Thyroid Hormone Receptor Alpha Is Required for Thyroid Hormone-Dependent Neural Cell Proliferation During Tadpole Metamorphosis
Thyroid hormone (T3) plays key roles in nervous system development in vertebrates, controlling diverse processes such as neurogenesis, cell migration, apoptosis, differentiation and maturation. In anuran amphibians, the hormone exerts its actions on the tadpole brain during metamorphosis, a developmental period entirely dependent on T3. Thyroid hormone regulates gene transcription by binding to two nuclear receptors, TRα and TRβ. Our previous findings using pharmacological and other approaches supported that TRα plays a pivotal role in mediating T3 actions on neural cell proliferation in Xenopus tadpole br...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Inverse Association Between Serum Vitamin B12 Concentration and Obesity Among Adults in the United States
Introduction: Previous studies on the association of serum vitamin B12 concentrations with obesity have yielded inconsistent findings. We evaluated the cross-sectional associations of serum vitamin B12 concentrations with obesity in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods: We included 9,075 participants aged ≥ 20 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. We used logistic regression with sample weights to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95%...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cyclophosphamide Regulates N6-Methyladenosine and m6A RNA Enzyme Levels in Human Granulosa Cells and in Ovaries of a Premature Ovarian Aging Mouse Model
Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is one of the most frequently used alkylating anticancer drugs. CTX is associated with reproductive failure and premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) or premature ovarian aging. Much less is known about the mechanism by which CTX affects female fertility through N6-methyladenosine (m6A) levels. In this case-controlled study, we employed human ovarian granulosa cells and mice as experimental models in vitro and in vivo. m6A test kit was developed to determine the content in RNA, and qPCR and western blot were used to examine the expression levels of RNA methyltransferases, demethylases and effectors. ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Deciphering the Anti-obesity Benefits of Resveratrol: The “Gut Microbiota-Adipose Tissue” Axis
Excessive white adipose tissue (WAT) accumulation due to an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure (EE) characterizes the obesity. However, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is highly specialized for the dissipation of energy. Recent evidence indicated that the activation of BAT and the induction of WAT browning might be promising approaches to combat obesity by increasing EE and regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Resveratrol, which is a polyphenolic compound, has been widely acknowledged to have protective effects against obesity and related metabolic disorders. The induction of WAT browning has been consi...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management of Women With an Unexpected Low Ovarian Response to Gonadotropin
POSEIDON groups 1 and 2 patients respond poorly ( (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Extreme Short Stature and Severe Neurological Impairment in a 17-Year-Old Male With Untreated Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency Due to POU1F1 Mutation
Conclusion: This case report sheds light on the natural history of untreated patients with POU1F1 mutations and raises awareness for early diagnosis and adequate treatment of central congenital hypothyroidism and GH deficiency. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diet-Induced Obesity Disturbs Microglial Immunometabolism in a Time-of-Day Manner
Background: Disturbance of immunometabolic signaling is a key process involved in the progression of obesity. Microglia– the resident immune cells in the brain, initiate local immune responses. It is known that hypercaloric diets lead to microglial activation. Previously, we observed that hypothalamic microglial cells from mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) lose their day/night rhythm and are constantly activated. However, little is known about daily rhythmicity in microglial circadian, immune and metabolic functions, either in lean or obese conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that HFD disturbs microglial immunometaboli...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Contaminant and Environmental Influences on Thyroid Hormone Action in Amphibian Metamorphosis
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Magnocellular Vasopressin and the Mechanism of “Glucocorticoid Escape”
It is now widely accepted that magnocellular vasopressinergic neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei participate in the control of adrenocorticotropin secretion by the anterior pituitary gland. However, it remains to be explored in further detail, when and how these multifunctional neurons are involved in the control of anterior pituitary function. This paper highlights the role of magnocellular vasopressin in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis with special reference to escape from glucocorticoid feedback inhibition. The signalling mechanisms underlying glucocorticoid escape by pituitary corticotr...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Estrogen Promotes Pro-resolving Microglial Behavior and Phagocytic Cell Clearance Through the Actions of Annexin A1
Estrogen promotes pro-resolving microglial behaviour and phagocytic cell clearance through the actions of annexin A1 (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Elemental Analysis of Aging Human Pituitary Glands Implicates Mercury as a Contributor to the Somatopause
