Detection of Optical Coherence Tomography-Defined Thin-Cap Fibroatheroma in the Coronary Artery Using Deep Learning.
CONCLUSIONS: Deep learning algorithm can accurately detect an OCT-TCFA with a high reproducibility. The time-saving computerized process may assist clinicians to easily recognize high-risk lesions and to make decisions in the catheterization laboratory. PMID: 31718998 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: EuroIntervention)
Source: EuroIntervention - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Tags: EuroIntervention Source Type: research

Interactive whiteboard use in clinical reasoning sessions to teach diagnostic test ordering and interpretation to undergraduate medical students
Over-testing of patients is a significant problem in clinical medicine that can be tackled by education. Clinical reasoning learning (CRL) is a potentially relevant method for teaching test ordering and interp... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - November 15, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Fares Gouzi, Christophe H édon, Léo Blervaque, Emilie Passerieux, Nils Kuster, Thierry Pujol, Jacques Mercier and Maurice Hayot Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Neural dynamics of the production of newly acquired words relative to well-known words.
Abstract An adult continues acquiring new lexical entries in everyday life. Brain networks and processes at play when producing newly learnt words might be similar to well-known words, yet some processes are bound to be slower. Here, we compared the neural dynamics of producing newly acquired words with those of well-known frequent words, both qualitatively and quantitatively, using event-related potentials (ERPs) associated to high-density microstate analyses. ERPs revealed several temporal windows with differences in waveform amplitudes, which correspond to enhanced duration of similar microstates for newly acqu...
Source: Brain Research - November 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Fargier R, Laganaro M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Hypoxic-Conditioned Medium from Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improved Neuroinflammation through Alternation of Toll like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 Expression in Model of Alzheimer's Disease Rats.
Abstract Microglia have a pivotal role to initiate immune responses in AD brains through toll-like receptors and induce neuroinflammation. Adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells (ATSCs) secret many neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory factors called conditioned medium (CM). Many studies have demonstrated that CM of mesenchymal stem cells facilitate regeneration and attenuates inflammation in many disorders. To this purpose, the effect of ATSCs-conditioned medium (ATSC-CM) on brain inflammation and the role of toll-like receptors were investigated in this study. Seventy-two rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: co...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - November 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Mehrabadi S, Motevaseli E, Sadr SS, Moradbeygi K Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Threat imminence dictates the role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in contextual fear.
Abstract Recent work indicates that the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is critically involved in the regulation of conditioned fear responses to unpredictable threats. Here we examined whether the involvement of the BNST in contextual fear conditioning in male rats depends on the imminence of shock after placement in the conditioning chamber. Specifically, we hypothesized that the BNST supports contextual freezing after conditioning with delayed, but not imminent, footshock (relative to placement in the context). Rats were implanted with cannulae targeting the BNST and underwent a contextual fear condi...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - November 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Goode TD, Acca GM, Maren S Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

The degraded polysaccharide from Pyropia haitanensis represses amyloid beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity and memory in vivo.
Abstract An antioxidant polysaccharide, porphyran, from red algae Pyropia haitanensis, is introduced as a protective agent against neurotoxicity-induced amyloid β peptide (Aβ) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice. Then the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) in the cortical and hippocampal tissue were examined by colorimetric method. Results showed that porphyran significantly ameliorated the learning and memory impairment induced by Aβ1-40. Biochemical analysis showed that porphyran increased ChAT activity and decreased AChE activity in the cortical and hippocam...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - November 15, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhang Z, Wang X, Pan Y, Wang G, Mao G Tags: Int J Biol Macromol Source Type: research

Physical and observational practices of unusual actions prime action verb processing.
Abstract Numerous studies have highlighted a strong relationship between language and sensorimotor processes, showing, for example, that perceiving an action influences subsequent language processing. Moreover, previous studies have demonstrated that the context in which actions are perceived is crucial to enable this action-language relationship. In particular, action verb processing is facilitated when an action is perceived in its usual context (e.g., someone watering a plant) but not in an unusual context (e.g., someone watering a computer). This difference could be explained in terms of experience; because pe...
Source: Brain and Cognition - November 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Beauprez SA, Blandin Y, Almecija Y, Bidet-Ildei C Tags: Brain Cogn Source Type: research

