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Interprofessional transformation of clinical education: The first six years of the Veterans Affairs Centers of Excellence in Primary Care Education.
Authors: Harada ND, Traylor L, Rugen KW, Bowen JL, Smith CS, Felker B, Ludke D, Tonnu-Mihara I, Ruberg JL, Adler J, Uhl K, Gardner AL, Gilman SC Abstract This paper describes the Centers of Excellence in Primary Care Education (CoEPCE), a seven-site collaborative project funded by the Office of Academic Affiliations (OAA) within the Veterans Health Administration of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The CoEPCE was established to fulfill OAA's vision of large-scale transformation of the clinical learning environment within VA primary care settings. This was accomplished by funding new Centers wi...
Source: Journal of Interprofessional Care - February 21, 2018 Category: Health Management Tags: J Interprof Care Source Type: research

Evaluation of an Online Educational Program for Parents and Caregivers of Children With Food Allergies.
antisteban A, Chivato T Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The increasing prevalence of food allergy affects both patients and their families. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an online educational program designed for parents and caregivers of children with food allergies. The program was developed by a multidisciplinary group comprising health care professionals, researchers, and expert patients under the participatory medicine model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants took a 2-week online educational program covering major topics in food allergy management. General knowledge a...
Source: Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology - February 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ruiz-Baqués A, Contreras-Porta J, Marques-Mejías M, Cárdenas Rebollo JM, Capel Torres F, Ariño Pla MN, Zorrozua Santisteban A, Chivato T Tags: J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol Source Type: research

What nurses should know about online programs
No abstract available (Source: Nursing)
Source: Nursing - February 21, 2018 Category: Nursing Tags: Department: LEARNING CURVE Source Type: research

Comparative study of nano and bulk Fe3O4 induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that for same dose, NM showed higher bioaccumulation, oxidative stress and tissue damage than its bulk. The difference in toxic effect of Fe3O4 nano and bulk could be related to their altered physicochemical properties. PMID: 29458263 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomarkers)
Source: Biomarkers - February 21, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Biomarkers Source Type: research

The role of general anesthesia on traits of neurodevelopmental disorders in a Swedish cohort of twins
DiscussionOur finding that traits of ADHD were slightly associated with anesthesia in a genetically sensitive design is in need of replication and warrants further investigation. Future studies should aim to elucidate mechanisms behind this possible association (e.g. anesthetics doses, age at exposure, exposure duration). (Source: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry - February 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Albert Castellheim, Sebastian Lundstr öm, Mattias Molin, Ralf Kuja‐Halkola, Carina Gillberg, Christopher Gillberg Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Role of Personality in a Regular Cognitive Monitoring Program.
This study examines the role of personality in cognitive performance, adherence, and satisfaction with regular cognitive self-monitoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred fifty-seven cognitively healthy older adults, age 55+, completed the 44-item Big-Five Inventory and were subsequently engaged in online monthly cognitive monitoring using the Cogstate Brief Battery for up to 35 months (M=14 mo, SD=7 mo). The test measures speed and accuracy in reaction time, visual learning, and working memory tasks. RESULTS: Neuroticism, although not related to cognitive performance overall (P>0.05), was relate...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - February 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Multi-Omics and Machine Learning Applications in Precision Medicine
Conclusion: Predictive models based on multi-omics data could be more powerful than those based on a single data type. Future replication studies with much larger sample sizes are essential to confirm the role of the biomarkers identified in these multi-omics studies and will seemingly have key contributions for precision medicine. (Source: Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine)
Source: Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine - February 21, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Unravelling salutogenic mechanisms in the workplace: the role of learning.
CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between SOC and the three GRRs seems to be strengthened or explained-to a certain extent-by instrumental and social learning. Healthcare organizations are recommended to promote learning through formal activities as well as through cooperation, feedback, sharing experiences, and job challenges. This requires employee participation and a multilevel interdisciplinary approach. PMID: 29455926 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Gaceta Sanitaria)
Source: Gaceta Sanitaria - February 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Gac Sanit Source Type: research

