Big five, linguistic styles, and successful online learning
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: The Internet and Higher EducationAuthor(s): Jo Ann A. AbeAbstractWith the tremendous growth in online classes and programs at institutions of higher education, conflicting claims are increasingly being made on media and blog sites about the personality types that are compatible with this new learning format. The relations between the Five Factor Model of Personality (FFM) and linguistic styles with measures of academic performance in fully online asynchronous classes were examined. Consistent with findings based on research in face-to-face classes, Conscientiousness,...
Source: The Internet and Higher Education - January 9, 2020 Category: Information Technology Source Type: research

Social responsiveness and language use associated with an enhanced PRT approach for young children with ASD: Results from a pilot RCT of the PRISM model
ConclusionThis study provides preliminary evidence for the importance of using early intervention paradigms that explicitly target social motivation and responsiveness in young children with ASD. Results also suggest that initial social responsiveness to parents may serve as an important predictor of treatment response. (Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders)
Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders - January 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A case of takotsubo cardiomyopathy developing ventricular fibrillation after a pacemaker implantation
We report a case that developed potentially fatal complications after a pacemaker implantation. (Source: Journal of Cardiology Cases)
Source: Journal of Cardiology Cases - January 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Heart Failure Management Innovation Enabled by Electronic Health Records
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: JACC: Heart FailureAuthor(s): David P. Kao, Katy E. Trinkley, Chen-Tan LinAbstractPatients with congestive heart failure (CHF) require complex medical management across the continuum of care. Electronic health records (EHR) are currently used for traditional tasks of documentation, reviewing and managing test results, computerized order entry, and billing. Unfortunately many clinicians view EHR as merely digitized versions of paper charts, which create additional work and cognitive burden without improving quality or efficiency of care. In fact, EHR are revolutionizi...
Source: JACC: Heart Failure - January 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Impact of a neuroscience intervention (NeuroStratE) on the school performance of high school students: academic achievement, self-knowledge and autonomy through a metacognitive approach
This study showed no significant difference in school results between the two groups of students. However, the study shows the relevance of the program and students acquired knowledge about the brain's functioning. Moreover, this intervention highlights the evidence of the emergence in students of greater autonomy and better self-knowledge, both contributing to a feeling of self-efficacy, which is at the core of educational success. (Source: Trends in Neuroscience and Education)
Source: Trends in Neuroscience and Education - January 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Scientists learn how to increase corn crop yields
Shifting focus to growth instead of defense boosts crops More at This is a Research News item. (Source: NSF Discoveries)
Source: NSF Discoveries - January 9, 2020 Category: Science Source Type: research

The influence of early life experiences on English and Australian Super League coaches ’ learning
. (Source: Sport, Education and Society)
Source: Sport, Education and Society - January 9, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Pete Holmes Richard L. Light Andrew Sparkes Source Type: research

The contradictions within inclusion in Brazil
This article presents data from a formative intervention conducted with Brazilian regular school teachers to develop strategies for their work with students with disabilities. The analysis was oriented by two questions: 1) How did the concept of inclusion of children with disabilities evolve during the intervention? and 2) What contradictions related to inclusion were manifested in the teacher's discourse and how might these contradictions explain the evolution of the teachers' concepts? Answering the first question, data were organized in two categories: inclusion as learning and inclusion as fallacy, with a higher incide...
Source: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction - January 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

From “context” to “active contextualization”: Fostering learner agency in contextualizing learning through science news reporting
Publication date: March 2020Source: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, Volume 24Author(s): Engida H. Gebre, Joseph L. PolmanAbstractLearning context has been an important focus of research and pedagogy-related discussions in education. However, despite increasing efforts to contextualize content and pedagogical processes, context has been often conceptualized as a static input variable framed by teachers, textbooks and instructional designers, as opposed to the learners themselves. In this paper, we draw from our design-based research on STEM literacy and focus on the notion of active contextualization of students' ...
Source: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction - January 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

