Management Strategies for POSEIDON Groups 3 and 4
In the POSEIDON classification, patients belonging to groups 3 and 4 share the same common feature of a poor ovarian reserve which independently of age renders them at high risk of a poor reproductive outcome. Overall, POSEIDON groups 1–4 constitute approximately 47% of patients attending assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. With the increasing delay in childbearing, POSEIDON group 4 seems to increase in numbers now in some centers constituting more than 50% of the total POSEIDON population, whereas group 3 patients constitute approximately 10%. Both POSEIDON groups 3 and 4 patients require special atten...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Analytical and Clinical Validation of Expressed Variants and Fusions From the Whole Transcriptome of Thyroid FNA Samples
Conclusion: When the Afirma Genomic Sequencing Classifier (GSC) is used first among Bethesda III/IV nodules as a rule-out test, XA supplements genomic insight among those that are GSC suspicious. Our data clinically and analytically validate XA for use among GSC suspicious, or Bethesda V/VI nodules. Genomic information provided by XA may inform clinical decision-making with precision medicine insights across a broad range of FNA sample types encountered in the care of patients with thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by Perinatal Exposure to Bisphenol a Is Associated With Activated mTOR and TLR4/NF- κB Signaling Pathways in Offspring Rats
Accumulating evidence suggests a role of bisphenol A (BPA) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and its mechanism may be related to the up-regulation of lipogenic genes, but the mechanism of BPA induced lipogenic gene expression remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to BPA on NAFLD and its mechanisms. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats had access to drinking water containing 1 or 10 μg/ml BPA from gestational day 6 to post-natal day 21. For 5 weeks after weaning, offspring drank normal water without BPA. Body weight, lipid profile and the expression of genes or pr...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 10, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

High Glucose Level Impairs Human Mature Bone Marrow Adipocyte Function Through Increased ROS Production
In this study, we investigated whether high glucose exposure could determine dysfunction of mature BMAds, specifically through ROS production. The effects of low (LG, 5 mM) or high glucose (HG, 25 mM) concentrations were examined using human bone mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) in the time course of differentiation, and, up to 21 days once adipocytes were mature. HG did not alter the adipocyte differentiation process of hBMSCs. Yet, after 21 days under HG exposure, PPARG, CEBPA, and adiponectin mRNA expressions were decreased. These alterations were also observed following adipogenic inducer withdrawal as well as in adi...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 10, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells in Bone and Hematopoietic Homeostasis
The bone represents surprisingly dynamic structures that are subject to constant remodeling by the concerted action of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts - two cell subsets of distinct developmental origin that are key in maintaining skeletal integrity throughout life. In general, abnormal bone remodeling due to dysregulated bone resorption and formation is an early event in the manifestation of various human bone diseases, such as osteopetrosis/osteoporosis and arthritis. But bone remodeling is also closely interrelated with lympho-hematopoietic homeostasis, as the bone marrow niche is formed by solid...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 10, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Causes and Consequences of the Dysregulated Maternal Renin-Angiotensin System in Preeclampsia
A healthy pregnancy outcome depends on the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) as a regulated, integrated response to the growing demands of the conceptus. Both the circulating RAAS and the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (iRAS) play major roles in cardiovascular function and fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. The circulating RAAS becomes dysfunctional in preeclampsia and we propose that dysregulation of the iRAS plays a role in development of the clinical syndrome known as preeclampsia. Experimental studies in animals have shown that placental renin, when released into the maternal circulatio...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 10, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial: Follicle-Stimulating Hormone: Fertility and Beyond
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial: Follicle-Stimulating Hormone: Beyond Fertility
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Gut Dysfunction and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as one of the leading liver diseases worldwide. NAFLD is characterised by hepatic steatosis and may progress to an inflammatory condition termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, (NASH), liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It became evident in the last years that NAFLD pathophysiology is complex and involves diverse immunological and metabolic pathways. An association between intestinal signals (e.g. derived from the gut microbiota) and the development of obesity and its metabolic consequences such as NAFLD are increasingly recognized. Preclinical studies have sh...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hexane Fraction of Turbo brunneus Inhibits Intermediates of RANK-RANKL Signaling Pathway and Prevent Ovariectomy Induced Bone Loss
Osteoporosis is a ‘silent disease’ characterized by fragile and impaired bone quality. Bone fracture results in increased mortality and poor quality of life in aged people particularly in postmenopausal women. Bone is maintained through the delicate balance between osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated bone formation. The imbalance is caused most often by overly active osteoclasts due to estrogen deficiency. Natural products have long been used to prevent and treat osteoporosis since they have fewer side effects. The marine environment is a potential source of biologically and structurally...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Genetics of Growth Disorders —Which Patients Require Genetic Testing?