A systematic review of serious games in medical education: quality of evidence and pedagogical strategy.
DISCUSSION: Our aim was to put the pedagogical strategy into dialogue with the evidence on the effectiveness of the use of medical games. This makes sense since the practical use of games depends on the quality of the evidence about their effectiveness. Moreover, recognition of said pedagogical strategy would allow game developers to design more robust games which would greatly contribute to the learning process. PMID: 29457760 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Education Online)
Source: Medical Education Online - February 21, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Med Educ Online Source Type: research

Unmet digital Health Service Needs in Dermatology Patients.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, interest in electronic health services is high in dermatology patients. Our data suggests that readily understandable electronic services such as online-arranged appointments and electronic prescriptions are of higher interest to patients than the current type of online consultations. Therefore, the full potential of teledermatology still remains to be tapped by newer, more attractive forms of services closely adapted to patients' demands. PMID: 29455570 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Dermatological Treatment)
Source: Journal of Dermatological Treatment - February 21, 2018 Category: Dermatology Tags: J Dermatolog Treat Source Type: research

From Babies to Robots: The Contribution of Developmental Robotics to Developmental Psychology
Abstract The latest developments in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, and the parallel advances in robotics, have contributed recently to a shift in the scientific approach to modeling human intelligence. These innovations, accompanied by the new emphasis on embodied and grounded cognition in AI and psychology, have led to the establishment of the field of developmental robotics. This field features an interdisciplinary approach, built on collaboration between cognitive robotics and child psychology, to the autonomous design of behavioral and cognitive capabilities in artificial cognitive agents, such as r...
Source: Child Development Perspectives - February 21, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Angelo Cangelosi, Matthew Schlesinger Tags: Article Source Type: research

Influence of exposure to nicotine during pregnancy on the learning and memory for adult offspring.
Authors: Ma XD, Li BP, Han Y, Tian YP, Wu L, Wang H Abstract We aimed to investigate the indirect influence of exposure to nicotine during pregnancy on the learning and memory of adult offspring mice. Thirty pregnant C57 mice were randomly divided into either the control group (CON) or the nicotine group (NIC), with 15 mice each. The CON group was given access to drug-free water, and the NIC group was given 60 g/ml nicotine in drinking water. Sixteen adult mice were randomly selected from the 8 litters for Morris water maze test. The level of products of related factors in the hippocampus of mice in the NIC and the...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - February 21, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research

Active learning improves on-task behaviors in 4th grade children
This study utilizes a large, cluster randomized control trial in which student attention, or time on task (TOT) and accelerometer-based PA is assessed in conjunction with active learning. Participants were 2716 children (46% male, 46% white) from 28 elementary schools in Central Texas that were assigned to either: 1) active learning (math n = 10; spelling n = 9); or 2) traditional, sedentary academic lessons (n = 9). PA was measured with accelerometers. TOT was measured through a momentary time sampling protocol. A series of three-level (student, classroom, school) regression models estimated the effect of the ...
Source: Preventive Medicine - February 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Systematic review of measurement tools to assess surgeons' intraoperative cognitive workload
ConclusionSelf‐report instruments are valuable when the aim is to assess the overall cognitive load in different surgical procedures and assess learning curves within competence‐based surgical education. When the aim is to assess cognitive load related to specific operative stages, real‐time tools should be used, as they allow capture of cognitive load fluctuation. A combination of both subjective and objective methods might provide optimal measurement of surgeons' cognition. (Source: British Journal of Surgery)
Source: British Journal of Surgery - February 21, 2018 Category: Surgery Authors: R. D. Dias, M. C. Ngo ‐Howard, M. T. Boskovski, M. A. Zenati, S. J. Yule Tags: Systematic review Source Type: research

