Implementing and evaluating an e-portfolio for postgraduate family medicine training in the Western Cape, South Africa
In South Africa it is compulsory to submit a satisfactory portfolio of learning to gain entrance to the national exit examination of the College of Family Physicians and to qualify as a family physician. A pap... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 8, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Magdaleen De Swardt, Louis S. Jenkins, Klaus B. Von Pressentin and Robert Mash Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Deconvolution of autoencoders to learn biological regulatory modules from single cell mRNA sequencing data
Unsupervised machine learning methods (deep learning) have shown their usefulness with noisy single cell mRNA-sequencing data (scRNA-seq), where the models generalize well, despite the zero-inflation of the da... (Source: BMC Bioinformatics)
Source: BMC Bioinformatics - July 8, 2019 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Savvas Kinalis, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Ole Winther and Frederik Otzen Bagger Tags: Methodology article Source Type: research

What helps children learn difficult tasks: A teacher's presence may be worth more than a screen
Publication date: Available online 6 July 2019Source: Trends in Neuroscience and EducationAuthor(s): Kasia Kostyrka-AllchorneAbstractWhat helps children learn: is it a presence of a live teacher or an interaction with the learning materials? Addressing this question, we manipulated a teacher's presence (on-screen vs. present) and activity (observing vs. doing) while teaching children about the properties of geometric shapes. Five-year-olds (n=215) completed two shape-sorting tasks in which they distinguished between typical, atypical and non-valid shapes. In between these tasks, they took part in one of four training sessi...
Source: Trends in Neuroscience and Education - July 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Using collaborative action research to resolve practical and philosophical challenges in educational neuroscience
Publication date: Available online 6 July 2019Source: Trends in Neuroscience and EducationAuthor(s): Joshua J. Amiel, Yuen Sze Michelle TanAbstractResearchers routinely cite neuromyths and neurorealism as barriers preventing teachers from effectively applying brain research to practice. A primary goal within educational neuroscience (EN), is to provide teachers with professional development that allows them to overcome these barriers and gain agency in developing the field. Yet, the EN literature does not provide a tangible framework for developing teachers' philosophical perspectives regarding neuroscience in education. H...
Source: Trends in Neuroscience and Education - July 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Are specific learning disorders truly specific, and are they disorders?
Publication date: Available online 6 July 2019Source: Trends in Neuroscience and EducationAuthor(s): Lien Peters, Daniel AnsariAbstractSpecific learning disorders, such as dyslexia and dyscalculia, are frequently studied to inform our understanding of cognitive development, genetic mechanisms and brain function. In this Opinion Paper, we discuss limitations of this research approach, including the use of arbitrary criteria to select groups of children, heterogeneity within groups and overlap between domains of learning. By drawing on evidence from cognitive science, neuroscience and genetics, we propose an alternative, dim...
Source: Trends in Neuroscience and Education - July 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Impact of learning and training on wine expertise: A review
Publication date: Available online 6 July 2019Source: Current Opinion in Food ScienceAuthor(s): S Tempere, G de Revel, G SicardExperts are able to conduct both analytical and holistic tasks involved in evaluating wine quality. Although there is no standard for wine-tasting training, a number of papers have reported on experts’ ability to discriminate among and categorize wines, highlighting a process involving perceptual clues and cognitive processing. This review focuses on the influence of different training tasks on tasting and olfactory abilities.Moreover, recent researches in psychophysics and neurosciences demo...
Source: Current Opinion in Food Science - July 8, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Towards integrating personalized feedback research into clinical practice: Development of the Trier Treatment Navigator (TTN).
In this study, a computer-based feedback, decision and clinical problem-solving system for clinical practice will be described - the Trier Treatment Navigator (TTN). The paper deals with the underlying research concepts related to personalized pre-treatment recommendations for drop-out risk and optimal treatment strategy selection as well as personalized adaptive recommendations during treatment. The development sample consisted of 1234 patients treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Modern statistical machine learning techniques were used to develop personalized recommendations. Drop-out analyses resulted in sev...
Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy - July 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lutz W, Rubel JA, Schwartz B, Schilling V, Deisenhofer AK Tags: Behav Res Ther Source Type: research

