Investigation of indoor air quality in offices and residential homes in an urban area of Poland
AbstractThe quality of air in various types of rooms is an extremely important issue, because contaminants occurring there, even at low concentrations, can cause health problems, especially for those living or working in these locations. The aim of this study was to compare indoor air quality (IAQ) in offices, flats and a residential building in Upper Silesia. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were self-concentrated, thermally desorbed (TD) and then analysed using gas chromatography (GC). The mean concentrations of the 16 determined VOCs ranged from 18 to 56  μg/m3. The average concentration of carcinogenic benzene...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - December 13, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Synoptic circulation patterns and local sources associated to high concentrations of tropospheric ozone in rural and suburban areas in southwestern Spain
AbstractIn Extremadura, Southwest Spain, environmental conditions combined with a complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic precursors favour the appearance of episodes of high concentrations of tropospheric ozone, whose levels sometimes exceed legal thresholds. In this mainly rural region, no study has been carried out to identify and interpret regional ozone episodes, so this work aims to fill this gap. Ozone and precursor (nitrogen oxides and organic compounds) levels from six representative air quality monitoring stations located in suburban and rural areas have been used to investigate selected ozone episodes durin...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - December 12, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Prediction of Air Pollution Index in Kuala Lumpur using fuzzy time series and statistical models
AbstractAir pollutants can cause multifaceted harm to the human body. Respiratory diseases and immunology dysfunction are some of its main manifestations. Forecasting the air quality of a country is important to allow the government to take preventive measure. In this research, the artificial neural network (ANN), autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), trigonometric regressors, Box-Cox transformation, ARMA errors, trend and seasonality (TBATS) and several fuzzy time series (FTS) models are utilized in the forecasting of air pollution index (API) of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, for the year 2017. Six years of daily AP...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - December 9, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Sansevieria trifasciata and Chlorophytum comosum botanical biofilter for cigarette smoke phytoremediation in a pilot-scale experiment —evaluation of multi-pollutant removal efficiency and CO 2 emission
AbstractBotanical biofilters have been proposed as an effective technology for indoor air remediation. Plants, includingSansevieria trifasciata andChlorophytum comosum, which remove VOCs effectively, can also reduce CO2 emission sinceS. trifasciata andC. comosum are CAM and C3 plant species, respectively. Therefore, a botanical biofilter using these plants together shows potential for use in contaminated sites. Herein, the potential of this mixed plant botanical biofilter was evaluated as a method of phytoremediation for multi-pollutants from cigarette smoke. The results showed that the combination ofS. trifasciata andC. c...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - December 2, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Seasonal variations of chemical composition of PM2.5 fraction in the urban area of Krakow, Poland: PMF source attribution
AbstractThe mass concentration of PM2.5 fraction in the atmosphere of Krakow, Poland, is 2.6 times higher in winter than in summer. Similar observations were made for countries with very low temperature during cold season as discussed by Rogula Kozlowska et al. (Air Qual Atmos Health 7:41-58,2014, Int J Environ Res Public Health 13:715,2016), Jeong et al. (Atmos Pollut Res 2:158-171,2011), and Zwozdziak et al. (J Aerosol Sci 103:38 –52,2017). Fossil fuel combustion for heating of individual households is mainly responsible for high air pollution levels in urban areas during winter season as reported by Junninen et al...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - November 29, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Markov chain modeling for air pollution index based on maximum a posteriori method
This study involves estimating the transition probability matrix of the Markov chain model based on maximum a posteriori (MAP) method using hourly data of air pollution index (API). The API data has been collected from seven air-monitoring stations in peninsular Malaysia. The estimated transition probability matrix is used to determine the characteristics of air pollution such as the steady-state probability and the expected return time. The transition probabilities of the Markov chain are fitted based on maximum a posteriori method under three different priors, which are Dirichlet, Jeffreys, and uniform. The results found...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - November 28, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Using a low-cost monitor to assess the impact of leaf blowers on particle pollution during street cleaning
AbstractPersonal exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with a variety of adverse health effects and cardiopulmonary diseases. As a mitigating measure to improve air quality, policymakers should select street cleaning tools according to their potential environmental impact, but there is little information about their actual effect on particle pollution. This paper describes the contribution made by leaf blowers to suspended PM and analyzes the duration of this effect during street sweeping in an urban environment. Particle concentration has been monitored throughout a fixed-site 104-day sampling campaign using t...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - November 25, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Exposures and effects from fragranced consumer products in Germany