“Of course we have criteria” Assessment criteria as material semiotic means in face-to-face assessment interaction
This study addresses an underexplored aspect of the institutional use of assessment criteria and explores their function as communicative resources in assessment delivery. The study is based on a small corpus of video-recorded grade delivery meetings in Swedish higher education. Using interaction analysis, the study aimed to uncover how participants used an institutional criteria sheet as a means to support their collaborative communicative work of delivering and receiving a grade on student writing. Three main functions of the criteria sheet were determined. First, the list of criteria inscribed on the sheet provided stru...
Source: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction - January 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The most effective element in conceptualization is social interaction, not source or modality: A new model of the conceptual development in children
Publication date: March 2020Source: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, Volume 24Author(s): Tolga YıldızAbstractAre children's conceptualizations based on perceptual similarities or their learnings from others? The model proposed in this article, Setting up the Cage of Meaning (SCM), mainly defines conceptualization as the ability to organize mental representations through a series of top-down processes in social interaction. It also claims that conceptualization, in this way, reshapes our perceptual experiences. To test this model, a new block classification task was developed, which can be used with a tablet comp...
Source: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction - January 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

GSE142068 Predicting Human Clinical Outcomes using Mouse Multi-Organ Transcriptome
Contributors : Satoshi Kozawa ; Fumihiko Sagawa ; Satsuki Endo ; Glicia M Almeida ; Yuto Mitsuishi ; Thomas N SatoSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Mus musculusApproximately 90% of pre-clinically validated drugs fail in clinical trials due to unanticipated clinical outcomes, costing over several hundred million US dollars per drug. Despite such critical importance, translating pre-clinical data to clinical outcomes remain a major challenge. Herein, we designed a modality-independent and unbiased approach to predict clinical outcomes of drugs. The approach exploits their multi-organ ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - January 9, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Mus musculus Source Type: research

Why Residency Programs Should Not Ignore the Electronic Heath Record after Adoption.
Authors: Krawiec C Abstract During residency training, one of the tools residents learn to use is the electronic health record (EHR). The EHR contains up-to-date medical data that are crucial to the care of the patient; thus the provider must know what is pertinent, where to locate it, and how to efficiently document the data for ongoing communication of patient care. Because institutions may have different EHR vendors, EHR workflow study data are often obtained in single institutions, with a limited number of participants and specialties. Increasing our understanding of the subtleties of residents' EHR usage not o...
Source: Perspectives in Health Information Management - January 9, 2020 Category: Information Technology Tags: Perspect Health Inf Manag Source Type: research

Deep Reinforcement Learning for Six Degree-of-Freedom Planetary Landing
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Brian Gaudet, Richard Linares, Roberto FurfaroAbstractThis work develops a deep reinforcement learning based approach for Six Degree-of-Freedom (DOF) planetary powered descent and landing. Future Mars missions will require advanced guidance, navigation, and control algorithms for the powered descent phase to target specific surface locations and achieve pinpoint accuracy (landing error ellipse
Source: Advances in Space Research - January 9, 2020 Category: Science Source Type: research

Single-cell ATAC-Seq in human pancreatic islets and deep learning upscaling of rare cells reveals cell-specific type 2 diabetes regulatory signatures
ConclusionsCollectively, we identify the islet cell type of action across genetic signals of T2D predisposition and provide higher-resolution mechanistic insights into genetically encoded risk pathways. (Source: Molecular Metabolism)
Source: Molecular Metabolism - January 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Library and learning experiences turned mobile: A comparative study between LIS and non-LIS students
This study was set up to examine two groups of students (namely: LIS versus non-LIS students) at Peking University – their attitudes and level of activeness in adopting mobile technology in their daily life, as well as in their learning practices. Quantitative questionnaire survey was used for data collection, and a total number of 319 responses (i.e., LIS, 63 and non-LIS, 256) were collected from this study. Findings of this study reveal that no significant differences were found between the two student groups (LIS versus non-LIS) in many areas. In fact, both LIS and non-LIS student groups were using their smartphon...
Source: The Journal of Academic Librarianship - January 9, 2020 Category: Databases & Libraries Source Type: research