The second 360° European Meeting on Growth Hormone Disorders was held in Barcelona, Spain, in June 2017, with the aim of examining various aspects of clinical conditions involving growth and endocrine disorders. The Merck KGaA (Darmstadt, Germany) Global Medical Affairs-funded meeting included sessions entitled ‘Pragmatism vs Curiosity in Genetic Diagnosis of Growth disorders’ and ‘Adherence Triangle in Management of Growth Disorders’. The sessions each had three presentations, followed by a discussion period, and are reported as manuscripts authored by the speakers. The first session examined c...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Targeting Endothelin-1 Receptor/ β-Arrestin-1 Axis in Ovarian Cancer: From Basic Research to a Therapeutic Approach
Recent studies imply a key role of endothelin-1 receptor (ET-1R), belonging to the largest family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), in the regulation of a plethora of processes involved in tumorigenesis and metastatic progression. β-arrestin-1 (β-arr1) system has been recognized as a critical hub controlling GPCR signaling network, directing the GPCR’s biological outcomes. In ovarian cancer, ET-1R/β-arr1 axis enables cancer cells to engage several integrated signaling, and represents an actionable target for developing novel therapeutic approaches. Preclinical research studies demonstrate that ET-...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 4, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Non-invasive Fecal Steroid Measurements for Monitoring the Reproductive Status of a Critically Endangered Yangtze Finless Porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis)
Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) is a critically endangered freshwater cetacean dwelling in the Yangtze River and its adjoining lakes. Affected mainly by the various anthropogenic activities in this region, its population decreased dramatically in the past two decades. To protect this animal from extinction, captive breeding program is an important way to provide basic knowledge for wild population conservation. Noninvasive fecal steroid radioimmunoassay technique was validated in three captive Yangtze finless porpoises for the first time in this study. The seasonality of one captive m...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 4, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

BPA Alters Estrogen Receptor Expression in the Heart After Viral Infection Activating Cardiac Mast Cells and T Cells Leading to Perimyocarditis and Fibrosis
In this study we examined whether exposure to BPA for two weeks prior to viral infection and leading up to myocarditis at day 10 altered inflammation in female BALB/c mice housed in standard plastic cages/water bottles with soy-free food and bedding. We found that a human relevant dose of BPA (25µg/L) in drinking water, with an estimated exposure of 5µg BPA/kg BW, significantly increased myocarditis and pericarditis compared to control water without altering viral genome levels in the heart. BPA exposure activated ERa and ERb in the spleen 24 hours after infection and phosphorylated ERa and ERb during myocardit...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 4, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Insulin-Like Peptide 3 (INSL3) Serum Concentration During Human Male Fetal Life
Conclusions: These findings further support the role of INSL3 in human testicular descent and could prove relevant in uncovering the pathophysiology of cryptorchidism. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 4, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Novel Mechanisms for IGF-I Regulation by Glucagon in Carp Hepatocytes: Up-Regulation of HNF1 α and CREB Expression via Signaling Crosstalk for IGF-I Gene Transcription
Glucagon, a key hormone for glucose homeostasis, can exert functional crosstalk with somatotropic axis via modification of IGF-I expression. However, its effect on IGF-I regulation is highly variable in different studies and the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Using grass carp as a model, the signal transduction and transcriptional mechanisms for IGF-I regulation by glucagon were examined in Cyprinid species. As a first step, the carp HNF1α, a liver-enriched transcription factor, was cloned and confirmed to be a single-copy gene expressed in the liver. In grass carp hepatocytes, glucagon treatment could elev...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Oocyte Cryopreservation in Oncological Patients: Eighteen Years Experience of a Tertiary Care Referral Center
Conclusions: A close collaboration between Cancer and Fertility Center in a tertiary care hospital is essential to provide a good health service in oncological patients. Offering fertility preservation is no longer considered optional and must be included in every therapeutic program for women who receive an oncological diagnosis in their reproductive age. Oocyte cryopreservation is a good option for fertility preservation for women facing cancer treatment and our results, despite on a small sample, are encouraging. We also confirm a low utilization rate as only 4.5% of patients returned to use their gametes. (Source: Fron...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Dysregulated Mitochondrial Dynamics and Metabolism in Obesity, Diabetes, and Cancer