Midwifery students' experiences and expectations of using a model of holistic reflection.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Use of a holistic model combined with integrative and structured reflective activities supports the scaffolded and developmental nature of reflection. Alignment of the model with a woman centred midwifery philosophy generates midwifery knowledge and reflects student expectations of their role as aspiring midwives. Midwives' attitudes regarding reflection influences students' perceptions of value. Quality of feedback provided by educators affects levels of student motivation and engagement with reflection. PMID: 31296473 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Women Birth)
Source: Women Birth - July 8, 2019 Category: Midwifery Authors: Bass J, Sidebotham M, Creedy D, Sweet L Tags: Women Birth Source Type: research

Does student orientation improve nursing image and positively influence the enrolment of nursing students in the University? An observational study.
In conclusion, orientation is effective in helping high school students in the choice of their university courses. Regarding nursing, strategies to improve the image of the nurse and enrollment should be combined during orientation day with current up to date communication and learning tools, such as social media and simulation laboratories. Furthermore, it appears increasingly important to extend orientation and tutoring activities to junior high school students, families and teachers. PMID: 31292417 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Bio-Medica : Atenei Parmensis)
Source: Acta Bio-Medica : Atenei Parmensis - July 8, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Rubbi I, Pasquinelli G, Cremonini V, Fortunato F, Gatti L, Lepanto F, Artioli G, Bonacaro A Tags: Acta Biomed Source Type: research

Nursing students' perception of the quality of clinical learning: a mixed methods inquiry.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the University of Parma's Nursing students have a good perception of the quality of clinical learning. The significance of assigned internship presents some elements which are a relevant part of the new paradigm. However, there are still some aspects which need improvement, such as the necessity to reevaluate certain parts of the teaching organization of the professionalizing activities and of the clinical internships throughout the duration of the three-year course. PMID: 31292418 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Bio-Medica : Atenei Parmensis)
Source: Acta Bio-Medica : Atenei Parmensis - July 8, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: La Sala R, Ruozi C, Gavagni S, Martelli M, Marletta G, Primosa F Tags: Acta Biomed Source Type: research

Pedigree relationships to control inbreeding in optimum-contribution selection realise more genetic gain than genomic relationships.
CONCLUSIONS: POCS realised more true genetic gain than GOCS because it managed expected genetic drift without restricting selection at QTL. By contrast, GOCS penalised changes in allele frequencies at markers that were generated by genetic drift and selection. Because these marker alleles were in linkage disequilibrium with QTL alleles, GOCS restricted changes in allele frequencies at QTL. This provides little incentive to use GOCS and highlights that we have more to learn before we can control inbreeding using genomic relationships in selective-breeding schemes. Until we can do so, POCS remains a worthy method of optimum-...
Source: Genet Sel Evol - July 8, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Henryon M, Liu H, Berg P, Su G, Nielsen HM, Gebregiwergis GT, Sørensen AC Tags: Genet Sel Evol Source Type: research

Weaving participation, interaction, and technology across recreational experiences: perspectives from volunteers, caregivers, and people with complex communication needs.
Abstract Recreational and leisure activities offer many meaningful and motivating opportunities for communication and improving quality-of-life. Volunteers in recreation activities have important roles as participation and communication facilitators, while also creating opportunities for learning and social interaction. The aim of this study was to implement a novel photo and video intervention called the CAPTURE & Share Program, and to evaluate its impact on communication opportunities and participation. For the study, five volunteers were assigned to five individuals with complex communication needs. Each dy...
Source: Augmentative and Alternative Communication - July 8, 2019 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Authors: Hajjar DJ, McCarthy JW, Benigno JP, Montgomery J, Chabot J, Boster J Tags: Augment Altern Commun Source Type: research

Phonology, morphology and speech processing development in Greek-speaking children.
Abstract Α psycholinguistic framework for speech processing was adopted to investigate the development of phonological and morphological skills in children learning Greek. It was investigated whether morphological items pose specific challenges in terms of speech processing. Two groups of typically developing children aged 3.0-3.5 years (N = 16) and 4.6-5.0 years (N = 22), respectively, were assessed longitudinally at three assessment points 6 months apart. A range of phonologically based and morphologically based experimental speech processing tasks was administered to address the research question, along w...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - July 8, 2019 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Authors: Geronikou E, Vance M, Wells B, Thomson J Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Iterative processes: a review of semi-supervised machine learning in rehabilitation science.
Conclusions: A semi-supervised approach to machine learning has potential to enhance our understanding of complex data sets in rehabilitation science. SSML mirrors the iterative process of rehabilitation, making this approach ideal for calibrating devices, classifying activities or identifying just-in-time interventions. Rehabilitation scientists who are interested in conducting SSML should collaborate with data scientists to advance the application of this approach within our field. Implications for rehabilitation Semi-supervised machine learning applications may be a feasible approach for analyses of complex data sets in...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology. - July 8, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Kringle EA, Knutson EC, Engstrom C, Terhorst L Tags: Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol Source Type: research