‘Optimising’ breastfeeding: what can we learn from evolutionary, comparative and anthropological aspects of lactation?
Promoting breastfeeding is an important public health intervention, with benefits for infants and mothers. Even modest increases in prevalence and duration may yield considerable economic savings. However, des... (Source: BMC Medicine)
Source: BMC Medicine - January 9, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Mary S. Fewtrell, Nurul H. Mohd Shukri and Jonathan C. K. Wells Tags: Opinion Source Type: research

A non-randomised trial of video and written educational adjuncts in undergraduate ophthalmology
Provision of relevant pre-learning materials has been shown to increase student engagement and improve outcomes in medical education. This non-randomised study attempts to quantify the educational gains, and r... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 9, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: H. D. Jeffry Hogg, Michael Pereira, Julian Purdy, Richard J. R. Frearson and Gordon B. Lau Tags: Research article Source Type: research

A novel de novo partial xq duplication in a girl with short stature, nonverbal learning disability and diminished ovarian reserve - effect of growth hormone treatment and fertility preservation strategies: a case report and up-to-date review
Xq duplication is a rare condition with a very variable phenotype, which could mimic other genetic syndromes involving the long arm of chromosome X. Sometimes short stature and diminished ovarian reserve (DOR)... (Source: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology - January 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Francesca Parissone, Mairi Pucci, Emanuela Meneghelli, Orsetta Zuffardi, Rossana Di Paola, Stefano Zaffagnini, Massimo Franchi, Elisabetta Santangelo, Gaetano Cantalupo, Paolo Cavarzere, Franco Antoniazzi, Giorgio Piacentini and Rossella Gaudino Tags: Case report Source Type: research

DeepECA: an end-to-end learning framework for protein contact prediction from a multiple sequence alignment
Recently developed methods of protein contact prediction, a crucially important step for protein structure prediction, depend heavily on deep neural networks (DNNs) and multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) of t... (Source: BMC Bioinformatics)
Source: BMC Bioinformatics - January 9, 2020 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Hiroyuki Fukuda and Kentaro Tomii Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Decision making in foraging bats.
Abstract Foraging is a complex and cognitively demanding behavior. Although it is often regarded as a mundane task, foraging requires the continuous weighting and integration of many sources of information with varying levels of credence. Bats are extremely diverse in their ecology and behavior, and thus demonstrate a wide variety of foraging strategies. In this review, we examine the different factors influencing the decision process of bats during foraging. Technological developments of recent years will soon enable real-time tracking of environmental conditions, of the position and quality of food items, the lo...
Source: Current Opinion in Neurobiology - January 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Prat Y, Yovel Y Tags: Curr Opin Neurobiol Source Type: research

Some Factors that Restore Goal-Direction to a Habitual Behavior.
Abstract Recent findings from our laboratory suggest that an extensively-practiced instrumental behavior can appear to be a goal-directed action (rather than a habit) when a second behavior is added and reinforced during intermixed final sessions (Shipman, Trask, Bouton, & Green, 2018). The present experiments were designed to explore and understand this finding. All used the taste aversion method of devaluing the reinforcer to distinguish between goal-directed actions and habits. Experiment 1 confirmed that reinforcing a second response in a separate context (but not mere exposure to that context) can return ...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Trask S, Shipman ML, Green JT, Bouton ME Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Unexpected food outcomes can return a habit to goal-directed action.
Abstract Three experiments examined the return of a habitual instrumental response to the status of goal-directed action. In all experiments, rats received extensive training in which lever pressing was reinforced with food pellets on a random-interval schedule of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, the extensively-trained response was not affected by conditioning a taste aversion to the reinforcer, and was therefore considered a habit. However, if the response had earned a new and unexpected food pellet during the final training session, the response was affected by taste aversion conditioning to the (first) reinforc...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Bouton ME, Broomer MC, Rey CN, Thrailkill EA Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Instrumental learning in a mouse model for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Impaired habit formation in Sapap3 mutants.
We report a diminished propensity to form habits in these mice, which albeit inconsistent with the predominant idea of excessive habit formation in OCD, nonetheless points at dysregulation of behavioral automation in the context of compulsivity. Thus, the habit hypothesis of compulsivity should be updated to state that an imbalance of habitual and goal-directed responding in either direction can contribute to the development of compulsive behavior. PMID: 31927083 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory)
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ehmer I, Feenstra M, Willuhn I, Denys D Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Motor learning and COMT Val158met polymorphism: analyses of oculomotor behavior and corticocortical communication.
, Menezes Lage G Abstract Differences in motor learning can be partially explained by differences in genotype. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism regulates the dopamine (DA) availability in the prefrontal cortex modulating motor learning and performance. Given the differences in tonic and phasic DA transmission, this study aimed to investigate whether the greater cognitive flexibility associated with the Val allele would favor the learning of movement parametrization, while the greater cognitive stability associated with the Met allele favors the acquisition of the movement pattern. Fur...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gardênia de Holanda Marinho Nogueira N, Marques de Miranda D, Rodrigues Albuquerque M, de Paula Ferreira B, Túlio Silva Batista M, Otoni Parma J, Apolinário-Souza T, Eduardo Antunes Bicalho L, Ugrinowitsch H, Menezes Lage G Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Sexual behavior in rodents: Where do we go from here?
Abstract Hormones and Behavior was first published 50 years ago including some articles related to the hormonal regulation of sexual behavior in different species. Since then, this research field has produced outstanding discoveries that have contributed to our understanding of the control of sexual behavior. The refinement of classical techniques and the development of new experimental tools has opened the door to a new era of research that will allow us to understand different aspects of sexual behavior. It would also expand the possible extrapolation from animal models to understand human sexuality and its dy...
Source: Hormones and Behavior - January 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ventura-Aquino E, Paredes RG Tags: Horm Behav Source Type: research

