Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2390: SmartFire: Intelligent Platform for Monitoring Fire Extinguishers and Their Building Environment
. Corchado Due to fire protection regulations, a minimum number of fire extinguishers must be available depending on the surface area of each building, industrial establishment or workplace. There is also a set of rules that establish where the fire extinguisher should be placed: always close to the points that are most likely to be affected by a fire and where they are visible and accessible for use. Fire extinguishers are pressure devices, which means that they require maintenance operations that ensure they will function properly in the case of a fire. The purpose of manual and periodic fire extinguisher checks is t...
Source: Sensors - May 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Roberto Garcia-Martin Alfonso Gonz ález-Briones Juan M. Corchado Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2380: Wearable Enzymatic Alcohol Biosensor
Strenk Transdermal alcohol biosensors have the ability to detect the alcohol that emanates from the bloodstream and diffuses through the skin. However, previous biosensors have suffered from long-term fouling of the sensor element and drift in the resulting sensor readings over time. Here, we report a wearable alcohol sensor platform that solves the problem of sensor fouling by enabling drift-free signals in vivo for up to 24 h and an interchangeable cartridge connection that enables consecutive days of measurement. We demonstrate how alcohol oxidase enzyme and Prussian Blue can be combined to prevent baseline drift a...
Source: Sensors - May 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bob Lansdorp William Ramsay Rashad Hamidand Evan Strenk Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2379: Copper(I)-Catalyzed Click Chemistry as a Tool for the Functionalization of Nanomaterials and the Preparation of Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors
S. Campuzano J. M. Pingarrón Proper functionalization of electrode surfaces and/or nanomaterials plays a crucial role in the preparation of electrochemical (bio)sensors and their resulting performance. In this context, copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) has been demonstrated to be a powerful strategy due to the high yields achieved, absence of by-products and moderate conditions required both in aqueous medium and under physiological conditions. This particular chemistry offers great potential to functionalize a wide variety of electrode surfaces, nanomaterials, metallophthalocyanines (M...
Source: Sensors - May 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: P. Y áñez-Sedeño A. Gonz ález-Cortés S. Campuzano J. M. Pingarr ón Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2381: A Lighted Deep Convolutional Neural Network Based Fault Diagnosis of Rotating Machinery
Geng Liu To improve the fault diagnosis performance for rotating machinery, an efficient, noise-resistant end-to-end deep learning (DL) algorithm is proposed based on the advantages of the wavelet packet transform in vibration signal processing (the capability to extract multiscale information and more spectral distribution features) and deep convolutional neural networks (good classification performance, data-driven design and high transfer-learning ability). First, a vibration signal is subjected to pyramid wavelet packet decomposition, and each sub-band coefficient is used as the input for each channel of a deep co...
Source: Sensors - May 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shangjun Ma Wei Cai Wenkai Liu Zhaowei Shang Geng Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2382: Magnetostrictive Sensor for Blockage Detection in Pipes Subjected to High Temperatures
tilde;o Juan A. Martín-Ramos The use of solar thermal power plants is considered a cost-effective alternative to produce renewable energy. Unlike other energy installations, in this type of plants the transfer and storage of energy has been solved by using molten salts. These salts run between two tanks through the steam generation system that feeds the turbine. Although the use of salts as a heat transfer fluid is considered an adequate solution, they are not without problems. One of them is the formation of blockages in the pipes due to a partial solidification of the salt, which leads to the shutdown of the...
Source: Sensors - May 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alberto M. Pern ía H éctor Andrés Mayor Miguel J. Prieto Pedro J. Villegas Fernando Nu ño Juan A. Mart ín-Ramos Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2383: Underdetermined DOA Estimation of Wideband LFM Signals Based on Gridless Sparse Reconstruction in the FRF Domain
Jinqi Zhu An underdetermined direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method of wideband linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals is proposed without grid mismatch. According to the concentration property of LFM signal in the fractional Fourier (FRF) domain, the received sparse model of wideband signals with time-variant steering vector is firstly derived based on a coprime array. Afterwards, by interpolating virtual sensors, a virtual extended uniform linear array (ULA) is constructed with more degrees of freedom, and its covariance matrix in the FRF domain is recovered by employing sparse matrix reconstruction. Meanwhil...
