Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4347: Data Analytics of a Wearable Device for Heat Stroke Detection
ao Chen When exercising in a high-temperature environment, heat stroke can cause great harm to the human body. However, runners may ignore important physiological warnings and are not usually aware that a heat stroke is occurring. To solve this problem, this study evaluates a runner’s risk of heat stroke injury by using a wearable heat stroke detection device (WHDD), which we developed previously. Furthermore, some filtering algorithms are designed to correct the physiological parameters acquired by the WHDD. To verify the effectiveness of the WHDD and investigate the features of these physiological param...
Source: Sensors - December 9, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shih-Sung Lin Chien-Wu Lan Hao-Yen Hsu Sheng-Tao Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4343: Sub-Nyquist SAR Based on Pseudo-Random Time-Space Modulation
ng Xiao Sub-Nyquist sampling technology can ease the conflict between high resolution and wide swath in a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. However, the existing sub-Nyquist SAR imposes a constraint on the type of the observed scene and can only reconstruct the scene with small sparsity (i.e., number of significant coefficients). The information channel model of microwave imaging radar based on information theory, in which scene, echo, and the mapping relation between the two correspond to information source, sink, and channel, is built, and noisy-channel coding theorem explains the reason for the aforementioned u...
Source: Sensors - December 9, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wenjiao Chen Chunsheng Li Ze Yu Peng Xiao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4342: Road Surface Classification Using a Deep Ensemble Network with Sensor Feature Selection
In this study, a deep learning network based on various sensor data is proposed for identifying the roads where the vehicle is driving. Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) unit and ensemble learning are utilized for network design and a feature selection technique is applied such that unnecessary sensor data could be excluded without a loss of performance. Real vehicle experiments were carried out for the learning and verification of the proposed deep learning structure. The classification performance was verified through four different test roads. The proposed network shows the classification accuracy of 94.6% in the test data. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - December 9, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jongwon Park Kyushik Min Hayoung Kim Woosung Lee Gaehwan Cho Kunsoo Huh Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4344: A Novel Method of Frequency Band Selection for Squared Envelope Analysis for Fault Diagnosing of Rolling Element Bearings in a Locomotive Powertrain
acchi The development of diagnostics for rolling element bearings (REBs) in recent years makes it possible to detect faults in bearings in real-time. Squared envelope analysis (SEA), in which the statistical characteristics of the squared envelope (SE) or the squared envelope spectrum (SES) are analysed, is widely recognized as both an effective and the simplest method. The most critical step of SEA is to find an optimal frequency band that contains the maximum defect information. The most commonly used approaches for selecting the optimal frequency band are derived from measuring the kurtosis of the SE or the SES. How...
Source: Sensors - December 9, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lang Xu Steven Chatterton Paolo Pennacchi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4346: A Randomized Watermarking Technique for Detecting Malicious Data Injection Attacks in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks for Internet of Things Applications
Tian Using Internet of Things (IoT) applications has been a growing trend in the last few years. They have been deployed in several areas of life, including secure and sensitive sectors, such as the military and health. In these sectors, sensory data is the main factor in any decision-making process. This introduces the need to ensure the integrity of data. Secure techniques are needed to detect any data injection attempt before catastrophic effects happen. Sensors have limited computational and power resources. This limitation creates a challenge to design a security mechanism that is both secure and energy-efficient...
Source: Sensors - December 9, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Arwa Alromih Mznah Al-Rodhaan Yuan Tian Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4345: A Wireless Gas Sensor Network to Monitor Indoor Environmental Quality in Schools
Stefan Palzer Schools are amongst the most densely occupied indoor areas and at the same time children and young adults are the most vulnerable group with respect to adverse health effects as a result of poor environmental conditions. Health, performance and well-being of pupils crucially depend on indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of which air quality and thermal comfort are central pillars. This makes the monitoring and control of environmental parameters in classes important. At the same time most school buildings do neither feature automated, intelligent heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems...
