Individual differences in neonatal white matter are associated with executive function at 3 years of age
In this study, we consider neonatal white matter microstructure in relation to children ’s performance on a battery of EF tasks three years later. We obtained diffusion tensor imaging data from a sample of neonates (N = 27) shortly after birth. At 3 years of age, children completed a computerized battery of EF tasks. The primary data analyses involved regression models estimated for each white matter tract. Multiple demographic and measure-related covariates were included in each model. A follow-up analysis of tracts determined to be associated with EF examined individual data points along tho...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - September 13, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The robust and independent nature of structural STS asymmetries
In this study, we assess the interrelations of STS asymmetries in the human brain in vivo, using four independent datasets to validate our findings. For morphological measurements, we identify STS laterality effects consistent between our datasets and with the literature: leftward for surface area, and rightward for sulcal depth and mean thickness. We then add two more measurements of STS asymmetry: in T1, a quantitative index of the tissue ’s underlying biophysical properties; and in the projections to the STS from the arcuate fasciculus, a left-lateralized white-matter bundle that connects temporal regions (includi...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - September 13, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The impact of physiological noise on hemodynamic-derived estimates of directed functional connectivity
AbstractMeasuring the strength of directed functional interactions between brain regions is fundamental to understand neural networks. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a suitable method to map directed interactions between brain regions but is based on the neurovascular coupling. It, thus, relies on vasomotor reactivity and is potentially biased by non-neural physiological noise. To investigate the impact of physiological noise on fNIRS-based estimates of directed functional connectivity within the rostro-caudal hierarchical organization of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), we systematically assessed the effects...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - September 12, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Segregated precuneus network and default mode network in naturalistic imaging
This study compared the responses and functional couplings of PCUN and DMN when participants were watching a movie and examined how the continuity of the movie context modulated the response of the networks. We identified PCUN and DMN in re sting-state fMRI of 48 healthy subjects. The networks’ response to a context-rich video and its context-shuffled version was characterized using the variance of temporal fluctuations and functional connectivity metrics. The results showed that (1) scrambling the contextual information altered the fluctuation level of DMN and PCUN in reversed ways; (2) compared to DMN, the FC withi...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - September 12, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Inactivation of the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray matter impairs the promoting influence of stress on fear memory during retrieval
In conclusion, the present results suggest t hat the dlPAG is a key neural site for the negative valence instruction necessary to modulate the promoting influence of stress on fear memory. (Source: Anatomy and Embryology)
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - September 11, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Altered motor, anxiety-related and attentional task performance at baseline associate with multiple gene copies of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and related protein overexpression in ChAT::Cre+ rats
AbstractTransgenic rodents expressing Cre recombinase cell specifically are used for exploring mechanisms regulating behavior, including those mediated by cholinergic signaling. However, it was recently reported that transgenic mice overexpressing a bacterial artificial chromosome containingcholine acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene, for synthesizing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, present with multiplevesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) gene copies, resulting in altered cholinergic tone and accompanying behavioral abnormalities. Since ChAT::Cre+ rats, used increasingly for understanding the biological basis of CNS ...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - September 10, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Large-scale plurimodal networks common to listening to, producing and reading word lists: an fMRI study combining task-induced activation and intrinsic connectivity in 144 right-handers
AbstractWe aimed at identifying plurimodal large-scale networks for producing, listening to and reading word lists based on the combined analyses of task-induced activation and resting-state intrinsic connectivity in 144 healthy right-handers. In the first step, we identified the regions in each hemisphere showing joint activation and joint asymmetry during the three tasks. In the left hemisphere, 14 homotopic regions of interest (hROIs) located in the left Rolandic sulcus, precentral gyrus, cingulate gyrus, cuneus and inferior supramarginal gyrus (SMG) met this criterion, and 7 hROIs located in the right hemisphere were l...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - September 7, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Structural and functional connections between the median and the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus
AbstractThe median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) are two brain structures that contain neurons essential for promoting non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. However, their connections are still largely unknown. Here, we describe for the first time a slice preparation with an oblique coronal slicing angle at 70 ° from the horizontal in which their connectivity is preserved. Using the in vivo iDISCO method following viral infection of the MnPO or ex vivo biocytin crystal deposition in the MnPO of mouse brain slices, we revealed a strong axonal pathway from the MnPO to the VLPO. Then...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - September 6, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Developing brain as a source of circulating norepinephrine in rats during the critical period of morphogenesis
This study was aimed to test our hypothesis that the developing brain operates as an endocrine organ during morphogenesis, in rats during the perinatal period (Ugrumov in Neuro Chem 35:837 –850, 2010). Norepinephrine, which is a morphogenetic factor, was used as a marker of the endocrine activity of the developing brain, although it is also secreted by peripheral organs. In this study, it was first shown that the concentration of norepinephrine in the peripheral blood of neonatal ra ts is sufficient to ensure the morphogenetic effect on the peripheral organs and the brain itself. Using pharmacological suppression of ...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - September 6, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Two distinct GUCY2C circuits with PMV (hypothalamic) and SN/VTA (midbrain) origin
AbstractGuanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C) is the afferent central receptor in the gut –brain endocrine axis regulated by the anorexigenic intestinal hormone uroguanylin. GUCY2C mRNA and protein are produced in the hypothalamus, a major center regulating appetite and metabolic homeostasis. Further, GUCY2C mRNA and protein are expressed in the ventral midbrain, a principal structure regulating hedonic reward from behaviors including eating. While GUCY2C is expressed in hypothalamus and midbrain, its precise neuroanatomical organization and relationship with circuits regulating satiety remain unknown. Here, we reveal that hyp...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - September 4, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Reducing negative affect with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation increases memory performance in young —but not in elderly—individuals
This study explores whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the left dlPFC improves memory retrieval through the reduction of negative affect and if this interacts with age. We randomly assigned 94 healthy individuals (n = 43 young,n = 51 elderly) to either sham or active tDCS during encoding of a verbal episodic memory task. Participants completed two questionnaires assessing affective states pre- and post-stimulation. They had to recall items unexpectedly 20 min after encoding and to name which feelings were associated w ith this free recall. We applied mediation ...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - September 3, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Structural brain network of gifted children has a more integrated and versatile topology
In conclusion, gifted children have a more integrated and versatile brain network topology. This is compatible with the global workspace theory and other data linking integrative network topology to cognitive performance. (Source: Anatomy and Embryology)
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - August 17, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Early trigeminal ganglion afferents enter the cerebellum before the Purkinje cells are born and target the nuclear transitory zone
In this report, we describe a novel earlier stage in afferent development. Immunostaining for a neurofilament-associated antigen (NAA) reveals the early axon distributions with remarkable clarity. Using a combination of DiI axon tract tracing, analysis ofneurogenin1 null mice, which do not develop trigeminal ganglia, and mouse embryos maintained in vitro, we show that the first axons to innervate the cerebellar primordium as early as E9 arise from the trigeminal ganglion. Therefore, early trigeminal axons are in situ before the Purkinje cells are born. Double immunostaining for NAA and markers of the different domains in t...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - August 17, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Individual susceptibility to TMS affirms the precuneal role in meta-memory upon recollection
This study’s goal is to elucidate how these TMS-induced neuromodulatory effects might relate to the neural correlates and be modulated by individual anatomical profiles in relation to meta-memory. In a within-subjects design, we assessed th e impact of 20-min rTMS over the precuneus, compared to the vertex, across three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) neuro-profiles on 18 healthy subjects during a memory versus a perceptual task. Task-based functional MRI revealed that BOLD signal magnitude in the precuneus is associated with variatio n in individual meta-memory efficiency. Moreover, individuals with higher resting-...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - August 17, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Localization of amyloid beta peptides to locus coeruleus and medial prefrontal cortex in corticotropin releasing factor overexpressing male and female mice
