Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1995: GSOS-ELM: An RFID-Based Indoor Localization System Using GSO Method and Semi-Supervised Online Sequential ELM
ong With the rapid development of indoor positioning technology, radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has become the preferred solution due to its advantages of non-line-of-sight, non-contact and rapid identification. However, the accuracy of existing RFID indoor positioning algorithms is easily affected by the tag density and algorithm efficiency, and their environmental robustness is not strong enough. In this paper, we have introduced an RFID positioning algorithm based on the Glowworm Swarm Optimization (GSO) fused with semi-supervised online sequential extreme learning machine (SOS-ELM), which is calle...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fagui Liu Dexiang Zhong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1996: A Novel Approach to Relative Radiometric Calibration on Spatial and Temporal Variations for FORMOSAT-5 RSI Imagery
an Tsai Radiometric calibration for imaging sensors is a crucial procedure to ensure imagery quality. One of the challenges in relative radiometric calibration is to correct detector-level artifacts due to the fluctuation in discrepant responses (spatial) and electronic instability (temporal). In this paper, the integration of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) in relative radiometric calibration was explored for a new sensor, FS-5 RSI (remote sensing instrument onboard the FORMOSAT-5 satellite). The key intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) analyzed by HHT were examined with the ...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tang-Huang Lin Min-Chung Hsiao Hai-Po Chan Fuan Tsai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1979: Action Recognition by an Attention-Aware Temporal Weighted Convolutional Neural Network
nning Zheng Research in human action recognition has accelerated significantly since the introduction of powerful machine learning tools such as Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). However, effective and efficient methods for incorporation of temporal information into CNNs are still being actively explored in the recent literature. Motivated by the popular recurrent attention models in the research area of natural language processing, we propose the Attention-aware Temporal Weighted CNN (ATW CNN) for action recognition in videos, which embeds a visual attention model into a temporal weighted multi-stream CNN. This at...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Le Wang Jinliang Zang Qilin Zhang Zhenxing Niu Gang Hua Nanning Zheng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1980: Validity, Test-Retest Reliability and Long-Term Stability of Magnetometer Free Inertial Sensor Based 3D Joint Kinematics
This study revealed an excellent correspondence of a magnetometer-free IMU system with an OMC system when excluding soft tissue artefacts. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wolfgang Teufl Markus Miezal Bertram Taetz Michael Fr öhlich Gabriele Bleser Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1982: Optimal Design of a Planar Textile Antenna for Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) with the CRO-SL Algorithm
te;pez-Espí Sancho Salcedo-Sanz This paper proposes a low-profile textile-modified meander line Inverted-F Antenna (IFA) with variable width and spacing meanders, for Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) 2.4-GHz Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN), optimized with a novel metaheuristic algorithm. Specifically, a metaheuristic known as Coral Reefs Optimization with Substrate Layer (CRO-SL) is used to obtain an optimal antenna for sensor systems, which allows covering properly and resiliently the 2.4–2.45-GHz industrial scientific medical bandwidth. Flexible pad foam has been used to make the designed...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Roc ío Sánchez-Montero Carlos Camacho-G ómez Pablo-Lu ís López-Espí Sancho Salcedo-Sanz Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1981: An Overview of Non-Destructive Testing Methods for Integrated Circuit Packaging Inspection
Sohn The article provides a review of the state-of-art non-destructive testing (NDT) methods used for evaluation of integrated circuit (IC) packaging. The review identifies various types of the defects and the capabilities of most common NDT methods employed for defect detection. The main aim of this paper is to provide a detailed review on the common NDT methods for IC packaging addressing their principles of operation, advantages, limitations and suggestions for improvement. The current methods such as, X-ray, scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), infrared thermography (IRT), magnetic current imaging (MCI) and surface...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pouria Aryan Santhakumar Sampath Hoon Sohn Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1983: Smart Road Traffic Accidents Reduction Strategy Based on Intelligent Transportation Systems (TARS)