Source: Sensors - December 9, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alvaro Ortiz Perez Benedikt Bierer Louisa Scholz J ürgen Wöllenstein Stefan Palzer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4338: Background Light Rejection in SPAD-Based LiDAR Sensors by Adaptive Photon Coincidence Detection
We present a 192 × 2 pixel CMOS SPAD-based LiDAR sensor utilizing this technique and accompanying outdoor measurements showing the capability of it. In this sensor adaptive photon coincidence detection improves the dynamic range of the measureable target reflectance by over 40 dB. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - December 8, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Maik Beer Jan F. Haase Jennifer Ruskowski Rainer Kokozinski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4339: Adaptive Kalman Filter-Based Single-Beacon Underwater Tracking with Unknown Effective Sound Velocity
Ben Zhu In the single-beacon underwater tracking system, vehicles rely on slant range measurements from an acoustic beacon to bound errors accumulated by dead reckoning. Ranges are usually obtained based on a presumed known effective sound velocity (ESV). Since the ESV is difficult to determine accurately, traditional methods suffer from large positioning error. By treating the unknown ESV as a state variable, a novel single-beacon tracking model (the so called “5-sv” model) and an extended Kalman filter (EKF)-based solution method have been discussed to solve the problem of ESV estimation. ...
Source: Sensors - December 8, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhong-Chao Deng Xiang Yu Hong-De Qin Zhong-Ben Zhu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4340: Frame Registration for Motion Compensation in Imaging Photoplethysmography
Dwyer Imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) is an emerging technology used to assess microcirculation and cardiovascular signs by collecting backscattered light from illuminated tissue using optical imaging sensors. An engineering approach is used to evaluate whether a silicone cast of a human palm might be effectively utilized to predict the results of image registration schemes for motion compensation prior to their application on live human tissue. This allows us to establish a performance baseline for each of the algorithms and to isolate performance and noise fluctuations due to the induced motion from the temporall...
Source: Sensors - December 8, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dmitry Iakovlev Sijung Hu Vincent Dwyer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4341: Magnetoconductivity and Terahertz Response of a HgCdTe Epitaxial Layer
Jerzy usakowski An epitaxial layer of HgCdTe—a THz detector—was studied in magnetotransmission, magnetoconductivity and magnetophotoconductivity experiments at cryogenic temperatures. In the optical measurements, monochromatic excitation with photon frequency ranging from 0.05 THz to 2.5 THz was used. We show a resonant response of the detector at magnetic fields as small as 10 mT with the width of the resonant line equal to about 5 mT. Application of a circular polarizer at 2.5 THz measurements allowed for confirming selection rules predicted by the theory of optical transitions in a narr...
Source: Sensors - December 8, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dmitriy Yavorskiy Krzysztof Karpierz Micha ł Baj Ma łgorzata M. Bąk Nikolai N. Mikhailov Sergey A. Dvoretsky Vladimir I. Gavrilenko Wojciech Knap Frederic Teppe Jerzy usakowski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4336: Crack Assessment of Wheel Hubs via an Ultrasonic Transducer and Industrial Robot
We present a model of robot-assisted crack growth assessment in wheel hubs. We integrate a six-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) industrial robot and a turntable to form a robot-assisted ultrasonic testing (UT) system that does not use traditional UT equipment. Ultrasonic beams are focused at certain depths appropriate for achieving maximum sensitivity. We quantitatively analysed wheel hubs with longitudinal and transverse series of pre-cracks, and concluded that our system autonomously detected cracks. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - December 8, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hanming Zhang Chunguang Xu Dingguo Xiao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4337: A Fast Response −Recovery 3D Graphene Foam Humidity Sensor for User Interaction
Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4337: A Fast Response−Recovery 3D Graphene Foam Humidity Sensor for User Interaction Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18124337 Authors: Yu Yu Yating Zhang Lufan Jin Zhiliang Chen Yifan Li Qingyan Li Mingxuan Cao Yongli Che Junbo Yang Jianquan Yao Humidity sensors allow electronic devices to convert the water content in the environment into electronical signals by utilizing material properties and transduction techniques. Three-dimensional graphene foam (3DGF) can be exploited in humidity sensors due to its convenient features including low-mass density, large specific surface ar...