AbstractA culmination of evidence from the literature points to the Locus Coeruleus (LC)-Norepinephrine system as an underappreciated and understudied area of research in the context of Alzheimer ’s Disease (AD). Stress is a risk factor for developing AD, and is supported by multiple clinical and preclinical studies demonstrating that amplification of the stress system disrupts cellular and molecular processes at the synapse, promoting the production and accumulation of the amyloid beta (A β42) peptide. Stress-induced activation of the LC is mediated by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and CRF receptors exhi...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - August 17, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Ensemble encoding of action speed by striatal fast-spiking interneurons
We report that FSIs exhibit ensemble activity that encodes the speed of action sub-components, including ambulation and head movements. These results suggest FSI population dynamics fit within a Hebbian model for ensemble inhibition of striatal output guiding action. (Source: Anatomy and Embryology)
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - August 17, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Functional neuroanatomy of the human eye movement network: a review and atlas
AbstractThe human eye movement network is a complex system that requires the integration of sensory, motor, attentional, and executive processes. Here, we review the neuroanatomy of the eye movement network with an emphasis on functional neuroimaging applications. We consolidate the literature into a concise resource designed to be immediately accessible and applicable to diverse research interests, and present the novel Functional Oculomotor System (FOcuS) Atlas —a tool in stereotaxic space that will simplify and standardize the inclusion of the eye movement network in future functional neuroimaging studies. We anti...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - August 12, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The time-course of thermoregulatory responses during treadmill running is associated with running duration-dependent hypothalamic neuronal activation in rats
This study evaluated the hypothalamic neuronal activation during exercise and investigated whether this activation is related to heat storage and exercise duration. Rats were subjected to a treadmill running that was interrupted at three different moments: (1) at the early phase, when minimal heat dissipation occurred due to tail vasoconstriction and the tail skin temperature (Tskin) reached its nadir; (2) at the steady-state phase, when both theTskin and core body temperature (Tcore) plateaued at a high level (~  20 min); and (3) at fatigue, whenTcore andTskin were still elevated. c-Fos expression in the media...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - August 9, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Origin of acoustic –vestibular ganglionic neuroblasts in chick embryos and their sensory connections
AbstractThe inner ear is a complex three-dimensional sensory structure with auditory and vestibular functions. It originates from the otic placode, which generates the sensory elements of the membranous labyrinth and all the ganglionic neuronal precursors. Neuroblast specification is the first cell differentiation event. In the chick, it takes place over a long embryonic period from the early otic cup stage to at least stage HH25. The differentiating ganglionic neurons attain a precise innervation pattern with sensory patches, a process presumably governed by a network of dendritic guidance cues which vary with the local m...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - August 8, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Receptor density pattern confirms and enhances the anatomic-functional features of the macaque superior parietal lobule areas
AbstractThe macaque monkey superior parietal lobule (SPL) is part of a neuronal network involved in the integration of information from visual and somatosensory cortical areas for execution of reaching and grasping movements. We applied quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography to analyse the distribution patterns of 15 different receptors for glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, and adenosine in the SPL of three adult maleMacaca fascicularis monkeys. For each area, mean (averaged over all cortical layers) receptor densities were visualized as a receptor fingerprint of that area. Multivariate analyses ...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - August 7, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Correction to: Central serotonin modulates neural responses to virtual violent actions in emotion regulation networks
The article “Central serotonin modulates neural responses to virtual violent actions in emotion regulation networks”, written by Dhana Wolf, Martin Klasen, Patrick Eisner, Florian D. Zepf, Mikhail Zvyagintsev, Nicola Palomero‑Gallagher, René Weber, Albrecht Eisert, Klaus Mathiak was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on June, 08, 2018 without open access. (Source: Anatomy and Embryology)
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - August 7, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Three divisions of the mouse caudal striatum differ in the proportions of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing cells, distribution of dopaminergic axons, and composition of cholinergic and GABAergic interneurons
In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the distributions of both projection neurons and interneurons in each division using immunohistochemistry. Two types of projection neurons expressing either the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) or D2 receptor (D2R) showed complementary distributions throughout the tri-laminar part, but the proportions significantly differed among the three divisions. The proportion of D1R-expressing neurons in the medial, intermediate, and lateral divisions was 88.6  ± 8.2% (651 cells from 3 mice), 14.7 ± 3.8% (1025 cells), and 49.3 ± 4.5% (8...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - August 2, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Loss of serum response factor in mature neurons in the dentate gyrus alters the morphology of dendritic spines and hippocampus-dependent behavioral tasks