Source: Sensors - May 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yue Cui Junfeng Wang Jie Qi Zhanying Zhang Jinqi Zhu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2384: 400 °C Sensor Based on Ni/4H-SiC Schottky Diode for Reliable Temperature Monitoring in Industrial Environments
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2384: 400 °C Sensor Based on Ni/4H-SiC Schottky Diode for Reliable Temperature Monitoring in Industrial Environments Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19102384 Authors: Florin Draghici Gheorghe Brezeanu Gheorghe Pristavu Razvan Pascu Marian Badila Adriana Pribeanu Emilian Ceuca This paper presents a high-temperature probe suitable for operating in harsh industrial applications as a reliable alternative to low-lifespan conventional solutions, such as thermocouples. The temperature sensing element is a Schottky diode fabricated on 4H-SiC wafers, with Ni as the Schottky metal, which allows ...
Source: Sensors - May 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Florin Draghici Gheorghe Brezeanu Gheorghe Pristavu Razvan Pascu Marian Badila Adriana Pribeanu Emilian Ceuca Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2385: Adaptive Segmentation of Remote Sensing Images Based on Global Spatial Information
Bo Yan The problem of image segmentation can be reduced to the clustering of pixels in the intensity space. The traditional fuzzy c-means algorithm only uses pixel membership information and does not make full use of spatial information around the pixel, so it is not ideal for noise reduction. Therefore, this paper proposes a clustering algorithm based on spatial information to improve the anti-noise and accuracy of image segmentation. Firstly, the image is roughly clustered using the improved Lévy grey wolf optimization algorithm (LGWO) to obtain the initial clustering center. Secondly, the neighborh...
Source: Sensors - May 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Muqing Li Luping Xu Shan Gao Na Xu Bo Yan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2386: Machine Learning Techniques for Undertaking Roundabouts in Autonomous Driving
This article presents a machine learning-based technique to build a predictive model and generate rules of action to allow autonomous vehicles to perform roundabout maneuvers. The approach consists of building a predictive model of vehicle speeds and steering angles based on collected data related to driver–vehicle interactions and other aggregated data intrinsic to the traffic environment, such as roundabout geometry and the number of lanes obtained from Open-Street-Maps and offline video processing. The study systematically generates rules of action regarding the vehicle speed and steering angle required fo...
Source: Sensors - May 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Laura Garc ía Cuenca Javier Sanchez-Soriano Enrique Puertas Javier Fernandez Andr és Nourdine Aliane Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2387: Raman Sensing and Its Multimodal Combination with Optoacoustics and OCT for Applications in the Life Sciences
oth Currently, many optical modalities are being investigated, applied, and further developed for non-invasive analysis and sensing in the life sciences. To befit the complexity of the study objects and questions in this field, the combination of two or more modalities is attempted. We review our work on multimodal sensing concepts for applications ranging from non-invasive quantification of biomolecules in the living organism to supporting medical diagnosis showing the combined capabilities of Raman spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, and optoacoustics. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - May 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Merve Wollweber Bernhard Roth Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2388: Data Stream Mining Applied to Maximum Wind Forecasting in the Canary Islands
ute;lez Juan L. Navarro-Mesa The Canary Islands are a well known tourist destination with generally stable and clement weather conditions. However, occasionally extreme weather conditions occur, which although very unusual, may cause severe damage to the local economy. The ViMetRi-MAC EU funded project has among its goals, managing climate-change-associated risks. The Spanish National Meteorology Agency (AEMET) has a network of weather stations across the eight Canary Islands. Using data from those stations, we propose a novel methodology for the prediction of maximum wind speed in order to trigger an early alert for...
Source: Sensors - May 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Javier J. S ánchez-Medina Juan Antonio Guerra-Montenegro David S ánchez-Rodríguez Itziar G. Alonso-Gonz ález Juan L. Navarro-Mesa Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2389: Performance and Analysis of Feature Tracking Approaches in Laser Speckle Instrumentation
tam This paper investigates the application of feature tracking algorithms as an alternative data processing method for laser speckle instrumentation. The approach is capable of determining both the speckle pattern translation and rotation and can therefore be used to detect the in-plane rotation and translation of an object simultaneously. A performance assessment of widely used feature detection and matching algorithms from the computer vision field, for both translation and rotation measurements from laser speckle patterns, is presented. The accuracy of translation measurements using the feature tracking approach wa...
