IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 3808: Older Adults ’ Preference for Landscape Features Along Urban Park Walkways in Nanjing, China
This study explored a range of common landscape and hardscape features to learn which were preferred by park users over age 60. This photo comparison study hypothesized that older adults would prefer certain features of urban park walkways, with each feature represented by four different paired images (28 pairs in all). Within each pair of photos, both were identical except for the specific feature being tested in that comparison, where the image was digitally modified to depict the hypothesized feature. A total of 283 older adults (mean age 71 years) completed the survey by selecting the images they preferred. In this Chi...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - October 10, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Xinxin Wang Susan Rodiek Tags: Article Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 3803: Quality of Work Life and Organizational Performance: Workers ’ Feelings of Contributing, or Not, to the Organization’s Productivity
IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 3803: Quality of Work Life and Organizational Performance: Workers’ Feelings of Contributing, or Not, to the Organization’s Productivity International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph16203803 Authors: João Leitão Dina Pereira Ângela Gonçalves This is a pioneering study on the relationship between quality of work life and the employee’s perception of their contribution to organizational performance. It unveils the importance of subjective and behavioral components of quality of work life and their i...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - October 10, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Jo ão Leitão Dina Pereira Ângela Gonçalves Tags: Article Source Type: research

Effective Diagnosis of Alzheimer ’s Disease via Multimodal Fusion Analysis Framework
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease involving a variety of pathogenic factors, and the etiology detection of this disease has been a major concern of researchers. Neuroimaging is a basic and important means to explore the problem. It is the main current scientific research direction for combining neuroimaging with other modal data to dig deep into the potential information of AD through the complementarities among multiple data points. Machine learning methods possess great potentiality and have reached some achievements in this research area. A few studies have proposed some solutions to ...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - October 10, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Can machine learning predict responses to TNF inhibitors?
Nature Reviews Rheumatology, Published online: 10 October 2019; doi:10.1038/s41584-019-0320-9A machine learning model to predict whether patients with rheumatoid arthritis will respond to TNF inhibitors has been produced following an international crowd-sourced competition, but is the mixture of clinical and omics biomarkers used in this model optimal for clinical use? (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - October 10, 2019 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Nisha Nair Anthony G. Wilson Source Type: research

The future of drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment: learning from the past and the 2019 World Health Organization consolidated guidelines
The World Health Organization (WHO) recently launched the consolidated guidelines on drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) treatment [1]. They include a new drug classification to manage rifampicin-resistant (RR) and multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB, while proposing either a shorter regimen (including injectable drugs) or a longer all-oral one as the recommended treatment options. Efficient diagnostic tools are presently available to diagnose resistance to second-line drugs within a few hours (instead of the weeks previously needed) [2]. Therefore, the challenge for National TB Programmes is now to capture these new recommendati...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 10, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Caminero, J. A., Garcia-Basteiro, A. L., Rendon, A., Piubello, A., Pontali, E., Migliori, G. B. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Promoting head CT exams in the emergency department triage using a machine learning model
ConclusionThe developed model can identify patients that need to undergo head CT exam already in the ED triage level and by that allow faster diagnosis and treatment. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Supervised Machine-Learning Enables Segmentation and Evaluation of Heterogeneous Post-treatment Changes in Multi-Parametric MRI of Soft-Tissue Sarcoma
Background: Multi-parametric MRI provides non-invasive methods for response assessment of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) from non-surgical treatments. However, evaluation of MRI parameters over the whole tumor volume may not reveal the full extent of post-treatment changes as STS tumors are often highly heterogeneous, including cellular tumor, fat, necrosis, and cystic tissue compartments. In this pilot study, we investigate the use of machine-learning approaches to automatically delineate tissue compartments in STS, and use this approach to monitor post-radiotherapy changes.Methods: Eighteen patients with retroperitoneal sarco...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - October 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Antecedents and consequences of organized extracurricular activities among Chinese preschoolers in Hong Kong
This study utilized a longitudinal design and examined the antecedents and consequences of extracurricular participation in a sample of 194 Hong Kong Chinese preschoolers. The results showed that higher family socioeconomic status (SES) predicted higher levels of participation in EAs (e.g., attendance intensity and the breadth of participation). Children from higher-SES families were more likely to involve in non-academic-oriented EAs. Participation in EAs was generally associated with the growth trajectories of reading and math skills in children from less advantaged SES backgrounds, but not higher-SES children. In contra...
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Vacuolated cardiomyocytes in human endomyocardial biopsy specimens
Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Journal of Cardiology CasesAuthor(s): Genzou Takemura, Kenji Onoue, Takanori Arimoto, Tetsu Watanabe, Akiko Tsujimoto, Chihiro Takada, Hideshi Okada, Tomoya Nakano, Yasuhiro Sakaguchi, Nagisa Miyazaki, Takatomo Watanabe, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Shinji Ogura, Yoshihiko Saito, Takako Fujiwara, Hisayoshi Fujiwara, Yasuaki HottaAbstractWe encountered an unfamiliar finding during electron microscopic examination of an endomyocardial biopsy obtained from a 55-year-old woman suffering from heart failure due to dilated phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Many cardiomyocytes conta...
Source: Journal of Cardiology Cases - October 9, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A case report of an uncommon presentation of 99mtechnetium pyrophosphate scintigraphy in transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis: A potential diagnostic pitfall, pseudo-positive or pseudo-negative?
In this report, we focus on an inconclusive study case as a potential pitfall of 99mTc-PYP scintigraphy and discuss the interpretation of 99mTc-PYP scintigraphy findings with using both planar and SPECT/CT imaging for improvement of diagnostic accuracy for ATTR cardiac amyloidosis. (Source: Journal of Cardiology Cases)
Source: Journal of Cardiology Cases - October 9, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Hippocampal Subregions Express Distinct Dendritic Transcriptomes that Reveal Differences in Mitochondrial Function in CA2
Publication date: 8 October 2019Source: Cell Reports, Volume 29, Issue 2Author(s): Shannon Farris, James M. Ward, Kelly E. Carstens, Mahsa Samadi, Yu Wang, Serena M. DudekSummaryRNA localization is one mechanism neurons use to spatially and temporally regulate gene expression at synapses. Here, we test the hypothesis that cells exhibiting distinct forms of synaptic plasticity will have differences in dendritically localized RNAs. Indeed, we discover that each major subregion of the adult mouse hippocampus expresses a unique complement of dendritic RNAs. Specifically, we describe more than 1,000 differentially expressed den...
Source: Cell Reports - October 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