This study investigates effects associated with exposures to fragranced consumer products in Germany. Using a nationally representa tive population-based sample (n = 1102), data were collected in March 2019 using an online survey of adults in Germany. The study found that, across the German population, 19.9% report health problems, such as respiratory problems (55.3%), migraine headaches (25.1%), and asthma attacks (16.9%), when exposed to fragranced prod ucts. Of these reports of health effects, 33.8% could be considered potentially disabling. Further, 5.5% of the population have lost workdays or a job, in t...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - November 25, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Predictive modeling of PM 2.5 using soft computing techniques: case study —Faridabad, Haryana, India
AbstractParticulate matter has a detrimental consequence on the health of living organisms throughout the world and predicting their concentration is very imperative to assess their impact on human health. Faridabad is the most populated and largest city of Haryana, India, and the current study was designed to foresee the PM2.5 content by different modeling techniques: (1) support vector machine (SVM), (ii) random forest (RF), (iii) artificial neural network (ANN), (iv) M5P model, and (v) Gaussian process regression (GP). Collected data (659 observations) from May 2015 to May 2018 were used to develop the models. Parameter...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - November 22, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Optical aerosol properties of megacities: inland and coastal cities comparison
AbstractMeasurements of aerosol optical depths allow the determination of microphysical and radiative characteristics of atmospheric aerosols and specially that of Megacities, which contribute to the deterioration of air quality live, increase health effects, and anthropogenic climate change. This paper analyzes the aerosol optical properties of ten megacities classified on inland and costal sites. The annual average of aerosol optical depths are around 0.5 and peaks can exceed 4 especially in summer for East Asia (Beijing and Bangkok) where the involvement of the anthropogenic aerosol is more important. Single scattering ...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - November 22, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Environmental factors and asthma hospitalization in Montreal, Canada, during spring 2006 –2008: a synergy perspective
AbstractThe aim of this study is to analyze the synergy between environmental factors (pollutant, allergenic birch pollen, weather) and its relationship with asthma hospitalization in Montreal, Canada. The data is stratified into weather types and the study restricted to spring season to limit the impact of multiple confounders. Results shows that the daily count of asthma hospitalization (spring 2006 –2008) in situation of warm fronts or trowals (daily average of 3.78 counts, CI 95% 2.95–4.61) was much higher (p
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - November 21, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Concentrations, enrichment, and sources of metals in PM 2.5 in Beijing during winter
The objectives of this study are to determine elemental concentrations in PM2.5, assess their enrichment in PM2.5, and identify their sources during winter in Beijing. Daily PM2.5 samples were collected at the Beijing Normal University campus from January 28 to February 27, 2014. Twenty-three metal elements were determined following digestion by using inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The daily PM2.5 concentration ranged from 21.8 to 474.3 μg m−3, with a mean of 172 μg m−3. The daily PM2.5 concentration exceeded 75 mg m−3 (China ambient air quality standards: grade II) for 23 da...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - November 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Monthly variation in masses, metals and endotoxin content as well as pro-inflammatory response of airborne particles collected by TEOM monitors
AbstractParticle exposure has been linked to an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, particle exposure has been shown to have a chronic inhibitory effect on lung development in young people and may result in increased respiratory problems in adults or children with respiratory-related diseases. In today ’s urban environments, particle levels are mainly monitored gravimetrically; however, other factors such as particle size, shape and surface reactivity have recently been noted as highly important in relation to possible health outcomes. Here, particles from TEOM monitor filters placed in three ...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - November 16, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Stack emissions and health risk integrated (SEHRI) model: a tool for stack emissions and health risk modeling
In this study, we have estimated the health benefits due to closure of Badarpur Thermal Power Station (BTPS), New Delhi. The SEHRI model has been applied to estimate decreased health risks due to particulates (PM2.5) and gaseous (SO2, NOx) stack emissions released from the plant. More than 1050 premature deaths are avoided and 526 life years are saved resulting from reduction in particulate and gaseous stack emissions, respectively, due to closure of the plant. It is expected that environmental engineers, scientists, and air quality managers would find the SEHRI model as a useful tool to study emissions and health impacts ...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - November 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Active botanical biofiltration of air pollutants using Australian native plants
