Enrichment of low-density symbiont DNA from minute insects
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2018 Source:Journal of Microbiological Methods Author(s): Corinne M. Stouthamer, Suzanne Kelly, Martha S. Hunter Symbioses between bacteria and insects are often associated with changes in important biological traits that can significantly affect host fitness. To a large extent, studies of these interactions have been based on physiological changes or induced phenotypes in the host, and the genetic mechanisms by which symbionts interact with their hosts have only recently become better understood. Learning about symbionts has been challenging in part due to difficulties such as ob...
Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods - May 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Is the encoding of Reward Prediction Error reliable during development?
Publication date: September 2018 Source:NeuroImage, Volume 178 Author(s): Hanna Keren, Gang Chen, Brenda Benson, Monique Ernst, Ellen Leibenluft, Nathan A. Fox, Daniel S. Pine, Argyris Stringaris Reward Prediction Errors (RPEs), defined as the difference between the expected and received outcomes, are integral to reinforcement learning models and play an important role in development and psychopathology. In humans, RPE encoding can be estimated using fMRI recordings, however, a basic measurement property of RPE signals, their test-retest reliability across different time scales, remains an open question. In this paper, we...
Source: NeuroImage - May 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A complementary facial representation extracting method based on deep learning
Publication date: 6 September 2018 Source:Neurocomputing, Volume 306 Author(s): Wenyun Sun, Haitao Zhao, Zhong Jin The identification and expression are two orthogonal properties of faces. But, few studies considered the two properties together. In this paper, the two properties are modeled in a unified framework. A pair of 18-layered Convolutional Deconvolutional Networks (Conv-Deconv) is proposed to learn a bidirectional mapping between the emotional expressions and the neutral expressions. One network extracts the complementary facial representations (i.e. identification representations and emotional representations) f...
Source: Neurocomputing - May 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A subspace predictive control method for partially unknown systems with parameter learning event-triggered law
Publication date: 6 September 2018 Source:Neurocomputing, Volume 306 Author(s): Zhe Li, Guang-Hong Yang This paper proposes a novel event-triggered subspace predictive control (SPC) method for a class of linear discrete-time partially unknown systems. Without the complete system parameter information, the design parameters of the event-triggered law are first derived via system data by the reinforcement learning method. The proposed event-triggered law depends on the defined input error and the state-dependent threshold. The receding horizon principle in the typical predictive control methods is substituted by the event-t...
Source: Neurocomputing - May 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A SMDP-based forwarding scheme in named data networking
Publication date: 6 September 2018 Source:Neurocomputing, Volume 306 Author(s): Jinfa Yao, Baoqun Yin, Xiaobin Tan Named data networking (NDN) provides a promising networking paradigm for efficient content delivery. In NDN, adaptive request forwarding is inherently supported by enabling routers to dynamically select the next hop for each request based on the network conditions. However, due to the limitation in network resources, a well-designed forwarding strategy is necessary to achieve satisfactory network performance. In this paper, the problem of content request forwarding in the context of NDN is naturally formulate...
Source: Neurocomputing - May 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adaptive Projected Matrix Factorization method for data clustering
Publication date: 6 September 2018 Source:Neurocomputing, Volume 306 Author(s): Mulin Chen, Qi Wang, Xuelong Li Data clustering aims to group the data samples into clusters, and has attracted many researchers in a variety of multidisciplinary fields, such as machine learning and data mining. In order to capture the geometry structure, many methods perform clustering according to a predefined affinity graph. So the clustering performance is largely determined by the graph quality. Unfortunately, the graph quality cannot be guaranteed in various real-world applications. In this paper, an Adaptive Projected Matrix Factorizat...