Houbing Song Traffic accidents have become an important problem for governments, researchers and vehicle manufacturers over the last few decades. However, accidents are unfortunate and frequently occur on the road and cause death, damage to infrastructure, and health injuries. Therefore, there is a need to develop a protocol to avoid or prevent traffic accidents at the extreme level in order to reduce human loss. The aim of this research is to develop a new protocol, named as the Traffic Accidents Reduction Strategy (TARS), for Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs) to minimize the number of road accidents, decrease the d...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abdulaziz Aldegheishem Humera Yasmeen Hafsa Maryam Munam Ali Shah Amjad Mehmood Nabil Alrajeh Houbing Song Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1984: Road Anomalies Detection System Evaluation
na Rodrigues Anomalies on road pavement cause discomfort to drivers and passengers, and may cause mechanical failure or even accidents. Governments spend millions of Euros every year on road maintenance, often causing traffic jams and congestion on urban roads on a daily basis. This paper analyses the difference between the deployment of a road anomalies detection and identification system in a “conditioned” and a real world setup, where the system performed worse compared to the “conditioned” setup. It also presents a system performance analysis based on the anal...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nuno Silva Vaibhav Shah Jo ão Soares Helena Rodrigues Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1985: An Effective Image Denoising Method for UAV Images via Improved Generative Adversarial Networks
izhi Chen Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an inexpensive platform for collecting remote sensing images, but UAV images suffer from a content loss problem caused by noise. In order to solve the noise problem of UAV images, we propose a new methods to denoise UAV images. This paper introduces a novel deep neural network method based on generative adversarial learning to trace the mapping relationship between noisy and clean images. In our approach, perceptual reconstruction loss is used to establish a loss equation that continuously optimizes a min-max game theoretic model to obtain better UAV image denoising results...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ruihua Wang Xiongwu Xiao Bingxuan Guo Qianqing Qin Ruizhi Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1986: Electrochemical Determination of Nitrite by Au Nanoparticle/Graphene-Chitosan Modified Electrode
Zhe Wang Chengyong Li A highly sensitive nitrite (NO2−) electrochemical sensor is fabricated using glassy carbon electrode modified with Au nanoparticle and grapheme oxide. Briefly, this electrochemical sensor was prepared by drop-coating graphene oxide-chitosan mixed film on the surface of the electrode and then electrodepositing a layer of Au nanoparticle using cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical behavior of NO2− on the sensor was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and amperometric i-t curve. The results showed that the sensor exhibited better electrocatalytic activity for NO2&am...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rijian Mo Xuehua Wang Qiong Yuan Xiemin Yan Tiantian Su Yanting Feng Lulu Lv Chunxia Zhou Pengzhi Hong Shengli Sun Zhe Wang Chengyong Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1987: Theoretical Analysis of a Microring Resonator Array with High Sensitivity and Large Dynamic Range Based on a Multi-Scale Technique
feng Dong By using a multi-scale measurement technique, a high-sensitivity and large dynamic-range sensor array, which consisted of a single resonator and a series of cascaded resonators with a sensing ring and a reference ring, was modeled, and its transmission properties were investigated theoretically and numerically. We also set forth the principle of a multi-scale measurement technique based on the transmission spectrum of a resonator. This sensor array could have a nearly tenfold increase in sensitivity, and an improved dynamic range in an arrow wavelength range. The simulated results were in good agreement with ...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wenqin Mo Huiyun Liu Fang Jin Junlei Song Kaifeng Dong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1988: Reliability Evaluation and Robust Design of a Sensor in an Entire Roller-Embedded Shapemeter
min Liu The intermittence of the shape detection signal associated with an entire roller-embedded shapemeter roll, used in a seven-pass cold reversible rolling process, is considered. A transient interference at the sensor top surface and the distance between the sensor top surface and the roll outer surface are developed, and a sensor reliability evaluation model is derived. The reliability of the sensor is evaluated via the random perturbation method, and the reliability sensitivity of design variables is proposed. The analysis reveals that the reliability is smallest in the third rolling pass. Of the design variable...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haimiao Wu Guohua Cui Dan Zhang Hongmin Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1989: Experimental Demonstration of Remote and Compact Imaging Spectrometer Based on Mobile Devices
ling He Imaging spectrometers show great potential for environmental and biomedical sensing applications. Selfie sticks, which are tools used to take photographs or videos, have gained global popularity in recent years. Few people have connected these two objects, and few people have researched the application of imaging spectrometers to perform scientific monitoring in point-of-use scenarios. In this paper, we develop a compact imaging spectrometer (35 g in weight, 18 mm in diameter, and 72 mm in length) that can be equipped on a motorized selfie stick to perform remote sensing. We applied this system to perform envir...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jie Chen Fuhong Cai Rongxiao He Sailing He Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1990: UV Light Illumination Can Improve the Sensing Properties of LaFeO3 to Acetone Vapor