Source: Sensors - December 8, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yu Yu Yating Zhang Lufan Jin Zhiliang Chen Yifan Li Qingyan Li Mingxuan Cao Yongli Che Junbo Yang Jianquan Yao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4323: Research on the Temperature Characteristics of the Photoacoustic Sensor of Glucose Solution
Hui Zhao In order to weaken the influence of temperature on photoacoustic (PA) measurements and compensate PA signals with a proposed theoretical model, the relationship of PA signal amplitude with temperature, under the condition of different glucose concentrations and different light intensities, was studied in this paper. First, the theoretical model was derived from the theory of the PA effect. Then, the temperature characteristics of the PA signals were investigated, based on the analyses of the temperature-dependent Grüneisen parameter in glucose solution. Next, the concept of a PA temperature coe...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wei Tao Zhiqian Lu Qiaozhi He Pengfei Lv Qian Wang Hui Zhao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4324: Development of Highly Sensitive Immunosensor for Clenbuterol Detection by Using Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Graphene Oxide Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode
aiman Clenbuterol (CLB) is an antibiotic and illegal growth promoter drug that has a long half-life and easily remains as residue and contaminates the animal-based food product that leads to various health problems. In this work, electrochemical immunosensor based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/graphene oxide (PEDOT/GO) modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for CLB detection was developed for antibiotic monitoring in a food product. The modification of SPCE with PEDOT/GO as a sensor platform was performed through electropolymerization, while the electrochemical assay was accomplished while using direct c...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nurul Ain A. Talib Faridah Salam Yusran Sulaiman Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4326: Fluorescent Aptamer Immobilization on Inverse Colloidal Crystals
ia M. Pietralunga In this paper, we described a versatile two steps approach for the realization of silica inverse opals functionalized with DNA-aptamers labelled with Cy3 fluorophore. The co-assembly method was successfully employed for the realization of high quality inverse silica opal, whilst the inverse network was functionalized via epoxy chemistry. Morphological and optical assessment revealed the presence of large ordered domains with a transmission band gap depth of 32%, after the functionalization procedure. Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulations confirmed the high optical quality of the inverse opa...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andrea Chiappini Laura Pasquardini Somayeh Nodehi Cristina Armellini Nicola Bazzanella Lorenzo Lunelli Stefano Pelli Maurizio Ferrari Silvia M. Pietralunga Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4325: Optical Fiber Magnetic Field Sensors Based on Magnetic Fluid: A Review
é Paulo Antunes Magnetic field sensing is an important issue for many application areas, such as in the military, industry and navigation. The current sensors used to monitor this parameter can be susceptible to electromagnetic interferences, however due to their advantages over the traditional sensors, the optical fiber devices could be an excellent alternative. Furthermore, magnetic fluid (MF) is a new type of functional material which possesses outstanding properties, including Faraday effect, birefringence, tunable refractive index and field dependent transmission. In this paper, the optical fiber magnetic...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: N élia Alberto Maria F átima Domingues Carlos Marques Paulo Andr é Paulo Antunes Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4327: Experimental Phantom-Based Security Analysis for Next-Generation Leadless Cardiac Pacemakers
s Cardona With technological advancement, implanted medical devices can treat a wide range of chronic diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, deafness, diabetes, etc. Cardiac pacemakers are used to maintain normal heart rhythms. The next generation of these pacemakers is expected to be completely wireless, providing new security threats. Thus, it is critical to secure pacemaker transmissions between legitimate nodes from a third party or an eavesdropper. This work estimates the eavesdropping risk and explores the potential of securing transmissions between leadless capsules inside the heart and the subcutaneous implant un...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Muhammad Faheem Awan Sofia Perez-Simbor Concepcion Garcia-Pardo Kimmo Kansanen Narcis Cardona Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4328: Outlier Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Model Selection-Based Support Vector Data Descriptions
ui Li Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are often deployed in harsh and unattended environments, which may cause the generation of abnormal or low quality data. The inaccurate and unreliable sensor data may increase generation of false alarms and erroneous decisions, so it’s very important to detect outliers in sensor data efficiently and accurately to ensure sound scientific decision-making. In this paper, an outlier detection algorithm (TSVDD) using model selection-based support vector data description (SVDD) is proposed. Firstly, the Toeplitz matrix random feature mapping is used to reduce the time and s...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhan Huan Chang Wei Guang-Hui Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4329: A Revised Hilbert –Huang Transform and Its Application to Fault Diagnosis in a Rotor System
Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4329: A Revised Hilbert–Huang Transform and Its Application to Fault Diagnosis in a Rotor System Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18124329 Authors: Yongjian Ji Hongjun Wang As a classical method to deal with nonlinear and nonstationary signals, the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) is widely used in various fields. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the Hilbert–Huang transform (such as end effects and mode mixing) during the process of empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a revised Hilbert–Huang transform is proposed in this article. A method called local...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yongjian Ji Hongjun Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4330: Variational Pansharpening for Hyperspectral Imagery Constrained by Spectral Shape and Gram –Schmidt Transformation
Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4330: Variational Pansharpening for Hyperspectral Imagery Constrained by Spectral Shape and Gram–Schmidt Transformation Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18124330 Authors: Zehua Huang Qi Chen Qihao Chen Xiuguo Liu Image pansharpening can generate a high-resolution hyperspectral (HS) image by combining a high-resolution panchromatic image and a HS image. In this paper, we propose a variational pansharpening method for HS imagery constrained by spectral shape and Gram–Schmidt (GS) transformation. The main novelties of the proposed method are the additional spectral and correlation fideli...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zehua Huang Qi Chen Qihao Chen Xiuguo Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4331: Reinforcement Learning-Based Satellite Attitude Stabilization Method for Non-Cooperative Target Capturing
hen Ackland When a satellite performs complex tasks such as discarding a payload or capturing a non-cooperative target, it will encounter sudden changes in the attitude and mass parameters, causing unstable flying and rolling of the satellite. In such circumstances, the change of the movement and mass characteristics are unpredictable. Thus, the traditional attitude control methods are unable to stabilize the satellite since they are dependent on the mass parameters of the controlled object. In this paper, we proposed a reinforcement learning method to re-stabilize the attitude of a satellite under such circumstances. ...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhong Ma Yuejiao Wang Yidai Yang Zhuping Wang Lei Tang Stephen Ackland Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4332: Deformation Analysis of a Composite Bridge during Proof Loading Using Point Cloud Processing
ewicz Remote sensing in structural diagnostics has recently been gaining attention. These techniques allow the creation of three-dimensional projections of the measured objects, and are relatively easy to use. One of the most popular branches of remote sensing is terrestrial laser scanning. Laser scanners are fast and efficient, gathering up to one million points per second. However, the weakness of terrestrial laser scanning is the troublesome processing of point clouds. Currently, many studies deal with the subject of point cloud processing in various areas, but it seems that there are not many clear procedures that ...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Patryk Ziolkowski Jakub Szulwic Mikolaj Miskiewicz Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4333: Investigation on Perceptron Learning for Water Region Estimation Using Large-Scale Multispectral Images
shi Oda Land cover classification and investigation of temporal changes are considered to be common applications of remote sensing. Water/non-water region estimation is one of the most fundamental classification tasks, analyzing the occurrence of water on the Earth’s surface. However, common remote sensing practices such as thresholding, spectral analysis, and statistical approaches are not sufficient to produce a globally adaptable water classification. The aim of this study is to develop a formula with automatically derived tuning parameters using perceptron neural networks for water/non-water region estimation...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Poliyapram Vinayaraj Nevrez Imamoglu Ryosuke Nakamura Atsushi Oda Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4334: A Novel Instantaneous Phase Detection Approach and Its Application in SSVEP-Based Brain-Computer Interfaces
Wang This paper proposes a novel phase estimator based on fully-traversed Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) which takes all possible truncated DFT spectra into account such that it possesses two merits of `direct phase extraction’ (namely accurate instantaneous phase information can be extracted without any correction) and suppressing spectral leakage. This paper also proves that the proposed phase estimator complies with the 2-parameter joint estimation model rather than the conventional 3-parameter joint model. Numerical results verify the above two merits and demonstrate that the proposed estimator can extract...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiangdong Huang Jingwen Xu Zheng Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4335: Hybrid Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter with Unknown Variance of Measurement Noise