An ER Assembly Line of AMPA-Receptors Controls Excitatory Neurotransmission and Its Plasticity
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Jochen Schwenk, Sami Boudkkazi, Maciej K. Kocylowski, Aline Brechet, Gerd Zolles, Thorsten Bus, Kaue Costa, Astrid Kollewe, Johannes Jordan, Julia Bank, Wolfgang Bildl, Rolf Sprengel, Akos Kulik, Jochen Roeper, Uwe Schulte, Bernd FaklerSummaryExcitatory neurotransmission and its activity-dependent plasticity are largely determined by AMPA-receptors (AMPARs), ion channel complexes whose cell physiology is encoded by their interactome. Here, we delineate the assembly of AMPARs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of native neurons as multi-state productio...
Source: Neuron - October 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

I don’t believe what you said before: Preschoolers retrospectively discount information from inaccurate speakers
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child PsychologyAuthor(s): Elena Luchkina, Kathleen H. Corriveau, David M. SobelAbstractChildren use speakers’ past accuracy to make inferences about novel word meanings those individuals provide in the future. An open question is whether children can retrospectively reevaluate information after learning that the source was inaccurate. We addressed this question in two experiments where a speaker first introduced labels for novel objects and then revealed that she is either accurate or inaccurate in naming familiar objects. Experiment 1 ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - October 9, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

CD4+ versus CD8+ T-lymphocytes identification in integrated microfluidic chip using light scattering and machine learning
Lab Chip, 2019, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9LC00695H, PaperDomenico Rossi, David Dannhauser, Mariarosaria Telesco, Paolo Antonio Netti, Filippo Causa T-Lymphocytes are a group of cells representing the main effectors of the human adaptive immunity. Characterization of the most representative T-lymphocytes subclasses - CD4+ and CD8+ - is challenging, but... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Lab Chip latest articles)
Source: RSC - Lab Chip latest articles - October 9, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Domenico Rossi Source Type: research

Utilizing an Integrated Learning Experience in a Senior Undergraduate Nursing Program
Integration of nursing classroom didactics with clinical and simulation experiences is crucial to obtaining improved student learning outcomes and successful academic achievement. According to the Institute of Medicine (2010), to ensure the delivery of safe, patient-centered care across settings, the nursing education system must be improved. Patient needs have become more complicated, and nurses need to attain requisite competencies to deliver high-quality care. An important aim is to increase active learning behaviors and maintain student engagement, which will foster an effort to learn and meet the complex needs of pati...
Source: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing - October 9, 2019 Category: Nursing Tags: Educational DIMENSION Source Type: research