Jifan Hu The synthesized LaFeO3 nanocrystalline sensor powders show positive response to sensing acetone vapor at 200 °C. The responses to acetone vapor (at 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 ppm) are 1.18, 1.22, 1.89, 3.2 and 7.83. To make the sensor operate at a lower optimum temperature, UV light illumination 365 nm is performed. Response of the sensor has a larger improvement under 365 nm UV light illumination than without it. The responses to acetone vapor (at 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 ppm) are 1.37, 1.85, 3.16, 8.32 and 14.1. Furthermore, the optimum operating temperature is reduced to 170 °C. As the relative hum...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Heng Zhang Hongwei Qin Chengyong Gao Guangjun Zhou Yanping Chen Jifan Hu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1991: A Systematic Survey on Sensor Failure Detection and Fault-Tolerance in Ambient Assisted Living
ost Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) systems aim to enable the elderly people to stay active and live independently into older age by monitoring their behaviour, provide the needed assistance and detect early signs of health status deterioration. Non-intrusive sensors are preferred by the elderly to be used for the monitoring purposes. However, false positive or negative triggers of those sensors could lead to a misleading interpretation of the status of the elderlies. This paper presents a systematic literature review of the sensor failure detection and fault tolerance in AAL equipped with non-intrusive, event-driven, bi...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nancy E. ElHady Julien Provost Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1992: A Method to Track Targets in Three-Dimensional Space Using an Imaging Sonar
Zhang This paper introduces a methodology applying an imaging sonar for three-dimensional (3D) target tracking underwater. The key process in this work involves obtaining the target’s position in space using two images of the same scene, acquired by an adaptive resolution imaging sonar (ARIS) at different positions. A data association algorithm was designed to connect the same target in image sequences. The goal of this work was to track multiple targets in 3D space. The ARIS provides sequences of bi-dimensional images from the backscattered energy according to the range and azimuth. The challenge involve...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Danxiang Jing Jun Han Jin Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1993: Design and Modeling of a Test Bench for Dual-Motor Electric Drive Tracked Vehicles Based on a Dynamic Load Emulation Method
Yong Yang Dual-motor Electric Drive Tracked Vehicles (DDTVs) have attracted increasing attention due to their high transmission efficiency and economical fuel consumption. A test bench for the development and validation of new DDTV technologies is necessary and urgent. How to load the vehicle on a DDTV test bench exactly the same as on a real road is a crucial issue when designing the bench. This paper proposes a novel dynamic load emulation method to address this problem. The method adopts dual dynamometers to simulate both the road load and the inertia load that are imposed on the dual independent drive systems. The ...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhe Wang Haoliang Lv Xiaojun Zhou Zhaomeng Chen Yong Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1994: Investigation of Gasochromic Rhodium Complexes Towards Their Reactivity to CO and Integration into an Optical Gas Sensor for Fire Gas Detection
We present a study of the reactivity of different gasochromic rhodium complexes towards the toxic gas carbon monoxide (CO). Therefore, variations of binuclear rhodium complexes with different ligands were prepared. They were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. All complexes are spectroscopically distinguishable and temperature stable up to at least 187 °C. The gasochromic behavior of all different compounds was tested. Therefore, the compounds were dissolved in toluene and exposed to 100 ppm CO for 10 min to investigate their gas sensitivity and reacti...
Source: Sensors - June 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Carolin Pannek Karina R. Tarantik Katrin Schmitt J ürgen Wöllenstein Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1973: Downlink Cooperative Broadcast Transmission Based on Superposition Coding in a Relaying System for Future Wireless Sensor Networks
This study investigates the superiority of cooperative broadcast transmission over traditional orthogonal schemes when applied in a downlink relaying broadcast channel (RBC). Two proposed cooperative broadcast transmission protocols, one with an amplify-and-forward (AF) relay, and the other with a repetition-based decode-and-forward (DF) relay, are investigated. By utilizing superposition coding (SupC), the source and the relay transmit the private user messages simultaneously instead of sequentially as in traditional orthogonal schemes, which means the channel resources are reused and an increased channel degree of freedo...