Importance of investing in adolescence from a developmental science perspective
Importance of investing in adolescence from a developmental science perspective, Published online: 21 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nature25770Adolescence is a distinctive developmental period involving rapid growth, learning and neurobiological changes, with the potential for both positive and negative outcomes. This Perspective summarizes our current understanding of developmental processes that occur during adolescence, as well as the learning needed to develop the skills and self-regulatory capacity necessary for becoming independent and integrating into adult society. A more nuanced understanding of the distinctive featu...
Source: Nature AOP - February 21, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Ronald E. Dahl Nicholas B. Allen Linda Wilbrecht Ahna Ballonoff Suleiman Source Type: research

Multi-terminal memtransistors from polycrystalline monolayer molybdenum disulfide
C. Hersam Memristors are two-terminal passive circuit elements that have been developed for use in non-volatile resistive random-access memory and may also be useful in neuromorphic computing. Memristors have higher endurance and faster read/write times than flash memory and can provide multi-bit data storage. However, although two-terminal memristors have demonstrated capacity for basic neural functions, synapses in the human brain outnumber neurons by more than a thousandfold, which implies that multi-terminal memristors are needed to perform complex functions such as heterosynaptic p...
Source: Nature - February 21, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Vinod K. Sangwan Hong-Sub Lee Hadallia Bergeron Itamar Balla Megan E. Beck Kan-Sheng Chen Mark C. Hersam Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Importance of investing in adolescence from a developmental science perspective
uleiman This review summarizes the case for investing in adolescence as a period of rapid growth, learning, adaptation, and formational neurobiological development. Adolescence is a dynamic maturational period during which young lives can pivot rapidly—in both negative and positive directions. Scientific progress in understanding adolescent development (Source: Nature)
Source: Nature - February 21, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Ronald E. Dahl Nicholas B. Allen Linda Wilbrecht Ahna Ballonoff Suleiman Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

A Survey of Methods for 3D Histology Reconstruction
Histology is concerned with the various methods of microscopic examination of a thin tissue section (Culling, 2013), most commonly sampled from a specimen post mortem or from a biopsy. Cutting through a specimen reveals its internal topography and staining the sections permits the observation of complex differentiated structures. Then, the digitisation of histological sections (referred to as digital pathology) makes high-resolution microscope sections available for image computing and machine learning algorithms. (Source: Medical Image Analysis)
Source: Medical Image Analysis - February 21, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Jonas Pichat, Juan Eugenio Iglesias, Tarek Yousry, S ébastien Ourselin, Marc Modat Source Type: research

The role of prenatal experience in language development
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21 Author(s): Judit Gervain Human infants are born linguistic citizens of the world, possessing broad-based, universal perceptual and learning abilities that allow them to start learning any language(s). After several months of experience, their linguistic system becomes tuned to the sound patterns of their native language(s). Recent results on newborns’ speech perception abilities suggest that this classical view might need to be nuanced, as fetuses seem to learn more from their prenatal experience with speech than previously believed...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - February 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Shaping a valued learning journey: Student satisfaction with learning in undergraduate nursing programs, a grounded theory study
Student satisfaction is a quality measure of increasing importance in undergraduate programs, including nursing programs. To date theories of student satisfaction have focused primarily on students' perceptions of the educational environment rather than their perceptions of learning. Understanding how students determine satisfaction with learning is necessary to facilitate student learning across a range of educational contexts and meet the expectations of diverse stakeholders. (Source: Nurse Education Today)
Source: Nurse Education Today - February 21, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Morgan R. Smith, Laurie Grealish, Saras Henderson Source Type: research