Opinion: Is Twitter a New Way to Learn?
Authors: Jurivich DA, Manocha GD PMID: 31588819 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Investigative Surgery)
Source: Journal of Investigative Surgery - October 9, 2019 Category: Surgery Tags: J Invest Surg Source Type: research

[ASAP] Machine Learning in Computational Chemistry: An Evaluation of Method Performance for Nudged Elastic Band Calculations
Journal of Chemical Theory and ComputationDOI: 10.1021/acs.jctc.9b00708 (Source: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation)
Source: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation - October 9, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ralf Meyer, Klemens S. Schmuck, and Andreas W. Hauser* Source Type: research

[ASAP] Machine Learning the Physical Nonlocal Exchange –Correlation Functional of Density-Functional Theory
The Journal of Physical Chemistry LettersDOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b02422 (Source: The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters)
Source: The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters - October 9, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Jonathan Schmidt, Carlos L. Benavides-Riveros*, and Miguel A. L. Marques* Source Type: research

Clinical Document Classification Using Labeled and Unlabeled Data Across Hospitals.
Authors: Hassanzadeh H, Kholghi M, Nguyen A, Chu K Abstract Reviewing radiology reports in emergency departments is an essential but laborious task. Timely follow-up of patients with abnormal cases in their radiology reports may dramatically affect the patient's outcome, especially if they have been discharged with a different initial diagnosis. Machine learning approaches have been devised to expedite the process and detect the cases that demand instant follow up. However, these approaches require a large amount of labeled data to train reliable predictive models. Preparing such a large dataset, which needs to be ...
Source: AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings - October 9, 2019 Category: Bioinformatics Tags: AMIA Annu Symp Proc Source Type: research

Phenotyping through Semi-Supervised Tensor Factorization (PSST).
Authors: Henderson J, He H, Malin BA, Denny JC, Kho AN, Ghosh J, Ho JC Abstract A computational phenotype is a set of clinically relevant and interesting characteristics that describe patients with a given condition. Various machine learning methods have been proposed to derive phenotypes in an automatic, high-throughput manner. Among these methods, computational phenotyping through tensor factorization has been shown to produce clinically interesting phenotypes. However, few of these methods incorporate auxiliary patient information into the phenotype derivation process. In this work, we introduce Phenotyping thro...
Source: AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings - October 9, 2019 Category: Bioinformatics Tags: AMIA Annu Symp Proc Source Type: research

Learning to Personalize from Practice: A Real World Evidence Approach of Care Plan Personalization based on Differential Patient Behavioral Responses in Care Management Records.
We present a Behavioral Response Inference Framework (BRIeF) for understanding differential behavioral responses that are key to effective care planning. We analyze CM records from a healthcare network over a 14-month period and obtain a set of 2,416 intervention-goal attainment records. Promising results demonstrate that the individual-level care planning strategies that are learned from practice by BRIeF, outperform population-level strategies, yielding significantly more accurate intervention recommendations for goal attainment. To our knowledge, this is the first study of learning practice-based evidence from CM record...
Source: AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings - October 9, 2019 Category: Bioinformatics Tags: AMIA Annu Symp Proc Source Type: research

Possible Consequences of Parathyroidectomy on Hypertension in Primary Hyperparathyroidism
When counseling patients regarding the potential benefits of parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), surgeons discuss the possible short-term and long-term consequences of operation. The short-term benefits may include alleviation of fatigue, bone aches, depressed mood, and frequent urination. While it is extremely rewarding to improve these symptoms, it is the long-term benefits that may be truly life-altering and potentially lifesaving. The organs most likely to be negatively affected by PHPT are the bones, kidneys, brain, and heart. Medical students everywhere still learn about the effects of this dise...
Source: JAMA Surgery - October 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Purely Structural Protein Scoring Functions Using Support Vector Machine and Ensemble Learning
(Source: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics)
Source: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics - October 9, 2019 Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research

End-to-End Representation Learning for Chemical-Chemical Interaction Prediction
(Source: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics)
Source: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics - October 9, 2019 Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research

Learning a Structural and Functional Representation for Gene Expressions: To Systematically Dissect Complex Cancer Phenotypes
(Source: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics)
Source: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics - October 9, 2019 Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research