AbstractAir pollutants are of public concern due to their adverse health effects. Biological air filters have shown great promise for the bioremediation of air pollutants. Different plant species have previously been shown to significantly influence pollutant removal capacities, although the number of species tested to date is small. The aims of this paper were to determine the pollutant removal capacity of different Australian native species for their effect on active biowall particulate matter, volatile organic compounds and carbon dioxide removal, and to compare removal rates with previously tested ornamental species. T...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - November 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Fungal assessment on storerooms indoor environment in the National Museum of Fine Arts, Cuba
AbstractThe artworks that are preserved in museums can be damaged by fungi when the conditions of temperature and humidity are adequate to accelerate their growth. This is increased in Cuba by the climatic conditions of the country, characterized by high temperature and relative humidity during the all year. These fungi do not only cause the artworks biodeterioration but also affectations in the personnel ’s health. The aims of this work were to characterize the mycobiota in two microenvironments of the National Museum of Fine Arts, Cuba (1: three interior environments of repositories or storerooms and 2: six surface...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - November 8, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Identifying shelter locations and building air intake risk from release of particulate matter in a three-dimensional street canyon via wind tunnel and CFD simulation
This study aims to identify lower risk exterior shelter areas and building air intake locations by modeling particulate matter (PM) dispersion in a three-dimensional street canyon from a point source and comprises a wind tunnel experiment and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The model street canyon was a two-by-two building array of constant height with aspect ratios of 0.35, 0.70, and 1.05. A PM emission source external to the street canyon was simulated with water droplets from an ultrasonic humidifier in the wind tunnel. The CFD simulation, using the standard turbulencek-ϵ turbulence model and the Discr...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - November 7, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of air quality on petrol filling stations and related health impacts on their workers
AbstractAir pollution has become a public concern in large metropolitan cities. Rapid urbanization has increased the number of vehicles which ultimately increase number of petrol filling stations. Petrol filling process releases many emissions, which severely affects the worker ’s health. For this purpose, the present study is based upon the comparison of seasonal variations of different air pollutant levels at petrol filling stations and assessing health problems among their workers. The air quality parameters including VOCs, COx, NOx, SOx, PM, temperature, and humidity are analyzed by the help of the HAZ-scanner. W...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - November 1, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Air pollution in European countries and life expectancy —modelling with the use of neural network
AbstractThe present paper discusses a novel methodology based on neural network to determine air pollutants ’ correlation with life expectancy in European countries. The models were developed using historical data from the period 1992–2016, for a set of 20 European countries. The subject of the analysis included the input variables of the following air pollutants: sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carb on monoxide, particulate matters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and non-methane volatile organic compounds. Our main findings indicate that all the variables significantly affect life expectancy. Sensitivity of...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 30, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Volatile chemical emissions from 134 common consumer products
This study investigates volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 134 common consumer products, both fragranced and fragrance-free, including those with claims of green. Product types include personal care products, air fresheners, cleaning supplies, laundry products, and sunscreens. Using GC/MS headspace analysis, this study found 1538 VOC occurrences (individual ingredients), representing 338 VOC identities (different compounds), emitted from the 134 consumer products. Among the 1538 VOCs, 517 VOCs are classified as potentially hazardous. The most common VOC emitted from the 104 fragranced products was limonene, whi...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 29, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Characteristics and cytotoxicity of indoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and PM 2.5 -bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hong Kong
AbstractOrganic components of fine particles, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), play an essential role in the toxicity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The chemical and bioreactive properties of PM2.5 in indoor environments were investigated from 2014 to 2016 in Hong Kong among 33 residential indoor environments. All analyzed components revealed higher concentrations in winter than in summer, except for organic carbon (OC). High molecular weight PAHs (4 –6 rings) contributed higher total PAH compositions than low molecular weight PAHs (2–3 rings). The study results suggested that the major ...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 28, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Analyzing the air quality of Beijing, Tianjin, and Shijiazhuang using grey Verhulst model
