Aerosol particles with NaCl-inlay in coastal haze-fog episodes
AbstractThe NaCl-containing aerosol particles (NaCl-containing APs) are trapped in the coastal atmosphere, in which sodium chloride and other salt compounds, such as calcium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, form a core –shell composite structure. The excessive anthropogenic emissions of pollutants, such as SO2, NOx, NH3, and construction dust, as well as salt spray, provide the material supply, and the low wind speed, humid, and hot weather environment creates incubators for these indigenous NaCl-containing APs. They are easy to form in coastal haze-fog episodes, even accounting for about 45% of all haze APs. A homemade...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 26, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Outdoor and indoor concentrations of size-resolved particulate matter during a wildfire episode in interior Alaska and the impact of ventilation
AbstractResidential areas are being increasingly impacted by wildfire smoke that causes hazardous local ambient air quality conditions. Poor outdoor air quality also exacerbates the quality of indoor air as smoke particles penetrate the building envelope or the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) filtration systems. In this work, we investigate the impact of wildfire-affected poor ambient air quality on indoor air particulate matter during a wildfire episode in June 2015 in interior Alaska. We measured size-resolved (0.3 –10 μm) particle number counts (PNC; numbers/cm3) and calculated particle m...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 20, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Variation in the concentrations of atmospheric PM2.5 and its main chemical components in an eastern China city (Hangzhou) since the release of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013
AbstractPM2.5 samples were collected in Hangzhou, eastern China, during the winter and summer of 2016 and 2018. Concentrations of water-soluble ions, elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 were determined. By comparing these data with previous observations, we analyzed the concentrations, variational trends, and main sources of PM2.5 and its dominant chemical components in Hangzhou since the implementation of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan. The results indicate that the concentrations of PM2.5 and its main components have shown a declining trend since 2013, which exemplifies the signi...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 20, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Differential toxicological effects of natural and synthetic sources and enantiomeric forms of limonene on mosquito larvae
In this study, we investigated the mortality rate of mosquito larvae in response to changes in their environment. Specifically, we tested different sources of naturally occurring R-limonene and chemically synthetized limonene, containing one of its enantiomeric forms (R-, S-) in mortality bioassays withAedes aegypti mosquito larvae. We found that a natural source of limonene extracted from oranges induced lower mortality of mosquito larvae compared to synthetic sources at the same concentration. However, enantiomeric forms did not differ in their effects on mortality. Our results provide novel evidence that natural sources...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 20, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The effects of air pollution and precipitation on outpatient visits for primary glaucoma: a multi-model time series analysis
AbstractThe purpose was to explore the correlation of air pollutants and meteorological factors with primary glaucoma. Outpatient information and data on air pollutants and meteorological factors were collected from 2017 to 2019. A generalized linear model (GLM) was used to construct single-pollutant models and multiple-pollutant models to analyse the correlations among primary glaucoma visits, air pollutants and meteorological factors in Shenyang. Air pollution had a significant impact on the number of outpatient visits for primary glaucoma in Shenyang. In single-pollutant models and under optimal lag-day conditions, each...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 16, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The short-term association between air pollution and asthma hospitalization: a time-series analysis
This study was performed from March 2014 to February 2019 in Hamadan, Iran. A generalized linear model (GLM) and distributed lag model (DLM) with the family of Poisson distribution were used to investigate the asthma hospitalization associated with air pollution. The seasonal effect of air pollution was considered in data analysis. Results showed that during the study period, 671 people were hospitalized. The mean (SD) values for AQI, AQHI, and PM2.5 levels were 70.66 (37.77), 3.58 (2.22), and 38.59 (17.43), respectively. The highest adverse effects on asthma hospitalization were observed for AQHI at lag 1 (RR  =&th...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 15, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Do rail transits improve local air quality? Take Chengdu-Nanchang for example
AbstractMany cities in China have invested in the city ’s rail transit system to reduce urban air pollution and traffic congestion. Earlier studies rarely compare the effects of rail transit on urban air quality in different cities, providing little guidance to urban planners in solving traffic congestion and air quality. Due to the same opening date, we regard Chengdu Metro Line 4 and Nanchang Metro Line 1 as case studies. This paper attempts to examine the effects of the opening of rail transit on local air quality on the same opening date. Data were collected from 17 monitoring stations distributed along the chose...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 15, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Impacts of specific street geometry on airflow and traffic pollutant dispersion inside a street canyon
