Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3181: A Plasmonic Chip-Scale Refractive Index Sensor Design Based on Multiple Fano Resonances
hong Fang In this paper, multiple Fano resonances preferred in the refractive index sensing area are achieved based on sub-wavelength metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguides. Two slot cavities, which are placed between or above the MIM waveguides, can support the bright modes or the dark modes, respectively. Owing to the mode interferences, dual Fano resonances with obvious asymmetrical spectral responses are achieved. High sensitivity and high figure of merit are investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. In view of the development of chip-scale integrated photonics, two extra slot cavities ...
Source: Sensors - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kunhua Wen Li Chen Jinyun Zhou Liang Lei Yihong Fang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3182: Developing Efficient Thin Film Temperature Sensors Utilizing Layered Carbon Nanotube Films
Lee In this paper, we present the fabrication of an efficient thin film temperature sensor utilizing chemical vapor deposited carbon nanotube (CNT) film as the sensing element on Si substrates, with diamond-like carbon (DLC):Ni as a catalyst in assisting CNT growth. The fabricated sensor showed good electrical response with change in temperature. Relative linear change in resistance of 18.4% for an increase in temperature from 22 °C to 200 °C was achieved. Various characterizing techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, were used to characterize the films. In...
Source: Sensors - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shrutidhara Sarma Jang Ho Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3183: Maximum Correntropy Based Unscented Particle Filter for Cooperative Navigation with Heavy-Tailed Measurement Noises
Ning Li In this paper, a novel robust particle filter is proposed to address the measurement outliers occurring in the multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) based cooperative navigation (CN). As compared with the classic unscented particle filter (UPF) based on Gaussian assumption of measurement noise, the proposed robust particle filter based on the maximum correntropy criterion (MCC) exhibits better robustness against heavy-tailed measurement noises that are often induced by measurement outliers in CN systems. Furthermore, the proposed robust particle filter is computationally much more efficient than exis...
Source: Sensors - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ying Fan Yonggang Zhang Guoqing Wang Xiaoyu Wang Ning Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3184: Philosophy and Application of High-Resolution Temperature Sensors for Stratified Waters
n Every application may have its specifically designed sensor. For studying the effects of short-term temperature variations on life in water, a high-resolution sensor has been designed with low noise level <0.1 mK. Pro and cons of the design include its adequacy for use in large heat-capacity environments like water but less in air. The sensor can be used under high static environmental pressure of >1000 Bar (>108 N m−2) in the deepest ocean regions. Its response time of 0.5 s in water allows quantitative studies of internal wave turbulent mixing effects, e.g., on the red...
Source: Sensors - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hans van Haren Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3185: New Constitutive Matrix in the 3D Cell Method to Obtain a Lorentz Electric Field in a Magnetic Brake
Santiago García-Alonso In this work, we have obtained a new constitutive matrix to calculate the induced Lorentz electric current of in a conductive disk in movement within a magnetic field using the cell method in 3D. This disk and a permanent magnet act as a magnetic brake. The results obtained are compared with those obtained with the finite element method (FEM) using the computer applications Getdp and femm. The error observed is less than 0.1173%. Likewise, a second verification has been made in the laboratory using Hall sensors to measure the magnetic field in the proximity of the magnetic brake. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jos é Miguel Monzón-Verona Pablo Ignacio Gonz ález-Domínguez Santiago Garc ía-Alonso Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3186: Highly Accurate Step Counting at Various Walking States Using Low-Cost Inertial Measurement Unit Support Indoor Positioning System
Duc-Tan Tran Accurate step counting is essential for indoor positioning, health monitoring systems, and other indoor positioning services. There are several publications and commercial applications in step counting. Nevertheless, over-counting, under-counting, and false walking problems are still encountered in these methods. In this paper, we propose to develop a highly accurate step counting method to solve these limitations by proposing four features: Minimal peak distance, minimal peak prominence, dynamic thresholding, and vibration elimination, and these features are adaptive with the user’s states....