Conclusions: The proportion of people with mercury in their anterior pituitary cells, mostly somatotrophs, increases with aging, suggesting that mercury toxicity could be one factor contributing to the decline in growth hormone levels found in advancing age. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Voluntary Exercise-Induced Activation of Thyroid Axis and Reduction of White Fat Depots Is Attenuated by Chronic Stress in a Sex Dimorphic Pattern in Adult Rats
In conclusion, chronic stress interferes with metabolic effects produced by exercise, such as loss of WAT mass, coincident with dampening of HPT activity. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Status of Metabolic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Attending Dasman Diabetes Institute, Kuwait
Purpose: To evaluate metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes at Dasman Diabetes Institute (DDI, Kuwait), a specialist diabetes clinic and research center, and to investigate its association with patient demographics and clinical characteristics. Methods: Data from 963 patients with type 2 diabetes were retrospectively collected from the Knowledge Based Health Records maintained at DDI for patients who attended DDI during 2011–2014. The collected data included patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and antidiabetic medications. Student’s t-test was used to evaluate the differences in mean va...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Predictive Factors of Recurrence for Multifocal Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma With Brafv600e Mutation: A Single Center Study of 1,207 Chinese Patients
Conclusions: Taken together, capsular ETE and gross ETE to the strap muscles did not have the expected significant influence on recurrence for Chinese BMPTMC patients. Rather than the extent of ETE, larger TTD and the lack of HT were identified as predictors for recurrence among those with BMPTMC with or without other risk factors (vascular invasion, cN1, pN1>5, pN1>3 cm). (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Growth Hormone and Reproduction: Lessons Learned From Animal Models and Clinical Trials
Growth Hormone (GH) has been considered as a therapeutic option to increase the number of growing follicles during Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) for more than 30 years. In this review the biological rationale for therapeutic GH usage is explained through evidence in animal models, aiming to put this into a clinical context. First, we explain the GH – Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 - gonadal axis and its role in reproduction. Evidence suggests that GH can stimulate the secretion of IGF1 not only in the liver but also in the peripheral target structures, including the ovary. Moreover, IGF-1 can be secreted...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial: Neuroendocrine Disorders After Traumatic Brain Injury: Past, Present and Future
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pharmacogenetics of FSH Action in the Female
The purpose of a pharmacogenomic approach is to tailor treatment on the basis of individual human genotype. This strategy is becoming increasingly common in medicine, and important results have been obtained in oncologic and antimicrobial therapies. The rapid technological developments and availability of innovative methodologies have revealed the existence of numerous genotypes that can influence the action of medications, and that a true “individualized” approach could become in the future a reality in clinical practice. Moreover, comparing with the past, genotype analyses are now more easily available at acc...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Genetic Basis of Delayed Puberty
Delayed pubertal onset may have many etiologies, but on average two-thirds of patients presenting with late puberty have self-limited (or constitutional) delayed puberty. Self-limited delayed puberty often has a strong familial basis. Segregation analyses from previous studies show complex models of inheritance including autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, bilineal and X-linked, although sporadic cases are also observed. The majority of pedigrees with familial delayed puberty display an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance (with or without complete penetrance). Despite this, the neuroendocrine pathophysiology and...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Adiposity Criteria in Assessing Increased Cardiometabolic Risk in Prepubertal Children
Conclusions: In general, the measures of adiposity have sufficient diagnostic accuracy to be utilized as the screening tool for increased cardiometabolic risk. The observed cut-points for adiposity were lower than the traditional cut-points for adiposity. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Nuclear Receptor —Co-repressor Complex in Control of Liver Metabolism and Disease
Hepatocytes are the major cell-type in the liver responsible for the coordination of metabolism in response to multiple signaling inputs. Coordination occurs primarily at the level of gene expression via transcriptional networks composed of transcription factors, in particular nuclear receptors (NRs), and associated coregulators, including chromatin-modifying complexes. Disturbance of these networks by genetic, environmental or nutritional factors can lead to metabolic dysregulation and has been linked to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) towards steatohepatitis and even liver cancer. Since there...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cumulative Live Birth Rates of Good and Low Prognosis Patients According to POSEIDON Criteria: A Single Center Analysis of 18,455 Treatment Cycles