AbstractSerum response factor (SRF) is a major transcription factor that regulates the expression of several plasticity-associated genes in the brain. Although the developmental expression of SRF in excitatory neurons is crucial for establishing proper hippocampal circuitry, no substantial evidence of its role in unstimulated mature neurons has been provided. The present study used time-controlled, conditional SRF knockout mice and found that the lack of SRF in adult neurons led to decreased actin levels and inactivation of the actin-severing protein cofilin  1 through its increase in phosphorylation at Ser3. The augm...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - August 2, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Short-term plasticity after partial deafferentation in the oculomotor system
AbstractMedial rectus motoneurons are innervated by two main pontine inputs. The specific function of each of these two inputs remains to be fully understood. Indeed, selective partial deafferentation of medial rectus motoneurons, performed by the lesion of either the vestibular or the abducens input, initially induces similar changes in motoneuronal discharge. However, at longer time periods, the responses to both lesions are dissimilar. Alterations on eye movements and motoneuronal discharge induced by vestibular input transection recover completely 2  months post-lesion, whereas changes induced by abducens internuc...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - August 2, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Acute and long-term treadmill running differentially induce c-Fos expression in region- and time-dependent manners in mouse brain
In conclusion, both acute and long-term treadmill running at mild intensity induce c-Fos expression in the limbic system and movement-associated cortical and subcortical regions, with long-term exercise involving more brain regions (i.e., hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray) and longer lasting effects. (Source: Anatomy and Embryology)
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - July 27, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Age-related hearing loss increases full-brain connectivity while reversing directed signaling within the dorsal –ventral pathway for speech
AbstractSpeech comprehension difficulties are ubiquitous to aging and hearing loss, particularly in noisy environments. Older adults ’ poorer speech-in-noise (SIN) comprehension has been related to abnormal neural representations within various nodes (regions) of the speech network, but how senescent changes in hearing alter the transmission of brain signals remains unspecified. We measured electroencephalograms in older adults with and without mild hearing loss during a SIN identification task. Using functional connectivity and graph-theoretic analyses, we show that hearing-impaired (HI) listeners have more extended...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - July 25, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Associative white matter connecting the dorsal and ventral posterior human cortex
We present a full anatomical delineation of these major dorso-ventral connective white matter tracts (the VOF, pArc, TP-SPL, and MdLF). We show their spatial layout and cortical termination mappings in relation to the more established horizontal tracts (SLF, IFOF, ILF, and Arc) and consider standard values for quantitative features associated with the aforementioned tracts. We hope to facilitate further study on these tracts and their relations. To this end, we also share links to automated code that segments these tracts, thereby providing a standard approach to obtaining these tracts for subsequent analysis. We developed...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - July 24, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Impact of COMT haplotypes on functional connectivity density and its association with the gene expression of dopamine receptors
AbstractCatechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) affects brain connectivity via modulating the dopamine system, with an expected greater effect of haplotypes than single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The action pathway fromCOMT to dopamine to connectivity is theoretically dependent on the gene expression of dopamine receptors. Here, we aimed to investigate the impact ofCOMT haplotypes on brain functional connectivity density (FCD) in hundreds of healthy young subjects, and to disclose the association between theCOMT-FCD statistical map and the spatial expression of the dopamine receptor genes. We found an inverted U-shaped mod...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - July 22, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The neglected medial part of macaque area PE: segregated processing of reach depth and direction
This study shows that PE is strongly involved in motor processing of depth and direction information during reaching. It highlights a trend in medial PPC, going from the joint coding of depth and direction signals caudally, in area V6A, to a largely segregated processing of the two signals rostrally, in area PE. (Source: Anatomy and Embryology)
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - July 20, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Nigrostriatal and mesolimbic control of sleep –wake behavior in rat