NL reading skills mediate the relationship between NL phonological processing skills and a foreign language (FL) reading skills in students with and without dyslexia: a case of a NL (Polish) and FL (English) with different degrees of orthographic consistency.
Abstract The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between NL (Native Language: Polish) phonological processing skills (verbal and phonological short-term memory, phoneme segmentation and blending, rapid automatised naming (RAN)) and the accuracy and fluency of NL and English as a Foreign Language (EFL) word and nonword decoding and word recognition skills of Polish students with and without dyslexia. Sixty-three (45%) high school and junior high school students with and 78 (55%) without dyslexia participated. We found that dyslexia, years of studying EFL at school and privately, NL phoneme blending and...
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Łockiewicz M, Jaskulska M Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research

Cognitive function of Brazilian elderly persons: longitudinal study with non-clinical community sample.
Abstract Several biopsychosocial changes in individuals' life might happen, resulting in a decline of long-term cognitive abilities. In this way, the aim of this study was to compare cognition in non-clinical older adults in Brazil during a four-year period, as well as to examine which variables may explain cognitive function variations identified during this time. For this purpose, a longitudinal study was developed including 108 older Brazilians in phase I and 64 in phase II, from 2013 to 2017. Socio-demographic variables were assessed and the following instruments were administered: the Mini-Mental State Examin...
Source: Aging and Mental Health - July 8, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Farina M, Breno Costa D, Webber de Oliveira JA, Polidoro Lima M, Machado WL, Moret-Tatay C, Fernandes Lopes RM, Argimon IIL, Irigaray TQ Tags: Aging Ment Health Source Type: research

Automated identification of cephalometric landmarks: Part 1-Comparisons between the latest deep-learning methods YOLOV3 and SSD.
CONCLUSIONS: Between the two latest deep-learning methods applied, YOLOv3 seemed to be more promising as a fully automated cephalometric landmark identification system for use in clinical practice. PMID: 31282738 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Angle Orthodontist)
Source: The Angle Orthodontist - July 8, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Park JH, Hwang HW, Moon JH, Yu Y, Kim H, Her SB, Srinivasan G, Aljanabi MNA, Donatelli RE, Lee SJ Tags: Angle Orthod Source Type: research

Psychological testing in the age of Machine Learning: Blade Runner's vision (Alcon Entertainment/Columbia Pictures, Released October 2017, Directed by Denis Villeneuve, Screenplay by Hampton Fancher and Michael Green).
PMID: 31282176 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Australasian Psychiatry)
Source: Australasian Psychiatry - July 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Indranada A Tags: Australas Psychiatry Source Type: research

Probiotic supplementation attenuates hippocampus injury and spatial learning and memory impairments in a cerebral hypoperfusion mouse model.
This study examines the effect of 21 days consumption of multistrain probiotics on hippocampus injury, spatial and learning memory and some potential molecular mechanisms in a mouse model with cerebral hypoperfusion. Cerebral hypoperfusion was established in the mouse model by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) for 20 min and 24 h reperfusion. Mixtures of several probiotic bacteria at concentrations of 107, 108 and 109 CFU/day were orally administrated for 3 weeks before the BCCAO. Spatial and learning memory, histological damage and apoptosis were assessed in the CA1, CA3 and dentat...
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - July 8, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Rahmati H, Momenabadi S, Vafaei AA, Bandegi AR, Mazaheri Z, Vakili A Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research