zhao Zhou This paper is concerned with the filtering problem caused by the inaccuracy variance of measurement noise in real nonlinear systems. A novel weighted fusion estimation method of multiple different variance estimators is presented to estimate the variance of the measurement noise. On this basis, a hybrid adaptive cubature Kalman filtering structure is proposed. Furthermore, the information filter of the hybrid adaptive cubature Kalman filter is also studied, and the stability and filtering accuracy of the filter are theoretically discussed. The final simulation examples verify the validity and effectiveness of...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yuepeng Shi Xianfeng Tang Xiaoliang Feng Dingjun Bian Xizhao Zhou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4312: Advances in the Structural Health Monitoring of Bridges Using Piezoelectric Transducers
Xue With the rapid development of the world’s transportation infrastructure, many long-span bridges were constructed in recent years, especially in China. However, these bridges are easily subjected to various damages due to dynamic loads (such as wind-, earthquake-, and vehicle-induced vibration) or environmental factors (such as corrosion). Therefore, structural health monitoring (SHM) is vital to guarantee the safety of bridges in their service lives. With its wide frequency response range, fast response, simple preparation process, ease of processing, low cost, and other advantages, the piezoelectric ...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yunzhu Chen Xingwei Xue Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4313: A Novel Framework for Road Traffic Risk Assessment with HMM-Based Prediction Model
nqiang Wang Over the past decades, there has been significant research effort dedicated to the development of intelligent vehicles and V2X systems. This paper proposes a road traffic risk assessment method for road traffic accident prevention of intelligent vehicles. This method is based on HMM (Hidden Markov Model) and is applied to the prediction of steering angle status to (1) evaluate the probabilities of the steering angle in each independent interval and (2) calculate the road traffic risk in different analysis regions. According to the model, the road traffic risk is quantified and presented directly in a visual...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xunjia Zheng Di Zhang Hongbo Gao Zhiguo Zhao Heye Huang Jianqiang Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4314: Spatial-Temporal Analysis of PM2.5 and NO2 Concentrations Collected Using Low-Cost Sensors in Pe ñuelas, Puerto Rico
Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4314: Spatial-Temporal Analysis of PM2.5 and NO2 Concentrations Collected Using Low-Cost Sensors in Peñuelas, Puerto Rico Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18124314 Authors: Stephen Reece Ron Williams Maribel Colón David Southgate Evelyn Huertas Marie O’Shea Ariel Iglesias Patricia Sheridan The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is involved in the discovery, evaluation, and application of low-cost air quality (AQ) sensors to support citizen scientists by directly engaging with them in the pursuit of community-based interests. The emergence of low-cost (&...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Stephen Reece Ron Williams Maribel Col ón David Southgate Evelyn Huertas Marie O ’Shea Ariel Iglesias Patricia Sheridan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4315: A Fast Calibration Method for Phased Arrays by Using the Graph Coloring Theory
Zhiwei Xu Phased array radars are able to provide highly accurate airplane surveillance and tracking performance if they are properly calibrated. However, the ambient temperature variation and device aging could greatly deteriorate their performance. Currently, performing a calibration over a large-scale phased array with thousands of antennas is time-consuming. To facilitate the process, we propose a fast calibration method for phased arrays with omnidirectional radiation patterns based on the graph coloring theory. This method transforms the calibration problem into a coloring problem that aims at minimizing the nu...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lijie Yang Ruirui Dang Min Li Kailong Zhao Chunyi Song Zhiwei Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4316: Robust Switched Tracking Control for Wheeled Mobile Robots Considering the Actuators and Drivers
elino-Aranda Hind Taud Magdalena Marciano-Melchor By using the hierarchical controller approach, a new solution for the control problem related to trajectory tracking in a differential drive wheeled mobile robot (DDWMR) is presented in this paper. For this aim, the dynamics of the three subsystems composing a DDWMR, i.e., the mechanical structure (differential drive type), the actuators (DC motors), and the power stage (DC/DC Buck power converters), are taken into account. The proposed hierarchical switched controller has three levels: the high level corresponds to a kinematic control for the mechanical structure; ...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jos é Rafael García-Sánchez Salvador Tavera-Mosqueda Ram ón Silva-Ortigoza Victor Manuel Hern ández-Guzmán Jacobo Sandoval-Guti érrez Mariana Marcelino-Aranda Hind Taud Magdalena Marciano-Melchor Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4317: Construction of an Omnidirectional Parametric Loudspeaker Consisting in a Spherical Distribution of Ultrasound Transducers