The Two Processes Underlying the Testing Effect---Evidence from Event-Related Potentials (ERPs)
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Xiaonan L. Liu, Deborah H. Tan, Lynne M. Reder Theoretical explanations of the testing effect (why people learn better from a test than a re-study) have largely focused on either the benefit of attempting to retrieve the answer or on the benefit of re-encoding the queried information after a successful retrieval. While a less parsimonious account, prior neuroimaging evidence has led us to postulate that both of these processes contribute to the benefit of testing over re-study. To provide further empirical support for our position, we r...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Medicaid Becomes the First Third-Party Payer to Cover Passive Remote Monitoring for Home Care: Policy Analysis
Conclusions: Decisions about Medicaid reimbursement of technologies that have the potential to dramatically alter the way older adults receive supportive services are being made without research on their use, social and ethical implications, or outcomes. At a minimum, new service categories are needed to enable oversight. Participants prioritized 3 research aims to inform practice: (1) determine cost-effectiveness; (2) identify what type of information beneficiaries want to be generated and whom they want it to be shared with; and (3) understand how to support ethical decision making for beneficiaries with cognitive impair...
Source: Journal of Medical Internet Research - February 21, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Clara Berridge Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of Cognition in Chiari I Malformation
AbstractDisplacement of the cerebellar tonsils in Chiari type I malformation (CMI) can affect functions controlled by the cerebellum and brainstem. While playing an integral role in the control of movement, the cerebellum also has widespread cortical connections, influencing a range of cognitive process. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the relationship between cognition and CMI, assessing evidence for general or domain-specific cognitive change. The search protocol examined the AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases. Articles meeting the following criteria we...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - February 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Categorical perception of Chinese characters by simplified and traditional Chinese readers
This study employed the categorical perception (CP) paradigm to examine adult Mainland China Chinese (MLC) simplified character readers and adult Hong Kong Chinese (HKC) traditional character readers ’ liminal perception of the following types of morphing continua of “line characters” (with font features removed): the Absolute-Differentiation (AD) type, which contains a topological change, and the Relative-Differentiation type, which does not contain any topological change in visual config urations. The results showed evidence of CP effects on the two types of stimuli among MLC and HKC readers. Moreover, ...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 21, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Using echo state networks for classification: A case study in Parkinson's disease diagnosis
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018 Source:Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Author(s): Stuart E. Lacy, Stephen L. Smith, Michael A. Lones Despite having notable advantages over established machine learning methods for time series analysis, reservoir computing methods, such as echo state networks (ESNs), have yet to be widely used for practical data mining applications. In this paper, we address this deficit with a case study that demonstrates how ESNs can be trained to predict disease labels when stimulated with movement data. Since there has been relatively little prior research into using ESNs for cla...
Source: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine - February 21, 2018 Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 634: Active Prior Tactile Knowledge Transfer for Learning Tactual Properties of New Objects
Cheng Reusing the tactile knowledge of some previously-explored objects (prior objects) helps us to easily recognize the tactual properties of new objects. In this paper, we enable a robotic arm equipped with multi-modal artificial skin, like humans, to actively transfer the prior tactile exploratory action experiences when it learns the detailed physical properties of new objects. These experiences, or prior tactile knowledge, are built by the feature observations that the robot perceives from multiple sensory modalities, when it applies the pressing, sliding, and static contact movements on objects with different act...
Source: Sensors - February 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Di Feng Mohsen Kaboli Gordon Cheng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Learning place cells, grid cells and invariances with excitatory and inhibitory plasticity
Neurons in the hippocampus and adjacent brain areas show a large diversity in their tuning to location and head direction. The underlying circuit mechanisms are not resolved. In particular, it is unclear why certain cell types are selective to one spatial variable, but invariant to another. For example, place cells are typically invariant to head direction. We propose that all observed spatial tuning patterns - in both their selectivity and their invariance - arise from the same mechanism: Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity that is driven by the spatial tuning statistics of synaptic inputs. Using simulations and...
Source: eLife - February 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 368: The Impact of Brain Breaks Classroom-Based Physical Activities on Attitudes toward Physical Activity in Polish School Children in Third to Fifth Grade
l Bronikowski The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Solutions in changing attitudes toward physical activity of school children in a community in Poland. In 2015, a sample of 326 pupils aged 9–11 years old from 19 classes at three selected primary schools were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups within the study. During the classes, children in the experimental group performed physical activities two times per day in three to five minutes using Brain Breaks® videos for four months, while the control group did not use the videos d...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - February 21, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Agata Glapa Joanna Grzesiak Ida Laudanska-Krzeminska Ming-Kai Chin Christopher Edginton Magdalena Mo Ching Mok Michal Bronikowski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Prospective randomized study evaluating ultrasound versus fluoroscopy guided sacral InterStim ® lead placement: A pilot study
ConclusionUltrasound guided placement of foramen needle during Stage I sacral neuromodulation results in reduction of radiation exposure to the patient, surgeon, and operating room staff. Further studies are necessary to determine the learning curve and efficacy of this technique. (Source: Neurourology and Urodynamics)
Source: Neurourology and Urodynamics - February 21, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jaschar Shakuri ‐Rad, Arman Cicic, Jannah Thompson Tags: ORIGINAL CLINICAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Perceived utility and relevance of intern wellbeing sessions
Abstract BackgroundWe conducted a pilot project assessing the perceived utility and relevance of wellbeing sessions provided to interns at a large regional teaching hospital in Australia with the aim of promoting intern wellbeing and fostering a nurturing and supportive learning and work hospital culture. MethodOur intervention involved two separate 60 minute lectures covering wellbeing topics and skills, to approximately 50 interns within protected teaching time, along with emailed wellbeing resources. Participants were emailed an on‐line survey asking questions about value and novelty of the sessions, and work satisfac...
Source: Internal Medicine Journal - February 21, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Susannah Ward, Sue Outram, Ben Heslop Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Tregs in SLE: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere has been great interest in understanding why T regulatory cells (Tregs) are reduced in number and/or in function in several autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although research has provided some answers, there is still much to learn.Recent FindingsRecent investigations on the mechanisms responsible for the impairment of the Tregs in SLE have identified relevant abnormalities in cellular and molecular pathways that have been instrumental in the design of studies in animal models and in the development of pilot immunotherapeutic studies in lupus patients.SummaryWe...
Source: Current Rheumatology Reports - February 21, 2018 Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research