Source: Sensors - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Van Thanh Pham Duc Anh Nguyen Nhu Dinh Dang Hong Hai Pham Van An Tran Kumbesan Sandrasegaran Duc-Tan Tran Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3187: A Field Procedure for the Assessment of the Centring Uncertainty of Geodetic and Surveying Instruments
In this study, we propose such a procedure following a Type A evaluation (through the statistical analysis of series of observations), avoiding using values from Type B evaluations (from manufacturer’s specifications, handbooks, personal experiences, etc.) that could be unsuitable for the conditions of the task. Uncertainty can be individualised for a particular instrument (which includes the plummet type), ground mark, operator, and other factors on which the results could be dependent. The testing methodology includes a configuration of the test field, measurements, and calculation, following the structure ...
Source: Sensors - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jos é L. García-Balboa Antonio M. Ruiz-Armenteros Jos é Rodríguez-Avi Juan F. Reinoso-Gordo Juan Robledillo-Rom án Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3188: Miniature Uncooled and Unchopped Fiber Optic Infrared Thermometer for Application to Cutting Tool Temperature Measurement
illmott A new infrared thermometer, sensitive to wavelengths between 3 μm and 3.5 μm, has been developed. It is based on an Indium Arsenide Antimony (InAsSb) photodiode, a transimpedance amplifier, and a sapphire fiber optic cable. The thermometer used an uncooled photodiode sensor and received infrared radiation that did not undergo any form of optical chopping, thereby, minimizing the physical size of the device and affording its attachment to a milling machine tool holder. The thermometer is intended for applications requiring that the electronics are located remotely from high-temperature cond...
Source: Sensors - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andrew D. Heeley Matthew J. Hobbs Hatim Laalej Jon R. Willmott Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3174: Segmentation-Based Color Channel Registration for Disparity Estimation of Dual Color-Filtered Aperture Camera
Paik Single-lens-based optical range finding systems were developed as an efficient, compact alternative for conventional stereo camera systems. Among various single-lens-based approaches, a multiple color-filtered aperture (MCA) system can generate disparity information among color channels, as well as normal color information. In this paper, we consider a dual color-filtered aperture (DCA) system as the most minimal version of the MCA system and present a novel inter-color image registration algorithm for disparity estimation. This proposed registration algorithm consists of three steps: (i) color channel independen...
Source: Sensors - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shuxiang Song Sangwoo Park Joonki Paik Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3175: Lab-on-Chip for Exosomes and Microvesicles Detection and Characterization
rima Giuseppe Maruccio Interest in extracellular vesicles and in particular microvesicles and exosomes, which are constitutively produced by cells, is on the rise for their huge potential as biomarkers in a high number of disorders and pathologies as they are considered as carriers of information among cells, as well as being responsible for the spreading of diseases. Current methods of analysis of microvesicles and exosomes do not fulfill the requirements for their in-depth investigation and the complete exploitation of their diagnostic and prognostic value. Lab-on-chip methods have the potential and capabilities to...
Source: Sensors - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Maria Serena Chiriac ò Monica Bianco Annamaria Nigro Elisabetta Primiceri Francesco Ferrara Alessandro Romano Angelo Quattrini Roberto Furlan Valentina Arima Giuseppe Maruccio Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3173: Resource Allocation in Wireless Powered IoT System: A Mean Field Stackelberg Game-Based Approach
nwei Zhou The IoT system has become a significant component of next generation networks, and drawn a lot of research interest in academia and industry. As the sensor nodes in the IoT system are always battery-limited devices, the power control problem is a serious problem in the IoT system which needs to be solved. In this paper, we research the resource allocation in the wireless powered IoT system, which includes one hybrid access point (HAP) and many wireless sensor nodes, to obtain the optimal power level for information transmission and energy transfer simultaneously. The relationship between the HAP and the senso...