Source: Sensors - June 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yang Liu Guangjie Han Sulong Shi Zhengquan Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1974: Accurate Smartphone Indoor Visual Positioning Based on a High-Precision 3D Photorealistic Map
Beini Xu Indoor positioning is in high demand in a variety of applications, and indoor environment is a challenging scene for visual positioning. This paper proposes an accurate visual positioning method for smartphones. The proposed method includes three procedures. First, an indoor high-precision 3D photorealistic map is produced using a mobile mapping system, and the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the images are obtained from the mapping result. A point cloud is calculated using feature matching and multi-view forward intersection. Second, top-K similar images are queried using hamming embedding with SIFT fe...
Source: Sensors - June 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Teng Wu Jingbin Liu Zheng Li Keke Liu Beini Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1975: Directional Sensitivity of a MEMS-Based Fiber-Optic Extrinsic Fabry –Perot Ultrasonic Sensor for Partial Discharge Detection
Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1975: Directional Sensitivity of a MEMS-Based Fiber-Optic Extrinsic Fabry–Perot Ultrasonic Sensor for Partial Discharge Detection Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18061975 Authors: Wenrong Si Chenzhao Fu Delin Li Haoyong Li Peng Yuan Yiting Yu Extrinsic Fabry–Perot (FP) interferometric sensors are being intensively applied for partial discharge (PD) detection and localization. Previous research work has mainly focused on novel structures and materials to improve the sensitivity and linear response of these sensors. However, the directional response behavior of an FP ultras...
Source: Sensors - June 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wenrong Si Chenzhao Fu Delin Li Haoyong Li Peng Yuan Yiting Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1976: On the Coverage of Bus-Based Mobile Sensing
Dias de Amorim A cost-effective approach to gather information in a smart city is to embed sensors in vehicles such as buses. To understand the limitations and opportunities of this model, it is fundamental to investigate the spatial coverage of such a network, especially in the case where only a subset of the buses have a sensing device embedded. In this paper, we propose a model to select the right subset of buses that maximizes the coverage of the city. We evaluate the model in a real scenario based on a large-scale dataset of more than 5700 buses in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Among other findings, we obser...
Source: Sensors - June 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pedro Henrique Cruz Caminha Rodrigo de Souza Couto Lu ís Henrique Maciel Kosmalski Costa Anne Fladenmuller Marcelo Dias de Amorim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1977: A New Method of High-Precision Positioning for an Indoor Pseudolite without Using the Known Point Initialization
Xinzhe Wang Due to the great influence of multipath effect, noise, clock and error on pseudorange, the carrier phase double difference equation is widely used in high-precision indoor pseudolite positioning. The initial position is determined mostly by the known point initialization (KPI) method, and then the ambiguities can be fixed with the LAMBDA method. In this paper, a new method without using the KPI to achieve high-precision indoor pseudolite positioning is proposed. The initial coordinates can be quickly obtained to meet the accuracy requirement of the indoor LAMBDA method. The detailed processes of the metho...
Source: Sensors - June 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yinzhi Zhao Peng Zhang Jiming Guo Xin Li Jinling Wang Fei Yang Xinzhe Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1978: Spectral-Spatial Feature Extraction of Hyperspectral Images Based on Propagation Filter
hihua Cai Recently, image-filtering based hyperspectral image (HSI) feature extraction has been widely studied. However, due to limited spatial resolution and feature distribution complexity, the problems of cross-region mixing after filtering and spectral discriminative reduction still remain. To address these issues, this paper proposes a spectral-spatial propagation filter (PF) based HSI feature extraction method that can effectively address the above problems. The dimensionality/band of an HSI is typically high; therefore, principal component analysis (PCA) is first used to reduce the HSI dimensionality. Then, the ...
Source: Sensors - June 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhikun Chen Junjun Jiang Xinwei Jiang Xiaoping Fang Zhihua Cai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1966: Estimation of Tri-Axial Walking Ground Reaction Forces of Left and Right Foot from Total Forces in Real-Life Environments
vic Continuous monitoring of natural human gait in real-life environments is essential in many applications including disease monitoring, rehabilitation, and professional sports. Wearable inertial measurement units are successfully used to measure body kinematics in real-life environments and to estimate total walking ground reaction forces GRF(t) using equations of motion. However, for inverse dynamics and clinical gait analysis, the GRF(t) of each foot is required separately. Using an experimental dataset of 1243 tri-axial separate-foot GRF(t) time histories measured by the authors across eight years, this study prop...