Source: Sensors - May 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Thomas Charrett Ralph Tatam Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2376: The Effect of UVB Irradiation and Oxidative Stress on the Skin Barrier —A New Method to Evaluate Sun Protection Factor Based on Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2376: The Effect of UVB Irradiation and Oxidative Stress on the Skin Barrier—A New Method to Evaluate Sun Protection Factor Based on Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19102376 Authors: Aura Rocio Hernández Bibiana Vallejo Tautgirdas Ruzgas Sebastian Björklund Sunlight is vital for several biochemical processes of the skin organ. However, acute or chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has several harmful effects on the skin structure and function, especially in the case of the failing function of antioxidative enzymes, which may lead to ...
Source: Sensors - May 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Aura Rocio Hern ández Bibiana Vallejo Tautgirdas Ruzgas Sebastian Bj örklund Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2377: A Novel Eye Movement Data Transformation Technique that Preserves Temporal Information: A Demonstration in a Face Processing Task
a Król Existing research has shown that human eye-movement data conveys rich information about underlying mental processes, and that the latter may be inferred from the former. However, most related studies rely on spatial information about which different areas of visual stimuli were looked at, without considering the order in which this occurred. Although powerful algorithms for making pairwise comparisons between eye-movement sequences (scanpaths) exist, the problem is how to compare two groups of scanpaths, e.g., those registered with vs. without an experimental manipulation in place, rather than individual ...
Source: Sensors - May 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Micha ł Król Magdalena Ewa Kr ól Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2378: CONE: A Connected Dominating Set-Based Flooding Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
Theel Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) play a significant role in a large number of applications, e.g., healthcare and industry. A WSN typically consists of a large number of sensor nodes which rely on limited power sources in many applications. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency of WSNs becomes a crucial topic in the research community. As a fundamental service in WSNs, network flooding offers the advantages that information can be distributed fast and reliably throughout an entire network. However, network flooding suffers from low energy efficiency due to the large number of redundant transmissions in the net...
Source: Sensors - May 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dennis Lisiecki Peilin Zhang Oliver Theel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2366: Mass-Sensitive Sensing of Melamine in Dairy Products with Molecularly Imprinted Polymers: Matrix Challenges
ieberzeit Food standards and quality control are important means to ensure public health. In the last decade, melamine has become a rather notorious example of food adulteration: Spiking products with low-cost melamine in order to feign high amino acid content exploits the lack in specificity of the established Kjeldahl method for determining organic nitrogen. This work discusses the responses of a sensor based on quartz crystal microbalances (QCM) coated with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) to detect melamine in real life matrices both in a selective and a sensitive manner. Experiments in pure milk revealed no si...
Source: Sensors - May 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Martin Zeilinger Hermann Sussitz Wim Cuypers Christoph Jungmann Peter Lieberzeit Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2367: Geometric Self-Calibration of YaoGan-13 Images Using Multiple Overlapping Images
an Zhao Geometric calibration is an important means of improving the absolute positioning accuracy of space-borne synthetic aperture radar imagery. The conventional calibration method is based on a calibration field, which is simple and convenient, but requires a great deal of manpower and material resources to obtain ground control points. Although newer cross-calibration methods do not require ground control points, calibration accuracy still depends on a periodically updated reference image. Accordingly, this study proposes a geometric self-calibration method based on the positioning consistency constraint of conjug...
Source: Sensors - May 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guo Zhang Mingjun Deng Chenglin Cai Ruishan Zhao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2368: A Virtual Sensor for Collision Detection and Distinction with Conventional Industrial Robots
in Wu Physical contact inevitably occurs during robot interaction with outside environments. A robot should have the ability to detect and distinguish whether a physical interaction between a human and the robot is contact or collision, so as to ensure human safety and improve interaction performance. In this paper, a virtual sensor that can detect and distinguish contact and collision between humans and industrial robots is proposed. Based on the generalized momentum of the robot, two observers with low-pass and band-pass filter characteristics were designed in this virtual sensor to realize the robot collision detect...
Source: Sensors - May 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhijing Li Jinhua Ye Haibin Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2369: A Textile Sensor for Long Durations of Human Motion Capture
Tao Liu Human posture and movement analysis is important in the areas of rehabilitation, sports medicine, and virtual training. However, the development of sensors with good accuracy, low cost, light weight, and suitability for long durations of human motion capture is still an ongoing issue. In this paper, a new flexible textile sensor for knee joint movement measurements was developed by using ordinary fabrics and conductive yarns. An electrogoniometer was adopted as a standard reference to calibrate the proposed sensor and validate its accuracy. The knee movements of different daily activities were performed to eval...