AbstractTo predict the comprehensive air quality index, the data of comprehensive air quality index and environmental protection investment are analyzed in Beijing, Tianjin, and Shijiazhuang, respectively. Considering the different growth rates in environmental protection investment, comprehensive air quality index is predicted by grey Verhulst model. The results show that the government ’s investment can promote the improvement of air quality to a certain extent. According to local conditions, the improvement of air quality not only relies on government investment, but also needs other ways to reduce the comprehensi...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 26, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Evaluating air quality with and without air fresheners
This study evaluates the effects of air fresheners on air quality with a focus ond-limonene, a prevalent and dominant compound in air fresheners and one that can generate hazardous air pollutants. Using workplace environments, the study analyses and comparesd-limonene concentrations in restrooms that use air fresheners, that discontinue the use of air fresheners, and that do not use air fresheners. In restrooms that use air fresheners,d-limonene concentrations averaged 6.78 μg/m3 compared with 0.84 μg/m3 in restrooms that do not use air fresheners. Further, after discontinuing the use of air fresheners,d-limonene con...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 25, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Measuring the spatial variability of black carbon in Athens during wintertime
AbstractA first assessment of the spatial variability of ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations in the Greater Area of Athens (GAA) was carried out during an intensive wintertime campaign, when ambient levels are exacerbated by increased biomass burning for residential heating. Short-term daytime BC measurements were conducted at 50 sites (traffic and urban/suburban/regional background) and on-road along 12 routes. Daytime measurements were adjusted based on BC concentrations continuously monitored at a reference site. Indicative nighttime BC ambient concentrations were also measured at several residences across the area...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 25, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The trace of airborne particulate matter from smoking e-cigarette, tobacco heating system, conventional and hand-rolled cigarettes in a residential environment
AbstractIndoor particle number concentrations and size distributions were monitored in a typical, residential living room, considering two independent variables: smoking activities (using e-cigarettes, tobacco heating systems (THS), conventional and hand-rolled cigarettes) and the operation of the air conditioning (AC) system. Each smoking device exhibited its own characteristic size distribution (its own “trace”), in the room atmosphere, which was also affected by the AC operation. All devices emitted ultrafine and fine particles especially in the range around 100 nm. The minimum average PM number or mass conc...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 25, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Characterization of aerosol size distributions and chemical compositions under strong wind and stagnant conditions during haze episodes in Lin ’an, China
AbstractA long-lasting haze episode which included a strong wind pollution day (SWPD) and stable pollution days (SPD) occurred in Lin ’an from January 21 to 26, 2015. On Jan. 21, the Lin’an atmospheric background station experienced a north wind at ground level, which resulted in short-term northern input–based pollution. During January 23 to 26, stable atmospheric conditions led to a local accumulation of pollutants. The av erage number concentration, surface area concentration, volume concentration, and concentration of PM2.5 were 14,183  ± 7121 cm−3, 576  ±...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 25, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Source apportionment and health risk assessment of trace elements in the heavy industry areas of Tangshan, China
AbstractInductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to measure 20 trace elements in PM2.5 from the Tangshan heavy industry areas. The variation characteristics, potential sources, and health risks of these trace elements were analyzed in great detail within the research area. The results showed that the annual total concentration of the 20 elements in the research area did not change significantly from 2016 to 2017, and the contributions of Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, and Fe were very high, accounting for 89 –96% of the total concentration. The concentrations of these elements were higher during the day tha...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Our change of Co-Editor-in-Chief and the journal ’s prospects
(Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health)
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 16, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Temporal variation of suspended particles (TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2.5 ) and chemical composition of PM 10 in a site at the coast of the Gulf of Mexico
