Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 4349: LdsConv: Learned Depthwise Separable Convolutions by Group Pruning
ong Zhang Standard convolutional filters usually capture unnecessary overlap of features resulting in a waste of computational cost. In this paper, we aim to solve this problem by proposing a novel Learned Depthwise Separable Convolution (LdsConv) operation that is smart but has a strong capacity for learning. It integrates the pruning technique into the design of convolutional filters, formulated as a generic convolutional unit that can be used as a direct replacement of convolutions without any adjustments of the architecture. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, experiments are carried out using the sta...
Source: Sensors - August 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wenxiang Lin Yan Ding Hua-Liang Wei Xinglin Pan Yutong Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 4345: Estimating Vertical Ground Reaction Force during Walking Using a Single Inertial Sensor
rlo Menon The vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and its passive and active peaks are important gait parameters and of great relevance for musculoskeletal injury analysis and prevention, the detection of gait abnormities, and the evaluation of lower-extremity prostheses. Most currently available methods to estimate the vGRF require a force plate. However, in real-world scenarios, gait monitoring would not be limited to a laboratory setting. This paper reports a novel solution using machine learning algorithms to estimate the vGRF and the timing and magnitude of its peaks from data collected by a single inertial meas...
Source: Sensors - August 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xianta Jiang Christopher Napier Brett Hannigan Janice J. Eng Carlo Menon Tags: Article Source Type: research

Short neuropeptide F signaling regulates functioning of male reproductive system in Tenebrio molitor beetle
AbstractNeuropeptides of short neuropeptides F family (sNPF) have been identified in various arthropods. They are pleiotropic neuromolecules which so far have been mainly associated with regulation of feeding and metabolism, as well as growth and development, locomotion, circadian rhythm or learning and memory. Here, we describe the effects of Tenebrionid sNPF peptide (SGRSPSLRLRFa) on various aspects of the male reproductive physiology in theTenebrio molitor beetle. We identified in silico the putative sNPF receptor Tenmo-sNPFR. Based on RT-PCR technique, it was shown that the receptor might be present in the male reprodu...
Source: Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology - August 4, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A mechanism-aware and multiomic machine-learning pipeline characterizes yeast cell growth [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Metabolic modeling and machine learning are key components in the emerging next generation of systems and synthetic biology tools, targeting the genotype–phenotype–environment relationship. Rather than being used in isolation, it is becoming clear that their value is maximized when they are combined. However, the potential of integrating these two frameworks... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 4, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Christopher Culley, Supreeta Vijayakumar, Guido Zampieri, Claudio Angione Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Machine learning classification can reduce false positives in structure-based virtual screening [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
With the recent explosion in the size of libraries available for screening, virtual screening is positioned to assume a more prominent role in early drug discovery’s search for active chemical matter. In typical virtual screens, however, only about 12% of the top-scoring compounds actually show activity when tested in biochemical... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 4, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Yusuf O. Adeshina, Eric J. Deeds, John Karanicolas Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Predicting the long-term stability of compact multiplanet systems [Astronomy]
We combine analytical understanding of resonant dynamics in two-planet systems with machine-learning techniques to train a model capable of robustly classifying stability in compact multiplanet systems over long timescales of 109 orbits. Our Stability of Planetary Orbital Configurations Klassifier (SPOCK) predicts stability using physically motivated summary statistics measured in integrations... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 4, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Daniel Tamayo, Miles Cranmer, Samuel Hadden, Hanno Rein, Peter Battaglia, Alysa Obertas, Philip J. Armitage, Shirley Ho, David N. Spergel, Christian Gilbertson, Naireen Hussain, Ari Silburt, Daniel Jontof-Hutter, Kristen Menou Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Automated detection of archaeological mounds using machine-learning classification of multisensor and multitemporal satellite data [Anthropology]
This paper presents an innovative multisensor, multitemporal machine-learning approach using remote sensing big data for the detection of archaeological mounds in Cholistan (Pakistan). The Cholistan Desert presents one of the largest concentrations of Indus Civilization sites (from ca. 3300 to 1500 BC). Cholistan has figured prominently in theories about changes... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 4, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hector A. Orengo, Francesc C. Conesa, Arnau Garcia–Molsosa, Agustin Lobo, Adam S. Green, Marco Madella, Cameron A. Petrie Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 5618: Effectiveness of Using Voice Assistants in Learning: A Study at the Time of COVID-19
chez Javier Ochoa-Orihuel The use of advanced learning technologies in a learning management system (LMS) can greatly assist learning processes, especially when used in university environments, as they promote the development of Self-Regulated learning, which increases academic performance and student satisfaction towards personal learning. One of the most innovative resources that an LMS may have is an Intelligent Personal Assistant (IPA). We worked with a sample of 109 third-grade students following Health Sciences degrees. The aims were: (1) to verify whether there will be significant differences in student access...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - August 4, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Mar ía Consuelo Sáiz-Manzanares Ra úl Marticorena-Sánchez Javier Ochoa-Orihuel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Effect of Pause Procedures on Participant Reflection and Commitment-to-Change in Continuing Medical Education
. (Source: Teaching and Learning in Medicine)
Source: Teaching and Learning in Medicine - August 4, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: John T. Ratelle Christopher M. Wittich Roger C. Yu James S. Newman Sarah M. Jenkins Thomas J. Beckman Source Type: research