Predicting real-time traffic conflicts using deep learning.
Abstract Recently, technologies for predicting traffic conflicts in real-time have been gaining momentum due to their proactive nature of application and the growing implementation of ADAS technology in intelligent vehicles. In ADAS, machine learning classifiers are utilised to predict potential traffic conflicts by analysing data from in-vehicle sensors. In most cases, a condition is classified as a traffic conflict when a safety surrogate (e.g. time-to-collision, TTC) crosses a pre-defined threshold. This approach, however, largely ignores other factors that influence traffic conflicts such as speed variance, tr...
Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention. - January 9, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Formosa N, Quddus M, Ison S, Abdel-Aty M, Yuan J Tags: Accid Anal Prev Source Type: research

Effect of the Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Val66Met Polymorphism on Sensory-Motor Integration During a Complex Motor Learning Exercise.
In this study, we investigated the role of this polymorphism on SMI during a complex motor learning practice. Forty-three healthy participants performed standardized 5-day basketball shooting exercises under supervision. Electrophysiologic SMI studies were performed before the first day exercise (T0) and after the first and fifth day exercises (T1 and T2, respectively). SMI was studied using electrical median nerve stimulation at the wrist, followed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the contralateral motor cortex with various inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs). Recordings were made from the thenar and forearm flex...
Source: Brain Research - January 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Deveci SŞ, Matur Z, Kesim YY, Senturk Şentürk GG, Sargın-Kurt GG, Ugur Uğur SA, Oge Öge AE Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Genetically predicted gene expression of prefrontal DRD4 gene and the differential susceptibility to childhood emotional eating in response to positive environment.
ra PP Abstract Genetic differential susceptibility states that individuals may vary both by exhibiting poor responses when exposed to adverse environments, and disproportionally benefiting from positive settings. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) may be particularly implicated in these effects, including disturbed eating behaviors that might lead to obesity. Here, we explore differential susceptibility to positive environments according to the predicted genetically regulated gene expression of prefrontal cortex DRD4 gene. Using MAVAN as the discovery cohort (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopmen...
Source: Appetite - January 9, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Barth B, Bizarro L, Miguel PM, Dubé L, Levitan R, O'Donnell K, Meaney MJ, Silveira PP Tags: Appetite Source Type: research

Power of packaging: Evaluations of packaged fruits and vegetables by school-age children in the U.S.
This study examined how different types of packaging (i.e., healthy, fun, plain, unpackaged) of fruits and vegetables influence children's health and taste evaluations. Thirty children (Mage = 7.1 years, SD = 1.0) participated in a food rating task where they rated the health, taste, and their willingness to try 64 packaged fruits and vegetables (on a scale from 1 to 5). Children were influenced by aspects of the packaging; they rated healthy and fun packaging more favorably in most cases suggesting that children respond more positively to visually appealing packaging than to plain packaging. These results are cons...
Source: Appetite - January 9, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Dial LA, Musher-Eizenman DR Tags: Appetite Source Type: research