Metabolism describes the life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms that provide both energy and building blocks for cellular survival and proliferation. Dysregulated metabolism leads to many life-threatening diseases including obesity, diabetes and cancer. Mitochondria, subcellular organelles, contain the central energy-producing metabolic pathway, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Also, mitochondria exist in a dynamic network orchestrated by extracellular nutrient levels and intracellular energy needs. Upon stimulation, mitochondria undergo consistent inter-change through fusion (small to big) and fission (big to ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - September 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Integrated Analysis of Multiple Microarray Studies to Identify Novel Gene Signatures in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Conclusions: Our integrated analysis identified novel gene signatures and will contribute to the understanding of comprehensive molecular changes in NAFLD. Key words: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Microarray; Differentially expressed genes; Robust rank aggregation; Integrated analysis (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 30, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Menopausal Status and Physical Activity Are Independently Associated With Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Healthy Middle-Aged Women: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Evidence
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of mortality in women in developed countries. CVD risk rises with age, yet for women there is a rapid increase in CVD risk that occurs after the onset of menopause. This observation suggests the presence of factors in the middle-aged women that accelerate the progression of CVD independent of chronological aging. Leisure time physical activity (LTPA) is a well-established protective factor against CVD. However, its role in attenuating atherogenic lipid profile changes and CVD risk in postmenopausal women has not been well-established. The present study is part of the Estrog...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 30, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Presentation but Not in Outcome for ACTH-Dependent Cushing's Syndrome
Conclusions: Based on this study, males and females with ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome present different clinical patterns. However, these differences do not justify different diagnostic strategies or treatment based on sex, considering the similar surgical outcome. Clinicians should be alert to diagnose accompanying osteoporosis (with fractures) in male patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 30, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Improved FGF21 Sensitivity and Restored FGF21 Signaling Pathway in High-Fat Diet/Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats After Duodenal-Jejunal Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy
Conclusions: DJB and SG surgeries can downregulate hepatic expression of FGF21, restore FGF21 signaling pathway and improve FGF21 sensitivity. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 30, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Role of Thyroid Hormones in Hepatocyte Proliferation and Liver Cancer
Thyroid hormones T3 and T4 (thyroxine) control a wide variety of effects related to development, differentiation, growth and metabolism, through the interaction with nuclear receptors. But thyroid hormones also produce nongenomic effects which typically start at the plasma membrane and are mediated mainly by integrin αvβ3, although also other receptors such as TRα and TRβ are able to elicit nongenomic responses. In the liver these effects of thyroid hormones appear to be particularly important. The liver is able to regenerate, but it is subject to pathologies that may lead to cancer, such as fibrosis,...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 30, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Therapeutic Irradiation: Consequences for Bone and Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue
Radiotherapy continues to be one of the most accepted medical treatments for cancer. Localized irradiation is the most common treatment for prostate, pancreatic, rectal, cervical and endometrial malignancies. Conventional localized fractions are total doses of 30-62Gy at 1.8-2Gy per fraction, with administration of ~60Gy often used for tumor ablation. However, even the lowest dose of localized irradiation exposure can result in adverse complications to adjacent organs, tissues, and vessels, which absorb a portion of the treatment. Skeletal complications are common amongst cancer patients undergoing these localized treatmen...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

2q37 Deletions in Patients With an Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy Phenotype and PTH Resistance
This study aimed to analyse 24 PHP1A and 51 PPHP patients without a molecular diagnosis for the presence of BDMR-associated 2q37 deletions to improve the differential diagnosis and to identify features that might help to avoid a misdiagnosis. Molecular investigations identified 4 deletions in 4 unrelated patients. The affected patients showed a combination of the most pathognomonic AHO features. Of note, 3 of the patients also displayed mild PTH resistance, and none of the patients developed ectopic ossifications. Our work confirmed the rarity of the misdiagnosis of BDMR in PHP patients through the identification of 4 ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Novel Insight Into the Epigenetic and Post-transcriptional Control of Cardiac Gene Expression by Thyroid Hormone
Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling is critically involved in the regulation of cardiovascular physiology. Even mild reductions of myocardial TH levels, as occur in hypothyroidism or low T3 state conditions, are thought to play a role in the progression of cardiac disorders. Due to recent advances in molecular mechanisms underlying TH action, it is now accepted that TH-dependent modulation of gene expression is achieved at multiple transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and involves the cooperation of many processes. Among them, the epigenetic remodeling of chromatin structure and the interplay with non coding RNA have...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Identification of a Novel Functional Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH2) in Chickens and Its Roles in Stimulating Pituitary TSH β Expression and ACTH Secretion
In this study, using chicken (c-) as the animal model, we characterized the expression and functionality of CRH2 and investigated its roles in anterior pituitary. Our results showed that (1) cCRH2 cDNA is predicted to encode a 40-aa mature peptide, which shares a higher amino acid sequence identity to cCRH (63%) than to other CRH family peptides (23-38%); (2) Using pGL3-CRE-luciferase reporter system, we demonstrated that cCRH2 is ~15 fold more potent in activating cCRH receptor 2 (CRHR2) than cCRHR1 when expressed in CHO cells, indicating that cCRH2 is bioactive and its action is mainly mediated by CRHR2; (3) Quantitative...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Gonadotropin Regulation Testicular RNA Helicase, Two Decades of Studies on Its Structure Function and Regulation From Its Discovery Opens a Window for Development of a Non-hormonal Oral Male Contraceptive
Gonadotropin Regulated Testicular Helicase (GRTH/DDX25) is member of the DEAD-box family of RNA helicases present in Leydig and germ cells. GRTH is the only family member regulated by hormones, luteinizing hormone, through androgen action. Male mice with knock-out of the GRTH gene are sterile, lack sperm with arrest at round spermatids. GRTH participates on the nuclear export and transport of specific mRNAs, the structural integrity of Chromatoid Bodies of round spermatids, where mRNAs are processed and stored, and in their transit to polyribosomes, where it may regulate translation of relevant genes. GRTH has a central ro...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Epigenetics and Female Reproductive Aging
As a result of many social and economic factors, increasing numbers of women are delaying childbirth until a more advanced age [1]. Increasing maternal age has resulted in well documented decreases in fertility [2; 3], and increases in aneuploidy [4], and pregnancy complications [5; 6; 7]. While these risks are clear, the underlying physiological processes that result in these outcomes are much less well defined. Proposed mechanisms involve neuroendocrine deficiency [8; 9], telomere length, meiosis abnormalities [10; 11], mitochondrial dysfunction [12; 13], as well as epigenetic modifications. In this review, we focus on t...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Role of Insulin Glargine and Human Insulin in the Regulation of Thyroid Proliferation Through Mitogenic Signaling
Our aim was to investigate whether human insulin (HI) or insulin glargine treatment could promote the proliferation of thyroid cells and determine the association between type 2 diabetes and thyroid disease. Rats were treated with different doses of HI and insulin glargine. Plasma glucose and the phosphorylation levels of the insulin receptor (IR), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), protein kinase B (Akt), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were measured. A total of 105 rats were randomly assigned to three groups as follows: control group, HI group, and glargine group. Both drugs promoted t...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Steroid Profiling as an Additional Tool to Confirm One-Sided Hormone Overproduction in Primary Aldosteronism: A Case Report
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the leading cause of secondary hypertension. The source of aldosterone hypersecretion is often due to a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma, and unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy is recommended in such patients. Before surgery, confirmation of unilateral hypersecretion is necessary. This is optimally performed by adrenal venous sampling (AVS). However, AVS is not always successful e.g. due to difficulties in the cannulation of the right adrenal vein. Here we present the case of a 53-year-old female patient with primary aldosteronism, a left-sided adrenal mass and an inconspicuous righ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Environmental Factors Associated With Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that leads to progressive pancreatic ß-cell destruction and culminates in absolute insulin deficiency and stable hyperglycaemia. It is very likely that environmental factors play a role in triggering islet autoimmunity. Knowing whether they have true relevance in favouring T1D development is essential for the effective prevention of the disease. Moreover, prevention could be obtained directly interfering with the development of autoimmunity through autoantigen-based immunotherapy. In this narrative review, the present possibilities for the prevention of T1D are d...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Muscle Mass in Children and Adolescents: Proposed Equations and Reference Values for Assessment