Spontaneity and diversity of movement to music are not uniquely human.
Abstract Spontaneous movement to music occurs in every human culture and is a foundation of dance [1]. This response to music is absent in most species (including monkeys), yet it occurs in parrots, perhaps because they (like humans, and unlike monkeys) are vocal learners whose brains contain strong auditory-motor connections, conferring sophisticated audiomotor processing abilities [2,3]. Previous research has shown that parrots can bob their heads or lift their feet in synchrony with a musical beat [2,3], but humans move to music using a wide variety of movements and body parts. Is this also true of parrots? If ...
Source: Current Biology - July 8, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Jao Keehn RJ, Iversen JR, Schulz I, Patel AD Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Raman spectroscopic histology using machine learning for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Histopathology requires the expertise of specialists to diagnose morphological features of cells and tissues. Raman imaging can provide additional biochemical information to benefit histological disease diagnosis. Using a dietary model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats, we combine Raman imaging with machine learning and information theory to evaluate cellular ‐level information in liver tissue samples. After increasing signal‐to‐noise ratio in the Raman images through superpixel segmentation, we extract biochemically distinct regions within liver tissues, allowing for quantification of characteristic bioche...
Source: FEBS Letters - July 8, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Khalifa Mohammad Helal, James Nicholas Taylor, Harsono Cahyadi, Akira Okajima, Koji Tabata, Yoshito Itoh, Hideo Tanaka, Katsumasa Fujita, Yoshinori Harada, Tamiki Komatsuzaki Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

Midwifery students ’ experiences and expectations of using a model of holistic reflection
Reflective practice is a core professional competency and the hallmark of an autonomous, evidence-based midwife practitioner committed to lifelong learning. Despite this professional imperative little is currently known about how the development of reflective capacity is facilitated with midwifery students. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - July 8, 2019 Category: Midwifery Authors: Janice Bass, Mary Sidebotham, Debra Creedy, Linda Sweet Source Type: research

Gender-differential associations between attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms and youth health risk behaviors
Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the common developmental disorders that generally receives clinical attention at learning ages, and some symptoms may persist in young adulthood.1 Past research has demonstrated a consistent association between ADHD and youth health risk behaviors (e.g., cigarette smoking), which often develop during adolescence and contribute to early morbidity and mortality among young adults.2 However, ADHD symptoms are not routinely screened in adolescents and emerging adults during their visits to healthcare providers. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - July 8, 2019 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Kai-Jyun Jhang, Yu-Fang Lin, Meng-Che Tsai, Carol Strong, Yi-Ching Lin, Yi-Ping Hsieh, Chung-Ying Lin Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 2428: Uncertainty Analysis of Mobile Phone Use and Its Effect on Cognitive Function: The Application of Monte Carlo Simulation in a Cohort of Australian Primary School Children
Abramson Benke Previous epidemiological studies on health effects of radiation exposure from mobile phones have produced inconsistent results. This may be due to experimental difficulties and various sources of uncertainty, such as statistical variability, measurement errors, and model uncertainty. An analytical technique known as the Monte Carlo simulation provides an additional approach to analysis by addressing uncertainty in model inputs using error probability distributions, rather than point-source data. The aim of this investigation was to demonstrate using Monte Carlo simulation of data from the ExPOSURE ...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - July 8, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Brzozek Benke Zeleke Croft Dalecki Dimitriadis Kaufman Sim Abramson Benke Tags: Article Source Type: research