Source: Neurocomputing - May 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Matrix completion and vector completion via robust subspace learning
Publication date: 6 September 2018 Source:Neurocomputing, Volume 306 Author(s): Zhe Liu, Zhanxuan Hu, Feiping Nie Matrix completion is widely used in many practical applications such as computer vision and data mining. In this paper, we consider the following two issues arising in real scenarios. First, the collected datasets are damaged by sparse noise and column outliers simultaneously; second, the datasets are not static in nature due to the existing of out-of-sample. Both of them have been ignored by most existing methods. In contrast with the traditional matrix completion algorithms which aim at recovering the entire...
Source: Neurocomputing - May 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Learning category distance metric for data clustering
Publication date: 6 September 2018 Source:Neurocomputing, Volume 306 Author(s): Baoguo Chen, Haitao Yin Unsupervised learning of adaptive distance metrics for categorical data is currently a challenge due to the difficulties in defining an inherently meaningful measure parameterizing the heterogeneity within matched or mismatched categorical symbols. In this paper, a new distance metric called category distance and a non-center-based algorithm are proposed for categorical data clustering. The new metric is formulated based on the category weights for each categorical attribute, no more depending on the common assumption t...
Source: Neurocomputing - May 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Symmetric and antisymmetric properties of solutions to kernel-based machine learning problems
Publication date: 6 September 2018 Source:Neurocomputing, Volume 306 Author(s): Giorgio Gnecco A particularly interesting instance of supervised learning with kernels is when each training example is associated with two objects, as in pairwise classification (Brunner et al., 2012), and in supervised learning of preference relations (Herbrich et al., 1998). In these cases, one may want to embed additional prior knowledge into the optimization problem associated with the training of the learning machine, modeled, respectively, by the symmetry of its optimal solution with respect to an exchange of order between the...
Source: Neurocomputing - May 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Variable universe fuzzy control for vehicle semi-active suspension system with MR damper combining fuzzy neural network and particle swarm optimization
This study proposes a novel variable universe fuzzy control design for vehicle semi-active suspension system with magnetorheological (MR) damper through the combination of fuzzy neural network (FNN) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). By constructing a quarter-vehicle test rig equipped with MR damper and then collecting the measured data, a non-parametric model of MR damper based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is first presented. And then a Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy controller is designed to achieve the effective control of the input current in MR damper by using the contraction-expansion factors. ...
Source: Neurocomputing - May 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Novel multiobjective TLBO algorithms for the feature subset selection problem
In this study, we propose a set of novel multiobjective TLBO algorithms combined with supervised machine learning techniques for the solution of Feature Subset Selection (FSS) in Binary Classification Problems (FSS-BCP). Selecting the minimum number of features while not compromising the accuracy of the results in FSS-BCP is a multiobjective optimization problem. We propose TLBO as a FSS mechanism and utilize its algorithm-specific parameterless concept that does not require any parameters to be tuned during the optimization. Most of the classical metaheuristics such as Genetic and Particle Swarm Optimization algorithms ne...
Source: Neurocomputing - May 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Affinity Network Fusion and Semi-supervised Learning for Cancer Patient Clustering
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018 Source:Methods Author(s): Tianle Ma, Aidong Zhang Defining subtypes of complex diseases such as cancer and stratifying patient groups with the same disease but different subtypes for targeted treatments is important for personalized and precision medicine. Approaches that incorporate multi-omic data are more advantageous to those using only one data type for patient clustering and disease subtype discovery. However, it is challenging to integrate multi-omic data as they are heterogeneous and noisy. In this paper, we present Affinity Network Fusion (ANF) to integrate multi-omi...
Source: Methods - May 27, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Perceptions of adolescents and teachers on school-based sexuality education in rural primary schools in Uganda
Conclusion It is vital to review the teaching and learning resources and to fully integrate sexuality education into the formal school curriculum. A combined effort of major stakeholders including teachers, community leaders, adolescents, healthcare professionals and parents is needed for sexuality education among adolescents to succeed. (Source: Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare)
Source: Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare - May 27, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Training the skull base surgeon of the future: a comprehensive approach.