Learning curve in robotic colorectal surgery
AbstractWith the rapid adoption of robotics in colorectal surgery, there has been growing interest in the pace at which surgeons gain competency, as it may aid in self-assessment or credentialing. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the learning curve of an expert laparoscopic colorectal surgeon who performed a variety of colorectal procedures robotically. This is a retrospective review of a prospective database of 111 subsequent colorectal procedures performed by a single colorectal surgeon. The cumulative summation technique (CUSUM) was used to construct a learning curve for robotic proficiency by analyzing total operative ...
Source: Journal of Robotic Surgery - August 4, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Psychometric and Machine Learning Approaches to Reduce the Length of Scales
. (Source: Multivariate Behavioral Research)
Source: Multivariate Behavioral Research - August 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Oscar Gonzalez Source Type: research

Can machine learning radiomics provide pre-operative differentiation of combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma from hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma to inform optimal treatment planning?
ConclusionsOur results demonstrate promising predictive performance of MRI and CT radiomics features using machine learning analysis for differentiation of cHCC-CC from HCC and CC with potential implications for treatment decisions.Key Points• Retrospective study demonstrated promising predictive performance of MRI radiomics features in the differentiation of cHCC-CC from HCC and CC and of CT radiomics features in the differentiation of HCC from cHCC-CC and CC.• With future validation, radiomics analysis has the potential to inform current clinical practice for the pre-operative diagnosis of cHCC-CC and to enable...
Source: European Radiology - August 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Review of surgical techniques and guide for decision making in the treatment of benign parotid tumors
ConclusionSurgeons nowadays have many options to choose from for benign parotid surgery. ECD is one of the many surgical techniques available in parotid surgery and can achieve excellent results with proper training and if used for proper indications. PSP is mainly indicated in large tumors of the caudal part of the PG (ESGS level II). SP represents a universal solution in parotid surgery and should be the first technique young surgeons learn. TP has only few but important indications in benign parotid surgery. Surgeons need to carefully consider the patient and his/her preoperative imaging as well as her or his own specia...
Source: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - August 4, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Diabetic retinopathy screening in urban primary care setting with a handheld smartphone-based retinal camera
ConclusionsA low-cost DR screening strategy with a handheld device and telemedicine is feasible and has the potential to increase coverage of DR screening in underserved areas; the possibility of mobile units is relevant for DR screening in the context of COVID-19 pandemic.Graphic abstractDaily rate of patients whose examinations allowed clinical decision.X-axis: day of examination;Y-axis: rate (%) of patients whose examinations allowed a clinical decision (Source: Acta Diabetologica)
Source: Acta Diabetologica - August 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Microbiome Composition of a Man's Penis Predicts Incident Bacterial Vaginosis in His Female Sex Partner With High Accuracy
Conclusions: Baseline penile microbiota accurately predicted BV incidence in women who did not have BV at baseline, with more than half of incident infections observed at 6- to 12- months after penile microbiome assessment. These results suggest interventions to manipulate the penile microbiome may reduce BV incidence in sex partners, and that potential treatment (antibiotic or live biotherapeutic) will need to be effective in reducing or altering bacteria at both the glans/coronal sulcus and urethral sites (as represented by the meatus). The temporal association clarifies that concordance of penile microbiome with the vag...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Utilising Patient and Public Involvement in Stated Preference Research in Health: Learning from the Existing Literature and a Case Study
AbstractPublications reporting discrete choice experiments of healthcare interventions rarely discuss whether patient and public involvement (PPI) activities have been conducted. This paper presents examples from the existing literature and a detailed case study from the National Institute for Health Research-funded PATHWAY programme that comprehensively included PPI activities at multiple stages of preference research. Reflecting on these examples, as well as the wider PPI literature, we describe the different stages at which it is possible to effectively incorporate PPI across preference research, including the design, r...
Source: The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research - August 4, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 4332: Distribution Transformer Parameters Detection Based on Low-Frequency Noise, Machine Learning Methods, and Evolutionary Algorithm
czar The paper proposes a method of automatic detection of parameters of a distribution transformer (model, type, and power) from a distance, based on its low-frequency noise spectra. The spectra are registered by sensors and processed by a method based on evolutionary algorithms and machine learning. The method, as input data, uses the frequency spectra of sound pressure levels generated during operation by transformers in the real environment. The model also uses the background characteristic to take under consideration the changing working conditions of the transformers. The method searches for frequency intervals a...
Source: Sensors - August 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Daniel Jancarczyk Marcin Berna ś Tomasz Boczar Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 4333: Iterative Learning Control for a Soft Exoskeleton with Hip and Knee Joint Assistance
ao Xinyu Wu Walking on different terrains leads to different biomechanics, which motivates the development of exoskeletons for assisting on walking according to the type of a terrain. The design of a lightweight soft exoskeleton that simultaneously assists multiple joints in the lower limb is presented in this paper. It is used to assist both hip and knee joints in a single system, the assistance force is directly applied to the hip joint flexion and the knee joint extension, while indirectly to the hip extension also. Based on the biological torque of human walking at three different slopes, a novel strategy is deve...
Source: Sensors - August 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chunjie Chen Yu Zhang Yanjie Li Zhuo Wang Yida Liu Wujing Cao Xinyu Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