Posterior Fossa Arachnoid Cyst in a Pediatric Population is Associated with Social Perception and Rest Cerebral Blood Flow Abnormalities.
Abstract Posterior fossa arachnoid cysts (PFAC) may produce not only neurological symptoms but also other symptoms still poorly understood such as behavioral and learning deficits, awkwardness, and difficulties in social interaction. These subtle social impairments have not been formally described and their underlying brain mechanisms remain unknown. In the present case-control study, we aimed to empirically characterize social impairments in a pediatric population with PFAC using eye tracking. In addition, we investigated putative functional cortical abnormalities in these children using arterial spin labeling ma...
Source: Cerebellum - November 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rechtman E, Puget S, Saitovitch A, Lemaitre H, Fillion L, Tacchella JM, Boisgontier J, Cuny ML, Boddaert N, Zilbovicius M Tags: Cerebellum Source Type: research

Grey matter volume in developmental speech and language disorder.
Abstract Developmental language disorder (DLD) and developmental speech disorder (DSD) are common, yet their etiologies are not well understood. Atypical volume of the inferior and posterior language regions and striatum have been reported in DLD; however, variability in both methodology and study findings limits interpretations. Imaging research within DSD, on the other hand, is scarce. The present study compared grey matter volume in children with DLD, DSD, and typically developing speech and language. Compared to typically developing controls, children with DLD had larger volume in the right cerebellum, possibl...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - November 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pigdon L, Willmott C, Reilly S, Conti-Ramsden G, Gaser C, Connelly A, Morgan AT Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Specific Learning Disabilities: The Family Physician's Role.
Abstract Academic underachievement, such as failing a class and the threat of being held back because of academic issues, is common. Family physicians can provide support and guidance for families as they approach their child's unique academic challenges. Specific learning disabilities are a group of learning disorders (e.g., dyscalculia, dysgraphia, dyslexia) that impede a child's ability to learn. Understanding standard educational terms; looking for medical, family, and social risk factors associated with academic underachievement; and investigating the medical differential for academic underachievement can hel...
Source: American Family Physician - November 15, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Curtin MJ, Willis DR, Enneking B Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research

A novel molecular representation with BiGRU neural networks for learning atom.
Abstract Molecular representations play critical roles in researching drug design and properties, and effective methods are beneficial to assisting in the calculation of molecules and solving related problem in drug discovery. In previous years, most of the traditional molecular representations are based on hand-crafted features and rely heavily on biological experimentations, which are often costly and time consuming. However, recent researches achieve promising results using machine learning on various domains. In this article, we present a novel method named Smi2Vec-BiGRU that is designed for learning atoms and...
Source: Briefings in Bioinformatics - November 15, 2019 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Lin X, Quan Z, Wang ZJ, Huang H, Zeng X Tags: Brief Bioinform Source Type: research

Neuropsychological Test Performances and Depression in Early-Stage De Novo Parkinson's Disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with early-stage, untreated Parkinson's disease, depression does not appear to affect neuropsychological test performance. Clinicians should demonstrate caution in over-interpreting the influence of depression on cognition in this population. PMID: 31732731 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology)
Source: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology - November 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Honsey BN, Erickson LO, Wyman-Chick KA Tags: Arch Clin Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Patterns of Performance and Symptom Validity Test Findings After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.
CONCLUSION: Performance and symptom validity tests provide complementary and non-redundant information in persons with mTBI. Whereas financial compensation-seeking is associated with increased risk of failure of either PVT or SVT, or both, the presence of intracranial findings on neuroimaging is associated with decreased risk of such. PMID: 31732733 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology)
Source: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology - November 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Donders J, Lefebre N, Goldsworthy R Tags: Arch Clin Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Duodenal diverticulitis masquerading as acute cholecystitis: A lesson learnt
We present a case of a 62 ‐year‐old lady with a provisional diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, which turned out to be duodenal diverticulitis, who did not respond to conservative management and was successfully managed surgically. (Source: Surgical Practice)
Source: Surgical Practice - November 15, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Amena Khan, Veena Karanth, Afroz Khan, Gabriel Rodrigues Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Teaching Undergraduates Beyond the Classroom: Use of WhatsApp.
Abstract WhatsApp is a popular platform for social interaction. We used it as an e-learning platform for medical education. We discussed five clinical cases on a WhatsApp group with undergraduates; it increased their knowledge in the subject significantly (P
Source: Indian Pediatrics - November 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kapoor A, Tiwari V, Kapoor A Tags: Indian Pediatr Source Type: research