Concussion in Children and Adolescents: Application of Return to Learning Policies, Best Practices, and Special Education Law
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review article is to examine policies for return to learning (RTL), and how RTL intersects with best practices and special education laws and regulations.Recent FindingsConcussion is a well-documented public health concern. Much research has been dedicated to return to play. However, recent focus has been geared towards RTL, as some evidence suggests that cognitive difficulties may linger somewhat longer than physical symptoms. While most concussions resolve quickly, some children are at higher risk for persistent symptoms (usually those with some additional concern such as depress...
Source: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports - February 21, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Fuzzy Expert System based on a Novel Hybrid Stem Cell (HSC) Algorithm for Classification of Micro Array Data
AbstractIn the growing scenario, microarray data is extensively used since it provides a more comprehensive understanding of genetic variants among diseases. As the gene expression samples have high dimensionality it becomes tedious to analyze the samples manually. Hence an automated system is needed to analyze these samples. The fuzzy expert system offers a clear classification when compared to the machine learning and statistical methodologies. In fuzzy classification, knowledge acquisition would be a major concern. Despite several existing approaches for knowledge acquisition much effort is necessary to enhance the lear...
Source: Journal of Medical Systems - February 21, 2018 Category: Information Technology Source Type: research

Learning from Fukushima - nuclear power in East Asia.
Authors: Boulton F PMID: 29457990 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medicine, Conflict and Survival)
Source: Medicine, Conflict and Survival - February 20, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Med Confl Surviv Source Type: research