AbstractThe midbrain dopamine system via the dorsal and ventral striatum regulates a wide range of behaviors. To dissect the role of dopaminergic projections to the dorsal striatum (nigrostriatal projection) and ventral striatum (mesolimbic projection) in sleep –wake behavior, we selectively chemogenetically stimulated nigrostriatal or mesolimbic projections and examined the resulting effects on sleep in rats. Stimulation of nigrostriatal pathways increased sleep and EEG delta power, while stimulation of mesolimbic pathways decreased sleep and reduced co rtical EEG power. These results indicate that midbrain dopamine...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - July 19, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Parsing rooms: the role of the PPA and RSC in perceiving object relations and spatial layout
AbstractThe perception of a scene involves grasping the global space of the scene, usually called the spatial layout, as well as the objects in the scene and the relations between them. The main brain areas involved in scene perception, the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC), are supposed to mostly support the processing of spatial layout. Here we manipulated the objects and their relations either by arranging objects within rooms in a common way or by scattering them randomly. The rooms were then varied for spatial layout by keeping or removing the walls of the room, a typical layout manipulat...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - July 17, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Role of the supplementary motor area in auditory sensory attenuation
AbstractSelf-generated tones elicit smaller brain responses as compared to externally generated tones. This phenomenon known as sensory attenuation has been explained in terms of an internal forward model in which the brain predicts the upcoming events and thereby attenuates the sensory processing. Such prediction processes have been suggested to occur via an efference copy of the motor command that is sent from the motor system to the lower order sensory cortex. However, little is known about how the prediction is implemented in the brain ’s network organization. Because the supplementary motor area (SMA) is a prima...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - July 16, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Processing pathways for emotional vocalizations
AbstractEmotional sounds are processed within a large cortico-subcortical network, of which the auditory cortex, the voice area, and the amygdala are the core regions. Using 7T fMRI, we have compared the effect of emotional valence (positive, neutral, and negative) and the effect of the type of environmental sounds (human vocalizations and non-vocalizations) on neural activity within individual early stage auditory areas, the voice area, and the amygdala. A two-way ANOVA was applied to the BOLD time course within each ROI. In several early stage auditory areas, it yielded a significant main effect of vocalizations and of v...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - July 6, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A balanced evaluation of the evidence for adult neurogenesis in humans: implication for neuropsychiatric disorders
AbstractThere is a widespread belief that neurogenesis exists in adult human brain, especially in the dentate gyrus, and it is to be maintained and, if possible, augmented with different stimuli including exercise and certain drugs. Here, we examine the evidence for adult human neurogenesis and note important limitations of the methodologies used to study it. A balanced review of the literature and evaluation of the data indicate that adult neurogenesis in human brain is improbable. In fact, in several high-quality recent studies in adult human brain, unlike in adult brains of other species, neurogenesis was not detectable...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - July 5, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

High resolution atlas of the venous brain vasculature from 7 T quantitative susceptibility maps
AbstractThe vascular organization of the human brain can determine neurological and neurophysiological functions, yet thus far it has not been comprehensively mapped. Aging and diseases such as dementia are known to be associated with changes to the vasculature and normative data could help detect these vascular changes in neuroimaging studies. Furthermore, given the well-known impact of venous vessels on the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, information about the common location of veins could help detect biases in existing datasets. In this work, a quantitative atlas of the venous vasculature using quantitative...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - July 5, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Stability of neuronal avalanches and long-range temporal correlations during the first year of life in human infant
AbstractDuring infancy, the human brain rapidly expands in size and complexity as neural networks mature and new information is incorporated at an accelerating pace. Recently, it was shown that single electrode EEG in preterms at birth exhibits scale-invariant intermittent bursts. Yet, it is currently not known whether the normal infant brain, in particular, the cortex maintains a distinct dynamical state during development that is characterized by scale-invariant spatial as well as temporal aspects. Here we employ dense-array EEG recordings acquired from the same infants at 6 and 12 months of age to characterize brain act...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - July 2, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Top-down control of the medial orbitofrontal cortex to nucleus accumbens core pathway in decisional impulsivity