CycleGAN for style transfer in X-ray angiography
ConclusionsWe proposed an application of the CycleGAN deep network for enhancing the artificial data as an alternative to classical data augmentation techniques for medical applications, particularly focused on angiogram generation. We discussed success and failure cases, explaining conditions for the realistic data augmentation which respects both the complex physiology of arteries and the various patterns and textures generated by X-ray angiography. (Source: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery)
Source: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery - July 8, 2019 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Optimizing resource utilization during proficiency-based training of suturing skills in medical students: a randomized controlled trial of faculty-led, peer tutor-led, and holography-augmented methods of teaching
AbstractBackgroundSuturing is a fundamental skill in undergraduate medical education. It can be taught by faculty-led, peer tutor-led, and holography-augmented methods; however, the most educationally effective and cost-efficient method for proficiency-based teaching of suturing is yet to be determined.MethodsWe conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing faculty-led, peer tutor-led, and holography-augmented proficiency-based suturing training in pre-clerkship medical students. Holography-augmented training provided holographic, voice-controlled instructional material. Technical skill was assessed using hand motion a...
Source: Surgical Endoscopy - July 8, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Towards computerized diagnosis of neurological stance disorders: data mining and machine learning of posturography and sway
AbstractWe perform classification, ranking and mapping of body sway parameters from static posturography data of patients using recent machine-learning and data-mining techniques. Body sway is measured in 293 individuals with the clinical diagnoses of acute unilateral vestibulopathy (AVS,n = 49), distal sensory polyneuropathy (PNP,n = 12), anterior lobe cerebellar atrophy (CA,n = 48), downbeat nystagmus syndrome (DN,n = 16), primary orthostatic tremor (OT,n = 25), Parkinson’s disease (PD,n = 27), phobic postural vertigo (PPVn =...
Source: Journal of Neurology - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Time-dependent impairments in learning and memory in Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats
AbstractThe sedentary lifestyle is responsible for the high prevalence of diabetes which also impairs cognition including learning and memory. Various studies have highlighted the learning and memory impairments in rodent models but data regarding the timeline of their development and their correlation to biochemical parameters are scarce. So, the present study was designed to investigate the type of memory which is more susceptible to hyperglycemia and its correlation with biochemical parameters such as inflammatory cytokines, cAMP response element binding (CREB) and protein kinase B (Akt) activation. Hyperglycemia was in...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Overexpression of TIPE2, a Negative Regulator of Innate and Adaptive Immunity, Attenuates Cognitive Deficits in APP/PS1 Mice
In this study, we compared the gene and protein expres sions of TIPE2 between the APP/PS1 mice and the age-matched wild type (WT) mice at different stages of development using western blot and RT-qPCR. The hippocampal expression of the TIPE2 mRNA and protein in APP/PS1 mice was higher than that of the WT mice starting from 6 months to 10 months. Howev er, the difference of the TIPE2 expression between the APP/PS1 mice and the WT mice declined in a time-dependent manner. The spatial learning and memory deficit from the 8-month-old APP/PS1 mice was observed in the Y-maze test and fear conditioning task. Interesting...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Beer? Over here! Examining attentional bias towards alcoholic and appetitive stimuli in a visual search eye-tracking task
ConclusionsSocial drinkers may exhibit generalised attentional bias towards alcoholic and non-alcoholicappetitive cues. This adds to emergent research suggesting that the mechanisms driving these individual ’s attention towards alcoholic cues might ‘spill over’ to other appetitive cues, possibly due to associative learning. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Microsurgical dissection of Sylvian fissure —short technical videos of third generation cerebrovascular neurosurgeons
ConclusionThe edited video underlines nuances and differences of a few major technical aspects that are perhaps typical to certain surgical environments and cultures. These microsurgical nuances and styles are useful perks that can be mastered with training by any novice neurosurgeon. (Source: Acta Neurochirurgica)
Source: Acta Neurochirurgica - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: July 2019Source: Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 73Author(s): (Source: Learning and Individual Differences)
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The role of teachers' depressive symptoms in classroom quality and child developmental outcomes in Early Head Start programs
Publication date: August 2019Source: Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 74Author(s): Kyong-Ah Kwon, Shinyoung Jeon, Lieny Jeon, Sherri CastleAbstractThe present study examined whether teachers' depressive symptoms are directly and indirectly associated with children's social-emotional and language development in the context of Early Head Start (EHS) center-based programs. We used the EHS Family and Child Experiences Study (i.e., Baby FACES 2009) with a sample of 275 toddlers and 197 teachers in 72 programs. Among the current sample of EHS teachers, the prevalence of teachers' depressive symptoms was low. Teachers ...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - July 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

MR Imaging Central Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation Restored Autistic-like Social Deficits in the Rat
ConclusionsApplying CTN-DBS to ASD rat offspring increased FC and altered the synaptic plasticity in the corticolimbic and the corticostriatal circuits. This suggests that CTN-DBS could be an effective treatment for improving the social behaviors of individuals with ASD. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - July 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Human agency beliefs affect older adults' interaction behaviours and task performance when learning with computerised partners
Publication date: Available online 6 July 2019Source: Computers in Human BehaviorAuthor(s): Catherine J. Crompton, Sarah E. MacPhersonAbstractComputer-mediated systems can support aging in-place, although little is known about how older adults interact with these systems and how they learn from them. Using a Wizard-of-Oz paradigm, this study compared how older adults interacted and learned with a system that they believed was a human, and with a system they believed was a computer. While both systems were identical, the human system used natural speech and the computer system used synthetic speech. In a within-subjects des...
Source: Computers in Human Behavior - July 7, 2019 Category: Information Technology Source Type: research