Source: Sensors - June 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Erfan Shahabpoor Aleksandar Pavic Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1967: GNSS Code Multipath Mitigation by Cascading Measurement Monitoring Techniques
e O’Keefe Various measurement monitoring techniques are investigated to mitigate the effect of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) code multipath through error correction, stochastic weighting of measurements and detection and exclusion (or de-weighting) of affected measurements. Following a comprehensive review of each approach, the paper focuses on detection/exclusion and detection/de-weighting techniques where several single and dual-frequency monitoring metrics are employed in a combination with time-averaging and the M of N detection strategy. A new Geometry-Free (GF) detection metric is proposed give...
Source: Sensors - June 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ali Pirsiavash Ali Broumandan G érard Lachapelle Kyle O ’Keefe Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1968: Deformation Monitoring for Chinese Traditional Timber Buildings Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors
ing Zhang The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing technique is suitable for a wide variety of measurements, including temperature, pressure, acceleration, liquid level, etc., and has been applied to many bridges and buildings in the past two decades. The fact that the FBG technique can only monitor and measure strain data for most cases when it is used for deformation measurements impedes application of the FBG sensing technique in civil infrastructures. This paper proposes FBG sensing-based deformation monitoring methods that are applicable to monitoring beam deflection, column inclination angle and mortise-tenon joint ...
Source: Sensors - June 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ni-Lei Li Shao-Fei Jiang Ming-Hao Wu Sheng Shen Ying Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1970: Heading Estimation for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Based on Robust Adaptive Kalman Filtering
Geng Pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) using smart phone-embedded micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors plays a key role in ubiquitous localization indoors and outdoors. However, as a relative localization method, it suffers from the problem of error accumulation which prevents it from long term independent running. Heading estimation error is one of the main location error sources, and therefore, in order to improve the location tracking performance of the PDR method in complex environments, an approach based on robust adaptive Kalman filtering (RAKF) for estimating accurate headings is proposed. In our approa...
Source: Sensors - June 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dongjin Wu Linyuan Xia Jijun Geng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1969: UCMAC: A Cooperative MAC Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
n Cho This paper proposes a cooperative medium access control (MAC) protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) named UCMAC, which fundamentally benefits from cooperative communication. In UCMAC, a source identifies cooperators and provides its destination with a list of the cooperators while also delineating their proximity to the destination. For erroneous reception of data packets, the destination then requests retransmission to the cooperators in a closest-one-first manner. A designated cooperator transmits the buffered data packet it has successfully overheard from the source or other cooperators. A s...
Source: Sensors - June 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hee-won Kim Tae Ho Im Ho-Shin Cho Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1971: Processing Ultrasonic Data by Coda Wave Interferometry to Monitor Load Tests of Concrete Beams
üller Ultrasonic transmission measurements have been used for decades to monitor concrete elements, mostly on a laboratory scale. Recently, coda wave interferometry (CWI), a technique adapted from seismology, was introduced to civil engineering experiments. It can be used to reveal subtle changes in concrete laboratory samples and even large structural elements without having a transducer directly at the place where the change is taking place. Here, several load tests until failure on large posttensioned concrete beams have been monitored using networks of embedded transducers. To detect subtle effects at the begi...
Source: Sensors - June 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ernst Niederleithinger Xin Wang Martin Herbrand Matthias M üller Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1972: Improved Dynamic Mode Decomposition and Its Application to Fault Diagnosis of Rolling Bearing
ian Wei To solve the intractable problems of optimal rank truncation threshold and dominant modes selection strategy of the standard dynamic mode decomposition (DMD), an improved DMD algorithm is introduced in this paper. Distinct from the conventional methods, a convex optimization framework is introduced by applying a parameterized non-convex penalty function to obtain the optimal rank truncation number. This method is inspirited by the performance that it is more perfectible than other rank truncation methods in inhibiting noise disturbance. A hierarchical and multiresolution application similar to the process of wa...
Source: Sensors - June 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Dang Yong Lv Yourong Li Guoqian Wei Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1965: Impact of Sliding Window Length in Indoor Human Motion Modes and Pose Pattern Recognition Based on Smartphone Sensors
In this study, we examined the impact of window length on smartphone sensor-based human motion and pose pattern recognition. With data collected from smartphone sensors, we tested a range of window lengths on five popular machine-learning methods: decision tree, support vector machine, K-nearest neighbor, Gaussian naïve Bayesian, and adaptive boosting. From the results, we provide recommendations for choosing the appropriate window length. Results corroborate that the influence of window length on the recognition of motion modes is significant but largely limited to pose pattern recognition. For motion mode re...