Source: Sensors - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jingtao Su Haitao Xu Ning Xin Guixing Cao Xianwei Zhou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3176: Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA) Using Microfluidic Impedance Tuner
Lim This paper proposes a microfluidic impedance tuner that is applied to a planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA). The proposed microfluidic impedance tuner is designed while using a simple double-stub and the impedance is changed by tuning the stub length. In this work, the stub length can be tuned by injecting a liquid metal alloy to the microfluidic channels. Initially, the PIFA operates at 900 MHz with impedance matching of 50 Ω. The impedance is mismatched when a hand is placed close to the antenna. The mismatched impedance is matched to 50 Ω by injecting the liquid metal alloy. The antenna ...
Source: Sensors - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Minjae Lee Sungjoon Lim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3177: Self-Adaption Matched Filter and Bi-Directional Difference Method for Moving Target Detection
ang Zhuo Xu In this paper, a self-adaption matched filter (SMF) and bi-directional difference techniques are proposed to detect a small moving target in urban environments. Firstly, the SMF technique is proposed to improve the signal-to-interference-noise ratio (SINR) by using the power factor. The properties of the transmitting signal, the target echoes and the interference and noise are considered during the power factor generation. The amplitude coherent accumulation technique that extracts the coherent amplitude information of echoes after being processed by the SMF, is used to improve the SINR based on multiple ...
Source: Sensors - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shitao Zhu Xiaoming Chen Xuehan Pan Xiaoli Dong Hongyu Shi Anxue Zhang Zhuo Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3178: An Automation System for Controlling Streetlights and Monitoring Objects Using Arduino
We present an Arduino-based automation system to control the streetlights based on solar rays and object’s detection. We aim to design various systems to achieve the desired operations, which no longer require time-consuming manual switching of the streetlights. The proposed work is accomplished by using an Arduino microcontroller, a light dependent resistor (LDR) and infrared-sensors while, two main contributions are presented in this work. Firstly, we show that the streetlights can be controlled based on the night and object’s detection. In which the streetlights automatically turn to DIM stat...
Source: Sensors - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zain Mumtaz Saleem Ullah Zeeshan Ilyas Naila Aslam Shahid Iqbal Shuo Liu Jehangir Arshad Meo Hamza Ahmad Madni Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3179: Extended Line Map-Based Precise Vehicle Localization Using 3D LIDAR
n Jee An Extended Line Map (ELM)-based precise vehicle localization method is proposed in this paper, and is implemented using 3D Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR). A binary occupancy grid map in which grids for road marking or vertical structures have a value of 1 and the rest have a value of 0 was created using the reflectivity and distance data of the 3D LIDAR. From the map, lines were detected using a Hough transform. After the detected lines were converted into the node and link forms, they were stored as a map. This map is called an extended line map, of which data size is extremely small (134 KB/km). The ELM-b...
Source: Sensors - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jun-Hyuck Im Sung-Hyuck Im Gyu-In Jee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3180: Three Landmark Optimization Strategies for Mobile Robot Visual Homing
anhao Yan Visual homing is an attractive autonomous mobile robot navigation technique, which only uses vision sensors to guide the robot to the specified target location. Landmark is the only input form of the visual homing approaches, which is usually represented by scale-invariant features. However, the landmark distribution has a great impact on the homing performance of the robot, as irregularly distributed landmarks will significantly reduce the navigation precision. In this paper, we propose three strategies to solve this problem. We use scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) features as natural landmarks, and ...