A comprehensive hierarchical classification based on multi-features of breast DCE-MRI for cancer diagnosis
AbstractComputer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is widely used for early diagnosis of breast cancer. The commonly used morphological feature (MF), dynamic feature (DF), and texture feature (TF) from breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) have been proved very valuable and are studied in this paper. However, previous studies ignored the prior knowledge that most of the benign lesions have clearer and smoother edges than malignant ones. Therefore, two new TFs are proposed. To obtain an optimal feature subset and an accurate classification result, feature selection is applied in this paper. Moreover, mos...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - August 4, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Data-Driven Discovery of Predictors of Virtual Reality Safety and Sense of Presence for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study
Virtual reality (VR) offers children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) an inexpensive and motivating medium to learn and practice skills in a personalized, controlled, and safe setting; however, outcomes of VR interventions can vary widely. In particular, there is a need to understand the predictors of VR experience in children with ASD to inform the design of these interventions. To address this gap, a sample of children with ASD (n=35, mean age: 13.0 ± 2.6 years; 10 female) participated in a pilot study involving an immersive VR experience delivered through a head-mounted display. A data-driven approach was used...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - August 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Promoting Learning from Null or Negative Results in Prevention Science Trials
AbstractThere can be a tendency for investigators to disregard or explain away null or negative results in prevention science trials. Examples include not publicizing findings, conducting spurious subgroup analyses, or attributing the outcome post hoc to real or perceived weaknesses in trial design or intervention implementation. This is unhelpful for several reasons, not least that it skews the evidence base, contributes to research “waste”, undermines respect for science, and stifles creativity in intervention development. In this paper, we identify possible policy and practice responses when interventions ha...
Source: Prevention Science - August 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Exploring characteristics of quality in language teaching & learning: The Mother Tongue Adapted Coding Scheme (MACS)
Publication date: 4th Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 53Author(s): Beth O’Brien, Nurul Taqiah Yussof, Poorani Vijayakumar, Malikka Begum Habib Mohamed, Xuan En Rachel Leong (Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly)
Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly - August 3, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Primary Healthcare Practice Learning Environment: A description of students’ perspectives
Publication date: Available online 2 August 2020Source: International Journal of Africa Nursing SciencesAuthor(s): Soyi Joyce Mosia, Annemarie Joubert (Source: International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences)
Source: International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences - August 3, 2020 Category: African Health Source Type: research