This study will provide technical support for urban street planning and design to alleviate traffic pollution. (Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health)
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 8, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Insight into the environmental monitoring and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in various functional areas
In this study, VOCs at sites from three typical functional areas in Hefei, China, were monitored using GC –MS/FID. The VOCs in ambient air from different functional areas showed significantly different characteristics. The highest concentrations and the biggest diurnal difference of VOCs were found in the High-tech Zone (industrial area) with serried emission sources. Additionally, lower VOC concentra tion was observed in Changjiang West Road, the center area of studied city. The VOC concentration in this area is strongly related to other pollutants. The composition of VOCs at all sampling sites showed certain common...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 6, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Investigation of sources and processes influencing variation of PM2.5 and its chemical compositions during a summer period of 2020 in an urban area of Hanoi city, Vietnam
This study investigated the concentration level of PM2.5 and its chemical compositions measured in an urban area in Hanoi city, Vietnam, during July 2020. The average value of daily PM2.5 concentrations measured for the whole sampling period was slightly lower than the national standard for ambient air quality. However, there were the polluted days when PM2.5 daily concentrations exceeded the national standard in which the average concentration level was 1.82 times higher than that for the non-polluted days when PM2.5 daily concentration was below the national standard. The organic matter (OM) (including OC) and anthropoge...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 29, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Estimating concentrations for particle and gases in a mechanically ventilated building in Hong Kong: multivariate method and machine learning
In this study, a field campaign was conducted to measure indoor concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NO2 in a mechanically ventilated building. Statistical method using multivariate linear regression (MLR) and machine learning using random forest (RF) were used and compared to quantify variations in observed concentrations and were then used to predict indoor concentrations for selected pollutants. The two methods were consistent in identifying major predictors for each pollutant. Outdoor particles were the single largest predictors found for PM1 and PM2.5, while indoor environment and occupant-related variables wer...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 29, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effect of COVID-19 lockdown on regional pollution in Ireland
This study examines the regional impact of the COVID-19 lockdown restrictions on pollution in Ireland by comparing the 2020 measurements of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter (PM) from monitoring stations around the country to the previous 3-year average. Results indicate that O3 was 5.6% lower and 13.7% higher than previous years during the lockdown at rural and suburban sites, respectively. NO2 decreased by 50.7% in urban areas, but increased slightly in agricultural regions, consistent with satellite observations. PM concentrations did not change significantly compared to previous years; however,...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 28, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Atmospheric levels, multivariate statistical study, and health risk assessment of odorous compounds (H2S and NH3) in areas near polluted urban rivers in the city of Salvador, in Northeastern Brazil
In this study, the atmospheric levels of H2S and NH3 were determined in 5 sites near polluted urban rivers during rainy and dry periods in the city of Salvador, Brazil, as well as the relationships between these odorous compounds and meteorological and water quality parameters applying multivariate analysis, and the non-carcinogenic risks (as hazard quotient —HQ). The compounds H2S and NH3 were passively sampled and determined by molecular spectrophotometry. Average concentrations were lower in the rainy period (6.56  ± 0.83 μg m−3 for H2S; 8.67  ± 2.50&nbs...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 24, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Environmental impact estimation of PM2.5 in representative regions of China from 2015 to 2019: policy validity, disaster threat, health risk, and economic loss
AbstractPM2.5 pollution used to be severe in China and the government has been devoted to PM2.5 control in recent years. Based on the latest multisource data and advanced algorithms, systematic environmental impact estimation of PM2.5 is achieved to demonstrate its trend and impacts under control policy. Policy validity is proved by a significant decrease in PM2.5 concentration (28%), energy intensity of GDP (13%), particulate matter emission (29%), and PM2.5 exceedance probability (51%) from the nation level. However, it still does not meet the requirement of WHO, and industrial and domestic sources are dominant for PM em...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 22, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Seasonal abundances of primary and secondary carbonaceous aerosols at a high-altitude station in the Western Ghat Mountains, India