Protein-Protein Interaction Interface Residue Pair Prediction Based on Deep Learning Architecture
(Source: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics)
Source: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics - October 9, 2019 Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research

Safe use of electrosurgery in gynaecological laparoscopic surgery
AbstractKey contentIt is crucial to understand the basics of electrosurgery to deliver safe and effective laparoscopic surgeryElectrosurgical tissue effects include vaporisation, desiccation and coagulation, which help achieve cutting, dissection, ablation and haemostasis during surgeryElectrosurgery is delivered through monopolar and bipolar instrumentsSurgeons can avoid complications of electrosurgery by understanding the mechanisms underlying themEstablishment of a formal training programme in surgical energy is needed for surgeons and theatre staff to provide safe laparoscopic surgery.Learning objectivesTo understand t...
Source: The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist - October 9, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Mohsen El ‐Sayed, Sahar Mohamed, Ertan Saridogan Tags: Reviews Source Type: research

The use of actor-based immersive health and safety inductions: Lessons from the Thames Tideway Tunnel megaproject.
Abstract Health and safety inductions are ubiquitous in construction but tend to be poorly designed and suffer low levels of worker engagement. In this paper we report on the evaluation of an innovative, full day, actor-based health and safety induction called EPIC, currently being used on London's Thames Tideway Tunnel megaproject. As of March 2019, more than 14,000 individuals had attended EPIC. This evaluation examines the impact of EPIC from the perspective of participants and other stakeholders, and considers the utility of actor-based immersive health and safety inductions for use more widely, in both constr...
Source: Applied Ergonomics - October 9, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Harvey EJ, Pinder JA, Haslam RA, Dainty ARJ, Gibb AG Tags: Appl Ergon Source Type: research

Image registration in dynamic renal MRI-current status and prospects.
Rogelj P Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities have achieved an increasingly important role in the clinical work-up of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). This comprises among others assessment of hemodynamic parameters by arterial spin labeling (ASL) or dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) MRI. Especially in the latter, images or volumes of the kidney are acquired over time for up to several minutes. Therefore, they are hampered by motion, e.g., by pulsation, peristaltic, or breathing motion. This motion can hinder subsequent image analysis to estimate hemodynamic parameters like renal blood flow or glomer...
Source: Magma - October 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Zöllner FG, Šerifović-Trbalić A, Kabelitz G, Kociński M, Materka A, Rogelj P Tags: MAGMA Source Type: research

Evaluating a Web-Based Health-Promoting Dialogue Tool in School Health Services: Feasibility and User Experiences.
, Holen S Abstract Adolescence is a sensitive period in life and a time to redefine and learn new skills. In Norway, school health services provide individual health-promoting consultations with all eighth-grade students. As an aid to support these consultations, a dialogue tool called SchoolHealth was developed using a co-creation approach. SchoolHealth consists of a web-based health information form designed to be completed by the students and generates individual feedback reports to help the school nurses to prepare for the consultation and tailor it to the individual student's need. Our aims were to evaluate t...
Source: The Journal of School Nursing - October 9, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Sagatun Å, Kvarme LG, Misvær N, Myhre M, Valla L, Holen S Tags: J Sch Nurs Source Type: research

Validity of Vocal Communication and Vocal Complexity in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract To identify valid measures of vocal development in young children with autism spectrum disorder in the early stages of language learning, we evaluated the convergent validity, divergent validity, and sensitivity to change (across 12 months) of two measures of vocal communication and two measures of vocal complexity through conventional coding of communication samples. Participants included 87 children with autism spectrum disorder (M = 23.42 months at entry). All four vocal variables demonstrated consistent evidence of convergent validity, divergent validity, and sensitivity to cha...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - October 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: McDaniel J, Yoder P, Estes A, Rogers SJ Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Methods for Gait Analysis During Obstacle Avoidance Task.
In this study, we present algorithms developed for gait analysis, but suitable for many other signal processing tasks. A novel general-purpose algorithm for extremum estimation of quasi-periodic noisy signals is proposed. This algorithm is both flexible and robust, and allows custom adjustments to detect a predetermined wave pattern while being immune to signal noise and variability. A method for signal segmentation was also developed for analyzing kinematic data recorded while performing on obstacle avoidance task. The segmentation allows detecting preparation and recovery phases related to obstacle avoidance. A simple ke...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Patashov D, Menahem Y, Ben-Haim O, Gazit E, Maidan I, Mirelman A, Sosnik R, Goldstein D, Hausdorff JM Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Safe use of electrosurgery in gynaecological laparoscopic surgery
AbstractKey contentIt is crucial to understand the basics of electrosurgery to deliver safe and effective laparoscopic surgeryElectrosurgical tissue effects include vaporisation, desiccation and coagulation, which help achieve cutting, dissection, ablation and haemostasis during surgeryElectrosurgery is delivered through monopolar and bipolar instrumentsSurgeons can avoid complications of electrosurgery by understanding the mechanisms underlying themEstablishment of a formal training programme in surgical energy is needed for surgeons and theatre staff to provide safe laparoscopic surgery.Learning objectivesTo understand t...
Source: The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist - October 9, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Mohsen El ‐Sayed, Sahar Mohamed, Ertan Saridogan Tags: Reviews Source Type: research