How a Dialogic Space can impact children's creativity and mood valence in Drama Pedagogy Training: Study with a French 4th grade sample
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2019Source: Thinking Skills and CreativityAuthor(s): Macarena-Paz Celume, Maud Besançon, Franck ZenasniAbstractDrama Pedagogy Training (DPT) is a kind of training based on an active educational methodology called Drama Pedagogy. It is mostly based on collaborative drama games and techniques, similar to what is commonly found in literature as creative drama as the objective is neither artistic nor academic. As an active pedagogy, participants co-construct their learning through participative dialogue, reasoning together about the learning experiences that are presented as col...
Source: Thinking Skills and Creativity - July 7, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

The relation between country differences, cultural values, personality dimensions, and error orientation: An approach across three continents – Asia, Europe, and North America
Publication date: December 2019Source: Safety Science, Volume 120Author(s): Yaila Zotzmann, Dimitri van der Linden, Knut WyrwaAbstractError orientation describes one’s attitude and behavior toward dealing with, communicating about, and learning from errors. Error orientation has been related to organizations’ safety and quality culture. The present study examined country-level differences in error orientation and its relation to cultural values and personality dimensions. The sample consisted of employees (N = 464) working for an international enterprise. The employees were located in eight different countr...
Source: Safety Science - July 7, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

New Perspectives on the Aging Lexicon
Publication date: Available online 6 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Dirk U. Wulff, Simon De Deyne, Michael N. Jones, Rui Mata, The Aging Lexicon ConsortiumThe field of cognitive aging has seen considerable advances in describing the linguistic and semantic changes that happen during the adult life span to uncover the structure of the mental lexicon (i.e., the mental repository of lexical and conceptual representations). Nevertheless, there is still debate concerning the sources of these changes, including the role of environmental exposure and several cognitive mechanisms associated with learning, ...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Severity Classification of Conjunctival Hyperaemia by Deep Neural Network Ensembles.
Authors: Masumoto H, Tabuchi H, Yoneda T, Nakakura S, Ohsugi H, Sumi T, Fukushima A Abstract Conjunctival hyperaemia is a common clinical ophthalmological finding and can be a symptom of various ocular disorders. Although several severity classification criteria have been proposed, none include objective severity criteria. Neural networks and deep learning have been utilised in ophthalmology, but not for the purpose of classifying the severity of conjunctival hyperaemia objectively. To develop a conjunctival hyperaemia grading software, we used 3700 images as the training data and 923 images as the validation test ...
Source: Journal of Ophthalmology - July 7, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: J Ophthalmol Source Type: research

Examining the Association between Life-Space Mobility and Cognitive Function in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.
Conclusion: This review examined the association between life-space mobility and cognitive function in older adults. The results suggest that a moderate relationship between life-space mobility and cognition exists, whether adjusted or unadjusted for covariates such as sociodemographics, mental health, functional capacity, and comorbidities. PMID: 31275650 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Aging Research)
Source: Journal of Aging Research - July 7, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Tags: J Aging Res Source Type: research

Justifying Diagnosis Decisions by Deep Neural Networks
Publication date: Available online 6 July 2019Source: Journal of Biomedical InformaticsAuthor(s): Graham Spinks, Marie-Francine MoensAbstractAn integrated approach is proposed across visual and textual data to both determine and justify a medical diagnosis by a neural network. As deep learning techniques improve, interest grows to apply them in medical applications. To enable a transition to workflows in a medical context that are aided by machine learning, the need exists for such algorithms to help justify the obtained outcome so human clinicians can judge their validity. In this work, deep learning methods are used to m...
Source: Journal of Biomedical Informatics - July 7, 2019 Category: Information Technology Source Type: research