A novel multimodal medical image fusion using sparse representation and modified spatial frequency
Abstract Fusion of multimodal imaging data supports medical experts with ample information for better disease diagnosis and further clinical investigations. Recently, sparse representation (SR)‐based fusion algorithms has been gaining importance for their high performance. Building a compact, discriminative dictionary with reduced computational effort is a major challenge to these algorithms. Addressing this key issue, we propose an adaptive dictionary learning approach for fusion of multimodal medical images. The proposed approach consists of three steps. First, zero informative patches of source images are discarded by...
Source: International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology - February 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: N. Aishwarya, C. Bennila Thangammal Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) in patients who receive Bone Targeting Agents (BTAs): the power of e-learning.
Authors: Nicolatou-Galitis O, Migliorati C Abstract The definition, pathobiology and risk factors of ONJ in cancer patients who receive BTAs are discussed in the recent ecancer module for osteonecrosis of the jaw (http://ecancer.org/education/module/276-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw.php). ONJ prevention, early diagnosis and management are presented. The critical question of the performance of dental extraction, during BTA therapy, as indicated with the recent studies, is supported. The importance of the collaboration between dental and oncology professionals and the patients is highlighted and can be achieved through ap...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - February 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

The Return of Fear: Variation of the Serotonin Transporter Gene Predicts Outcome of a Highly Standardized Exposure-Based One-Session Fear Treatment
Conclusions: Results suggest that genetic variation of the serotonin transporter is associated with differential stability of inhibitory learning processes, potentially reflecting heightened susceptibility for context-related processes that facilitate a return of fear in S allele carriers. If replicated, results suggest the 5-HTTLPR might represent a biomarker for the long-term outcome of brief exposure-based fear treatments and might inform genotype-based selection of psychotherapeutic interventions.Psychother Psychosom (Source: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics)
Source: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics - February 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Application of deep learning to the classification of images from colposcopy.
The objective of the present study was to investigate whether deep learning could be applied successfully to the classification of images from colposcopy. For this purpose, a total of 158 patients who underwent conization were enrolled, and medical records and data from the gynecological oncology database were retrospectively reviewed. Deep learning was performed with the Keras neural network and TensorFlow libraries. Using preoperative images from colposcopy as the input data and deep learning technology, the patients were classified into three groups [severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cancer (IC)]. A...
Source: Oncology Letters - February 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research

Intelligent Machines That Learn Like Children
Machines that learn like children provide deep insights into how the mind and body act together to bootstrap knowledge and skills -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)
Source: Scientific American - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Diana Kwon Tags: Features Mind Cognition Tech Computing Electronics Engineering Source Type: research

Child's Play: Learning Like Infants May Boost Artificial Intelligence
-- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)
Source: Scientific American - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Mariette DiChristina Tags: From the Editor Mind Cognition The Sciences Source Type: research

Towards Improved Design and Evaluation of Epileptic Seizure Predictors
Conclusion: Correlation between validation and test datasets used in the competition limited its scientific value. Significance: Our findings provide guidelines which allow for a more objective evaluation of seizure prediction models. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - February 20, 2018 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Predicting central line-associated bloodstream infections and mortality using supervised machine learning
The purpose of this study was to compare machine learning techniques for predicting central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). (Source: Journal of Critical Care)
Source: Journal of Critical Care - February 20, 2018 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Joshua P. Parreco, Antonio E. Hidalgo, Alejandro D. Badilla, Omar Ilyas, Rishi Rattan Source Type: research