Learning from Antibodies: Phage Host-Range Engineering.
Abstract In a recent Cell paper, Yehl et al., 2019 find that bacteriophage T3 binds its host via four distal loops on the tail fiber. Randomization of these regions yield bacteriophage libraries capable of infecting resistant bacteria and preventing further resistance. These strategies may generate phage capable of infecting new hosts. PMID: 31600495 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - October 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Russell J, Bikard D Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Joint Nurse Scientist Role across Academia and Practice
Schools of nursing and health systems often operate in silos despite studies showing that collaborations between academic and practice effectively address student learning needs, promote faculty development, and further organizational goals. (VanGraafeiland et al., 2019, De Geest et al., 2013) Academic-practice partnerships (APPs) refer to formal collaborations between academic and practice institutions and are defined as “strategic relationships between educational and clinical practice settings that are established to advance their mutual interests related to practice, education, and research”. (Source: Nursing Outlook)
Source: Nursing Outlook - October 9, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Eileen Carter, Amanda Hessels, Kenrick Cato, Carolyn Sun, Bevin Cohen, Reynaldo R. Rivera, Elaine Larson Source Type: research

The Science of Addiction Through the Lens of Opioid Treatment for Chronic Noncancer Pain
Addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease.  It is not the same as physical dependence (i.e., withdrawal) and tolerance, but is characterized by loss of control over the use of the substance, continued use despite consequences, compulsive use, and cravings. Addiction involves functional changes to brain pathways involved in reward, stress a nd learning, and these changes can last a long time after the addictive substance is no longer used. Repeated interruption of normal brain function from repetitive use of addictive substances can hijack normal reward mechanisms resulting in fundamental alterations in brai...
Source: Pain Management Nursing - October 9, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Wendy Umberger, Lynn Gaddis Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Using R and Bioconductor in Clinical Genomics and Transcriptomics
Bioinformatics pipelines are essential in the analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data generated by next-generation sequencing. Recent guidelines emphasize the need for rigorous validation and assessment of robustness, reproducibility, and quality of NGS analytic pipelines intended for clinical use. Software tools written in the R statistical language and in particular the set of tools available in the Bioconductor repository are widely used in research bioinformatics, and these frameworks offer several advantages for use in clinical bioinformatics, including the breath of available tools, modular nature of software &ld...
Source: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics - October 9, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Jorge L. Sepulveda Tags: Review Source Type: research

School-Based Approaches in Youth with Psychosis
This article discusses how providers can guide school teams and their institutions to identify psychosis in their student populations along with a delineation of key educational programming that helps youth reintegrate back into school and achieve academic success. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - October 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Samantha Hines, Drew C. Coman Source Type: research

Commentary: Transcatheter aortic valve in transcatheter aortic valve (TAV - in - TAV) replacement: are we learning more and knowing less?
(Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery)
Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - October 9, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Gaetano Paone, Adam B. Greenbaum Source Type: research

Ready, willing and able: a model to explain successful use of feedback
AbstractEducators have long noticed differences in how students receive and use feedback. Despite the development of best practice guidelines, some learners in the health professions still struggle to incorporate corrective feedback. To date, little research has been done to examine learner characteristics and how those traits might explain differences in feedback-related behavior. A qualitative study using a constructivist, grounded theory approach was conducted to examine the behaviors and learner characteristics that contribute to successful use of feedback. Medical and physician assistant students in their clinical yea...
Source: Advances in Health Sciences Education - October 9, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