Source: Sensors - June 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gaojing Wang Qingquan Li Lei Wang Wei Wang Mengqi Wu Tao Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1963: Non-Destructive Methodology to Determine Modulus of Elasticity in Static Bending of Quercus mongolica Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
This article presents a non-destructive methodology to determine the modulus of elasticity (MOE) in static bending of wood through the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Wood specimens were obtained from Quercus mongolica growing in Northeast of China. The NIR spectra of specimens were acquired by using a one-chip NIR fiber optic spectrometer whose spectral range was 900~1900 nm. The raw spectra of specimens were pretreated by multiplication scatter correlation and Savitzky-Golay smoothing and differentiation filter. To reduce the dimensions of data and complexity of modeling, the synergy interval partial least squar...
Source: Sensors - June 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hao Liang Meng Zhang Chao Gao Yandong Zhao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1964: TM02 Quarter-Mode Substrate-Integrated Waveguide Resonator for Dual Detection of Chemicals
Lim The detection of multiple fluids using a single chip has been attracting attention recently. A TM02 quarter-mode substrate-integrated waveguide resonator designed at 5.81 GHz on RT/duroid 6010LM with a return loss of 13 dB and an unloaded quality factor of Q ≈ 13 generates two distinct strong electric fields that can be manipulated to simultaneously detect two chemicals. Two asymmetric channels engraved in a polydimethylsiloxane sheet are loaded with analyte to produce a unique resonance frequency in each case, regardless of the dielectric constants of the liquids. Keeping in view the nature of lossy ...
Source: Sensors - June 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ahmed Salim Sungjoon Lim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1958: Design of Inkjet-Printed RFID-Based Sensor on Paper: Single- and Dual-Tag Sensor Topologies
zeris The detailed design considerations for the printed RFID-based sensor system is presented in this paper. Starting from material selection and metallization method, this paper discusses types of RFID-based sensors (single- & dual-tag sensor topologies), design procedures, and performance evaluation methods for the wireless sensor system. The electrical properties of the paper substrates (cellulose-based and synthetic papers) and the silver nano-particle-based conductive film are thoroughly characterized for RF applications up to 8 GHz. The reported technology could potentially set the foundation for tru...
Source: Sensors - June 17, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sangkil Kim Apostolos Georgiadis Manos M. Tentzeris Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1959: Stochastic Feedback Based Continuous-Discrete Cubature Kalman Filtering for Bearings-Only Tracking
Kun Chen Bearings-only tracking only adopts measurements from angle sensors to realize target tracking, thus, the accuracy of the state prediction has a significant influence on the final results of filtering. There exist unpredictable approximation errors in the process of filtering due to state propagation, discretization, linearization or other adverse effects. The idea of online covariance adaption is proposed in this work, where the post covariance information is proved to be effective for the covariance adaption. With theoretical deduction, the relationship between the posterior covariance and the priori covaria...
Source: Sensors - June 17, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Renke He Shuxin Chen Hao Wu Lei Hong Kun Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1960: Adaptive Maximum Correntropy Gaussian Filter Based on Variational Bayes
Bin Ma In this paper, we investigate the state estimation of systems with unknown covariance non-Gaussian measurement noise. A novel improved Gaussian filter (GF) is proposed, where the maximum correntropy criterion (MCC) is used to suppress the pollution of non-Gaussian measurement noise and its covariance is online estimated through the variational Bayes (VB) approximation. MCC and VB are integrated through the fixed-point iteration to modify the estimated measurement noise covariance. As a general framework, the proposed algorithm is applicable to both linear and nonlinear systems with different rules being used to...
Source: Sensors - June 17, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guoqing Wang Zhongxing Gao Yonggang Zhang Bin Ma Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1961: A Fog Computing Based Cyber-Physical System for the Automation of Pipe-Related Tasks in the Industry 4.0 Shipyard
This article presents a system that allows for identifying and tracking the pipes of a ship through their construction cycle. For such a purpose, a fog computing architecture is proposed to extend cloud computing to the edge of the shipyard network. The system has been developed jointly by Navantia, one of the largest shipbuilders in the world, and the University of A Coruña (Spain), through a project that makes use of some of the latest Industry 4.0 technologies. Specifically, a Cyber-Physical System (CPS) is described, which uses active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags to track pipes and detect r...