Objective: To investigate the characteristics and outcomes of low prognosis patients defined by POSEIDON criteria undergoing IVF treatment. Design: Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting: An IVF clinic in a public hospital. Patients: 18,455 fresh aspirated IVF cycles with subsequently frozen embryo transfer from Jan 2014 to Jan 2017 in a single IVF clinic were included in the analysis. The low prognosis patients were categorized into 4 groups based on POSEIDON criteria: group 1: age (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Effect of Atorvastatin (and Subsequent Metformin) on Adipose Tissue Acylation-Stimulatory-Protein Concentration and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Overweight/Obese Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of atorvastatin on markers of adipose tissue dysfunction and inflammation; acylation-stimulating-protein (ASP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte-chemoattractant-protein1 (MCP-1) in PCOS. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study where 40 medication-naive women with PCOS and biochemical hyperandrogenaemia were randomized to either atorvastatin 20 mg daily or placebo for 12 weeks. Following the 12 week randomisation; both group of women with PCOS were subsequently started on metformin 1500 mg daily for further 12 weeks to assess whether pre-treatme...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Tanycytes and the Control of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Flux Into Portal Capillaries
In conclusion, β2-tanycytes appear as a critical cellular element for the somatic and post-secretory control of TRH flux into portal vessels, and HPT axis regulation in mammals. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A Mixed Methods Study to Explore the Effects of Program Design Elements and Participant Characteristics on Parents' Engagement With an mHealth Program to Promote Healthy Infant Feeding: The Growing Healthy Program
Conclusions/implications This study demonstrated a novel approach to comprehensively analyse engagement in an mHealth intervention through quantitative (Engagement Index) and qualitative (interviews) methods. It provides an insight on maximising data collected from these programs for measuring effectiveness and to understand users of various engagement levels interaction with program features. Measuring this can determine efficacy and refine programs to meet user requirements. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Changes in Musculoskeletal System and Metabolism in Osteoporotic Rats Treated With Urocortin
Conclusions Our results portray urocortin as a substance that can be assessed for future therapeutic treatments of estrogen deficiency. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Colonic Cancer and Acromegaly
Acromegaly results in a significantly increased morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory complications as well as malignancies arising mainly from the colon. Furthermore, an increased lifetime risk of malignant transformation of pre-malignant colonic lesions relates to a worse overall prognosis from colorectal cancer, which is currently considered a major disease related complication. In this review we provide some insight into colonic changes in this condition, summarise current knowledge and evidence on the use of colonoscopic screening in patients with acromegaly, and suggest a recommended screening...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Postnatal Catch-Up Growth After Suspected Fetal Growth Restriction at Term
Conclusion: After FGR at term, postnatal catch-up growth is generally present and associated with the degree of FGR. Obstetric management in FGR influences postnatal growth. Longer-term follow up is therefore needed and should be directed at growth and physical health (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Salivary N1-Methyl-2-Pyridone-5-Carboxamide, a Biomarker for Uranium Uptake, in Kuwaiti Children Exhibiting Exceptional Weight Gain
In a longitudinal study of 6,158 Kuwaiti children, we selected 94 for salivary metabolomic analysis who had no initially measured evidence of metabolic disease. Half (43) remained healthy for two years. The other half (51) were selected because they became obese two years later. In the half becoming obese, a metabolomic analysis revealed that the level of salivary N1-Methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY) had the highest positive association with obesity (p=0.0003, AUC=0.72) of 441 salivary biochemicals detected. 2PY is a recognized uremic toxin. Also, 2PY has been identified as a biomarker for uranium uptake. Considering t...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Brown and Beige Adipose Tissue and Aging
Across aging, adipose tissue (AT) changes its quantity and distribution: AT becomes dysfunctional with an increase in production of inflammatory peptides, a decline of those with anti-inflammatory activity and infiltration of macrophages. Adipose organ dysfunction may lead to age-related metabolic alterations. Aging is characterized by an increase in adiposity and a decline in brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots and activity, and UCP1 expression. There are many possible links to age-associated involution of BAT, including the loss of mitochondrial function, impairment of the sympathetic nervous system, age-induced alterati...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Hypogonadism and Sexual Dysfunction in Testicular Tumor Survivors: A Systematic Review
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Evolution of Structural and Functional Diversity of Spexin in Mammalian and Non-mammalian Vertebrate Species
Spexin (SPX) is a novel neuropeptide, which was first identified in the human genome using bioinformatics. Since then, homologues of human SPX have been identified in mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates; chicken, anole lizard, Nile tilapia, goldfish, zebrafish and fugu. The mature sequence of SPX, NWTPQAMLYLKGAQ, is evolutionally conserved across vertebrate species, with some variation in teleost species where Ala at position 13 is substituted by Thr. The presence of a RF-amide at the C-terminal is also common across species. However, in the rat, Arg replaces His, and Gly-Arg-Arg (GRR) to Gly-His-Arg (GHR). Whether the...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and NC-CAH: Distinct Characteristics and Common Findings. A Systematic Review