Graph Convolutional Neural Networks with Global Attention for Improved Materials Property Prediction
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2020, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/D0CP01474E, PaperSteph-Yves M Louis, Yong Zhao, Alirezaq Nasiri, Xiran Wang, Yuqi Song, Fei Liu, Jianjun Hu One of the major design issues in machine learning (ML) models for materials property prediction(MPP) is how to enable the models to learn property related physicochemical features. While many composition... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. latest articles)
Source: RSC - Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. latest articles - August 3, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Steph-Yves M Louis Source Type: research

Category similarity affects study choices in self-regulated learning.
Authors: Lu X, Penney TB, Kang SHK Abstract During learning, interleaving exemplars from different categories (e.g., ABCBCACAB) rather than blocking by category (e.g., AAABBBCCC) often enhances inductive learning, especially when the categories are highly similar. However, when allowed to select their own study schedules, learners overwhelmingly tend to block rather than interleave. Category similarity has been shown to moderate the relative benefit of interleaved versus blocked study. We investigated whether learners were sensitive to category similarity when choosing exemplars for study, and whether these choices...
Source: Memory and Cognition - August 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

CTumorGAN: a unified framework for automatic computed tomography tumor segmentation
ConclusionIn order to overcome those key challenges arising from CT datasets and solve some of the main problems existing in the current deep learning-based methods, we propose a novel unified CTumorGAN framework, which can be effectively generalized to address any kinds of tumor datasets with superior performance. (Source: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging)
Source: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging - August 3, 2020 Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research

A metastatic tumor is no different to a viral pandemic: lessons learnt from COVID-19 may teach us to change the PRRT paradigm
(Source: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging)
Source: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging - August 3, 2020 Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research

Correction to: Staging and quantification of florbetaben PET images using machine learning: impact of predicted regional cortical tracer uptake and amyloid stage on clinical outcomes
Incorrect acknowledgments. (Source: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging)
Source: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging - August 3, 2020 Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research

Weakly Supervised Vessel Segmentation in X-ray Angiograms by Self-Paced Learning from Noisy Labels with Suggestive Annotation
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2020Source: NeurocomputingAuthor(s): Jingyang Zhang, Guotai Wang, Hongzhi Xie, Shuyang Zhang, Ning Huang, Shaoting Zhang, Lixu Gu (Source: Neurocomputing)
Source: Neurocomputing - August 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A novel approach for classification of mental tasks using multiview ensemble learning (MEL)
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2020Source: NeurocomputingAuthor(s): A. Gupta, R.U. Khan, V.K. Singh, M. Tanveer, D. Kumar, A. Chakraborti, R.B. Pachori (Source: Neurocomputing)
Source: Neurocomputing - August 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

[ASAP] Converting an Environmental Sampling Methods Lecture/Laboratory Course into an Inquiry-Based Laboratory Experience during the Transition to Distance Learning
Journal of Chemical EducationDOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.0c00591 (Source: Journal of Chemical Education)
Source: Journal of Chemical Education - August 3, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Jaime E. Mirowsky* Source Type: research

[ASAP] Attempts, Successes, and Failures of Distance Learning in the Time of COVID-19
Journal of Chemical EducationDOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.0c00717 (Source: Journal of Chemical Education)
Source: Journal of Chemical Education - August 3, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Nicolas Dietrich* †, Kalyani Kentheswaran†‡, Aras Ahmadi†, Johanne Teychene´†, Yolaine Bessie`re†, Sandrine Alfenore†, Ste´phanie Laborie†, Dominique Bastoul†, Karine Loubie`re‡, Christelle Guigui†, Mathieu Sperandio†, Ligia Barn Source Type: research

[ASAP] Learning Coarse-Grained Potentials for Binary Fluids
Journal of Chemical Information and ModelingDOI: 10.1021/acs.jcim.0c00337 (Source: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling)
Source: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling - August 3, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Peiyuan Gao* †, Xiu Yang‡, and Alexandre M. Tartakovsky*† Source Type: research

[ASAP] Long-Lived Hot Electron in a Metallic Particle for Plasmonics and Catalysis: < italic toggle="yes" > Ab Initio < /italic > Nonadiabatic Molecular Dynamics with Machine Learning
ACS NanoDOI: 10.1021/acsnano.0c04736 (Source: ACS Nano)
Source: ACS Nano - August 3, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Weibin Chu †, Wissam A. Saidi*‡, and Oleg V. Prezhdo*† Source Type: research