[Pathologist occupational hazards: Results of a survey for the French case].
CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed the interest of a medical surveillance adapted to the pathologies presented by the pathologists. Educational and preventive measures should be introduced early in the career, focusing on ergonomics and learning about chemical and biological hazards. PMID: 31928795 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annales de Pathologie)
Source: Annales de Pathologie - January 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Dervaux A, Vaysse B, Doutrellot-Philippon C, Couvreur V, Guilain N, Chatelain D Tags: Ann Pathol Source Type: research

Development and Implementation of the Integrative Toolbox for Headache Management.
Abstract Patients with migraine are interested in integrative therapies and overall wellness. They also suffer from social isolation as they try to manage a chronic medical condition. We implemented a three-part workshop structured as a group visit that teaches multiple integrative therapies from specialists and offers a chance for shared support and learning. PMID: 31919834 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Headache)
Source: Headache - January 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Beaton-Starr M, Rist PM, Connor JP, Wayne PM, Osypiuk K, Bernstein C Tags: Headache Source Type: research

[Brain imaging in schizophrenia : A  review of current trends and developments].
[Brain imaging in schizophrenia : A review of current trends and developments]. Nervenarzt. 2020 Jan 09;: Authors: Nenadić I Abstract Imaging methods have become the main approach for identifying dysfunctional neuronal networks in schizophrenia. This review article presents recent results of disorders of neuronal networks at structural and functional levels and summarizes the current developments. Large multicenter analyses have further established patterns of regional brain alterations, while novel methods in magnetic resonance (MR) morphometry have contributed to differentiating early from del...
Source: Der Nervenarzt - January 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Nenadić I Tags: Nervenarzt Source Type: research

Uniting generations: A research protocol examining the impacts of an intergenerational learning program on participants and organisations.
Abstract Economic, health and social issues associated with the ageing population and the disconnect between the generations call for novel approaches to care services. Intergenerational programs are known to enhance engagement between generations, improve health and well-being and create a stronger sense of community. While the health and social benefits are well documented, little attention has been given to the operational aspects of intergenerational programs within care facilities. This paper describes the research protocol used to develop, implement and evaluate an intergenerational learning program for pres...
Source: Australasian Journal on Ageing - January 9, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Golenko X, Radford K, Fitzgerald JA, Vecchio N, Cartmel J, Harris N Tags: Australas J Ageing Source Type: research

Old neurochemical markers, new functional directions?
This Editorial highlights a study of H örtnagl et al. that describes the post‐mortem distribution of neurochemical markers for dopamine and other neurotransmitters in precisely‐dissected sub‐regions of human caudate nucleus and putamen, presenting a new quantitative description of marker heterogeneity across striatal sub‐territ ories and providing evidence for a regional organization of dopaminergic metabolism. Correlation analyses of transmitter measurements between the tissue markers within sub‐regions indicates the potential for biochemical activity of dopaminergic neurons (blue) at terminals to be i...
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - January 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Philippe De Deurwaerdere, Silvana Gaetani, Roxanne A. Vaughan Tags: EDITORIAL HIGHLIGHT Source Type: research

Academic outcome in pediatric ischemic stroke.
Abstract An important cause of acquired brain injury in children, pediatric ischemic stroke can cause sequelae across a wide range of cognitive domains, including verbal reasoning and processing speed. As a result, survivors are especially vulnerable to academic difficulties and face unique challenges compared to their peers. Despite this knowledge, pediatric stroke remains an understudied neurological condition, and its impact on school functioning poorly understood. The present clinical study addressed academic outcome in this population using a multifaceted approach. Patients were recruited for participation fr...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - January 9, 2020 Category: Child Development Authors: Champigny CM, Deotto A, Westmacott R, Dlamini N, Desrocher M Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Are We meeting the Promise of Endotypes and Precision Medicine in Asthma.
Abstract While the term "asthma" has long been known to describe heterogeneous groupings of patients, only recently have data evolved which enable a molecular understanding of the clinical differences. The evolution of transcriptomics (and other 'omics platforms) and improved statistical analyses in combination with large clinical cohorts opened the door for molecular characterization of pathobiologic processes associated with a range of asthma patients. When linked with data from animal models and clinical trials of targeted biologic therapies emerging distinctions arose between patients with and withou...
Source: Physiological Reviews - January 9, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Ray A, Camiolo M, Fitzpatrick A, Gauthier M, Wenzel SE Tags: Physiol Rev Source Type: research