AbstractThe combustion-related primary and secondary carbon particles have gained more importance in the recent past due to their radiative and chemical properties. The present paper deals with the results obtained from observations on Organic Carbon (OC) and Elemental Carbon (EC) during 2019 –20 over a high-altitude location, Mahabaleshwar in the Western Ghats in peninsular India. The data is classified into summer (March to May 2019) and winter (December 2019 to February 2020). Mean OC mass was more during summer (13.6 ± 4.4 μg / m3) than winter (11.1  ± 3.2 &m...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 22, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Cleaning performance evaluation of mobile operation shelter under dynamic disturbance
In this study, experimental and numerical simulation methods were used to investigate the cleaning performance of the operation area under actual working conditions, which can more intuitively simulate the movement of particles in the operating room. First, four air distribution cases are studied: empty state, static persons, arm waving, and medical staff walking. Second, the disturbance process, distribution, peak value, and uniformity of particulate matter concentration in these cases are discussed. The results show that the air distribution in the operation area is greatly affected by the dynamic disturbance, the cleanl...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 22, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Vertical distribution of PM10 and PM2.5 emission sources and chemical composition during winter period in Delhi city
AbstractChemical characterization and source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 were carried out for two different elevations (lower elevation (LE)  ~ 5–10 m and higher elevation (HE) ~ 30–45 m) at four different locations representing urban background, city center, upwind, and downwind of the Delhi city during January 2017–March 2017. The 24-h average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were varied between 135.2 –258.7 and 79.3–120.9 µg/m3, respectively. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were found significantly higher at LE than HE. The PM samp...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 22, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Comparison of RegCM dust schemes by monitoring an aeolian dust transport episode
In this study, we used each dust scheme to simulate the dust transport event from the Saharan Desert that occurred on February 1, 2015. Our principal aim is to compare transported dust sizes with previously acquired cascade impactor results and evaluate the pros and cons of each scheme. The highest dust concentrations at the sampling location were 332.3 μg/m3 and 170.8  μg/m3 for Zakey ’s dust scheme and Kok’s dust scheme, respectively. Zakey’s dust scheme predicted closer results to the measured value. This was due to the overestimation in the finest size bin, which is between 0.01 and 1....
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 21, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Prediction of COVID-19 pervasiveness in six major affected states of India and two-stage variation with temperature
This study is noble to analyse the variation of COVID-19 cases with respect to temperature and make aware of the state governments and take precautionary measures to flatten the growth curve of confirmed cases of COVID-19 infections in other states of I ndia, nearby countries as well. (Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health)
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 21, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Viral respiratory infections and air pollutants
AbstractAir pollution is a public health issue of global importance and a risk factor for developing cardiorespiratory diseases. These contaminants induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 β, IL-6, and IL-8, triggering the inflammatory response that alters cell and tissue homeostasis and facilitates the development of diseases. The effects of air pollutants such as ozone, particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM0.1), and indoor air pollutants on respiratory health have been widely rep orted. For instance, epidemiological and experimental studies have shown associations ...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 15, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Long-term spatial and temporal variations of aerosol optical depth during 2000 –2020 over Zambia, southcentral Africa
AbstractThe study aimed at using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-Terra) to investigate long-term spatial and temporal aerosol variations over Zambia during 2000 –2020. Based on data availability, ground truthing for MODIS-Terra was done over Mongu in western Zambia using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for 2001–2009. The correlation coefficient between MODIS-Terra and AERONET is 0.42 and statistically significant at 95% confidence level. The aero sol optical depth at 550nm (AOD550) and Angstrom exponent (AE470-870) annual mean spatial distribution indicates high and moderate to low p...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 15, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Temporal variability of atmospheric particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) over central east India: sources and carcinogenic risk assessment