Source: Sensors - June 17, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tiago M. Fern ández-Caramés Paula Fraga-Lamas Manuel Su árez-Albela Manuel A. D íaz-Bouza Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1962: Joint Energy Supply and Routing Path Selection for Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks
yu Zhou The topic of network lifetime has been attracting much research attention because of its importance in prolonging the standing operation of battery-restricted wireless sensor networks, and the rechargeable wireless sensor network has emerged as a promising solution. In this paper, we propose a joint energy supply and routing path selection algorithm to extend the network lifetime based on an initiative power supply. We develop a two-stage energy replenishment strategy to supplement the energy consumption of nodes as much as possible. Furthermore, the influence of charging factors on the selection of next-hop no...
Source: Sensors - June 17, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Liangrui Tang Jinqi Cai Jiangyu Yan Zhenyu Zhou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1956: Laser Self-Mixing Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor for Acoustic Emission Measurement
Ginu Rajan Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is considered a good candidate for acoustic emission (AE) measurement. The sensing and measurement in traditional FBG-based AE systems are based on the variation in laser intensity induced by the Bragg wavelength shift. This paper presents a sensing system by combining self-mixing interference (SMI) in a laser diode and FBG for AE measurement, aiming to form a new compact and cost-effective sensing system. The measurement model of the overall system was derived. The performance of the presented system was investigated from both aspects of theory and experiment. The results show t...
Source: Sensors - June 16, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bin Liu Yuxi Ruan Yanguang Yu Jiangtao Xi Qinghua Guo Jun Tong Ginu Rajan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1957: Adaptive Waveform Design for MIMO Radar-Communication Transceiver
an Wu The system architecture for an adaptive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar-communication transceiver is proposed. A waveform design approach for communication data embedding into MIMO radar pulse using M-ary position phase shift keying (MPPSK) waveforms is introduced. A waveform optimization algorithm for the adaptive system is presented. The algorithm aims to improve the target detection performance by maximizing the relative entropy (RE) between the distributions under existence and absence of the target, and minimizing the mutual information (MI) between the current received signals and the estimated ...
Source: Sensors - June 16, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yu Yao Junhui Zhao Lenan Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1955: Nondestructive Evaluation of Concrete Bridge Decks with Automated Acoustic Scanning System and Ground Penetrating Radar
g Zhu Delamanintions and reinforcement corrosion are two common problems in concrete bridge decks. No single nondestructive testing method (NDT) is able to provide comprehensive characterization of these defects. In this work, two NDT methods, acoustic scanning and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), were used to image a straight concrete bridge deck and a curved intersection ramp bridge. An acoustic scanning system has been developed for rapid delamination mapping. The system consists of metal-ball excitation sources, air-coupled sensors, and a GPS positioning system. The acoustic scanning results are presented as a two-d...
Source: Sensors - June 16, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hongbin Sun Sepehr Pashoutani Jinying Zhu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1944: Detection of Oil Chestnuts Infected by Blue Mold Using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Combined with Artificial Neural Networks
In this study, a near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system in the 874–1734 nm spectral range was applied to detect the mildew damage to chestnuts caused by blue mold. Principal component analysis (PCA) scored images were firstly employed to qualitatively and intuitively distinguish moldy chestnuts from healthy chestnuts. Spectral data were extracted from the hyperspectral images. A successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to select 12 optimal wavelengths. Artificial neural networks, including back propagation neural network (BPNN), evolutionary neural network (ENN), extreme learning machine (ELM), gen...
Source: Sensors - June 15, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lei Feng Susu Zhu Fucheng Lin Zhenzhu Su Kangpei Yuan Yiying Zhao Yong He Chu Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1945: Energy-Aware Computation Offloading of IoT Sensors in Cloudlet-Based Mobile Edge Computing
wei Liu Mobile edge computing is proposed as a promising computing paradigm to relieve the excessive burden of data centers and mobile networks, which is induced by the rapid growth of Internet of Things (IoT). This work introduces the cloud-assisted multi-cloudlet framework to provision scalable services in cloudlet-based mobile edge computing. Due to the constrained computation resources of cloudlets and limited communication resources of wireless access points (APs), IoT sensors with identical computation offloading decisions interact with each other. To optimize the processing delay and energy consumption of comput...