Carme Martínez-Suquía Omnidirectional sound sources are needed to perform a large variety of tests in acoustics. Typically, they consist of conventional speaker drivers arranged in a dodecahedron. However, the directivity of the speaker drivers sharpens with frequency, which induces an intense decrease of the sound pressure levels at the edges of the dodechaedron. In this work, the problem is mitigated by building an Omnidirectional Parametric Loudspeaker (OPL), which contains hundreds of small ultrasound transducers set on a sphere. Each transducer emits an ultrasonic carrier wave modulated by an audi...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Marc Arnela Oriol Guasch Patricia S ánchez-Martín Joan Camps Rosa Ma Alsina-Pag ès Carme Mart ínez-Suquía Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4318: Underwater Acoustic Target Recognition Based on Supervised Feature-Separation Algorithm
Cheng For the purpose of improving the accuracy of underwater acoustic target recognition with only a small number of labeled data, we proposed a novel recognition method, including 4 steps: pre-processing, pre-training, fine-tuning and recognition. The 4 steps can be explained as follows: (1) Pre-processing with Resonance-based Sparsity Signal Decomposition (RSSD): RSSD was firstly utilized to extract high-resonance components from ship-radiated noise. The high-resonance components contain the major information for target recognition. (2) Pre-training with unsupervised feature-extraction: we proposed a one-dimensional...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiaoquan Ke Fei Yuan En Cheng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4320: Tensor Approach to DOA Estimation of Coherent Signals with Electromagnetic Vector-Sensor Array
i Huang This paper addresses the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation problem using a uniform rectangular array with electromagnetic vector-sensors in correlated/coherent signal environments. The polarization information is separated from the steering matrix to decorrelate the signals. By developing a tensorial structured received measurements of the array, we propose a tensor-based eigenvector DOA estimation method. Then we apply the forward-backward averaging to the tensor since it obeys the centro-Hermitian structure. In addition, a tensor-based polarization parameters estimation method is presented. The proposed a...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ming-Yang Cao Xingpeng Mao Xiaozhuan Long Lei Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4321: Experimental Demonstration of Temperature Sensing with Packaged Glass Bottle Microresonators
Zamora Whispering gallery mode (WGM) glass bottle microresonators are potential highly sensitive structures for a variety of physical and bio-chemical sensing applications. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the practical use of glass bottle resonators as temperature sensors. The basic parameters, such as WGM resonance wavelengths, free spectral ranges, and Q factors, have been investigated by coupling light from a tapered fiber to the bottle structure. We show the spectral characteristics of the WGMs by choosing different bottle dimensions and taper diameters. For practical measurements, a robust 3D-printed...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jonas Herter Valentin Wunderlich Christian Janeczka Vanessa Zamora Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4319: Quantifying Short-Term Urban Land Cover Change with Time Series Landsat Data: A Comparison of Four Different Cities
Hui Lin Yang Cao Short-term characteristics of urban land cover change have been observed and reported from satellite images, although urban landscapes are mainly influenced by anthropogenic factors. These short-term changes in urban areas are caused by rapid urbanization, seasonal climate changes, and phenological ecological changes. Quantifying and understanding these short-term characteristics of changes in various land cover types is important for numerous urban studies, such as urbanization assessments and management. Many previous studies mainly investigated one study area with insufficient datasets. To more r...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hongsheng Zhang Ting Wang Yuhan Zhang Yiru Dai Jiangjie Jia Chang Yu Gang Li Yinyi Lin Hui Lin Yang Cao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4322: Validation of a Dynamic Planning Navigation Strategy Applied to Mobile Terrestrial Robots
. Fernandes This work describes the performance of a DPNA-GA (Dynamic Planning Navigation Algorithm optimized with Genetic Algorithm) algorithm applied to autonomous navigation in unknown static and dynamic terrestrial environments. The main aim was to validate the functionality and robustness of the DPNA-GA, with variations of genetic parameters including the crossover rate and population size. To this end, simulations were performed of static and dynamic environments, applying the different conditions. The simulation results showed satisfactory efficiency and robustness of the DPNA-GA technique, validating it for rea...
Source: Sensors - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Caroline A. D. Silva Átila V. F. M. de Oliveira Marcelo A. C. Fernandes Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4294: Applying Case-Based Reasoning to Tactical Cognitive Sensor Networks for Dynamic Frequency Allocation
oo Bin Um In this paper, a cognitive radio engine platform is proposed for exploiting available frequency channels for a tactical wireless sensor network while aiming to protect incumbent communication devices, known as the primary user (PU), from undesired harmful interference. In the field of tactical communication networks, there is an urgent need to identify available frequencies for opportunistic and dynamic access to channels on which the PU is active. This paper introduces a cognitive engine platform for determining the available channels on the basis of a case-based reasoning technique deployable as a core func...