Authors: Aref M, Youssef AS Abstract The tremendous advances in endoscopic skull base surgery added new a set of intricate less invasive approaches to the neurosurgical armamentarium. The new generations of neurosurgeons face the challenge of adopting the ever-changing technology and quickly learning modern surgical techniques beyond the traditional neurosurgery comfort zone. The future skull base surgeon must be well trained and knowledgeable in all surgical portals to the skull base in order to select the safest least invasive, most direct approach that offers the optimum exposure to handle a complex skull base p...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences - May 26, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: J Neurosurg Sci Source Type: research

Pathophysiology of severe traumatic brain injury overview.
Authors: O'leary RA, Nichol AD Abstract Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, particularly among young people, with significant social and economic effects. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than five million people die each year from traumatic injuries worldwide. While public health initiative such as seatbelts and airbags have had a major impact, it will be impossible to prevent traumatic brain injury, it is therefore that we understand the pathophysiology of secondary brain injury to be able to effectively treat our patient but aloes to develop novel...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences - May 26, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: J Neurosurg Sci Source Type: research

Make the Most of Coaching
How many times have you been excited about fresh learning and spot-on insights, only to return to the harsh reality of the old problems you left behind? How many times have too much work and a demanding personal life quickly and permanently dulled your innovative ideas and dampened your motivation to use them? (Source: Nurse Leader)
Source: Nurse Leader - May 26, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Catherine Robinson-Walker Tags: Coaching Forum Source Type: research

Regina Cunningham, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, FAAN
The path from staff nurse to chief executive officer (CEO) was never consciously planned out by Regina Cunningham, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, FAAN. Instead, it is a true testimonial to hard work, continuous learning, self-reflection, and the willingness to accept challenges as they are offered. Influenced at a young age by her physician grandfather, Dr. Cunningham learned the importance of compassion, diversity, and relationships. It is this foundation that helped shape Dr. Cunningham's person and practice, and has now positioned her to help shape the future of health care. (Source: Nurse Leader)
Source: Nurse Leader - May 26, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Angela S. Prestia Tags: Leader to Watch Source Type: research

Clinical Case Consultation and Experiential Learning in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Implementation: Brief Qualitative Investigation
(Source: Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy)
Source: Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Waltman, Scott H. Hall, Brittany C. McFarr, Lynn M. Creed, Torrey A. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Resveratrol prevents high-calorie diet-induced learning and memory dysfunction in juvenile C57BL/6J mice.
Authors: Xu BL, Zhang H, Ma LN, Dong W, Zhao ZW, Zhang JS, Wang YL, Zhang X, Wang R Abstract OBJECTIVE: Because resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to improve learning and memory, so we investigated the potential benefit of RSV on learning and memory deficits in juvenile mice fed with a HC diet and explored the molecular mechanisms underlying this process. METHODS: Six-week-old C57BL/6J mice were divided into three different diet groups: control, HC diet, and HC + RSV diet. Serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Protein expression was e...
Source: Neurological Research - May 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Neurol Res Source Type: research

Identification of patients with hemoglobin SS/S β0 thalassemia disease and pain crises within electronic health records.
This study demonstrates the feasibility to accurately identify patients with specific types of SCD and pain crises within an EHR. PMID: 29792312 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Adv Data)
Source: Adv Data - May 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Singh A, Mora J, Panepinto JA Tags: Blood Adv Source Type: research

What we know and do not know about women and kidney diseases; Questions unanswered and answers unquestioned: Reflection on World Kidney Day and International Woman's Day.
Abstract Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 10% of the world's adult population: it is within the top 20 causes of death worldwide, and its impact on patients and their families can be devastating. World Kidney Day and International Women's Day in 2018 coincide, thus offering an opportunity to reflect on the importance of women's health and specifically women's kidney health on the community and the next generations, as well as to strive to be more curious about the unique aspects of kidney disease in women so that we may apply those learnings more broadly. Girls and women, who make up approximately 50% ...