This study highlights the significance of ambient aerosol concentration for health risks in the pre-COVID-19 scenario.Graphical Abstract (Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health)
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 14, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Characterisation of particulate matter and identification of emission sources in Greater Caracas, Venezuela
AbstractBetween June and September 2018, particulate matter (PM) samples were taken in the Sartenejas Valley, southeast of Greater Caracas, Venezuela. The aim was to evaluate the morphology and the elemental chemical composition of particulate matter and establish possible emission sources during the rainy season. Functional groups were identified by FTIR spectroscopic analysis, and morphology and elemental composition were obtained by SEM –EDX analysis. The sampling period coincided with a Sahara dust storm. The SEM–EDX and FTIR analyses found evidence of mineral elements related to soil and crustal origins. T...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 13, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Total gaseous mercury levels in the vicinity of the Central Mexico mountain mining zone and its dispersion area
The objective of this study were to evaluate the total gaseous mercury (TGM) ambient levels in the San Joaqu ín, Querétaro, mining region and to observe whether the TGM emissions from mining activity impact other regions of the country due to its dispersion. TGM was measured using an automatic Tekran model 2537A air mercury analyzer; the monitoring was carried out during March, April, and May 2015. From the ambient measurements carried out, the 8-h average concentrations range from 67 to 74 ng/m3, while the monthly averages for these three months were from 40 to 41  ng/m3 (1.3  ±&thins...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 7, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Variations of particulate matter retention by foliage after wind and rain disturbance
This study provides valuable information regarding the relationships between different leaf traits and PM retention capacity and retention stability, which will be useful for when selecting plants for air pollution mitigation. (Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health)
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 2, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

An integrated assessment of the impacts of PM2.5 and black carbon particles on the air quality of a large Brazilian city
AbstractData on airborne fine particle (PM2.5) emissions and concentrations in cities are valuable for traffic and air quality managers, urban planners, health practitioners, researchers, and ultimately for legislators and decision makers. Emissions and ambient concentrations of PM2.5 and black carbon (BC) were assessed in the city of Curitiba, southern Brazil. The methodology combined a month-long monitoring campaign with both fixed and mobile instruments, development of emission inventories, and dispersion model simulations on different scales. The mean urban background PM2.5 concentrations during the campaign were 7.3 &...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 1, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) at a Southwestern Europe coastal city: status, sources and health risk assessment
AbstractPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed in 65 atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) samples collected at a coastal urban area of Southwest Atlantic Europe during the 1-year period. Analytical methodology was successfully validated in terms of limits of detection and quantification, linearity, precision and trueness by using ERM CZ100 reference material and analytical recovery studies. Status of PM10-bound PAHs and their relationship with other PM10 constituents (major ions, trace metals, equivalent black carbon (eBC) and UV-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM)) in an area where few data are available i...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 1, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal variations and pollution sources of HCHO over Jiangsu-Zhejiang-Shanghai based on OMI
AbstractJiangsu-Zhejiang-Shanghai (JZH) is an important industrial area and foreign trade base in China. In recent years, due to economic development and urban expansion, the emissions of volatile organic compound (VOC) have been increasing, which exacerbated the problem of formaldehyde (HCHO) pollution. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) remote sensing has the characteristics of high spatial coverage and strong time continuity, which can enable long-term serial and large-scale dynamic monitoring of atmospheric pollutants. Based on the inversion data of OMI, the paper analyses the temporal-spatial distribution and chang...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 1, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The effects of manual airing strategies and architectural factors on the indoor air quality in college classrooms: a case study
AbstractIn China, natural ventilation is a common way of improving indoor air quality (IAQ) in college classrooms. However, until now, the effects of both manual airing strategies and architectural factors on IAQ in classrooms have not been well explored. The present work aimed to investigate the effect of manual airing strategies, such as opening doors and opening exterior or interior windows, on the concentrations of both carbon dioxide (CO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in classrooms using field measurements. Through simulation, the effects of floor level, room orientation and the height of interior windows on CO...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 1, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The policy effects and influence mechanism of China ’s carbon emissions trading scheme