Source: Sensors - December 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jae Hoon Park Won Cheol Lee Joo Pyoung Choi Jeung Won Choi Soo Bin Um Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4295: Mathematical Methods and Algorithms for Improving Near-Infrared Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy
ang Chen Chen Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology (TDLAS) has been widely applied in gaseous component analysis based on gas molecular absorption spectroscopy. When dealing with molecular absorption signals, the desired signal is usually interfered by various noises from electronic components and optical paths. This paper introduces TDLAS-specific signal processing issues and summarizes effective algorithms so solve these. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - December 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tianyu Zhang Jiawen Kang Dezhuang Meng Hongwei Wang Zhengming Mu Meng Zhou Xiaotong Zhang Chen Chen Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4296: Reliable and Accurate Wheel Size Measurement under Highly Reflective Conditions
In this study, a wheel size measurement framework based on a structured-light vision sensor, which has high precision and reliability and is suitable for highly reflective conditions, is proposed. Initially, the quality evaluation criterion of stripe images is established, and the entire stripe is distinguished into high- and low-quality segments. In addition, the multi-scale Retinex theory is adopted to enhance stripe brightness, which improves the reliability of subsequent stripe center extraction. Experiments verify that this approach can remarkably improve measurement reliability and accuracy and has important practica...
Source: Sensors - December 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiao Pan Zhen Liu Guangjun Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4298: Etched Fiber Bragg Grating Biosensor Functionalized with Aptamers for Detection of Thrombin
Daniele Tosi A biosensor based on an etched Fiber Bragg Grating (EFBG) for thrombin detection is reported. The sensing system is based on a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) with a Bragg wavelength of 1550 nm, wet-etched in hydrofluoric acid (HF) for ~27 min, to achieve sensitivity to a refractive index (RI) of 17.4 nm/RIU (refractive index unit). Subsequently, in order to perform a selective detection of thrombin, the EFBG has been functionalized with silane-coupling agent 3-(aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and a cross-linker, glutaraldehyde, for the immobilization of thrombin-binding aptamer. The biosensor has been va...
Source: Sensors - December 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Aliya Bekmurzayeva Kanat Dukenbayev Madina Shaimerdenova Ildar Bekniyazov Takhmina Ayupova Marzhan Sypabekova Carlo Molardi Daniele Tosi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4297: The Application of ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy and the Reversible DNA Conformation as a Sensor to Test the Effectiveness of Platinum(II) Anticancer Drugs
Bayden R. Wood Platinum(II) complexes have been found to be effective against cancer cells. Cisplatin curbs cell replication by interacting with the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), reducing cell proliferation and eventually leading to cell death. In order to investigate the ability of platinum complexes to affect cancer cells, two examples from the class of polyfluorophenylorganoamidoplatinum(II) complexes were synthesised and tested on isolated DNA. The two compounds trans-[N,N′-bis(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)ethane-1,2-diaminato(1-)](2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzoato)(pyridine)platinum(II) (PFB) and trans-[N,...
Source: Sensors - December 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Khansa Al-Jorani Anja R üther Miguela Martin Rukshani Haputhanthri Glen B. Deacon Hsiu Lin Li Bayden R. Wood Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4299: Single Infrared Image-Based Stripe Nonuniformity Correction via a Two-Stage Filtering Method
ngwu Yang The presence of stripe nonuniformity severely degrades the image quality and affects the performance in many infrared (IR) sensing applications. Prior works correct the nonuniformity by using similar spatial representations, which inevitably damage some detailed structures of the image. In this paper, we instead take advantage of spectral prior of stripe noise to solve its correction problem in single IR image. We first analyse the significant spectral difference between stripes and image structures and utilize this knowledge to characterize stripe nonuniformity. Then a two-stage filtering strategy is adopted...
Source: Sensors - December 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qingjie Zeng Hanlin Qin Xiang Yan Shuowen Yang Tingwu Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4300: Transmission Optimization of Social and Physical Sensor Nodes via Collaborative Beamforming in Cyber-Physical-Social Systems
e Han The recently emerging cyber-physical-social system (CPSS) can enable efficient interactions between the social world and cyber-physical system (CPS). The wireless sensor network (WSN) with physical and social sensor nodes plays an important role in CPSS. The integration of the social sensors and physical sensors in CPSS provides an advantage for smart services in different application areas. However, the dynamics of social mobility for social sensors pose new challenges for implementing the coordination of transmission. Furthermore, the integration of social and physical sensors also faces the challenges in term ...
Source: Sensors - December 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xuecai Bao Hao Liang Longzhe Han Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4301: Full-Duplex Multi-Hop Wireless Networks Optimization with Successive Interference Cancellation
Juan Xu In wireless network communication, in-band full-duplex technique is a useful and important technique that can enlarge the whole throughput of the wireless networks. However, its use needs harsh environment. The successive interference cancellation can make several transmitters’ data be received simultaneously by the receiver, and can make the in-band full-duplex technique be used easily in reality. In this paper, we try to propose an optimal algorithm for increasing the throughput of full-duplex multi-hop wireless networks with successive interference cancellation, which we call the full-duplex ...