Source: Braz J Med Biol Res - May 26, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Piccoli GB, Al Rukhaimi M, Liu ZH, Zakharova E, Levin A Tags: Braz J Med Biol Res Source Type: research

Bacteriophage research – What we have learnt and what still needs to be addressed
This article touches on the first 100 years of phage research with the author commenting on what he thinks are the highlights, and what needs to be addressed. (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - May 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Fostering teenagers' assessment of information reliability: Effects of a classroom intervention focused on critical source dimensions
Publication date: December 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 58 Author(s): Ana Pérez, Anna Potocki, Marc Stadtler, Mônica Macedo-Rouet, Johanna Paul, Ladislao Salmerón, Jean-François Rouet Increased amounts of information available from the Internet have triggered new demands for students to evaluate information quality. Our study presents an instructional intervention aimed at fostering ninth grade students' critical evaluation of source reliability. The intervention was grounded into theories of multiple text comprehension and used an analytic framework that defines the core source ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Is technology-enhanced feedback encouraging for all in Finnish basic education? A person-centered approach
In this study, we explored 211003 feedback actions given by 704 teachers to 7811 pupils and their parents using latent profile analysis. Information on individual support needs was used to evaluate whether all pupils are equally encouraged by technology-enhanced feedback. We identified six subgroups for girls and five for boys. Highly encouraging feedback was given mostly to pupils who were rarely absent and who more seldom had special education needs. Negative feedback about behaviour problems was given mostly to boys and the majority of pupils were encouraged only weakly. On average, pupils received feedback according to...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of self-regulation prompts in hypermedia learning on learning performance and self-efficacy
Publication date: December 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 58 Author(s): Nadja M. Müller, Tina Seufert Learning with prompts activates self-regulation processes often resulting in increased learning performance. As experiences of self-regulation and learning success are sources of self-efficacy, the study investigated whether prompts affect learning performance over two learning sessions and examines whether prompts affect learners' self-efficacy perceptions within and across these sessions. N = 52 students learned twice for 30 min in a hypermedia either receiving prompts or learning without. In ea...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An Interprofessional Learning Experience for Trainee General Practitioners in an Academic Urban Minor Injuries Unit with Advanced Nurse Practitioners (Emergency)
Interprofessional education (IPE) is defined as an intervention where members of more than one health or social care profession, or both, learn interactively together for the explicit purpose of improving interprofessional collaboration or the health/wellbeing of patients or both [1]. The acknowledgement of the importance of IPE in fostering collaboration and teamwork is echoed throughout the literature [2,3]. That said, IPE is not without its challenges, because it necessitates an immense commitment toward the aim of improving interprofessional care and subsequent patient health outcomes [4]. (Source: International Emergency Nursing)
Source: International Emergency Nursing - May 26, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Laserina O Connor, Bernadette Carpenter, Cora O Connor, Julie O Driscoll Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “How does questioning influence nursing students' clinical reasoning in problem-based learning? A scoping review” [Nurse Educ. Today 65 (2018) 108–115]
The authors would like to advise readers that there was an error in Table 2. For Phillips and Duke (2001) article, country is Australia and sample is 14 clinical supervisors and 14 preceptors. (Source: Nurse Education Today)
Source: Nurse Education Today - May 26, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Sophia Merisier, Caroline Larue, Louise Boyer Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Ling-Yang-Gou-Teng-decoction prevents vascular dementia through inhibiting oxidative stress induced neurovascular coupling dysfunction
Conclusions The results suggested that LG prevented VaD may associate with inhibiting oxidative stress, protecting NO bioavailability, and then maintaining NVC sensitivity. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - May 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Interprofessional undergraduate health sciences students ’ experiences seeking natural health product information from Canadian vendors as self-described in reflective essays
Conclusion The NHP vendor visit assignment helped health sciences students better understand influences on patients in the real world, and could be a valuable addition to curricula, taking a short amount of class time but resulting in enhanced understanding about NHPs. (Source: European Journal of Integrative Medicine)
Source: European Journal of Integrative Medicine - May 26, 2018 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Right atrium floating thrombus and bilateral pulmonary embolism in a patient with pancreatic pseudocyst
We present the case of a patient diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis due to alcohol ingestion complicated with pancreatic pseudocyst, with no classic thrombogenic risk factors, who developed right atrial thrombus and massive bilateral pulmonary embolism. <Learning objective: Venous thromboembolism risk is present in acute pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer, but even chronic pancreatitis may promote thrombogenesis and trigger the development of a life-threatening condition such as pulmonary embolism. The presence of pancreatic pseudocyst may further increase this risk. Thromboembolism prophylaxis should be considered ...