CONCLUSIONS: The screening tool to distinguish non-classic adrenal hyperplasia from PCOS is the measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels. The basal levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone may overlap, but ACTH stimulation testing can distinguish the two entities. In this review these two common endocrine disorders are discussed in an effort to unveil their commonalities and to illuminate their shadowed distinctive characteristics. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial: Neuroendocrine Control of Feeding Behavior
(Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Ultrasonography, Cytology, and Thyroglobulin Measurement Results of Cervical Nodal Metastasis in Patients With Unclear Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Conclusions: The combination of US, cytology, and Tg measurement is necessary for diagnosing nodal metastasis from PTC. In cases with unclear primary PTC on US or cytology, the detection of nodal metastasis may be helpful for assessing primary PTC. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Neurosecretory Protein GL Induces Fat Accumulation in Chicks
We recently found a previously unidentified cDNA in chicken hypothalamus which encodes the precursor for neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL). A previous study showed that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of NPGL caused body mass gain in chicks. However, it was not clear which part(s) of the body gained mass. In the present study, we investigated which tissues increased in mass after chronic i.c.v. infusion of NPGL in chicks. We found that NPGL increased the masses of the liver, abdominal fat, and subcutaneous fat, while NPGL did not affect the masses of muscles, including pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, and bicep...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

DPP-4 Inhibition and the Path to Clinical Proof
This article summarizes the development of the DPP-4 inhibition concept from its early stages in the 1990s. The article underscores that the development has its basis in scientific studies on pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and the importance of targeting the islet dysfunction, that the development has been made possible through academic science in collaboration with the research-oriented pharmaceutical industry, and that the development of a novel concept takes time and requires focused efforts, persistence and long-term perserverance. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Role of c-Kit in Myocardial Regeneration and Aging
c-Kit, a type III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is involved in multiple intracellular signaling whereby it is mainly considered a stem cell factor receptor, which participates in vital functions of the mammalian body, including the human. Furthermore, c-kit is a necessary yet not sufficient marker to detect and isolate several types of tissue-specific adult stem cells. Accordingly, c-kit was initially used as a marker to identify and enrich for adult cardiac stem/progenitor cells (CSCs) that were proven to be clonogenic, self-renewing and multipotent, being able to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Transient Elastography and Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) in the Assessment of Liver Steatosis in Severe Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency
Conclusions: We have demonstrated the importance of CAP as a non-invasive tool in the liver steatosis identification on hypopituitary patients. This method may be an important indicator of the severity of metabolic disorders in MPHD patients. In our study, no liver health modification in LSM at baseline, and after 6 months of rhGH replacement, were found. Longer studies can help to establish the potential repercussion of growth hormone replacement therapy on liver steatosis. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Determine the Optimal Extent of Thyroidectomy and Lymphadenectomy for Patients With Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma
Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is advised to distinguish incidental PTMC from the benign nodules. For multifocal PTMC patients, TT should be performed to reduce the recurrence. Routine prophylactic CND can be recommended in PTMC patients with independent risk factors of CLNM. Aggressive surgery and close follow-up are essential for patients with risk factors of RFS. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Clinical Use of DPP-4 Inhibitors
This article gives an overview on the clinical use of DPP-4 inhibitors. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

“Beige” Cross Talk Between the Immune System and Metabolism
With thymic senescence the epithelial network shrinks to be replaced by adipose tissue. Transcription factor TBX-1 controls thymus organogenesis, however, the same TBX-1 has also been reported to orchestrate beige adipose tissue development. Given these different roles of TBX-1, we have assessed if thymic TBX-1 expression persists and demonstrates this dualism during adulthood. We have also checked whether thymic adipose involution could yield beige adipose tissue. We have used adult mouse and human thymus tissue from various ages to evaluate the kinetics of TBX-1 expression, as well as mouse (TEP1) and human (1889c) th...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Anti-proliferative Activity of GnRH Through Downregulation of the Akt/ERK Pathways in Pancreatic Cancer