Reflective Writing as a Window on Medical Students' Professional Identity Development in a Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship.
This study explores how patient interactions and intentional curriculum design support professional identity construction in students participating in a longitudinal integrated clerkship focused on care for the underserved. Approach: This qualitative analysis investigated students' professional identity construction as detailed in 45 reflective essays from 15 students while enrolled in an 11-month longitudinal integrated clerkship (LIC) in a safety-net hospital system. Researchers used an inductive analytic approach. Findings: Students provided rich and complex descriptions of their experiences. Six themes emerged: care fo...
Source: Teaching and Learning in Medicine - November 15, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Adams J, Ari M, Cleeves M, Gong J Tags: Teach Learn Med Source Type: research

Clinical reflective practice
AbstractReflective practice is an established component of medical education and clinical development. It is accepted that the process of critically reflecting on a clinical experience enhances knowledge and understanding, and facilitates learning.1 Experiences, good and bad, provide learning opportunities for the individuals involved and for the wider system. (Source: The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist)
Source: The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist - November 15, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Ruth Roberts, Bid Kumar Tags: TIPS AND TECHNIQUES Source Type: research

Year-to-Year Trends in Emergency Medicine Morbidity and Mortality Cases
The objective of this study was to determine if M&M conferences can reduce repetitive error making demonstrated by a shift of the incidence of cases presented at M&M by chief complaint (CC) and experience of attendings. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - November 15, 2019 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Jason J. Lewis, Eric C. Hyder, Carlo Rosen, Richard E. Wolfe, Victor Novack, Shamai A. Grossman Source Type: research

Meeting FACES: Preliminary Findings from a Community Workshop for Minority Parents of Children with Autism in Central North Carolina.
Abstract In North Carolina (NC), there are many resources designed to support the needs of children with autism and their families, and yet a troubling gap in underserved families' access to those services. To address this gap, the Meeting FACES workshop was designed to: (a) provide an opportunity for parents, educators, and service providers to build partnerships, (b) provide parents with opportunities to learn about available autism services in their communities, and (c) assess the needs of underrepresented families of children with autism in NC. Findings indicate that minority families of children with autism i...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - November 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pearson JN, Traficante AL, Denny LM, Malone K, Codd E Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Anticipatory Threat Responding: Associations with Anxiety, Development, and Brain Structure
While translational theories link neurodevelopmental changes in threat learning to pathological anxiety, findings from studies in patients inconsistently support these theories. This may reflect difficulties in studying large patient samples with wide age-ranges using consistent methods. A dearth of imaging data in patients further limits translational advances. We address these gaps through a psychophysiology and structural brain imaging study in a large sample of patients across the lifespan. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rany Abend, Andrea L. Gold, Jennifer C. Britton, Kalina J. Michalska, Tomer Shechner, Jessica F. Sachs, Anderson M. Winkler, Ellen Leibenluft, Bruno B. Averbeck, Daniel S. Pine Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Grey matter volume in developmental speech and language disorder
AbstractDevelopmental language disorder (DLD) and developmental speech disorder (DSD) are common, yet their etiologies are not well understood. Atypical volume of the inferior and posterior language regions and striatum have been reported in DLD; however, variability in both methodology and study findings limits interpretations. Imaging research within DSD, on the other hand, is scarce. The present study compared grey matter volume in children with DLD, DSD, and typically developing speech and language. Compared to typically developing controls, children with DLD had larger volume in the right cerebellum, possibly associat...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - November 15, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Machine learning models for predicting the use of different animal breeding services in smallholder dairy farms in Sub-Saharan Africa
This study is concerned with developing predictive models using machine learning techniques to be used in identifying factors that influence farmers ’ decisions, predict farmers’ decisions, and forecast farmers’ demands relating to breeding service. The data used to develop the models comes from a survey of small-scale dairy farmers from Tanzania (n = 3500 farmers), Kenya (n = 6190 farmers), Ethiopia (n = 4920 farmers), and Uganda (n = 5390 farmers) and more than 120 variables were identified to influence breeding decisions. Feature engineering process was used to reduce the number of variables to a pract...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - November 15, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Reflective Writing as a Window on Medical Students ’ Professional Identity Development in a Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship
. (Source: Teaching and Learning in Medicine)
Source: Teaching and Learning in Medicine - November 15, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Jennifer Adams Mim Ari Michelle Cleeves Jennifer Gong Source Type: research