This study also utilizes the mediation effects test model to analyze the influence mechanism of th e ETS policy via mediation variables of an energy consumption structure and technological innovation level. The findings reveal that the ETS policy significantly reduces carbon emissions and that the emission reduction policy has a dynamic cumulative effect. The robustness results show that the emis sion reduction effect of these pilots is very robust. Finally, analysis of the impact mechanism shows that the ETS policy promotes carbon emission reduction by adjusting the energy consumption structure and improving the level of ...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 30, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Assessment of exposure effects of indoor particles in different microenvironments
In this study, the number concentration of PM range from 10 nm to 10 µm in size, deposition of PM in the respiratory tract, and the inhalation dose for the residents (dormitory, library, canteen, dining-hall, acti vity center, mosque, gymnasium, hospital, and classroom) were investigated. An optical particle sizer and a NanoScan scanning mobility particle sizer were used to measure the particle number concentrations in the size range of 10 nm to 300 nm and 300 nm to 10 µm, respectively. The total number concentrations varied from 1.32 × 105 cm−3 to 1....
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 29, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Screening for asbestos fibre exposure in ambient air in Penge, Limpopo
The objective of the study was to quantify the level of airborne asbestos fibre concentration in an endeavour to understand the health risk to which residents are exposed. The study was carried out based on air analyses data of the area acquired from the Council for Geoscience as well as health risk assessment techniques guided by the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (EPA, 1989). It was found that the average asbestos fibre concentration in the ambient air of the study area was 0.047 f/mL which is lower than the 0.2 f/mL limit stipulated by the South African government. However, the asbestos fibre concentration in am...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 29, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Nitrogen dioxide decline and rebound observed by GOME-2 and TROPOMI during COVID-19 pandemic
In this study, NO2 variations over regions with strong responses to COVID-19 are analysed using datasets from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) sensor aboard the EUMETSAT Metop satellites and TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) aboard the EU/ESA Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite. The global GOME-2 and TROPOMI NO2 datasets are generated at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) using harmonized retrieval algorithms; potential influences of the long-term trend and seasonal cycle, as well as the short-term meteorological variation, are taken into account statistically. We present the application of the GOME-2...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 28, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Seasonal impacts of buildings ’ energy consumption on the variation and spatial distribution of air pollutant over Kabul City: application of Sentinel—5P TROPOMI products
This study aims to monitor the impacts of seasonal diversity of buildings ’ energy consumption pattern on the tropospheric NO2, CO, and SO2 concentrations over the 22 districts of Kabul City. Sentinel —5P TROPOMI data was used for the space measurement of the selected tropospheric pollutant during the winter (December 2019, January, and February 2020) and summer (June, July, and August 2020) seasons. Google Earth Engine platform was used for the processing and analysis of data, and ArcGIS 10.7. 1 was utilized for the plotting of thematic maps. This study’s findings demonstrate that the tropospheric NO2, C...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 28, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Spatial variations in urban air pollution: impacts of diesel bus traffic and restaurant cooking at small scales
AbstractAir pollutant concentrations in urban areas exhibit strong spatial and temporal trends because of variations in land use and source distributions. While traffic is an important urban source of pollutants such as NO2 and particulate matter (PM), other sources can also contribute to observed spatiotemporal patterns. PM exposures are further complicated because urban-scale variations in fine particulate matter mass (PM2.5) concentrations can be decoupled from variations in PM physicochemical properties such as composition and the concentration of ultrafine particles (UFPs). Our goal was to quantify spatial gradients i...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 24, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Associations between species-level indoor microbiome, environmental characteristics, and asthma in junior high schools of Terengganu, Malaysia
AbstractIndoor microbiome exposure is important for asthma development, but current studies characterize the microbiome at the genus or above levels due to technical limitations. We aim to profile bacterial and fungal composition and concentration at the species level and assess its potential health effects. Four hundred sixty-three students from 8 junior high schools in Terengganu, Malaysia, were surveyed for asthma symptoms. Full-length PacBio amplicon sequencing and qPCR were conducted to quantify the absolute microbial concentration in the vacuum dust of the selected classroom. In total, 1358 bacterial and 358 fungal s...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 23, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Substantial changes of chemical composition and sources of fine particles during the period of COVID-19 pandemic in Taiyuan, Northern China