Septal cholinergic neurons gate hippocampal output to entorhinal cortex via oriens lacunosum moleculare interneurons [Neuroscience]
Neuromodulation of neural networks, whereby a selected circuit is regulated by a particular modulator, plays a critical role in learning and memory. Among neuromodulators, acetylcholine (ACh) plays a critical role in hippocampus-dependent memory and has been shown to modulate neuronal circuits in the hippocampus. However, it has remained unknown how... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Juhee Haam, Jingheng Zhou, Guohong Cui, Jerrel L. Yakel Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Maximizing the information learned from finite data selects a simple model [Physics]
We use the language of uninformative Bayesian prior choice to study the selection of appropriately simple effective models. We advocate for the prior which maximizes the mutual information between parameters and predictions, learning as much as possible from limited data. When many parameters are poorly constrained by the available data,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Henry H. Mattingly, Mark K. Transtrum, Michael C. Abbott, Benjamin B. Machta Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Prospective multicenter study on robot-assisted laparoscopic extravesical ureteral reimplantation (RALUR-EV): outcomes and complications
Robot-assisted laparoscopic extravesical ureteral reimplantation (RALUR-EV) is a minimally invasive alternative to open surgery. We have previously reported retrospective outcomes from our study group, and herein provide an updated prospective analysis with a focus on success rate, surgical technique, and complications among surgeons who have overcome the initial learning curve. (Source: Journal of Pediatric Urology)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Urology - February 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: William R. Boysen, Ardavan Akhavan, Joan Ko, Jonathan S. Ellison, Thomas S. Lendvay, Jonathan Huang, Michael Garcia-Roig, Andrew Kirsch, Chester J. Koh, Marion Schulte, Paul Noh, M. Francesca Monn, Benjamin Whittam, Trudy Kawal, Aseem Shukla, Arun Sriniva Source Type: research

Fully-Automated Alignment of 3D Fetal Brain Ultrasound to a Canonical Reference Space using Multi-Task Learning
Fetal neurosonography has improved significantly in the last few decades. It is emerging as a clinically useful imaging technology for assessing brain development and detecting cerebral abnormalities in the womb, which has applications in settings where expensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is unavailable or not well-suited. Regardless of imaging modality, fetal brain localization and geometric alignment are the primordial steps for neuroimage analysis. This analysis relies on (i) initial localization of the brain, (ii) removal of extracranial and maternal tissues, and (iii) alignment of the region of interest to a re...
Source: Medical Image Analysis - February 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Ana I.L. Namburete, Weidi Xie, Mohammad Yaqub, Andrew Zisserman, J. Alison Noble Source Type: research

Sharpness-Aware Low-Dose CT Denoising Using Conditional Generative Adversarial Network
AbstractLow-dose computed tomography (LDCT) has offered tremendous benefits in radiation-restricted applications, but the quantum noise as resulted by the insufficient number of photons could potentially harm the diagnostic performance. Current image-based denoising methods tend to produce a blur effect on the final reconstructed results especially in high noise levels. In this paper, a deep learning-based approach was proposed to mitigate this problem. An adversarially trained network and a sharpness detection network were trained to guide the training process. Experiments on both simulated and real dataset show that the ...
Source: Journal of Digital Imaging - February 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Digital Tools to Enhance Clinical Reasoning
This article highlights digital resources that increase the number of cases a clinician experiences and learns from. (Source: Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: Medical Clinics of North America - February 20, 2018 Category: Primary Care Authors: Reza Manesh, Gurpreet Dhaliwal Source Type: research

Teaching Internal Medicine Residents About Palliative Care
In this essay, a palliative care physician reviews the case of a dying man who was admitted during her two-week tour as an attending physician for internal medicine as a good teaching case for residents to learn how to treat patients in the last moments of their lives. (Source: JAMA)
Source: JAMA - February 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Optimal Human Passive Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Adaptation Does Not Rely on Passive Training
AbstractThe vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is the main vision-stabilising system during rapid head movements in humans. A visual-vestibular mismatch stimulus can be used to train or adapt the VOR response because it induces a retinal image slip error signal that drives VOR motor learning. The training context has been shown to affect VOR adaptation. We sought to determine whether active (self-generated) versus passive (externally imposed) head rotation vestibular training would differentially affect adaptation and short-term retention of the active and passive VOR responses. Ten subjects were tested, each over six separate ...
Source: JARO - Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology - February 20, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research