A computational model for spatial cognition combining dorsal and ventral hippocampal place field maps: multiscale navigation.
Abstract Classic studies have shown that place cells are organized along the dorsoventral axis of the hippocampus according to their field size, with dorsal hippocampal place cells having smaller field sizes than ventral place cells. Studies have also suggested that dorsal place cells are primarily involved in spatial navigation, while ventral place cells are primarily involved in context and emotional encoding. Additionally, recent work has shown that the entire longitudinal axis of the hippocampus may be involved in navigation. Based on the latter, in this paper we present a spatial cognition reinforcement learn...
Source: Biological Cybernetics - January 9, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Scleidorovich P, Llofriu M, Fellous JM, Weitzenfeld A Tags: Biol Cybern Source Type: research

Identifying Scoliosis in Population-Based Cohorts: Automation of a Validated Method Based on Total Body Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Scans
In conclusion, we have developed an accurate and valid automated method for identifying and quantifying spinal curvature from total body DXA scans. (Source: Calcified Tissue International)
Source: Calcified Tissue International - January 9, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Deep learning algorithm detection of Barrett ’s neoplasia with high accuracy during live endoscopic procedures: a pilot study (with video)
We assessed the preliminary diagnostic accuracy of a recently developed computer aided detection (CAD) system for detection of Barrett ’s neoplasia during live endoscopic procedures. (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - January 9, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Albert J. de Groof, Maarten R. Struyvenberg, Kiki N. Fockens, Joost van der Putten, Fons van der Sommen, Tim G. Boers, Sveta Zinger, Raf Bisschops, Peter H. de With, Roos E. Pouw, Wouter L. Curvers, Erik J. Schoon, Jacques J.G.H.M. Bergman Source Type: research

A condition-independent framework for the classification of error-related brain activity
In this study, we employed support vector machines (SVM) classification methods, based on waveform characteristics of ErrPs from different time windows, to detect correct and incorrect responses in an audio identification task with two conditions of different complexity. Since the performance of the classifiers usually depends on the salience of the features employed, a combination of the sequential forward floating feature selection (SFFS) and sequential forward feature selection (SFS) methods was implemented to detect condition-independent and condition-specific feature subsets. Our framework achieved high accuracy using...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - January 9, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Learning from animals: How to Navigate Complex Terrains
by Henghui Zhu, Hao Liu, Armin Ataei, Yonatan Munk, Thomas Daniel, Ioannis Ch. Paschalidis We develop a method to learn a bio-inspired motion control policy using data collected from hawkmoths navigating in a virtual forest. A Markov Decision Process (MDP) framework is introduced to model the dynamics of moths and sparse logistic regression is used to learn control policy parameters fro m the data. The results show that moths do not favor detailed obstacle location information in navigation, but rely heavily on optical flow. Using the policy learned from the moth data as a starting point, we propose an actor-critic learni...
Source: PLoS Computational Biology - January 9, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Henghui Zhu Source Type: research