Deep learning to find colorectal polyps in colonoscopy: a systematic literature review
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2020Source: Artificial Intelligence in MedicineAuthor(s): Luisa F. Sánchez-Peralta, Luis Bote-Curiel, Artzai Picón, Francisco M. Sánchez-Margallo, J. Blas Pagador (Source: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine)
Source: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine - August 3, 2020 Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research

Mindfulness and Creativity: Implications for Thinking and Learning
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2020Source: Thinking Skills and CreativityAuthor(s): Danah Henriksen, Carmen Richardson, Kyle Shack (Source: Thinking Skills and Creativity)
Source: Thinking Skills and Creativity - August 3, 2020 Category: Science Source Type: research

Communities of practice in Alberta Health Services: advancing a learning organisation
In 2009, Alberta Health Services (AHS) became Canada ’s first and largest fully integrated healthcare system, involving the amalgamation of nine regional health authorities and three provincial services. Within... (Source: Health Research Policy and Systems)
Source: Health Research Policy and Systems - August 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Anna M. Auer, Patricia Hanson, Barbara Brady-Fryer, Julie Alati-it and Allison L. Johnson Tags: Research Source Type: research

Knowledge-primed neural networks enable biologically interpretable deep learning on single-cell sequencing data
Deep learning has emerged as a versatile approach for predicting complex biological phenomena. However, its utility for biological discovery has so far been limited, given that generic deep neural networks pro... (Source: Genome Biology)
Source: Genome Biology - August 3, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Nikolaus Fortelny and Christoph Bock Tags: Research Source Type: research

Learning from the Decrease in US Emergency Department Visits in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic
Anyone who has been near an emergency department (ED) in the US since the middle of March 2020 knows that the census decreased precipitously as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic intensified. Pundits in the medical and mass media have speculated on where ED patients, especially those with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions, acute strokes, and other serious conditions, had gone. In this issue, Jeffery et al carefully document that in the period preceding the influx of patients with COVID-19, the census of 24 EDs in a 5-state sample decreased between 42% and 64%; with the exception of Mount Sinai Healt...
Source: JAMA Internal Medicine - August 3, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Cell-free supernatant of Streptococcus salivarius M18 impairs the pathogenic properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia.
ccedil;am S Abstract M18 strain of Streptococcus salivarius is a bacterial replacement probiotic that has been suggested for use in the oral cavity. Here, we have shown that S. salivarius M18 cell-free supernatant reduced the growth of the two most common human pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia and sensitized the pathogenic bacteria to antibiotic. Besides, the supernatant inhibited biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa drastically. For pinpointing the biomolecular changes that occurred in P. aeruginosa incubated with the probiotic supernatant, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform inf...
Source: Archives of Microbiology - August 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tunçer S, Karaçam S Tags: Arch Microbiol Source Type: research

Model-based decision making and model-free learning.
Abstract Free will is anything but free. With it comes the onus of choice: not only what to do, but which inner voice to listen to - our 'automatic' response system, which some consider 'impulsive' or 'irrational', or our supposedly more rational deliberative one. Rather than a devil and angel sitting on our shoulders, research suggests that we have two decision-making systems residing in the brain, in our basal ganglia. Neither system is the devil and neither is irrational. They both have our best interests at heart and aim to suggest the best course of action calculated through rational algorithms. However, the ...
Source: Current Biology - August 3, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Drummond N, Niv Y Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Chronic pain produces hypervigilance to predator odor in mice.
Abstract The adaptive significance of acute pain (to withdraw from tissue-damaging or potentially tissue-damaging external stimuli, and to enhance the salience of the stimulus resulting in escape and avoidance learning) and tonic pain (to enforce recuperation by punishing movement) are well-accepted [1]. Pain researchers, however, generally assert that chronic pain has no adaptive significance, representing instead a pathophysiological state. This belief was recently challenged by the observation [2] that nociceptive sensitization caused by a chronic pain-producing injury reduced predation risk in squid (Doryteuth...
Source: Current Biology - August 3, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Lister KC, Bouchard SM, Markova T, Aternali A, Denecli P, Pimentel SD, Majeed M, Austin JS, de C Williams AC, Mogil JS Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Perceptual Expertise: How Is It Achieved?
Abstract Humans are perceptual experts and we are constantly refining how we detect and discriminate objects in the world around us, often without any explicit instruction. But instruction can be helpful and sometimes even necessary. New research highlights the importance of instruction for achieving robust long-term retention of learning to identify complex features in natural images such as those used in radiology. PMID: 32750346 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - August 3, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Seitz AR Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Animal Behavior: Socially Distanced Wasps Learn About Rivals.
Abstract Tracking the outcomes of third-party social interactions is a vital social skill but thought to be cognitively complicated. Paper wasps can learn about others' fighting abilities from observation, suggesting surprisingly complex understanding of social networks in a miniature brain. PMID: 32750347 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - August 3, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Sheehan MJ, Goldberg J Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