AbstractA study of temporal variations of particulate matter in different size fractions (TSP, PM10, PM2.5) was undertaken in the city of San Francisco de Campeche (SFC), in southeast Mexico, in the years 2014 and 2015 in order to assess the contribution of the chemical components. The samples were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and ion exchange chromatography (IC) for PM10. XRF identified the presence of Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn. The results of a cluster analysis (CA) indicates a strong correlation of S and P in the three fractions due to agricultural land use and this may be related to the...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - October 3, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Inferring air pollution from air quality index by different geographical areas: case study in India
The objective of this research is to analyze air pollution trends with respect to various geographical locations, in order to have a global view of the damage caused, so that appropriate actions can be developed in the future to prevent air pollution. In this regard, the polluted database was established based on the data provided by the Central Pollution Control Board; Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change (India). These data demonstrate the annual growth of SO2, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) 2.5 from 2015 to 2018 and were recorded at various monitoring stations in three cities, namely, Delhi, Bengaluru, ...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 13, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

PM 10 levels at urban, suburban, and background locations in the eastern Mediterranean: local versus regional sources with emphasis on African dust
AbstractPM10 levels were determined at different locations in a coastal site in the eastern Mediterranean to assess the relative contribution of local versus regional sources. Two campaigns were conducted: during the first, PM10 was monitored at three urban locations (kerbside/traffic/background) at different sampling periods, whereas during the second one, PM10 was simultaneously measured at two locations (urban/suburban). Both campaigns have shown that African dust transport was a major carrier of coarse particles. Daily PM10 concentrations of 547  μg m−3 and 234  μg m−3 were measure...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 13, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Impact of the ambient air quality due to the dispersion of PM 10 from a hot-dip galvanizing plant located in the Sultanate of Oman
AbstractHot-dip galvanizing (HDG) plants are a major source of particulate matter (PM) and, as a result, the areas around the plants can be affected by these emissions. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the dispersion of PM with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10) released from an HDG plant located in Sohar, Oman. Two PM10 emission sources were considered: the off-gases resulting from the combustion of fuel used to generate the required heat for melting the zinc and the fumes generated from dipping the steel in the molten zinc bath. Supported by CALPUFF dispersion modeling software, the s...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 12, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Reactive oxygen species induced by personal exposure to fine particulate matter emitted from solid fuel combustion in rural Guanzhong Basin, northwestern China
AbstractFine particulate matter (PM2.5) released by the burning of domestic solid fuels is an important air pollutant in the rural indoor environment in China. Here, personal exposure to PM2.5-induced oxidative damage resulting from household solid fuel combustion was examined in winter in rural areas of Guanzhong Basin, northwestern China. The volume-based average exogenous reactive oxygen species (exo-ROS) activities were 1943.7 ± 3668.0 and 1628.5 ± 2618.7 μM H2O2/min/m3 for 50 and 100 μL of PM2.5 extracts, respectively. While the different patterns were found for endogenous reactive oxygen species (...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 11, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Sources, deposition flux and carcinogenic potential of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea (Gdynia, Poland)
AbstractConcentrations of 16 PAHs of different molecular weight and carcinogenic potency were measured in PM2.5 aerosols collected in the coastal zone of southern Baltic Sea (Gdynia, Poland) during the end of the heating and beginning of the non-heating season of 2012. Obtained results showed that coal combustion (pyrogenic source) contributed to the highest emission of PAHs during the heating season. However, similar concentrations of highly carcinogenic PAHs were detected in the non-heating period. The analysis of prevailing wind directions, air mass trajectories and diagnostic PAH ratios revealed that in addition to lan...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 5, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Ozone-assisted photocatalytic degradation of gaseous toluene from waste air stream using silica-functionalized graphene oxide/ZnO coated on fiberglass: performance, intermediates, and mechanistic pathways
AbstractThe present study focused on the potential of an ozone-assisted photocatalytic process using the catalyst silica-functionalized graphene oxide/ZnO coated on fiberglass (Si-GO/ZnO-FG) in the removal of toluene from waste air stream. Here, a comparative examination was performed in terms of toluene removal efficiency in the photocatalytic process (UV/Si-GO/ZnO-FG) and photocatalytic ozonation (O3/UV/Si-GO/ZnO-FG). The gaseous intermediates resulting from degradation of toluene by different processes were analyzed using GC-MS. The results of this study indicated that with the addition of ozone to the UV/Si-GO/ZnO-FG p...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 4, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

A comparative chemical study of PM 10 in three Latin American cities: Lima, Medell ín, and São Paulo