Source: Journal of Cardiology Cases - May 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Sex Differences in the Subcellular Distribution of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor 1 in the Rat Hippocampus following Chronic Immobilization Stress
Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 383 Author(s): Helena R. McAlinn, Batsheva Reich, Natalina H. Contoreggi, Renata Poulton Kamakura, Andreina G. Dyer, Bruce S. McEwen, Elizabeth M. Waters, Teresa A. Milner Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors (CRFR1) contribute to stress-induced adaptations in hippocampal structure and function that can affect learning and memory processes. Our prior studies showed that female rats with elevated estrogens compared to males have more plasmalemmal CRFR1 in CA1 pyramidal cells, suggesting a greater sensitivity to stress. Here, we examined the distribution of hipp...
Source: Neuroscience - May 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Blockade and reversal of swimming-induced paralysis in C. elegans by the antipsychotic and D2-type dopamine receptor antagonist azaperone
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Osama Refai, Randy D. Blakely The catecholamine neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) exerts powerful modulatory control of physiology and behavior across phylogeny. Perturbations of DA signaling in humans are associated with multiple neurodegenerative and behavioral disorders, including Parkinson's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, addiction and schizophrenia. In the nematode C. elegans, DA signaling regulates mating behavior, learning, food seeking and locomotion. Previously, we demonstrated that loss of function muta...
Source: Neurochemistry International - May 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Predicting ionic liquid melting points using machine learning
This study explores the use of various machine learning (ML) methods to predict the melting points (− 96 °C–359 °C range) of structurally diverse 2212 ILs based on a combination of 1369 cations and 141 anions. Among the ML models applied to independent training and test sets, tree-based ensemble methods (Cubist, random forest and gradient boosted regression) were found to demonstrate slightly better performance over support vector machines and k-nearest neighbour approaches. In comparison, quantum chemistry based COSMOtherm predictions were generally found to have significant deviations with respect t...
Source: Journal of Molecular Liquids - May 26, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Predicting Treatment Response to Intra-arterial Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with the Use of Supervised Machine Learning —An Artificial Intelligence Concept
Conclusions Transarterial chemoembolization outcomes in patients with HCC may be predicted before procedures by combining clinical patient data and baseline MR imaging with the use of AI and ML techniques. (Source: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology)
Source: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology - May 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Detecting the dark side of personality using social media status updates
This study extends previous research by demonstrating that the full spectrum of dysfunctional dispositions can be measured using online language. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Promoting self-determination for students with intellectual disability: A Vygotskian perspective
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018 Source:Learning, Culture and Social Interaction Author(s): Veerle Garrels, Patrik Arvidsson Despite weak correlations between IQ scores and self-determination, research indicates that individuals with intellectual disability (ID) show lower levels of self-determination than their non-disabled peers, and that they experience lower effects of self-determination interventions. From a Vygotskian perspective, self-determination skills can be considered complex cognitive abilities that develop through social interaction with and adequate scaffolding by competent tutors. This approa...