Source: Sensors - December 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lei Shi Zhehao Li Xiang Bi Lulu Liao Juan Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4302: A Simple Colorimetric and Fluorescent Sensor to Detect Organophosphate Pesticides Based on Adenosine Triphosphate-Modified Gold Nanoparticles
Zeng A simple and dual modal (colorimetric and fluorescent) sensor for organophosphate pesticides with high sensitivity and selectivity using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)- and rhodamine B-modified gold nanoparticles (RB-AuNPs), was successfully fabricated. This detection for ethoprophos afforded colorimetric and fluorescence imaging changes visualization. The quantitative determination was linearly proportional to the amounts of ethoprophos in the range of a micromolar scale (4.0–15.0 µM). The limit of detection for ethoprophos was as low as 37.0 nM at 3σ/k. Moreover, the exte...
Source: Sensors - December 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiaoxia Li Haixin Cui Zhanghua Zeng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4303: Point of Care Sensing Devices: Better Care for Everyone
war Improved health management is a key to provide a better health care [...] (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - December 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ajeet Kaushik Mubarak A. Mujawar Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4304: Highly Sensitive Detection of 4-Methylimidazole Using a Terahertz Metamaterial
In this study, we demonstrated a highly sensitive detection method of 4-methylimidazole (4-MeI), a carcinogenic material, by using a terahertz (THz) metamaterial at a THz region. The THz metamaterials were fabricated with a metal array, using an electric-field-coupled inductor-capacitor (ELC) resonator structure, and a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation showed good agreement with the experimental results. We measured the THz spectra of the metamaterials to detect the 4-MeI concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/L. The resonance frequency of the metamaterial was shifted by, approximately, 8 GHz and tra...
Source: Sensors - December 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hee Jun Shin Hae Won Jang Gyeongsik Ok Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4305: Implementation and Analysis of Tightly Coupled Global Navigation Satellite System Precise Point Positioning/Inertial Navigation System (GNSS PPP/INS) with Insufficient Satellites for Land Vehicle Navigation
in Zhao This paper implements and analyzes a tightly coupled single-frequency global navigation satellite system precise point positioning/inertial navigation system (GNSS PPP/INS) with insufficient satellites for land vehicle navigation using a low-cost GNSS receiver and a microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial measurement unit (IMU). For land vehicle navigation, it is inevitable to encounter the situation where insufficient satellites can be observed. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the performance of tightly coupled integration in a GNSS-challenging environment. In addition, it is also of importan...
Source: Sensors - December 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yue Liu Fei Liu Yang Gao Lin Zhao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4306: Lifting Wavelet Transform De-noising for Model Optimization of Vis-NIR Spectroscopy to Predict Wood Tracheid Length in Trees
The objectives of this study were to discuss the de-noising of Vis-NIR spectra, taken from wood, to improve the prediction accuracy of tracheid length in Dahurian larch wood. Methods based on lifting wavelet transform (LWT) and local correlation maximization (LCM) algorithms were developed for optimal de-noising parameters and partial least squares (PLS) was employed as the prediction method. The results showed that: (1) The values of tracheid length in the study were generally high and had a great positive linear correlation with annual rings (R = 0.881), (2) the optimal de-noising parameters for larch wood based Vis-NIR ...
Source: Sensors - December 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ying Li Brian K. Via Qingzheng Cheng Yaoxiang Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 4307: An Edge Computing Based Smart Healthcare Framework for Resource Management
har Baker The revolution in information technologies, and the spread of the Internet of Things (IoT) and smart city industrial systems, have fostered widespread use of smart systems. As a complex, 24/7 service, healthcare requires efficient and reliable follow-up on daily operations, service and resources. Cloud and edge computing are essential for smart and efficient healthcare systems in smart cities. Emergency departments (ED) are real-time systems with complex dynamic behavior, and they require tailored techniques to model, simulate and optimize system resources and service flow. ED issues are mainly due to resourc...
Source: Sensors - December 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Soraia Oueida Yehia Kotb Moayad Aloqaily Yaser Jararweh Thar Baker Tags: Article Source Type: research