Source: Sensors - June 15, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiao Ma Chuang Lin Han Zhang Jianwei Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1946: A Sensitive Electrochemical Immunosensor Based on PAMAM Dendrimer-Encapsulated Au for Detection of Norfloxacin in Animal-Derived Foods
ang Shuo Wang In this work, a sensitive electrochemical immunosensor has been reported for the determination of norfloxacin in animal-derived foods. The poly (amidoamine) dendrimer encapsulated gold nanoparticles (PAMAM-Au) played dual roles in the proposed sensing platform which not only accelerated the electron transfer process of sensing, but also increased the efficiency of the immobilized antibody. The HRP-labeled antigen, as the signal labels in the immunosensor, was introduced to catalyze the following reaction of the substrate hydroquinone with the aid of H2O2 in the competitive reaction. On the basis of the ...
Source: Sensors - June 15, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bing Liu Min Li Yaoshuai Zhao Mingfei Pan Ying Gu Wei Sheng Guozhen Fang Shuo Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1947: Exploring the Exponentially Decaying Merit of an Out-of-Sequence Observation
el Pack It is well known that in a Kalman filtering framework, all sensor observations or measurements contribute toward improving the accuracy of state estimation, but, as observations become older, their impact toward improving estimations becomes smaller to the point that they offer no practical benefit. In this paper, we provide an practical technique for determining the merit of an old observation using system parameters. We demonstrate that the benefit provided by an old observation decreases exponentially with the number of observations captured and processed after it. To quantify the merit of an old observation...
Source: Sensors - June 15, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Josiah Yoder Stanley Baek Hyukseong Kwon Daniel Pack Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1948: Scale Estimation and Correction of the Monocular Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) Based on Fusion of 1D Laser Range Finder and Vision Data
This article presents a new sensor fusion method for visual simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) through integration of a monocular camera and a 1D-laser range finder. Such as a fusion method provides the scale estimation and drift correction and it is not limited by volume, e.g., the stereo camera is constrained by the baseline and overcomes the limited depth range problem associated with SLAM for RGBD cameras. We first present the analytical feasibility for estimating the absolute scale through the fusion of 1D distance information and image information. Next, the analytical derivation of the laser-vision fusion ...
Source: Sensors - June 15, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhuang Zhang Rujin Zhao Enhai Liu Kun Yan Yuebo Ma Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1949: Preliminary Study on Biosensor-Type Time-Temperature Integrator for Intelligent Food Packaging
ng Ju Lee A glucose biosensor was utilized as a platform for the time-temperature integrator (TTI), a device for intelligent food packaging. The TTI system is composed of glucose oxidase, glucose, a pH indicator, and a three-electrode potentiostat, which produces an electrical signal as well as color development. The reaction kinetics of these response variables were analyzed under isothermal conditions. The reaction rates of the electrical current and color changes were 0.0360 ± 0.0020 (95% confidence limit), 0.0566 ± 0.0026, 0.0716 ± 0.0024, 0.1073 ± 0.0028 ...
Source: Sensors - June 15, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: A. T. M. Mijanur Rahman Do Hyeon Kim Han Dong Jang Jung Hwa Yang Seung Ju Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1950: An Optimization Routing Algorithm for Green Communication in Underground Mines
u Wei Sun With the long-term dependence of humans on ore-based energy, underground mines are utilized around the world, and underground mining is often dangerous. Therefore, many underground mines have established networks that manage and acquire information from sensor nodes deployed on miners and in other places. Since the power supplies of many mobile sensor nodes are batteries, green communication is an effective approach of reducing the energy consumption of a network and extending its longevity. To reduce the energy consumption of networks, all factors that negatively influence the lifetime should be considered...
Source: Sensors - June 15, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Heng Xu Qiyue Li Jianping Wang Guojun Luo Chenghui Zhu Wei Sun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1951: Cloud-Based Behavioral Monitoring in Smart Homes
Ciampolini Environmental sensors are exploited in smart homes for many purposes. Sensor data inherently carries behavioral information, possibly useful to infer wellness and health-related insights in an indirect fashion. In order to exploit such features, however, powerful analytics are needed to convert raw sensor output into meaningful and accessible knowledge. In this paper, a complete monitoring architecture is presented, including home sensors and cloud-based back-end services. Unsupervised techniques for behavioral data analysis are presented, including: (i) regression and outlier detection models (also used as ...
Source: Sensors - June 15, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Niccol ò Mora Guido Matrella Paolo Ciampolini Tags: Article Source Type: research