Conclusion: The four proposed equations were acceptable in terms of precision and accuracy to estimate lean mass in children and adolescents. The percentiles were created by means of anthropometric equations and real values for DXA. These are fundamental tools for monitoring LM in Chilean children and adolescents of both sexes. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Giant Prolactinoma Causing Hydrocephalus and Intracranial Hypertension as First Manifestations of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1
Conclusion We reported the first case with hydrocephalus and ICH as the initial clinical manifestation of a giant prolactinoma in MEN1. From our knowledge, this is the largest MEN1-related prolactinoma reported so far. Notably, all four MEN1-related giant prolactinomas cases reported were younger than 21 years strengthening the importance to routine MEN1 genetic testing for prolactinoma in this age group. Also, they all had initial effective response with dopamine agonist ensuring this drug as first-line treatment for MEN1-related giant prolactinoma. However, the scarce number of treated patients and progression of caberg...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Commentary: Molecular Mechanisms of Action of FSH
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents With Obesity: Sex-Related Differences and Effect of Puberty
Conclusions: Sex and pubertal status influence the frequency of abnormalities of CVRF in obese children and adolescents. CVRF are already present in prepubertal age. Identifying patients with higher risk of metabolic complications is important to design targeted and effective prevention strategies. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Machine Learning-Based Radiomics Predicts Radiotherapeutic Response in Patients With Acromegaly
Conclusion: Using pre-radiotherapy clinical and MRI data, we developed a radiomics model with favorable performance for individualized non-invasive prediction of radiotherapeutic response, which may help in identifying acromegaly patients who are likely to benefit from radiotherapy. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor Protects From Angiotensin II-Induced Increases in Pulse Pressure and Oxidative Stress
Our previous work showed that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is protective in the vasculature and kidneys during angiotensin (Ang) II-dependent hypertension by inhibiting oxidative stress. The goal of the current study was to assess the impact of GPER deletion on sex differences in Ang II-induced hypertension and oxidative stress. Male and female wildtype and GPER knockout mice were implanted with radiotelemetry probes for measurement of baseline blood pressure before infusion of Ang II (700 ng/kg/min) for two weeks. Mean arterial pressure was increased to the same extent in all groups, but female wildtype ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Role of the CXCL12/CXCR4/ACKR3 Axis in Autoimmune Diseases
Chemokine receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These receptors are intimately involved in cell movement, and thus play a critical role in several physiological and pathological situations that require the precise regulation of cell positioning. CXCR4 is one of the most studied chemokine receptors and is involved in many functions beyond leukocyte recruitment. During embryogenesis, it plays essential roles in vascular development, hematopoiesis, cardiogenesis and nervous system organization. It has been also implicated in tumor progression and autoimmune diseases and, together with CD4, is on...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

FSH Requirements for Follicle Growth During Controlled Ovarian Stimulation
In this study, we aim to evaluate FSH requirements for follicular growth during controlled ovarian stimulation. Method: Single centre retrospective cohort study of 1,034 IVF cycles conducted between January 2012-January 2016 at Hammersmith Hospital IVF unit, London, UK. Median follicle size after five days of stimulation with rFSH and the proportion of antral follicles recruited were analysed in women treated with rFSH alone to induce follicular growth during IVF treatment. Results: Starting rFSH dose adjusted for body weight (iU/kg) predicted serum FSH level after 5 days of rFSH (r2=0.352, p (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A Validation Study on eGFR Equations in Chinese Patients With Diabetic or Non-diabetic CKD
Aims It remains controversial to choose the optimal equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods 215 diabetic CKD patients and 192 non-diabetic CKD patients were enrolled in this study. Iohexol GFR, serum creatinine (SCr) and Cystatin C(CysC) were measured simultaneously for each patient. SCr- and CysC-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were calculated through eight equations, including three CKD-EPI equations, Revised Lund-Malmö study equation (RLM), CAPA equation and three Full Age Spectrum (FAS) equations. Bias, precision and accurac...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Role of Aldosterone and Mineralocorticoid Receptor in Cardiovascular Aging
The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was originally identified as a regulator of blood pressure, able to modulate renal sodium handling in response to its principal ligand aldosterone. MR is also expressed in many tissues other than kidney, including the heart, vasculature and adipose tissue. More recent studies have shown that extra-renal MR plays a relevant role in the control of cardiovascular and metabolic functions and has recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of aging. MR activation promotes vasoconstriction and acts as a potent pro-fibrotic agent in cardiovascular remodelling. Aging is associated with incre...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Aldosterone in Gynecology and Its Involvement on the Risk of Hypertension in Pregnancy
Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid hormone, responsible of the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance and blood pressure. It acts also as a pro-inflammatory factor responsible of an increased cardiovascular risk, independent from blood pressure values. After the discovery of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in mononuclear leukocytes, further studies support its role in inflammatory and even autoimmune mechanisms underlying several diseases. In particular, recent studies reported a possible involvement of aldosterone in some gynecological conditions and diseases, characterized by inflammation, hypertension and in...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Clinical Implications and Impact of Discovery of the Thyroid Hormone Receptor on Integrin αvβ3–A Review
Hypothyroidism has been reported to improve survival in cancer patients but only recently has the putative mechanism been identified as a receptor for thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine on integrin αvβ3. Recognition of divergence of action of the pro-oncogenic L-thyroxine (T4) from pro-metabolic 3,5,3’-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) has enabled clinical implementation whereby exogenous T3 may replace exogenous (or endogenous) T4 to maintain clinical euthyroid hypothyroxinemia that results in significantly better survival in advanced cancer patients without the morbidity of clinical hypothyroidism. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Transcriptome Analysis Showed a Differential Signature Between Invasive and Non-invasive Corticotrophinomas
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 22, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Role of Ceramides in Insulin Resistance
Resistance to insulin is a pathophysiological state related to the decreased response of peripheral tissues to the insulin action, hyperinsulinemia and raised blood glucose levels caused by increased hepatic glucose outflow. All the above precede the onset of full-blown type 2 diabetes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2016 more than 1.9 billion people over 18 years of age were overweight and about 600 million were obese. Currently, the primary hypothesis explaining the probability of occurrence of insulin resistance assigns a fundamental role of lipids accumulation in adipocytes or nonadipose tissue (m...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pathways to Endocrine Therapy Resistance in Breast Cancer
Breast cancers with positive expression of Estrogen Receptor (ER+) are treated with anti-hormone/endocrine therapy which targets the activity of the receptor, the half-life of the receptor or the availability of estrogen. This has significantly decreased mortality in women with ER+ breast cancer, however, about 25-30% of treated women run the risk or recurrence due to either intrinsic or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies. While ER itself is a predictor of response to such therapies, there exists a need to find more biomarkers and novel targets to treat resistant tumors. In this review, we summarize the known mecha...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Carbohydrate Loading Followed by High Carbohydrate Intake During Prolonged Physical Exercise and Its Impact on Glucose Control in Individuals With Diabetes Type 1 —An Exploratory Study
Conclusions High intermittent CHO-intake during prolonged PE combined with proactive use of rtCGM is associated with good glycemic control during prolonged exercise in individuals with diabetes type 1. However, the time spent in hypoglycemia during the 2-days of CHO-loading was 10.4% and therefore a lower basal insulin rate might be suggested to reduce the time spent in hypoglycemia. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Addressing Vulvovaginal Atrophy (VVA)/Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause (GSM) for Healthy Aging in Women
Vaginal health is an essential component of active and healthy aging in women at midlife and beyond. As a consequence of hormonal deprivation and senescence, the anatomy and function of urogenital tissues are significantly affected and vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) may occur. In a high proportion of postmenopausal women, progressive and chronic VVA symptoms have a strong impact on sexual function and quality of life. The new definition of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) comprises genital symptoms (dryness, burning, itching, irritation, bleeding), sexual symptoms (dyspareunia and other sexual dysfunctions) and urinar...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Time-Restricted Feeding Improves Glucose Tolerance in Rats, but Only When in Line With the Circadian Timing System
Epidemiological studies indicate that shift-workers have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity both are dependent on the circadian timing system (i.e., the time-of-day) and fasting duration, in rodents as well as humans. Therefore, question is whether manipulation of the circadian timing system, for example by changing the timing of feeding and fasting, is a potential preventive treatment for T2DM. Time-restricted feeding (TRF) is well-known to have profound effects on various metabolic measures, including glucose metabolism. However, experiments that directly measu...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - August 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research