Source: Sensors - May 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sufeng Hu Miaoding Dai Tianyun Dong Tao Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2370: Myoelectric Signal Classification of Targeted Muscles Using Dictionary Learning
In this study, we investigated the most effective method for myoelectric signal classification with a small number of electrodes. A total of 23 subjects participated in the study, and the sEMG data of 14 different hand movements of the subjects were acquired from targeted muscles and untargeted muscles. Furthermore, the study compared the classification accuracy of the sEMG data using discriminative feature-oriented dictionary learning (DFDL) and other conventional classifiers. DFDL demonstrated the highest classification accuracy among the classifiers, and its higher quality performance became more apparent as the number ...
Source: Sensors - May 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hyun-Joon Yoo Hyeong-jun Park Boreom Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2371: Coverage-Balancing User Selection in Mobile Crowd Sensing with Budget Constraint
Ding Mobile crowd sensing (MCS) is a new computing paradigm for the internet of things, and it is widely accepted as a powerful means to achieve urban-scale sensing and data collection. In the MCS campaign, the smart mobilephone users can detect their surrounding environments with their on-phone sensors and return the sensing data to the MCS organizer. In this paper, we focus on the coverage-balancing user selection (CBUS) problem with a budget constraint. Solving the CBUS problem aims to select a proper subset of users such that their sensing coverage is as large and balancing as possible, yet without violating the b...
Source: Sensors - May 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yanan Wang Guodong Sun Xingjian Ding Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2372: Quaternion-Based Robust Attitude Estimation Using an Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter
. Pereira This paper presents the Quaternion-based Robust Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter (QRAUKF) for attitude estimation. The proposed methodology modifies and extends the standard UKF equations to consistently accommodate the non-Euclidean algebra of unit quaternions and to add robustness to fast and slow variations in the measurement uncertainty. To deal with slow time-varying perturbations in the sensors, an adaptive strategy based on covariance matching that tunes the measurement covariance matrix online is used. Additionally, an outlier detector algorithm is adopted to identify abrupt changes in the UKF innovat...
Source: Sensors - May 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ant ônio C. B. Chiella Bruno O. S. Teixeira Guilherme A. S. Pereira Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2373: The Advent of Salivary Breast Cancer Biomarker Detection Using Affinity Sensors
Nadia Zine Breast Cancer is one of the world’s most notorious diseases affecting two million women in 2018 worldwide. It is a highly heterogeneous disease, making it difficult to treat. However, its linear progression makes it a candidate for early screening programs, and the earlier its detection the higher the chance of recovery. However, one key hurdle for breast cancer screening is the fact that most screening techniques are expensive, time-consuming, and cumbersome, making them impractical for use in several parts of the world. One current trend in breast cancer detection has pointed to a possible s...
Source: Sensors - May 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Imad Abrao Nemeir Joseph Saab Walid Hleihel Abdelhamid Errachid Nicole Jafferzic-Renault Nadia Zine Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2374: FSF: Applying Machine Learning Techniques to Data Forwarding in Socially Selfish Opportunistic Networks
aacute;ndez-Orallo Opportunistic networks are becoming a solution to provide communication support in areas with overloaded cellular networks, and in scenarios where a fixed infrastructure is not available, as in remote and developing regions. A critical issue, which still requires a satisfactory solution, is the design of an efficient data delivery solution trading off delivery efficiency, delay, and cost. To tackle this problem, most researchers have used either the network state or node mobility as a forwarding criterion. Solutions based on social behaviour have recently been considered as a promising alternative. F...
Source: Sensors - May 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Camilo Souza Edjair Mota Diogo Soares Pietro Manzoni Juan-Carlos Cano Carlos T. Calafate Enrique Hern ández-Orallo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2375: Alternating Electric Field-Based Static Gesture-Recognition Technology
Xi Chen Currently, gesture recognition based on electric-field detection technology has received extensive attention, which is mostly used to recognize the position and the movement of the hand, and rarely used for identification of specific gestures. A non-contact gesture-recognition technology based on the alternating electric-field detection scheme is proposed, which can recognize static gestures in different states and dynamic gestures. The influence of the hand on the detection system is analyzed from the principle of electric-field detection. A simulation model of the system is established to investigate the ch...