AbstractDecisional impulsivity is one of the risk factors for occurrence and development of many mental disorders, and that the dysfunctions of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) are at least involved. Although previous studies have shown that the role of OFC as a whole in regulating decision-making impulse behavior is inconsistent, it ’s still unclear that the roles of the subregions of OFC including their projections to the NAcC in decisional impulsivity. The present study was designed to investigate the roles of OFC subregions, medial OFC (mOFC) and lateral OFC (lOFC) and their projection...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - July 1, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Individual differences in inhibitory control abilities modulate the functional neuroplasticity of inhibitory control
AbstractPrevious research has shown that training on inhibitory control (IC) leads to functional neural plastic changes, although this effect on individuals with different levels of IC abilities has yet to be studied. Here, we examined the individual differences in IC abilities of 85 participants, who performed a Simon task while undergoing a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Participants in the experimental group followed an 8-day training session on IC between the pre- and the post-test, whereas the control group did not receive any training. The fMRI results reported that, in comparison to the control g...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - June 19, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Effects of aging on sequential cognitive flexibility are associated with fronto-parietal processing deficits
We examined this question in a system neurophysiological study using EEG and source localization in healthy and elderly adults. We show that elderly people reveal deficient sequential cognitive flexibility. Elderly people encounter increased costs to overcome the inhibition of the lately abandoned task set that becomes relevant again and needs to be re-used. The neurophysiological (EEG) data show that differences in sequential cognitive flexibility between young and elderly people emerge as a consequence of two independent, dysfunctional processes: (i) the ability to suppress task-irrelevant information and (ii) the abilit...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - June 19, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Mitral cell development in the olfactory bulb of sharks: evidences of a conserved pattern of glutamatergic neurogenesis
AbstractIn mammals, the development of the olfactory bulb (OB) relies in part on the expression of transcription factors involved in the specifications/differentiation of glutamatergic cells. In a previous study from our group, a high molecular similarity was reported between mammals and cartilaginous fishes regarding the neurogenic mechanisms underlying the development of glutamatergic cells in the telencephalon. However, information about the transcriptional program operating in the development of the glutamatergic system (mainly represented by mitral cells) in the OB is lacking in the catsharkScyliorhinus canicula, a ca...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - June 15, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Cell-type and region-specific nucleus accumbens AMPAR plasticity associated with morphine reward, reinstatement, and spontaneous withdrawal
AbstractDespite evidence that morphine-related pathologies reflect adaptations in NAc glutamate signaling, substantial gaps in basic information remain. The current study examines the impact of non-contingent acute, repeated, and withdrawal-inducing morphine dosing regimens on glutamate transmission in D1- or D2-MSNs in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) and core (NAcC) sub-regions in hopes of identifying excitatory plasticity that may contribute to  unique facets of opioid addiction-related behavior. Following an acute morphine injection (10 mg/kg), average miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) ampl...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - June 14, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The differential impact of acute microglia activation on the excitability of cholinergic neurons in the mouse medial septum
AbstractThe medial septal nucleus is one of the basal forebrain nuclei that projects cholinergic input to the hippocampus and cortex. Two of the hallmarks of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) are a significant loss of cholinergic transmission and neuroinflammation, and it has been suggested that these two hallmarks are causally linked to the medial septum. Therefore, we have investigated the age-related susceptibility of medial septal cholinergic neurons to glial activa tion, mediated via peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (500 μg/kg) intoChAT(BAC)-eGFP mice at different ages (3 –22 months). O...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - June 13, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

White matter asymmetries in human situs inversus totalis
AbstractDiffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was used to investigate white matter asymmetries in participants with situs inversus totalis (SIT) and matched controls. Regardless of visceral condition, hemispheric differences were found for the arcuate fasciculus (ARC) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), which are involved in language and visuospatial functioning, respectively. The ARC appears lateralized to the left hemisphere, analogous to the left lateralization of functional areas associated with language. The SLF, on the other hand, is lateralized to the right, corresponding with rightward lateralization of visu...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - June 13, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A network approach to brain form, cortical topology and human evolution