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been demonstrated to exert anti-proliferative effects on various tumour cells in ovarian, endometrial, bladder, and prostate cancer as a part of the autocrine system. In addition, the expression of GnRH and its receptor has been identified in breast cancer and non-reproductive cancers, such as pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma. Previous studies have reported abnormal GnRH expression in several malignant tumours, suggesting that GnRH and its receptor might be essential for tumourigenesis. In the present study, we attempted to clarify the mechanisms underlying GnRH function in cell ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Teleost Metamorphosis: The Role of Thyroid Hormone
In most teleosts, metamorphosis encompasses a dramatic post-natal developmental process where the free-swimming larvae undergo a series of morphological, cellular and physiological changes that enable the larvae to become a fully formed, albeit sexually immature, juvenile fish. In all teleosts studied to date thyroid hormones (TH) drive metamorphosis, being the necessary and sufficient factors behind this developmental transition. During metamorphosis, negative regulation of thyrotropin by thyroxine (T4) is relaxed allowing higher whole-body levels of T4 that enable specific responses at the tissue/cellular level. Higher ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Braving the Element: Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction and Adaptation in Response to Arsenic Exposure
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a serious global health problem, currently affecting an estimated 451 million people worldwide. T2DM is characterized by hyperglycemia and low insulin relative to the metabolic demand. The precise contributing factors for a given individual vary, but generally include a combination of insulin resistance and insufficient insulin secretion. Ultimately, the progression to diabetes occurs only after β-cells fail to meet the needs of the individual. The stresses placed upon β-cells in this context manifest as increased oxidative damage, local inflammation, and ER stress, often inciti...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Exercise Management for Young People With Type 1 Diabetes: A Structured Approach to the Exercise Consultation
Regular physical activity during childhood is important for optimal physical and psychological development. For individuals with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), physical activity offers many health benefits including improved glycemic control, cardiovascular function, blood lipid profiles and psychological well-being. Despite these benefits, many young people with T1D do not meet physical activity recommendations. Barriers to engaging in a physically active lifestyle include fear of hypoglycemia, as well as insufficient knowledge in managing diabetes around exercise in both individuals and health care professionals. Diabetes and ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mechanosensitive Ion Channel Piezo1 Regulates Diet-Induced Adipose Inflammation and Systemic Insulin Resistance
Adipocytes function as an energy buffer and undergo significant size and volume changes in response to nutritional cues. This adipocyte plasticity is important for systemic lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Accompanying the adipocyte size and volume changes, the mechanical pressure against cell membrane also changes. However, the role that mechanical pressure plays in lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity remains to be elucidated. Here we show that Piezo1, a mechanically-activated cation channel stimulated by membrane tension and stretch, was highly expressed in adipocytes. Adipose Piezo1 expression was increase...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

First Case of Mature Teratoma and Yolk Sac Testis Tumor Associated to Inherited MEN-1 Syndrome
Conclusion: This is the first case report showing the clear association of MEN-1 syndrome with yolk sac tumors and teratomas, as in our case, the c1548dupG represents a pathogenic variant rather than a SNP. This case suggests the opportunity of an accurate evaluation of the testis particularly in young MEN-1 affected patients and that a prompt screening for neoplastic disease should involve all the endocrine glands. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Micro-RNAs 518d-3p and 618 Are Upregulated in Individuals With Type 1 Diabetes With Multiple Microvascular Complications
CONCLUSIONS In this cohort of type 1 diabetes individuals, serum miR-518d-3p and miR-618 were upregulated in those with diabetes kidney disease, diabetes retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in comparison to individuals with no microvascular complications. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Chordin-Like 1 Improves Osteogenesis of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Through Enhancing BMP4-SMAD Pathway
In conclusion, our results suggested that CHRDL1 can promote hBMSCs osteogenic differentiation through enhancing the activation of BMP-4-SMAD1/5/9 pathway. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition in Chinese Adolescent and Young Adult Turner Syndrome Patients
Low bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the major health problems in Turner syndrome (TS) patients, and a certain percentage of TS girls are treated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to improve their BMD, among other health benefits. While it is generally accepted that HRT improves BMD and body composition in adolescent and young adult TS patients, studies of HRT in Chinese TS patients are limited. Methods: To investigate the effects of HRT in Chinese TS girls, we performed a longitudinal observational study which compared measurement of BMD and body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using a Lunar...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - June 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research