Source: Sensors - May 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haoyu Wei Pengfei Li Kai Tang Wei Wang Xi Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2351: A Hybrid Energy Equating Game for Energy Management in the Internet of Underwater Things
areed The Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT) is an evolving class of Internet of Things and it is considered the basic unit for the development of smart cities. To support the idea of IoUT, an Underwater Sensor Network (USN) has emerged as a potential technology that has attractive and updated applications for underwater environment monitoring. In such networks, route selection and cluster-head management are still challenging. As the optimal routes always lead to congestion and longer delays while the cluster-head mismanagement leads to ending the USN lifespan earlier. In this paper, we propose a cooperative cluster...
Source: Sensors - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gulnaz Ahmed Xi Zhao Mian Muhammad Sadiq Fareed Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2352: Acoustic Field of a Linear Phased Array: A Simulation Study of Ultrasonic Circular Tube Material
Yanbei Liu As ultrasonic wave field radiated by an ultrasonic transducer influences the results of ultrasonic nondestructive testing, simulation and emulation are widely used in nondestructive testing. In this paper, a simulation study is proposed to detect defects in a circular tube material. Firstly, the ultrasonic propagation behavior was analyzed, and a formulation of the Multi-Gaussian beam model (MGB) based on a superposition of Gaussian beams is described. The expression of the acoustic field from a linear phased-array ultrasonic transducer in the condition of a convex interface on the circular tube material ...
Source: Sensors - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhitao Xiao Yongmin Guo Lei Geng Jun Wu Fang Zhang Wen Wang Yanbei Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2353: Acoustic Indoor Localization System Integrating TDMA+FDMA Transmission Scheme and Positioning Correction Technique
Xun Chen This paper presents a novel audio indoor localization system. In the proposed system, four speakers placed at known positions transmit chirp signals according to the time-division multiple access (TDMA) plus frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) transmission scheme. A smartphone receives the signal via a built-in microphone and calculates the time differences of arrival (TDOAs). Using TDOA measurements, the position is estimated by the shrinking-circle method. In particular, to reduce the positioning error in moving conditions, a TDOA correction method based on Doppler shifts is proposed. The performanc...
Source: Sensors - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiang Chen Yuheng Chen Shuai Cao Lei Zhang Xu Zhang Xun Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2354: Sugar Concentration Measurement System Using Radiofrequency Sensor
Flores Cuautle A sugar solution measurement system was developed based on the dielectric properties of the sucrose molecule. An ac conductivity and tan δ study as a function of the frequency was performed to find the suitable frequency range for the measuring system. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain a better response of the sensor using the frequencies as the maxima peak in tan δ appears. Developed setup for sucrose solution was appropriate to measure in a 0.15 to 1 g/mL range with an experimental error of about 3%. The proposed system improves the measurement time over so...
Source: Sensors - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gerardo Aguila Rodriguez Nayda Patricia Arias Duque Blanca Estela Gonzalez Sanchez Oscar Osvaldo Sandoval Gonzalez Oscar Hernan Giraldo Osorio Citlalli Jessica Trujillo Romero Miriam Andrea Wilches Torres Jose de Jesus Agustin Flores Cuautle Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2355: A Design Approach to IoT Endpoint Security for Production Machinery Monitoring
This article addresses such fundamental new risks at their root by introducing a novel endpoint security-by-design approach. The approach is implemented on a widely applicable production-machinery-monitoring application by introducing real-time adaptation features for IoT device security through subsystem isolation and a dedicated lightweight authentication protocol. This paper establishes a novel viewpoint for the understanding of IoT endpoint security risks and relevant mitigation strategies and opens a new space of risk-averse designs that enable IoT benefits, while shielding operational integrity in industrial environm...
Source: Sensors - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Stefano Tedeschi Christos Emmanouilidis J örn Mehnen Rajkumar Roy Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2357: Ecofriendly Long Life Nanocomposite Sensors for Determination of Carbachol in Presence of Choline: Application in Ophthalmic Solutions and Biological Fluids
osasy Several emerging nano scale forms of carbon are showing great promise in electrochemical sensing such as graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Herein we present an ecofriendly method to fabricate long life and sensitive ion selective sensors based on graphene and MWCNTs nanocomposites with no need for volatile organic solvents. Both sensors were fabricated, for the analysis of carbachol in ophthalmic solutions, plasma and urine where ion- association complex was formed between cationic carbachol and anionic Sodium tetra phenyl borate (NaTBP) in a ratio 1:1. Both sensors were evaluated according to ...