Source: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Need satisfaction as a mediator between classroom goal structures and students' optimal educational experience
Publication date: July 2018 Source:Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 65 Author(s): Ayşenur Alp, Aikaterini Michou, M. Sencer Çorlu, Gamze Baray Goal-related messages in a classroom are associated with students' experiences and functioning in learning. However, little is known about need satisfaction as a mediator that translates the classroom messages into students' optimal educational experience. In the present studies, we investigated in a sample of 171 (in Study 1) and 255 (in Study 2) Turkish undergraduate students (60% females; M age  = 19.79, SD = 1.68 and 45% females, M age  = 19.75, S...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Salience of primary and secondary school students' achievement emotions and perceived antecedents: Interviews on literacy and mathematics domains
Publication date: July 2018 Source:Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 65 Author(s): Daniela Raccanello, Rob Hall, Roberto Burro Within the theoretical framework provided by Pekrun's (2006) control-value theory, we investigated individual differences in students' achievement emotions and antecedents. The subjects were 149 fourth, seventh, and eleventh-graders, who participated in semi-structured interviews focused on how they usually felt when facing literacy or mathematics, and on their perception of the underlying antecedents that triggered the emotions. Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) indicated higher sa...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Non-cognitive predictors of academic achievement: Evidence from TIMSS and PISA
We examined the predictability of non-cognitive variables for students' mathematics achievement, based on large-scale international databases of the TIMSS 2003, 2007, and 2011, and the PISA 2003 and 2012. We synthesized empirical evidence about 65 non-cognitive variables, which were categorized into 13 research domains of educational psychology—affect, curriculum/content exposure, homework, learning and instructional time, motivation, personality traits, planned behavior, school climate, self-beliefs/social-cognitive theory, self-regulatory learning style/strategies, teacher behavior, value, and vocational interest. ...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Proactive personality and the expanded criterion domain of performance: Predicting academic citizenship and counterproductive behaviors
We examined proactive personality as a noncognitive predictor of outcomes in an expanded criterion domain that included in-role performance, citizenship behaviors, and counterproductive behaviors. Our findings indicate that proactive personality predicts both citizenship and counterproductive behaviors in an academic setting. Importantly, these results were observed after accounting for the effects of traditional cognitive predictors of student performance (i.e., high school grades and standardized test scores). These findings have implications for institutions that define “success” beyond grades and are lookin...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Differential relevance of intelligence and motivation for grades and competence tests in mathematics
Publication date: July 2018 Source:Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 65 Author(s): Christin Lotz, Rebecca Schneider, Jörn R. Sparfeldt Past research suggested that cognitive and motivational variables are differentially relevant for educational success when relying on competence tests or grades as achievement indicators. This differential relevance has not yet been investigated by, for example, advanced statistical methods. Therefore, reparameterization and Wald-tests were applied to statistically compare the standardized path coefficients of intelligence, academic self-concept, and interest on a scholastic...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Heritability and longitudinal outcomes of spelling skills in individuals with histories of early speech and language disorders
This study examined the spelling skills in middle childhood and adolescence in individuals with histories of early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without language impairment (LI). Youth without such histories were also included (No SSD/LI group). The heritability of spelling skills at each age level was estimated. Children with SSD were classified as SSD-only, SSD with LI but without childhood apraxia of speech (SSD + LI/No CAS), and CAS and LI (CAS + LI). The SSD-only group did not differ in spelling from the No SSD/LI group, suggesting that SSD-only did not increase risk for poor spelling. The SS...
Source: Learning and Individual Differences - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A computational framework for the detection of subcortical brain dysmaturation in neonatal MRI using 3D Convolutional Neural Networks
In this study, we developed a computational framework for the automated classification of brain dysmaturation from neonatal MRI, by combining a specific deep neural network implementation with neonatal structural brain segmentation as a method for both clinical pattern recognition and data-driven inference into the underlying structural morphology. We implemented three-dimensional convolution neural networks (3D-CNNs) to specifically classify dysplastic cerebelli, a subset of surface-based subcortical brain dysmaturation, in term infants born with congenital heart disease. We obtained a 0.985 ± 0. 0241-classific...