In this study, we build a model representing the spatial adjacency of the major regions of the human brain often considered in evolutionary neuroanatomy, to analyse its topological features. Results suggest that the frontal lobe is topologically independent of the posterior regions of the brain, which in turn are more integrated and influenced by reciprocal constraints. The precentral gyrus represents a hinge between the anterior and posterior blocks. The lateral temporal cortex is particularly influenced by the neighbouring regions, while the parietal cortex is minimally constrained by the overall brain organization. Beyo...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - June 12, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

On the existence of mechanoreceptors within the neurovascular unit of the mammalian brain
We describe a set of perivascular interneurons (PINs) with series of fibro-vesicular complexes (FVCs) throughout the gray matter of the adult rabbit and rat brains. PIN –FVCs are ubiquitous throughout the brain vasculature as detected in Golgi-impregnated specimens. Most PINs are small, aspiny cells with short or long (>  1 mm) axons that split and travel along arterial blood vessels. Upon ramification, axons form FVCs around the arising vascular branches; then, paired axons run parallel to the vessel wall until another ramification ensues, and a new FVC is formed. Cytologically, FVCs consist of cluste...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - June 12, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Deficiency of the palmitoyl acyltransferase ZDHHC7 impacts brain and behavior of mice in a sex-specific manner
AbstractThe palmitoyl acyltransferase ZDHHC7 belongs to the DHHC family responsible for the covalent attachment of palmitic acid (palmitoylation) to target proteins. Among synaptic proteins, its main targets are sex steroid receptors such as the estrogen receptors. When palmitoylated, these couple to membrane microdomains and elicit non-genomic rapid responses. Such coupling is found particularly in cortico-limbic brain areas which impact structure, function, and behavioral outcomes. Thus far, the functional role of ZDHHC7 has not been investigated in this context. To directly analyze an impact of ZDHHC7 on brain anatomy, ...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - June 10, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The neural correlates of auditory-verbal short-term memory: a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study on 103 patients after glioma removal
In this study we examined 103 patients undergoing surgery for glioma resection in the left or right hemisphere, and we conducted a VLSM analysis on their behavioral performance on auditory-verbal STM, as well as on more general verbal and nonverbal tasks. The aim was to investigate whether the anatomical correlates of auditory-verbal STM were part of the language system or they were spatially segregated from it. VLSM results showed that digit span scores were linked to lesions in both the left supramarginal gyrus and superior-posterior temporal areas, as reported in the literature on patients with a selective deficit of au...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - June 8, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Connexin-36 distribution and layer-specific topography in the cat retina
AbstractConnexin-36 (Cx36) is the major constituent of mammalian retinal gap junctions positioned in key signal pathways. Here, we examined the laminar and large-scale topographical distribution of Cx36 punctate immunolabels in the retina of the cat, a classical model of the mammalian visual system. Calretinin-immunoreactive (CaR-IR) cell populations served to outline the nuclear and plexiform layers and to stain specific neuronal populations. CaR-IR cells included horizontal cells in the outer retina, numerous amacrine cells, and scattered cells in the ganglion cell layer. Cx36-IR plaques were found among horizontal cell ...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - June 6, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Mapping the structural connectivity between the periaqueductal gray and the cerebellum in humans
The objective of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize such pathways using high-resolution, multi-shell data of 100 healthy subjects from the open-access Human Connectome Project repository com bined with constrained spherical deconvolution probabilistic tractography. Our analysis revealed robust connectivity density profiles between the periaqueductal gray and cerebellar nuclei, especially with the fastigial nucleus, followed by the interposed and dentate nuclei. High-connectivity densiti es have been observed between vermal (Vermis IX, Vermis VIIIa, Vermis VIIIb, Vermis VI, Vermis X) and hemisph...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - June 5, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anterior insular cortex stimulation and its effects on emotion recognition
AbstractWith the objective to investigate the role of the insula in recognizing emotion, we performed direct electrical stimulation over the anterior insular cortex during awake surgery while simultaneously delivering an emotional sensitivity task. We registered 18 consecutive patients with brain tumors associated with the insular lobe, who were undergoing tumor resection. An emotional sensitivity task was employed to measure the patients ’ ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions before, during, and after awake surgery. Furthermore, we performed voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) to identify the ...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - June 5, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research