The objective was to identify and quantify organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), monosaccharides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxy and nitro-PAHs, water-soluble ions (WSI), and elements in particulate matter collected in intensive campaigns during a period (June, 2010) in S ão Paulo (Brazil), Lima (Peru), and Medellín (Colombia). PM10 concentration was higher in S ão Paulo than in the other two sites and 75% of the samples had concentrations above the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline. High concentrations of levoglucosan, a biomass burning tracer, highlighted the importance of t...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 2, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The effect of urban planning on urban formations determining bioclimatic comfort area ’s effect using satellitia imagines on air quality: a case study of Bursa city
The objective was to understand the suitability of Change Vector Analysis (CVA) and elevation parameters in the region. The results indicate the appropriateness of change in vector analysis. With the help of a bioclimatic comfort conditions, map taking into account the temperature, humidity, and rainfall data and bioclimatic comfort zone for the 12-year period perceived for 30 years. The result maps of the study may serve as the basis for sustainable urban planning studies for Bursa. (Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health)
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 31, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The level PM 2.5 and the elemental compositions of some potential receptor locations in Lagos, Nigeria
AbstractAir pollutants are sourced from both anthropogenic and natural means, with anthropogenic activities, increase in urban city population, and high industrial activities having the tendency to increase atmospheric pollution. This present study evaluated the PM2.5 concentrations and its bound elements in Agege, Oshodi, and Unilag, Lagos, Nigeria. Aerosol samples were captured on a microglass fiber particle filter and the PM2.5 determined gravimetrically. Elemental characterizations of PM2.5 were performed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 6 to 14  μg/m3 in Unilag and ...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 31, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Moderately cold temperature associates with high cardiovascular disease mortality in China
This study quantitatively investigated CVD mortality burden with respect to various segments across the climatic temperature range. Daily data on average temperature and CVD deaths in nine Chinese cities during 2010 –2016 were collected for the study. The association between temperature and city-specific CVD mortality was investigated with a distributed lag nonlinear model across lag 0–21 days for cold temperature and lag 0–2 days for hot temperature, and then pooled the association results in a multiva riate meta-analysis to derive the pooled estimates of temperature on CVD mortality at nationa...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 30, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Interaction between plant species and substrate type in the removal of CO 2 indoors
AbstractElevated indoor concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) cause health issues, increase workplace absenteeism, and reduce cognitive performance. Plants can be part of the solution, reducing indoor CO2 and acting as a low-cost supplement to building ventilation systems. Our earlier work on a selection of structurally and functionally different indoor plants identified a range of leaf-level CO2 removal rates, when plants were grown in one type of substrate. The work presented here brings the research much closer to real indoor environments by investigating CO2 removal at a whole-plant level and in different substrates. ...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 29, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of linear, nonlinear, and hybrid models for predicting PM 2.5 based on a GTWR model and MODIS AOD data
This study reveals that AOD conversion to particulate matter by the GTWR model and its simulation to PM2.5 at ground level using a hybrid model such as the GRNN can be used to study air quality. (Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health)
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 26, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Sources and concentrations of acidic constituents in the ambient air of Saudi Arabia
This study presents a comprehensive set of three successive academic years of data (2016 –2019). Levels of PM10, SO2, and NO2 were continuously measured for 24 h/day. Concentrations of Cl−, SO42 −, and NO3− and fly ash were determined by standard wet chemical methods. The mean concentrations of PM10 (177.4 ± 52.5 μg/m3) exceeded all the local and international standards, where levels of SO2 (17.5 ± 6.2 μg/m3) and NO2 (101.1 ± 27.3 μg/m3) were lower than their AQGs. The sum of the Cl−, SO42 −, and NO3− constituted 29.2% of the PM10 concentration, while ...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 26, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Characteristics and formation mechanism of a serious haze event in autumn 2017 in Harbin, China
AbstractEighteen air quality monitoring stations in nine districts and nine counties in Harbin were selected to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of six basic air pollutants. Straw burning monitoring data, meteorological factor data, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) data were selected in combination with backward trajectory of hybrid single particle lagrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT) to analyze the causes of air pollution. The results showed that the daily variation of the six pollutants was consistent with the three haze processes, and the main pollutants were particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and parti...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 16, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Spatio-temporal variability of CO over the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and in parts of South-East Asia: a MERRA-2-based study