Source: Sensors - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Eman A. Al-Harbi Mona H. Abdelrahman Amira M. El-Kosasy Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2356: Direction of Arrival Estimation in Elliptical Models via Sparse Penalized Likelihood Approach
Tang In this paper, an l 1 -penalized maximum likelihood (ML) approach is developed for estimating the directions of arrival (DOAs) of source signals from the complex elliptically symmetric (CES) array outputs. This approach employs the l 1 -norm penalty to exploit the sparsity of the gridded directions, and the CES distribution setting has a merit of robustness to the uncertainty of the distribution of array output. To solve the constructed non-convex penalized ML optimization for spatially either uniform or non-uniform sensor noise, two majorization-minimization (MM) algorithms based on different majorizing functi...
Source: Sensors - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chen Chen Jie Zhou Mengjiao Tang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2358: Secure Three-Factor Authentication Protocol for Multi-Gateway IoT Environments
In conclusion, our proposed protocol is secure and applicable in multi-gateway IoT environments. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: JoonYoung Lee SungJin Yu KiSung Park YoHan Park YoungHo Park Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2359: Detection of Type, Blended Ratio, and Mixed Ratio of Pu ’er Tea by Using Electronic Nose and Visible/Near Infrared Spectrometer
The objective of this study was to find an intelligent and fast method to detect the type, blended ratio, and mixed ratio of ancient Pu’er tea, which is significant in maintaining order in the Pu’er tea industry. An electronic nose (E-nose) and a visible near infrared spectrometer (VIS/NIR spectrometer) were applied for tea sampling. Feature extraction was conducted using both the traditional method and a convolutional neural network (CNN) technique. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least square regression (PLSR) were applied for pattern recognition. After sampling while using the ...
Source: Sensors - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sai Xu Xiuxiu Sun Huazhong Lu Qianqian Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2360: Classification of Processing Damage in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris) Seeds by Multispectral Image Analysis
This study aimed to find alternative seed quality assessment methods by evaluating a machine vision technique for the classification of five damage types in monogerm sugar beet seeds. Multispectral imaging (MSI) was employed using the VideometerLab3 instrument and instrument software. Statistical analysis of MSI-derived data produced a model, which had an average of 82% accuracy in classification of 200 seeds in the five damage classes. The first class contained seeds with the potential to produce good seedlings and the model was designed to put more limitations on seeds to be classified in this group. The classification a...
Source: Sensors - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Salimi Boelt Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2361: Deep CT to MR Synthesis Using Paired and Unpaired Data
This study is aimed towards patients who are contraindicated owing to claustrophobia and cardiac pacemakers, and many scenarios in which only computed tomography (CT) images are available, such as emergencies, situations lacking an MR scanner, and situations in which the cost of obtaining an MR scan is prohibitive. From medical practice, our approach can be adopted as a screening method by radiologists to observe abnormal anatomical lesions in certain diseases that are difficult to diagnose by CT. The proposed approach can estimate an MR image based on a CT image using paired and unpaired training data. In contrast to exis...
Source: Sensors - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cheng-Bin Jin Hakil Kim Mingjie Liu Wonmo Jung Seongsu Joo Eunsik Park Young Saem Ahn In Ho Han Jae Il Lee Xuenan Cui Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2363: Energy-Efficient Spatial Query-Centric Geographic Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks
ie Bian In data-centric wireless sensor networks (WSNs), sensing data have a high time–space correlation. Most queries are spatial and used to obtain data in a defined region. Geographic routing (GR) protocols are the optimal choice for routing spatial queries. However, several drawbacks still exist in GRs, and these the include premature death of nodes and communication latency, which result in reduced network life and query efficiency. A new clustering GR protocol called quadtree grid (QTGrid) was proposed in this study to save energy and improve spatial query efficiency. First, the monitoring area w...
Source: Sensors - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wang Liu Wang Nie Bian Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2362: Parallel Correlation Filters for Real-Time Visual Tracking
ie Wang Correlation filter-based methods have recently performed remarkably well in terms of accuracy and speed in the visual object tracking research field. However, most existing correlation filter-based methods are not robust to significant appearance changes in the target, especially when the target undergoes deformation, illumination variation, and rotation. In this paper, a novel parallel correlation filters (PCF) framework is proposed for real-time visual object tracking. Firstly, the proposed method constructs two parallel correlation filters, one for tracking the appearance changes in the target, and the other...