The Rivers Centre in Scotland: An Attachment ‐Based Service Model for People With Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractThe Rivers Centre in Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom) operated for nearly 20 years as a traditional specialist trauma service, delivering psychological therapies to an adult population affected by trauma. Embedded in a health and social care system whose characteristics were unhelpful for people with histories of insecure attachment experiences, the Rivers Centre aimed to find a different way of working, and in January 2017, it relaunched with a new model of service. The aim of this paper is to describe the new service model from an organizational perspective in the context of attachment theory. At the heart of...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - November 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Claire Fyvie, Paula Easton, Gill Moreton, Jenny McKeever, Thanos Karatzias Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

Posterior Fossa Arachnoid Cyst in a Pediatric Population is Associated with Social Perception and Rest Cerebral Blood Flow Abnormalities
AbstractPosterior fossa arachnoid cysts (PFAC) may produce not only neurological symptoms but also other symptoms still poorly understood such as behavioral and learning deficits, awkwardness, and difficulties in social interaction. These subtle social impairments have not been formally described and their underlying brain mechanisms remain unknown. In the present case-control study, we aimed to empirically characterize social impairments in a pediatric population with PFAC using eye tracking. In addition, we investigated putative functional cortical abnormalities in these children using arterial spin labeling magnetic res...
Source: The Cerebellum - November 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

ALS clinical research learning institutes (ALS-CRLI): empowering people with ALS to be research ambassadors
. (Source: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration)
Source: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration - November 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Richard Bedlack Allison Pogemiller Jeremy Shefner Merit Cudkowicz Terri Heiman-Patterson Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence and radiomics in nuclear medicine: potentials and challenges
AbstractArtificial intelligence involves a wide range of smart techniques that are applicable to medical services including nuclear medicine. Recent advances in computer power, availability of accumulated digital archives containing large amount of patient images, and records bring new opportunities for the implementation of artificial techniques in nuclear medicine. As a subset of artificial intelligence, machine learning is an emerging tool that possibly perform many clinical tasks. Nuclear medicine community needs to adapt to this fast approaching smart era, to exploit the opportunities and tackle the problems associate...
Source: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging - November 15, 2019 Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research

Phonological decoding enhances orthographic facilitation of vocabulary learning in first graders
AbstractAn experiment examined orthographic facilitation of vocabulary learning, that is, whether showing students spellings of novel words during learning helps them remember the words when spellings are no longer present. The purpose was to determine whether having students decode the spellings of vocabulary words improves word learning over passive exposure to spellings, and whether both treatments boost word memory compared to no spelling exposure. Low SES, urban first graders (N = 55) were randomly assigned to one of two word learning conditions: a decoding condition (printed words sounded out and blende...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 15, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Learning Robust Multilabel Sample Specific Distances for Identifying HIV-1 Drug Resistance
Journal of Computational Biology, Ahead of Print. (Source: Journal of Computational Biology)
Source: Journal of Computational Biology - November 15, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Lodewijk Brand Xue Yang Kai Liu Saad Elbeleidy Hua Wang Hao Zhang Feiping Nie Source Type: research