PBL and sustainable education: addressing the problem of isolation
AbstractProblem-based learning (PBL) is an innovative educational approach that dates back to the 1960s. However, the twenty-first century goal of sustainable education poses a challenge to PBL, especially as it relates to isolation. Here we discuss the underlying issue of isolation in three respects. First, the information-processing model of PBL depends on generalized skills, whereas real life problem-solving skills involve context-bound cognitive processes. Second, in all models of PBL, the focus on knowledge acquisition for a specific problem improves performance but separates education from the world at large. Third, ...
Source: Advances in Health Sciences Education - October 9, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence in nephropathology
Nature Reviews Nephrology, Published online: 09 October 2019; doi:10.1038/s41581-019-0220-xOnce confined to the world of science fiction, advances in information technology, particularly in computational and storage resources, have enabled use of artificial intelligence in medicine to become a reality. Two new studies report the use of deep learning — currently the most promising algorithmic artificial intelligence approach — in kidney pathology. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 9, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Peter Boor Source Type: research

Deep Learning Enables Accurate Prediction of Interplay Between lncRNA and Disease
Many studies have suggested that lncRNAs are involved in distinct and diverse biological processes. The mutation of lncRNAs plays a major role in a wide range of diseases. A comprehensive information of lncRNA-disease associations would improve our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism that can explain the development of disease. However, the discovery of the relationship between lncRNA and disease in biological experiment is costly and time-consuming. Although many computational algorithms have been proposed in the last decade, there still exists much room to improve because of diverse computational limitati...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - October 9, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Identification of postoperative complications using electronic health record data and machine learning
Abstract Summary; Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) complication status of patients who underwent an operation at the University of Colorado Hospital, we developed a machine learning algorithm for identifying patients with one or more complications using data from the electronic health record (EHR). The model achieved 88% specificity, 83% sensitivity, 97% negative predictive value, 52% positive predictive value, and an area under the curve of 0.93. The model developed could be used for electronic postoperative complication surveillance to supplement manual chart re...
Source: American Journal of Surgery - October 9, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Michael Bronsert, Abhinav B. Singh, William G. Henderson, Karl Hammermeister, Robert A. Meguid, Kathryn L. Colborn Source Type: research

Why deep-learning AIs are so easy to fool
Nature, Published online: 09 October 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03013-5Artificial-intelligence researchers are trying to fix the flaws of neural networks. (Source: Nature AOP)
Source: Nature AOP - October 9, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Douglas Heaven Source Type: research

Podcast: Estimating earthquake risk, and difficulties for deep-learning
Nature, Published online: 09 October 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03041-1Hear the latest science news, with Benjamin Thompson and Nick Howe. (Source: Nature AOP)
Source: Nature AOP - October 9, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Daily briefing: A scientist’s guide to overcoming impostor syndrome
Nature, Published online: 09 October 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03043-zA clinical psychologist describes how to dial down self-doubt, chemistry Nobel for lithium-ion batteries and why deep-learning AIs are so easy to fool. (Source: Nature AOP)
Source: Nature AOP - October 9, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Flora Graham Source Type: research

Super-Resolution 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging Utilizing Deep Learning
We report on a novel densely connected UNet (D-UNet) architecture capable of producing super-resolution spectroscopic images. The inputs for the D-UNet are the T1w image and the low resolution SI image while the output is the high resolution SI. The results of the D-UNet are compared both qualitatively and quantitatively to simulated and in vivo high resolution SI. It is found that this deep learning approach can produce high quality spectroscopic images and reconstruct entire 1H spectra from low resolution acquisitions, which can greatly advance the current SI workflow. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - October 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Does B Cell Follicle Exclusion of CD8+ T Cells Make Lymph Nodes Sanctuaries of HIV Replication?
As we learn more about the HIV latent reservoir, we continue to discover that the viral reservoir is more complicated than just a pool of infected resting memory CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood. Evidence increasingly points to both certain tissues and certain types of cells as potential viral reservoirs. T follicular helper cells (TFH) are prime targets of HIV infection—this creates a sanctuary for infected cells because CD8+ T cells generally do not enter lymph node follicles unless they express CXCR5, and are not as effective at killing infected CD4+ T cells as peripheral CD8+ T cells. In this review, we summarize...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - October 9, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Image registration in dynamic renal MRI —current status and prospects
AbstractMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities have achieved an increasingly important role in the clinical work-up of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). This comprises among others assessment of hemodynamic parameters by arterial spin labeling (ASL) or dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) MRI. Especially in the latter, images or volumes of the kidney are acquired over time for up to several minutes. Therefore, they are hampered by motion, e.g., by pulsation, peristaltic, or breathing motion. This motion can hinder subsequent image analysis to estimate hemodynamic parameters like renal blood flow or glomerular filtration rate...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine - October 9, 2019 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research