Systems biology and big data in asthma and allergy: recent discoveries and emerging challenges
Asthma is a common condition caused by immune and respiratory dysfunction, and it is often linked to allergy. A systems perspective may prove helpful in unravelling the complexity of asthma and allergy. Our aim is to give an overview of systems biology approaches used in allergy and asthma research. Specifically, we describe recent "omic"-level findings, and examine how these findings have been systematically integrated to generate further insight. Current research suggests that allergy is driven by genetic and epigenetic factors, in concert with environmental factors such as microbiome and diet, leading to early...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 9, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tang, H. H. F., Sly, P. D., Holt, P. G., Holt, K. E., Inouye, M. Tags: Back to Basics Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 369: Knocking and Listening: Learning Mechanical Impulse Response for Understanding Surface Characteristics
Kim Inspired by spiders that can generate and sense vibrations to obtain information regarding a substrate, we propose an intelligent system that can recognize the type of surface being touched by knocking the surface and listening to the vibrations. Hence, we developed a system that is equipped with an electromagnetic hammer for hitting the ground and an accelerometer for measuring the mechanical responses induced by the impact. We investigate the feasibility of sensing 10 different daily surfaces through various machine-learning techniques including recent deep-learning approaches. Although some test surfaces are sim...
Source: Sensors - January 9, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Semin Ryu Seung-Chan Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Data-Mining Approach on Transcriptomics and Methylomics Placental Analysis Highlights Genes in Fetal Growth Restriction
Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) affects 8% of newborns and increases morbidity and mortality for the offspring even during later stages of life. Single omics studies have evidenced epigenetic, genetic, and metabolic alterations in IUGR, but pathogenic mechanisms as a whole are not being fully understood. An in-depth strategy combining methylomics and transcriptomics analyses was performed on 36 placenta samples in a case-control study. Data-mining algorithms were used to combine the analysis of more than 1,200 genes found to be significantly expressed and/or methylated. We used an automated text-mining approach, usi...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - January 9, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

GANsDTA: Predicting Drug-Target Binding Affinity Using GANs
The computational prediction of interactions between drugs and targets is a standing challenge in drug discovery. State-of-the-art methods for drug-target interaction prediction are primarily based on supervised machine learning with known label information. However, in biomedicine, obtaining labeled training data is an expensive and a laborious process. This paper proposes a semi-supervised generative adversarial networks (GANs)-based method to predict binding affinity. Our method comprises two parts, two GANs for feature extraction and a regression network for prediction. The semi-supervised mechanism allows our model to...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - January 9, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Neuronal population correlates of target selection and distractor filtering
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Elaine Astrand, Claire Wardak, Suliann Ben HamedAbstractFrontal Eye Field (FEF) neurons discriminate between relevant and irrelevant visual stimuli and their response magnitude predicts conscious perception. How this is reflected in the spatial representation of a visual stimulus at the neuronal population level is unknown. We recorded neuronal population activity in the FEF while monkeys were performing a forced choice cued detection task with identical target and distractor stimuli. We quantified, using machine learning techniques, estimates of...
Source: NeuroImage - January 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Clerkship students' use of a video library for training the mental status examination.
Conclusions: The medical students felt they benefited from the simplified learning situation offered by the video library. Their frequent shortcuts through the videos during sessions highlighted weaknesses in the feedback and reflection processes occasioned by the library. PMID: 31906771 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry)
Source: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry - January 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Nord J Psychiatry Source Type: research

Student–teacher relationship quality in children with and without ADHD: A cross-sectional community based study
This study investigated student–teacher relationship quality (STRQ) in grade one students with (n = 177) and without (n = 208) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We also examined whether a range of child and teacher factors were associated with STRQ. Children (M = 7.3 years; SD = 0.4) were recruited through 43 schools and screened for ADHD using parent and teacher screening questionnaires (Conners 3 ADHD index). ADHD cases were confirmed using the diagnostic interview schedule for children version IV. STRQ was rated by teachers using the student–teacher relationship scale — s...
Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly - January 8, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

An effective approach for CT lung segmentation using mask region-based convolutional neural networks
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Artificial Intelligence in MedicineAuthor(s): Qinhua Hu, Luís Fabrício de F. Souza, Gabriel Bandeira Holanda, Shara S.A. Alves, Francisco Hércules dos S. Silva, Tao Han, Pedro P. Rebouças FilhoAbstractComputer vision systems have numerous tools to assist in various medical fields, notably in image diagnosis. Computed tomography (CT) is the principal imaging method used to assist in the diagnosis of diseases such as bone fractures, lung cancer, heart disease, and emphysema, among others. Lung cancer is one of the four main causes of death i...
Source: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine - January 8, 2020 Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research