A comparative evaluation of the generalised predictive ability of eight machine learning algorithms across ten clinical metabolomics data sets for binary classification
ConclusionThe size of the data set, and choice of performance metric, had a greater influence on generalised predictive performance than the choice of machine learning algorithm. (Source: Metabolomics)
Source: Metabolomics - November 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Performance and usability of machine learning for screening in systematic reviews: a comparative evaluation of three tools
ConclusionsThe workload savings afforded in the automated simulation came with increased risk of missing relevant records. Supplementing a single reviewer ’s decisions with relevance predictions (semi-automated simulation) sometimes reduced the proportion missed, but performance varied by tool and SR. Designing tools based on reviewers’ self-identified preferences may improve their compatibility with present workflows.Systematic review registrationNot applicable. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - November 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Move 2 Learn program, a community-based movement and pre-literacy intervention for young children
. (Source: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy)
Source: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy - November 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Chloe Bedard Emily Bremer John Cairney Source Type: research

Quantifying the Metabolic Signature of Multiple Sclerosis by in vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Current Challenges and Future Outlook in the Translation From Proton Signal to Diagnostic Biomarker
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) offers a growing variety of methods for querying potential diagnostic biomarkers of multiple sclerosis in living central nervous system tissue. For the past three decades, 1H-MRS has enabled the acquisition of a rich dataset suggestive of numerous metabolic alterations in lesions, normal-appearing white matter, gray matter, and spinal cord of individuals with multiple sclerosis, but this body of information is not free of seeming internal contradiction. The use of 1H-MRS signals as diagnostic biomarkers depends on reproducible and generalizable sensitivity and specificity to ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - November 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Surgery service learning in preclinical years improves medical student attitudes toward surgery, clinical confidence, and social determinants of health screening
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: The American Journal of SurgeryAuthor(s): Megan G. Janeway, Su Yeon Lee, Elisa Caron, Isabel K. Sausjord, Lisa Allee, Sabrina E. Sanchez, Tracey A. DechertAbstractIntroductionPatient health literacy is paramount for optimal outcomes. The Service Learning Project (SLP) aims to merge the need for patient education with the desire of medical students for early clinical experience.MethodsThis pretest-posttest study examined the effect of the SLP on medical students. First-year students spent 8 h each month educating inpatients and screening for social determinants of...
Source: The American Journal of Surgery - November 14, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Implicit learning of symmetry of human movement and gray matter density: Evidence against pure domain general and pure domain specific theories of implicit learning
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: International Journal of PsychophysiologyAuthor(s): Qian Zhang, Lin Li, Xiuyan Guo, Li Zheng, Yuyan Wu, Chu ZhouAbstractTheories of the neural basis of implicit learning postulated that specific regions were responsible for specific structures (e.g., supra-finite state) regardless of domain (e.g., vision, movement); others assumed that implicit learning was the adaptation that occurred within neural regions dealing with each domain. We explored whether people could implicitly learn to detect symmetry in biological motion, and if so, based on voxel-based morphometry...
Source: International Journal of Psychophysiology - November 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Genetic Data Can Improve Psychosis Prediction Tool
Incorporating genetic data into a clinical tool that predicts whether a person will develop schizophrenia can improve the accuracy of this tool, according to astudy appearing inAJP in Advance.Diana Perkins, M.D., M.P.H., of the University of North Carolina and colleagues assessed whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) could be used as part of a clinical assessment of schizophrenia risk. A PRS reflects how many individual genetic variants associated with schizophrenia a person has; the higher an individual ’s PRS, the greater his or her genetic risk of developing schizophrenia. They looked at health data from 764 young a...
Source: Psychiatr News - November 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ajp in advance Diana Perkins DNA genetic data North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study polygenic risk score psychosis schizophrenia Source Type: research