AbstractTo better understand the effects of COVID-19 on air quality in Taiyuan, hourly in situ measurements of PM2.5(particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5  mm) and chemical components (water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and trace elements) were conducted before (P1: 1 January–23 January 2020) and during (P2: 24 January–15 February 2020) the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. The average concentrations of PM2.5 dropped from 122.0  μg/m3 during P1 to 83.3  μg/m3 during P2. Compared with P1, except for fireworks burning –rel...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 21, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Assessing urban mortality from wildfires with a citizen science network
AbstractAssessment of exposure and mortality attributable to air pollution is one of the most important tasks to inform strategies for mitigation and prevention of the negative effects of degraded air quality. While the vast majority of studies rely on either satellite data or sparse (and expensive) monitoring networks and focus on global- or regional-scale assessments, emerging low-cost citizen science networks are a new source of information that can be used to provide more detailed estimates at urban scale, thereby refining previous estimates and providing spatially resolved information at census tract resolution. In th...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 20, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Indoor aerobic exercise reduces exposure to pollution, improves cognitive function, and enhances BDNF levels in the elderly
AbstractThe present study aimed to compare the effects of indoor versus outdoor aerobic exercise through the evaluation of pollution exposure, changes in cognitive function, and biochemical variables in elderly individuals. Forty-eight volunteers, aged 60  years or older, were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control indoor, control outdoor, indoor exercise, and outdoor exercise (n = 12/group). Atmospheric concentration of 5 pollutants was monitored. Cognitive function and biochemical analysis were done after 12 weeks. All pollutants measured were significantly higher outdoor (p   0.05)....
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 19, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Personal PM2.5 exposures of husband and wife by residential characteristics in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
This study compared personal exposure to PM2.5 between ger and apartment residents and evaluated the influence of time-activity patterns. Two-day personal exposure of 16 couples from gers and 16 couples from apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, was measured in January and February 2019. A portable monitor (ASLUNG, Rododo Science, Taipei, Taiwan) was used to measure real-time personal PM2.5 exposure, and information on participants ’ time-activity patterns was recorded in a logbook. Ger residents were exposed to a significantly higher PM2.5 concentration (59.1(1.7) μg/m3) than apartment residents (26.8(2.0) μg/m...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 19, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Biological contaminants in the indoor air environment and their impacts on human health
AbstractIndoor air environment contains a complex mixture of biological contaminants such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, algae, insects, and their by-products such as endotoxins, mycotoxins, volatile organic compounds, etc. Biological contaminants have been categorized according to whether they are allergenic, infectious, capable of inducing toxic or inflammatory responses in human beings. At present, there is a lack of awareness about biological contamination in the indoor environment and their potential sources for the spreading of various infections. Therefore, this review article examines the association of biological co...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 7, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The air pollution modelling system URBAIR: how to use a Gaussian model to accomplish high spatial and temporal resolutions
This study provides a sensitivity analysis, focused on the implications of different grid resolutions on air quality results, followed by a performance assessment of the URBan AIR (URBAIR) model, a second-generation Gaussian model, as a tool for air quality management in urban areas. Estarreja area, a city located near an industrial complex, was used as case study, and the most critical air pollutants were investigated: particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Three different grid resolutions were tested: 0.1  km, 0.2 km and 0.3 km resolutions. Comparative results revealed that all grids provide...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 6, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Impact assessment of Beirut explosion on local and regional air quality