Source: NeuroImage - May 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Model-free and model-based reward prediction errors in EEG
Publication date: September 2018 Source:NeuroImage, Volume 178 Author(s): Thomas D. Sambrook, Ben Hardwick, Andy J. Wills, Jeremy Goslin Learning theorists posit two reinforcement learning systems: model-free and model-based. Model-based learning incorporates knowledge about structure and contingencies in the world to assign candidate actions with an expected value. Model-free learning is ignorant of the world's structure; instead, actions hold a value based on prior reinforcement, with this value updated by expectancy violation in the form of a reward prediction error. Because they use such different learning mechanisms,...
Source: NeuroImage - May 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

An analysis of the ecological components within a text structure intervention
In this study, the authors examined the extent of teacher knowledge about text structure, the extent to which textbooks focused on text structure related skills and strategies as well as the percentage each skill and strategy was covered in lessons and teacher instructional practices. Such analysis shows that although text structure interventions may have positive effects on student reading comprehension, there are multiple elements of the ecological component that may be counteracting the benefits of the intervention. First, teachers have a limited knowledge of the five common text structures. Second, textbooks systematic...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 26, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1722: Indoor Pedestrian Localization Using iBeacon and Improved Kalman Filter
Hwangnam Kim The reliable and accurate indoor pedestrian positioning is one of the biggest challenges for location-based systems and applications. Most pedestrian positioning systems have drift error and large bias due to low-cost inertial sensors and random motions of human being, as well as unpredictable and time-varying radio-frequency (RF) signals used for position determination. To solve this problem, many indoor positioning approaches that integrate the user’s motion estimated by dead reckoning (DR) method and the location data obtained by RSS fingerprinting through Bayesian filter, such as the Kal...
Source: Sensors - May 26, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kwangjae Sung Dong Kyu ‘Roy’ Lee Hwangnam Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

The pedagogical value of testing: how far does it extend?
AbstractInformation is generally more memorable after it is studied and tested than when it is only studied. One must be cautious to use this phenomenon strategically, however, due to uncertainty about whether testing improves memorability for only tested material, facilitates learning of related non-tested content, or inhibits memory of non-tested material. 52 second-year Pharmacy students were asked to study therapeutic aspects of gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. One group was given 30  min to study. Another was given 20 min to study and 10 min to complete a 10-item test. Two weeks...
Source: Advances in Health Sciences Education - May 26, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Surgeon perspectives on learning ab-interno gelatin microstent implantation.
CONCLUSION: The group of glaucoma surgeons surveyed felt it was easier to gain proficiency with gelatin microstent implantation than with traditional filtration surgery. PMID: 29784161 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology - May 25, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Szigiato AA, Sandhu S, Ratnarajan G, Dorey MW, Ahmed IIK Tags: Can J Ophthalmol Source Type: research

A model for predicting the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among computer professionals.
The objective of this study was to develop a model for predicting the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among computer professionals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A preliminary study with a modified Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was conducted to identify the risk in different body parts of the professionals during their work. A discrete postural evaluation of the dynamic postures involved in the work was assessed using rapid upper limb assessment. The postural, physiological and work-related factors were considered as the attributes of the model. The model was developed using various machine learning algorithms, which...
Source: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics - May 25, 2018 Category: Occupational Health Tags: Int J Occup Saf Ergon Source Type: research

Counselor supervision: Reflections and lessons learned
[EDITOR’s NOTE: This is an online-only companion article to “Guiding lights,” a feature on the ins and outs of the counselor supervision process appearing in the June issue of Counseling Today.]   Counselor supervision can have quite a steep learning curve — one that often comes with several ups and downs for beginning counselors. Counseling...continue reading The post Counselor supervision: Reflections and lessons learned appeared first on Counseling Today. (Source: Counseling Today)
Source: Counseling Today - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Compiled by Bethany Bray Tags: Counseling Today Online Exclusives Counselor Education & Supervision counselor supervision Professional Issues Source Type: research