Oxiracetam ameliorates cognitive deficits in vascular dementia rats by regulating the expression of neuronal apoptosis/autophagy-related genes associated with the activation of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
In this study, 3-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats with permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion-induced VaD were treated orally with low (100 mg/kg) or high (200 mg/kg) dose ORC once a day for 4 weeks. The results of the Morris water maze test and Nissl staining showed that ORC treatment significantly alleviated learning and memory deficits and neuronal damage in rats with VaD. Mechanistically, the protein levels of a panel of genes associated with neuronal apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax) and autophagy (microtubule-associated protein 1 chain 3, Beclin1, p62) were significantly altered by ORC treatment compared with VaD...
Source: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research - November 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Braz J Med Biol Res Source Type: research

Accelerating magnetic resonance imaging via deep learning.
ACCELERATING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING VIA DEEP LEARNING. Proc IEEE Int Symp Biomed Imaging. 2016 Apr;2016:514-517 Authors: Wang S, Su Z, Ying L, Peng X, Zhu S, Liang F, Feng D, Liang D Abstract This paper proposes a deep learning approach for accelerating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a large number of existing high quality MR images as the training datasets. An off-line convolutional neural network is designed and trained to identify the mapping relationship between the MR images obtained from zero-filled and fully-sampled k-space data. The network is not only capable of restoring fine stru...
Source: Proceedings - International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging - November 14, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Proc IEEE Int Symp Biomed Imaging Source Type: research

Accelerating dynamic magnetic resonance imaging by nonlinear sparse coding.
ACCELERATING DYNAMIC MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING BY NONLINEAR SPARSE CODING. Proc IEEE Int Symp Biomed Imaging. 2016 Apr;2016:510-513 Authors: Nakarmi U, Zhou Y, Lyu J, Slavakis K, Ying L Abstract Although being high-dimensional, dynamic magnetic resonance images usually lie on low-dimensional manifolds. Nonlinear models have been shown to capture well that latent low-dimensional nature of data, and can thus lead to improvements in the quality of constrained recovery algorithms. This paper advocates a novel reconstruction algorithm for dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) based on nonlinear diction...
Source: Proceedings - International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging - November 14, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Proc IEEE Int Symp Biomed Imaging Source Type: research

Mutual benefits: Combining reinforcement learning with sequential sampling models
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Steven Miletić, Russell J. Boag, Birte U. ForstmannAbstractReinforcement learning models of error-driven learning and sequential-sampling models of decision making have provided significant insight into the neural basis of a variety of cognitive processes. Until recently, model-based cognitive neuroscience research using both frameworks has evolved separately and independently. Recent efforts have illustrated the complementary nature of both modelling traditions and showed how they can be integrated into a unified theoretical framework, ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Competitive and cooperative interactions between medial temporal and striatal learning systems
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Michael Freedberg, Andrew C. Toader, Eric M. Wassermann, Joel L. VossAbstractThe striatum and medial temporal lobes (MTL) exhibit dissociable roles during learning. Whereas the striatum and its network of thalamic relays and cortical nodes are necessary for nondeclarative learning, the MTL and associated network are required for declarative learning. Several studies have suggested that these networks are functionally competitive during learning. Since these discoveries, however, evidence has accumulated that they can operate in a cooperat...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Health-related quality of life and the burden of prolonged seizures in noninstitutionalized children with epilepsy
This study aimed to provide information on the burden of illness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with epilepsy who experience prolonged acute convulsive seizures (PACS) in the community setting, and to investigate factors that may predict poor HRQoL in this population.MethodsNoninstitutionalized children (aged 3–16 years) who had experienced at least one PACS within the past year and had currently prescribed PACS rescue medication were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom (Practices in Emergency and Rescue medication For Epilepsy managed with Co...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - November 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Coaching Primary Care Clinicians in the Ambulatory Setting: Direct Observation and Deliberate Practice.
CONCLUSIONS: Coaching busy primary care clinicians is feasible and a valued experience. Focusing on specific observable behaviors can identify clinicians' strengths and opportunities for improvement. Patients are pleased to learn that their clinicians are receiving coaching as part of their professional development. PMID: 31722100 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Family Medicine)
Source: Family Medicine - November 14, 2019 Category: Primary Care Tags: Fam Med Source Type: research