AbstractOn 4th August 2020, drastic explosions occurred at the port of Beirut, Lebanon. These explosions released an extensive amount of toxic gases and caused atmospheric damages along with terrestrial and marine disturbances. In the current study, the impact of the incident on both local and regional air quality was assessed by ALOHA and HYSPLIT models. The ALOHA results estimated the concentrations of NO2 and NO and their exposure times for two specific densely populated locations in the high-risk zone. The concentrations of outdoor NO2 exceeded the AEGL-3 tier in Borj Hammoud, and Jdeideh after 8, and 10  min of t...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 3, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Spatial and temporal variation characteristics of atmospheric NO2 and SO2 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region before and after the COVID-19 outbreak
In this study, based on hourly mass concentration data of NO2 and SO2 from atmospheric monitoring sites in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during the COVID-19 epidemic period, the changes in transportation and industrial production in the region, data statistics, and  spatial analysis were used to analyze the pollution changes and their causes. The results indicate that the NO2 and SO2 concentrations in the BTH region decreased significantly during the epidemic period. The spatial distribution pattern of NO2 pollution in the BTH region was “high in the southeast and low in the northwest,” and SO2 po...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - July 30, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Association of VOCs, PM2.5 and household environmental exposure with children ’s respiratory allergies
This study suggests that the periodic monitoring of indoor air quality is an effective measure to prevent respiratory allergies among children in an indoor environment. (Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health)
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - July 30, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Inter- and intra-city comparisons of PM2.5 concentration changes under COVID-19  social distancing in seven major cities of South Korea
This study analyzes changes in the concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during the 30-day periods before and since the start of social distancing on 29 February 2020 using measurement data from air quality monitoring stations at various locations of the seven major cities of South Korea, namely, Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, and Ulsan. All seven cities experienced decreased levels of PM2.5 concentration by up to 25% and smaller fluctuations during the period of social distancing. Inter-city comparisons show that the PM2.5 concentration changes are positively correlated with the city-wide PM2....
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - July 30, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Using infrared geostationary remote sensing to determine particulate matter ground-level composition and concentration
AbstractSpeciated ground-level aerosol concentrations are required to understand and mitigate health impacts from dust storms, wildfires, and other aerosol emissions. Globally, surface monitoring is limited due to cost and infrastructure demands. While remote sensing can help estimate respirable (i.e. ground level) concentrations, current observations are restricted by inadequate spatiotemporal resolution, uncertainty in aerosol type, particle size, and vertical profile. One key issue with current remote sensing datasets is that they are derived from reflectances observed by polar-orbiting imagers, which means that aerosol...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - July 28, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effects of air pollution and climatology on COVID-19 mortality in Spain
AbstractThe health, economic, and social impact of COVID-19 has been significant across the world. Our objective was to evaluate the association between air pollution (through NO2 and PM2.5 levels) and COVID-19 mortality in Spanish provinces from February 3, 2020, to July 14, 2020, adjusting for climatic parameters. An observational and ecological study was conducted with information extracted from Datadista repository (Datadista,2020). Air pollutants (NO2 and PM2.5 levels) were analyzed as potential determinants of COVID-19 mortality. Multilevel Poisson regression models were used to analyze the risk of mortality after se...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - July 26, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Urban scale air quality analysis due to coal-based residential heating
This study attempts to investigate the effects of coal-based residential heating on CO and SO2 air quality in a city of the south Marmara Region located between Europe and Asia. A total of 138 chimneys were sampled in the heating season that falls from October 1st through March 31st in the city. Ambient air pollutants released from those chimneys were analyzed to evaluate the background air quality variations in the city. The mean of CO concentrations was approximately 11,000  mg/m3, with variations from nearly 9500 to 12,500  mg/m3, while the mean of SO2 concentrations was roughly 173  mg/Nm3 ranging from 1...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - July 25, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Estimated effects of meteorological factors and fire hotspots on ambient particulate matter in the northern region of Thailand
In conclusion, results from this study could contribute a better understanding on the effects of meteorological variables and fire hotspots on PM concentration and induce the develop ment of more tailored air pollution mitigation strategies depending on weather conditions. (Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health)
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - July 20, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research