AbstractThe present study revolves around the distribution of surface CO concentrations around the industrial belts of the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and in parts of Southeast Asia over a period of 10  years from January 2007 to December 2016. MERRA-2 reanalysis fields are analysed to study the long-term spatial and seasonal behaviour of CO. The focus is on three CO hotspot areas in this region, denoted by A, B and C, which are further subdivided into eight smaller divisions based on topographic al and regional characteristics as discussed in details in “Study Region& Meteorology ” section. The...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 16, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

A conceptual model to understand the soluble and insoluble Cr species in deliquesced particles
AbstractTrivalent chromium is a trace nutrient essential to human beings while hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen and was among the 18 core hazardous air pollutants defined in 2004 by the US EPA. A new conceptual model of Cr speciation in deliquesced particles (pH  4) has been developed. The model provides new information on the soluble and insoluble forms of Cr in atmospheric PM. The dominant form of Cr(VI) in the solution was found to be Cr2O72 −. CrO42 − was produced by the dissolution of Na2CrO4(s) and K2CrO4(s) available in the solid core, but a considerable portion of the CrO42 − precipi...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 9, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Impact of air-conditioning system disinfection on microbial contamination of passenger cars
AbstractAn automobile air-conditioning (AC) system can be a source of microbiological contamination in a driver ’s car. The aim of this study was to assess the level of microbial contamination before and after servicing of the automobile AC system, based on qualitative and quantitative analyses of bacteria and fungi isolated from the air, and to check the efficiency of different AC system cleaning methods i n the removal of microbial contaminants. The study was carried out in 35 randomly selected cars, equipped with AC systems. In each car tested, viable bioaerosol samples were taken using a single-stage MAS impactor...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 9, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Investigation of factors affecting the gaseous and particulate matter emissions from diesel vehicles
This study presents a detailed investigation of diesel vehicle emissions utilizing chassis dynamometer testing. The recruited vehicle fleet consists of 15 in-use diesel vehicles, spanning a wide range of emission standards, engine sizes, weight, model year, etc. The real-time emission concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx), total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2), and the mass of particulate matter (PM) collected on filters are measured and used to calculate the vehicle emission factors (EFs) under various driving conditions. Results show that in general EFs of NOx, CO, THC, and PM of the r...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 9, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Quality control of online monitoring data of air pollutants using artificial neural networks
AbstractThe intensive monitoring of air pollutants has led to the acquisition of vast quantities of data. Traditional quality control methods based on existing knowledge may be inefficient because of our limited understanding regarding the interaction of human activities and stochastic environmental factors. Moreover, traditional methods for outlier detection may be misleading because of the existence of valid outliers and invalid inliers. In this research, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are developed to identify instrument failure based on current and historical observations. Two structures, i.e., multilayer perceptron...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 7, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The challenges of air quality modelling when crossing multiple spatial scales
AbstractMultiscale air quality assessment implies understanding the interaction among atmospheric processes and scales. In this perspective, the use of air quality models has a fundamental role and the way they address these interactions is very important for the quality of results. However, in multiscale air quality modelling, the relationship between models, simulation domains and resolutions remains a challenging research issue. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on multiscale air quality modelling applications from the regional to the street level, identifying which models are used, the methodological princi...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 6, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of thermal climatic region areas in terms of building density in urban management and planning for Burdur, Turkey
AbstractThe main aim of this research is to investigate the bioclimatic conditions of Burdur city center in different terrain areas by taking measurements at 20 different points in the same time zone over the city. In order to investigate the bioclimatic comfort properties of Burdur City by taking into consideration the number of floors in Burdur city center, on 17 February 2018 between 16.00 and 16.30  h, temperature and relative humidity measurements were made with two Benetech GM8910 devices from 20 different locations with different characteristics. In addition to the parameters taken from 20 points, the physiolog...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - August 5, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research