Source: Sensors - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yijin Yang Yihong Zhang Demin Li Zhijie Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2365: A Possible Way for the Detection and Identification of Dangerous Substances in Ternary Mixtures Using THz Pulsed Spectroscopy
sova We discuss an effective tool for the detection and identification of substances in ternary mixtures with similar spectral properties using a broadband reflected THz signal. Nowadays, this is an urgent problem; its effective solution is still far off. Two ternary mixtures of the explosives (RDX+TNT+HMX and RDX+TNT+PETN) were used as the examples for demonstration of the efficiency of the method proposed. The identification is based on the pulsed THz spectroscopy. We follow the spectral intensities together with the use of integral correlation criteria. They use the spectral line dynamics of the THz pulse reflected ...
Source: Sensors - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Trofimov Varentsova Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2364: Structure from Motion Multisource Application for Landslide Characterization and Monitoring: The Champlas du Col Case Study, Sestriere, North-Western Italy
Giordan Structure from Motion (SfM) is a powerful tool to provide 3D point clouds from a sequence of images taken from different remote sensing technologies. The use of this approach for processing images captured from both Remotely Piloted Aerial Vehicles (RPAS), historical aerial photograms, and smartphones, constitutes a valuable solution for the identification and characterization of active landslides. We applied SfM to process all the acquired and available images for the study of the Champlas du Col landslide, a complex slope instability reactivated in spring 2018 in the Piemonte Region (north-western Italy). Thi...
Source: Sensors - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Martina Cignetti Danilo Godone Aleksandra Wrzesniak Daniele Giordan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2350: ECG Signal as Robust and Reliable Biometric Marker: Datasets and Algorithms Comparison
Khoma In this paper, the possibility of using the ECG signal as an unequivocal biometric marker for authentication and identification purposes has been presented. Furthermore, since the ECG signal was acquired from 4 sources using different measurement equipment, electrodes positioning and number of patients as well as the duration of the ECG record acquisition, we have additionally provided an estimation of the extent of information available in the ECG record. To provide a more objective assessment of the credibility of the identification method, some selected machine learning algorithms were used in two combinations...
Source: Sensors - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mariusz Pelc Yuriy Khoma Volodymyr Khoma Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2333: Controlling the Flight of a Drone and Its Camera for 3D Reconstruction of Large Objects
ini In this paper we present a simple stand-alone system performing the autonomous acquisition of multiple pictures all around large objects, i.e., objects that are too big to be photographed from any side just with a camera held by hand. In this approach, a camera carried by a drone (an off-the-shelf quadcopter) is employed to carry out the acquisition of an image sequence representing a valid dataset for the 3D reconstruction of the captured scene. Both the drone flight and the choice of the viewpoints for shooting a picture are automatically controlled by the developed application, which runs on a tablet wirelessly ...
Source: Sensors - May 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Simone Mentasti Federico Pedersini Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2334: A Broadband Mid-Infrared Trace Gas Sensor Using Supercontinuum Light Source: Applications for Real-Time Quality Control for Fruit Storage
We present a fully integrated and transportable multi-species trace gas sensor based on a mid-infrared (MIR) supercontinuum light source. The high brightness (surpassing synchrotron) and ultra-broad spectral bandwidth (2–4 μm) of this light source allows simultaneous detection of multiple broadband absorbing gas species. High sensitivity in the sub-ppmv level has been achieved by utilizing an astigmatic multipass cell. A grating-based spectrometer at a scanning rate of 20 Hz is developed employing a balanced detection scheme. A multi-component global fitting algorithm is implemented into a central ...
Source: Sensors - May 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Khalil Eslami Jahromi Qing Pan Amir Khodabakhsh Cor Sikkens Paul Assman Simona M. Cristescu Peter M. Moselund Maxime Janssens Bert E. Verlinden Frans J. M. Harren Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2335: Wi-Alarm: Low-Cost Passive Intrusion Detection Using WiFi
hugong Xu In this paper, we present a WiFi-based intrusion detection system called Wi-Alarm. Motivated by our observations and analysis that raw channel state information (CSI) of WiFi is sensitive enough to monitor human motion, Wi-Alarm omits data preprocessing. The mean and variance of the amplitudes of raw CSI data are used for feature extraction. Then, a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is applied to determine detection results. We prototype Wi-Alarm on commercial WiFi devices and evaluate it in a typical indoor scenario. Results show that Wi-Alarm reduces much computational expense without losing accuracy a...