Change in Knowledge and Preferred Scenario Responses After Completion of the Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics Course in Serbia.
CONCLUSIONS: The current results suggest that the ALSO course can successfully increase knowledge and preferred scenario responses in Serbian providers and may be a viable approach to improving birth outcomes. PMID: 31722104 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Family Medicine)
Source: Family Medicine - November 14, 2019 Category: Primary Care Tags: Fam Med Source Type: research

Highlights of Biosafety and Biosecurity Month (BBM)at the AIMST University and Perspectives on Biorisk Management.
Abstract The innovations and developments in microbiology, biomedical sciences, and biotechnology come along with the challenges of biological risk (biorisk). Biorisk is defined as the "combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm where the source of harm is a biological agent or toxin." Biorisk is a borderless challenge to the global community. Hence, all universities, colleges, centers of bio-excellence, and institutions of higher learning can and should do their bit to educate technical members, academicians, students and stakeholders (LASS) for the efficient and ...
Source: Bioinformation - November 14, 2019 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Bhore SJ Tags: Bioinformation Source Type: research

Neural representations of phonology in temporal cortex scaffold longitudinal reading gains in 5- to 7-year-old children
The objective of this study was to investigate whether phonological processes measured through brain activation are crucial for the development of reading skill (i.e. scaffolding hypothesis) and/or whether learning to read words fine-tunes phonology in the brain (i.e. refinement hypothesis). We specifically looked at how different grain sizes in two brain regions implicated in phonological processing played a role in this bidirectional relation. According to the dual-stream model of speech processing and previous empirical studies, the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) appears to be a perceptual region associated wit...
Source: NeuroImage - November 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exploring Privileged Information from Simple Actions for Complex Action Recognition
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: NeurocomputingAuthor(s): Fang Liu, Xiangmin Xu, Tong Zhang, Kailing Guo, Lin WangAbstractComplex action recognition is an important yet challenging problem in computer vision. Sufficient labeled training data are required for learning a robust model. However, labeling complex actions is often time-consuming and expensive. Considering that each complex action is composed of a sequence of simple actions, we propose a new learning framework for complex action recognition by using a sequence of existing simple actions. A matrix is first designed as the probability matr...
Source: Neurocomputing - November 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Optimizing Zinc Electrowinning Processes With Current Switching Via Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient Learning
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: NeurocomputingAuthor(s): Xiongtao Shi, Yonggang Li, Bei Sun, Honglei Xu, Chunhua Yang, Hongqiu ZhuAbstractThis paper proposes a model-free Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG) learning controller for zinc electrowinning processes (ZEP) to save energy consumption during the current switching periods. To overcome the problems such as inaccurate modeling and various time delays, the proposed DDPG controller utilizes various control periods and parameters for different working conditions. Strategies such as action boundary setting, reward function definition, stat...
Source: Neurocomputing - November 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Multi-view Clustering by Joint Manifold Learning and Tensor Nuclear Norm
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: NeurocomputingAuthor(s): Deyan Xie, Wei Xia, Qianqian Wang, Quanxue Gao, Song XiaoAbstractIn real-world applications, the variation between multi-view data points, which should belong to the same cluster, is larger than the variation between data points belonging to different clusters. This results in instability of most existing clustering algorithms, because they mainly employ the original data as input to learn the latent similarity matrix. To address these problems, we propose a novel latent similarity learning for multi-view clustering(LSLMC) by integrating ma...
Source: Neurocomputing - November 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Annealed Gradient Descent for Deep Learning
We present a theoretical analysis on AGD’s convergence properties and learning speed, as well as use some visualization methods to show its advantages. The proposed AGD algorithm is applied to learn both deep neural networks (DNNs) and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for variety of tasks includes image recognition and speech recognition. Experimental results on several widely-used databases, such as Switchboard, CIFAR-10 and Pascal VOC 2012, show that AGD yields better classification accuracy than SGD, and obviously accelerates the training speed of DNNs and CNNs. (Source: Neurocomputing)
Source: Neurocomputing - November 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research