo- and/or radiotherapy. Although these treatments have considerably raised the percentage of survivors compared to the past, they have been identified as risk factors for testosterone deficiency and sexual dysfunction in this subgroup of men. Male hypogonadism, in turn, predisposes to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular impairment that negatively affects general health. Accordingly, longitudinal studies report...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Role of Mitochondria in the Mechanism(s) of Action of Metformin
Metformin is a drug from the biguanide family that is used for decades as the first-line therapeutic choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Despite its worldwide democratization, owing to its clinical efficacy, high safety profile and cheap cost, the exact mechanism(s) of action of this anti-hyperglycemic molecule with pleiotropic properties still remains to be fully elucidated. The concept that metformin would exert some of its actions though modulation of the mitochondrial bioenergetics was initially forged in the 50s but undeniably revived at the beginning of the 21st century when it was shown to induce a weak but...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mechanisms Involved in Childhood Obesity-Related Bone Fragility
Childhood obesity is one of the major health problems in western countries. The excessive accumulation of adipose tissue causes inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunctions. Thus, obesity leads to the development of severe co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes mellitus, liver steatosis, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases which can develop early in life. Furthermore, obese children have low bone mineral density and a greater risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The knowledge about the interplay bone tissue and between adipose is still growing, although recent findings suggest that ad...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Analysing Point Mutations in Protein Cleavage Sites by Using Enzyme Specificity Matrices
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Physiology and Pharmacology of DPP-4 in Glucose Homeostasis and the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prevalence of Undiagnosed Depression in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
This study was conducted to assess the depression among T2DM patients attending diabetic clinics, primary healthcare centers (PHC), Dubai Health Authority (DHA). Depressive symptoms were assessed by using both Arabic and English version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Results: Out of 1,050 diabetic patients approached, 559 were within our inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in this study (Response rate of 53%). The mainstream of the participants had T2DM for
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Obesity May Accelerate the Aging Process
Conclusions Two, Not Mutually Exclusive, Hypotheses We have reviewed and organized the literature with the intent of showing the existing parallels between excessive fat accumulation and the aging process. We have categorized these reports following what have been proposed to be the nine hallmarks of aging (21) (Figure 1). Based on the evidence, two distinct hypotheses can be proposed. One is that the cellular responses provoked by an excess of nutrients cause obesity, and that obesity is responsible for accelerating the pace of aging. Supporting this hypothesis are the observations that knocking out the fat-specific ins...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

PARP-14 Promotes Survival of Mammalian α but Not β Pancreatic Cells Following Cytokine Treatment
PARP-14 Promotes Survival of Mammalian α but Not β Pancreatic Cells Following Cytokine Treatment Floriana D'Angeli1, Marina Scalia2, Matilde Cirnigliaro2, Cristina Satriano3, Vincenza Barresi1, Nicolò Musso1, Angela Trovato-Salinaro1, Davide Barbagallo2, Marco Ragusa2, Cinzia Di Pietro2, Michele Purrello2 and Vittoria Spina-Purrello1* 1Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Section of Medical Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy 2Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Section of Biology and Genetics, University of Catania, Catania, Italy 3Department...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Genetic Associations With Diabetic Retinopathy and Coronary Artery Disease in Emirati Patients With Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus
Sarah K. Azzam1, Wael M. Osman2, Sungmun Lee1, Kinda Khalaf1, Ahsan H. Khandoker1, Wael Almahmeed3,4, Herbert F. Jelinek5 and Habiba S. Al Safar1,2* 1Biomedical Engineering Department, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 2Khalifa University Center of Biotechnology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 3Institute of Cardiac Science, Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 4Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 5Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Sydney and School of Community Health, Charles Sturt University, Ma...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - May 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Roles of Type 1 Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) Receptor and IGF-II in Growth Regulation: Evidence From a Patient Carrying Both an 11p Paternal Duplication and 15q Deletion
Conclusion We report here an original association of multiple chromosomal rearrangements involving IGF2 and IGF1R, two critical genes involved in the regulation of fetal and post-natal growth regulation. It favors the predominance of IGF-II during fetal growth and IGF-I during post-natal growth. Ethics Statement A written informed consent was obtained from the parents of the participant for the publication of this case report. Author Contributions EG, SC-B, and FB shared writing of the manuscript. AB, MR, and SC-B performed the molecular tests and analysis. SW and IN participated in the discussion and revisions during...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 30, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Health-Related Complications of Acromegaly —Risk of Malignant Neoplasms
Health-Related Complications of Acromegaly—Risk of Malignant Neoplasms Marek Ruchala*† and Kosma Wolinski† Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland The issue of increased risk of benign and malignant neoplasms in patients with acromegaly remains the topic of debate from many years and was addressed by numerous studies. Many of them have shown increase in the cancer incidence. Among particular types of malignancies, thyroid, colorectal, and breast cancer are most commonly indicated as associated with acromegaly. Single ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 30, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research