Source: Sensors - May 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tao Wang Dandan Yang Shunqing Zhang Yating Wu Shugong Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2336: Fluid Sensing Using Quartz Tuning Forks —Measurement Technology and Applications
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2336: Fluid Sensing Using Quartz Tuning Forks—Measurement Technology and Applications Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19102336 Authors: Thomas Voglhuber-Brunnmaier Alexander O. Niedermayer Friedrich Feichtinger Bernhard Jakoby We provide an overview of recent achievements using quartz tuning forks for sensing liquid viscosity and density. The benefits of using quartz crystal tuning forks (QTFs) over other sensors are discussed on the basis of physical arguments and issues arising in real world applications. The path to highly accurate and robust measurement systems is described and a recen...
Source: Sensors - May 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Thomas Voglhuber-Brunnmaier Alexander O. Niedermayer Friedrich Feichtinger Bernhard Jakoby Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2337: LDAF: Low-Bandwidth Distributed Applications Framework in a Use Case of Blockchain-Enabled IoT Devices
Andrej Kos In this paper, we present Low-Bandwidth Distributed Applications Framework (LDAF)—an application-aware gateway for communication-constrained Internet of things (IoT) devices. A modular approach facilitates connecting to existing cloud backend servers and managing message formats and APIs’ native application logic to meet the communication constraints of resource-limited end devices. We investigated options for positioning the LDAF server in fog computing architectures. We demonstrated the approach in three use cases: (i) a simple domain name system (DNS) query from the device to a...
Source: Sensors - May 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Matev ž Pustišek Dejan Dolenc Andrej Kos Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2338: An Integrative Framework for Online Prognostic and Health Management Using Internet of Things and Convolutional Neural Network
ngtao Hou With the development of the internet of things (IoTs), big data, smart sensing technology, and cloud technology, the industry has entered a new stage of revolution. Traditional manufacturing enterprises are transforming into service-oriented manufacturing based on prognostic and health management (PHM). However, there is a lack of a systematic and comprehensive framework of PHM to create more added value. In this paper, the authors proposed an integrative framework to systematically solve the problem from three levels: Strategic level of PHM to create added value, tactical level of PHM to make the implementat...
Source: Sensors - May 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yuanju Qu Xinguo Ming Siqi Qiu Maokuan Zheng Zengtao Hou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2339: A Robust Diffusion Minimum Kernel Risk-Sensitive Loss Algorithm over Multitask Sensor Networks
Feng Chen Distributed estimation over sensor networks has attracted much attention due to its various applications. The mean-square error (MSE) criterion is one of the most popular cost functions used in distributed estimation, which achieves its optimality only under Gaussian noise. However, impulsive noise also widely exists in real-world sensor networks. Thus, the distributed estimation algorithm based on the minimum kernel risk-sensitive loss (MKRSL) criterion is proposed in this paper to deal with non-Gaussian noise, particularly for impulsive noise. Furthermore, multiple tasks estimation problems in sensor networ...
Source: Sensors - May 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xinyu Li Qing Shi Shuangyi Xiao Shukai Duan Feng Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2340: Distance-Based Paper Device Combined with Headspace Extraction for Determination of Cyanide
We report for the first time a distance-based paper device based on gold/silver core shell nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) for a simple, inexpensive, instrument-free, and portable determination of cyanide by the naked eye. Au@Ag NPs immobilized on a paper channel were etched by cyanide ions so that a yellow color band length of Au@Ag NPs is proportional to a decrease in the cyanide concentration. Quantification is achieved by measuring color length, thus eliminating the need to differentiate hues and intensities by the user, and the processing data of each imaging device. Moreover, the paper-based headspace extraction was combin...
Source: Sensors - May 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Papichaya Khatha Thanyarat Phutthaphongloet Phenphitcha Timpa Benjawan Ninwong Kamolwich Income Nalin Ratnarathorn Wijitar Dungchai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 2341: Entry Aggregation and Early Match Using Hidden Markov Model of Flow Table in SDN
oun The usage of multiple flow tables (MFT) has significantly extended the flexibility and applicability of software-defined networking (SDN). However, the size of MFT is usually limited due to the use of expensive ternary content addressable memory (TCAM). Moreover, the pipeline mechanism of MFT causes long flow processing time. In this paper a novel approach called Agg-ExTable is proposed to efficiently manage the MFT. Here the flow entries in MFT are periodically aggregated by applying pruning and the Quine–Mccluskey algorithm. Utilizing the memory space saved by the aggregation, a front-end ExTable is...
Source: Sensors - May 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cheng Wang Hee Yong Youn Tags: Article Source Type: research