Development and validation of an automated HIV prediction algorithm to identify candidates for pre-exposure prophylaxis: a modelling study
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2019Source: The Lancet HIVAuthor(s): Douglas S Krakower, Susan Gruber, Katherine Hsu, John T Menchaca, Judith C Maro, Benjamin A Kruskal, Ira B Wilson, Kenneth H Mayer, Michael KlompasSummaryBackgroundHIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective but underused, in part because clinicians do not have the tools to identify PrEP candidates. We developed and validated an automated prediction algorithm that uses electronic health record (EHR) data to identify individuals at increased risk for HIV acquisition.MethodsWe used machine learning algorithms to predict incident HIV infection...
Source: The Lancet HIV - July 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Use of electronic health record data and machine learning to identify candidates for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: a modelling study
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2019Source: The Lancet HIVAuthor(s): Julia L Marcus, Leo B Hurley, Douglas S Krakower, Stacey Alexeeff, Michael J Silverberg, Jonathan E VolkSummaryBackgroundThe limitations of existing HIV risk prediction tools are a barrier to implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We developed and validated an HIV prediction model to identify potential PrEP candidates in a large health-care system.MethodsOur study population was HIV-uninfected adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health-care system, who were not yet using PrEP and had at least 2 ...
Source: The Lancet HIV - July 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Ketones improves Apolipoprotein E4-related memory deficiency via sirtuin 3.
CONCLUSION: Our current studies suggest that ketones improve learning and memory abilities of ApoE4 transgenic mice. Sirt3 may mediate the neuroprotection of ketones by increasing neuronal energy metabolism in ApoE4 transgenic mice. This provides the foundation for Sirt3's potential role in the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID: 31280254 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Aging)
Source: Aging - July 7, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yin J, Nielsen M, Li S, Shi J Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research

Sudden death as a first manifestation of left atrium thrombus in rheumatic severe mitral stenosis
We described a case of rheumatic mitral stenosis, a 48-year-old female patient, who had undergone percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy 26 years back. She presented with an episode of palpitations and breathlessness on mild exertion. She found to have rapid atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Her echocardiography showed severe mitral stenosis and large left atrial thrombus intermittently obstructing the mitral valve. While she was prepared for urgent valve replacement she had cardiac arrest and died. The echocardiogram showed the thrombus was stuck and closed the mitral valve orifice. From this events we did a ...
Source: Journal of Cardiology Cases - July 6, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Connecting Levels of Analysis in Educational Neuroscience: A Review of Multi-level Structure of Educational Neuroscience with Concrete Examples
We present a multi-level framework for educational neuroscience, which argues for integration of multiple levels of analysis, some originating in brain and cognitive sciences, others in education, as a roadmap for the future of educational neuroscience with concrete examples in mathematical learning and moral education. (Source: Trends in Neuroscience and Education)
Source: Trends in Neuroscience and Education - July 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Synaptic structure and alterations in the hippocampus in neonatal rats exposed to lipopolysaccharide
In this study, intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the developing rats was used as a sepsis model to determine whether hippocampal synapses would be affected. Expression of synaptophysin (Syn), synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kD (SNAP-25), and N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in the hippocampus in septic brain were significantly reduced. Consistent with this, the number of dendritic spines associated with the pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus at 28d after LPS administration was decreased. Additionally, the number of synapse and synaptic vesicles were reduced and appea...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Modulation of excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic inputs in the mouse primary motor cortex in the late phase of motor learning
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Ragunathan Padmashri, Anna DunaevskyAbstractMotor skill training induces functional and structural changes in the primary motor cortex. New dendritic spines are formed with training and the horizontal connections in the layer II/III area of the primary motor cortex are strengthened. Here we investigated the functional synaptic properties of pyramidal neurons following motor skill training. We trained mice on a single forelimb-reaching task for five days and performed whole cell recordings from layer II/III pyramidal neurons in the forelimb...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hippocampal Protein Kinase C Gamma Signaling Mediates the Impairment of Spatial Learning and Memory in Prenatally Stressed Offspring Rats
In conclusion, PS possibly decreases hippocampal PKCγ activity, resulting in a reduction of p-GAP-43 and p-Ng, which underlies insufficient CaMKII activation, thereby impairing spatial learning and memory. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - July 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Combining technology and entrepreneurial education through design thinking: Students' reflections on the learning process
This study therefore seeks to enhance our understanding of this issue through an exploratory case study of students' reflections during and after participation in a course that uses design thinking to teach entrepreneurial skills through a technologically challenging case. The findings indicate that the course constituted a major challenge for the students, but also an opportunity for developing both tangential skills and knowledge about the commercialization of technology. Further, there is evidence of transformational learning as students began to apply design thinking in real-life beyond the context of the course. (Sour...
Source: Technological Forecasting and Social Change - July 6, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research