The transformative effects of a participatory social empowerment intervention in the MAISHA intimate partner violence trial in Tanzania.
Abstract Intimate partner violence is an important public health problem, with far-reaching consequences for women's physical and emotional health and social well-being. There is evidence that intimate partner violence is preventable. The MAISHA study, a randomised controlled trial of the impact of a gender training intervention on intimate partner violence for women in Tanzania, found that those who participated in gender training were less likely to report past-year physical violence. As part of the study, a sample of women participated in longitudinal qualitative enquiry. To better understand the processes of c...
Source: Culture, Health and Sexuality - August 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Lees S, Marchant M, Selestine V, Mshana G, Kapiga S, Harvey S Tags: Cult Health Sex Source Type: research

Developing critical thinking in STEM education through inquiry-based writing in the laboratory classroom.
Abstract Laboratory pedagogy is moving away from step-by-step instructions and toward inquiry-based learning, but only now developing methods for integrating inquiry-based writing (IBW) practices into the laboratory course. Based on an earlier proposal (Science 2011;332:919), we designed and implemented an IBW sequence in a university bioinformatics course. We automatically generated unique, double-blinded, biologically plausible DNA sequences for each student. After guided instruction, students investigated sequences independently and responded through IBW writing assignments. IBW assignments were structured as c...
Source: Genomics Proteomics ... - August 3, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jeon AJ, Kellogg D, Khan MA, Tucker-Kellogg G Tags: Biochem Mol Biol Educ Source Type: research

Deep learning-based classification of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression following trauma utilizing visual and auditory markers of arousal and mood.
CONCLUSIONS: Direct clinical observation during post-trauma free speech using deep learning identifies digital markers that can be utilized to classify MDD and PTSD status. PMID: 32744201 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - August 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Schultebraucks K, Yadav V, Shalev AY, Bonanno GA, Galatzer-Levy IR Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Neurophysiologic evidence for increased retrieval suppression among negative ruminators
ConclusionThe results suggest early separation of emotional and strategic control of retrieval, but later combined control over access to working memory. Moreover, the positive correlation of brooding and the LC suggest that individuals who are high in application of perseverative strategies to memory retrieval will show greater modulation of the retrieval ‐related LC ERP. (Source: Brain and Behavior)
Source: Brain and Behavior - August 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Aarti Nair, Joshua C. Eyer, Mark E. Faust Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research

Neural production of kynurenic acid in Caenorhabditis elegans requires the AAT-1 transporter [Research Communications]
Kynurenic acid (KynA) levels link peripheral metabolic status to neural functions including learning and memory. Since neural KynA levels dampen learning capacity, KynA reduction has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for conditions of cognitive deficit such as neurodegeneration. While KynA is generated locally within the nervous system, its precursor, kynurenine (Kyn), is largely derived from peripheral resources. The mechanisms that import Kyn into the nervous system are poorly understood. Here, we provide genetic, anatomical, biochemical, and behavioral evidence showing that in C. elegans an ortholog of the human L...
Source: Genes and Development - August 3, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lin, L., Lemieux, G. A., Enogieru, O. J., Giacomini, K. M., Ashrafi, K. Tags: Research Communications Source Type: research

An approach to economic evaluation in undergraduate anatomy education
AbstractMedical education research is becoming increasingly concerned with the value (defined as ‘educational outcomes per dollar spent’) of different teaching approaches. However, the financial costs of various approaches to teaching anatomy are under‐researched, making evidence‐based comparisons of the value of different teaching approaches impossible. Therefore, the aims of this stud y were to report the cost of six popular anatomy teaching methods through a specific, yet generalizable approach, and to demonstrate a process in which these results can be used in conjunction with existing effectiveness dat...
Source: Anatomical Sciences Education - August 3, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Samuel D. Chumbley, Vikram S. Devaraj, Karen Mattick Tags: RESEARCH REPORT Source Type: research