Source: Sensors - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xun Ji Qidan Zhu Junda Ma Peng Lu Tianhao Yan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3157: Robust Step Counting for Inertial Navigation with Mobile Phones
iro Adrián Nieto Mobile phones are increasingly used for purposes that have nothing to do with phone calls or simple data transfers, and one such use is indoor inertial navigation. Nevertheless, the development of a standalone application able to detect the displacement of the user starting only from the data provided by the most common inertial sensors in the mobile phones (accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer), is a complex task. This complexity lies in the hardware disparity, noise on data, and mostly the many movements that the mobile phone can experience and which have nothing to do with the physical...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Germ án Rodríguez Fernando E. Casado Roberto Iglesias Carlos V. Regueiro Adri án Nieto Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3159: Feature Extraction from Indirect Monitoring in Marine Oil Separation Systems
o Padrón Cristina Castejón In this article, a study of characteristic vibrations of marine oils separation system is presented. Vibrations analysis allows for the extraction of representative features that could be related to the lifetime of their pieces. Actual measurements were carried out on these systems on Ro-Pax vessels to transport passengers and freight. The vibrations obtained were processed in the frequency domain and following this, they were used in a Genetic Neuro-Fuzzy System in order to design new predictive maintenance strategies. The obtained results show that these techniques as a prom...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Graciliano Nicol ás Marichal Deivis Ávila Ángela Hernández Isidro Padr ón Cristina Castej ón Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3158: A Disposable and Multi-Chamber Film-Based PCR Chip for Detection of Foodborne Pathogen
Jun Oh Yoo Min Park Since the increment of the threat to public health caused by foodborne pathogens, researches have been widely studied on developing the miniaturized detection system for the on-site pathogen detection. In the study, we focused on the development of portable, robust, and disposable film-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip containing a multiplex chamber for simultaneous gene amplification. In order to simply fabricate and operate a film-based PCR chip, different kinds of PCR chambers were designed and fabricated using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) adhesive film...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nam Ho Bae Sun Young Lim Younseong Song Soon Woo Jeong Seol Yi Shin Yong Tae Kim Tae Jae Lee Kyoung G. Lee Seok Jae Lee Yong-Jun Oh Yoo Min Park Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3160: NovaGenesis Applied to Information-Centric, Service-Defined, Trustable IoT/WSAN Control Plane and Spectrum Management
ute; Rodrigo da Rosa Righi We integrate, for the first time in the literature, the following ingredients to deal with emerging dynamic spectrum management (DSM) problem in heterogeneous wireless sensors and actuators networks (WSANs), Internet of things (IoT) and Wi-Fi: (i) named-based routing to provide provenance and location-independent access to control plane; (ii) temporary storage of control data for efficient and cohesive control dissemination, as well as asynchronous communication between software-controllers and devices; (iii) contract-based control to improve trust-ability of actions; (iv) service-defined c...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ant ônio Marcos Alberti Mar ília Martins Bontempo Jos é Rodrigo dos Santos Arismar Cerqueira Sodr é Rodrigo da Rosa Righi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3162: Reduced Graphene Oxide-Based Double Network Polymeric Hydrogels for Pressure and Temperature Sensing
iang Su We demonstrate the fabrication of novel reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based double network (DN) hydrogels through the polymerization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC). The facile synthesis of DN hydrogels includes the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) by CMC, and the subsequent polymerization of PNIPAm. The presence of rGO in the fabricated PNIPAm/CMC/rGO DN hydrogels enhances the compressibility and flexibility of hydrogels with respect to pure PNIPAm hydrogels, and they exhibit favorable thermoresponsivity, compressibility, and conductivity. The created hydrogels can be co...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wei Liu Xiaoyuan Zhang Gang Wei Zhiqiang Su Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3161: Wireless Sensor Networks for Long-Term Monitoring of Urban Noise
In this study, a wireless sensing unit (WSU) was developed that possesses the same functionality as a handheld sound level meter. The WSU is comprised of a microcontroller unit that enables on-board computations, a wireless transceiver that uses Zigbee protocol for data transmission, and an external peripheral board that houses the microphone transducer. The WSU utilizes on-board data processing techniques to monitor noise by computing equivalent continuous sound levels, LeqT, which effectively minimizes data transmission and increases the overall longevity of the node. Strategies are also employed to ensure real-time func...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Courtney Peckens C édric Porter Taylor Rink Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3163: Indirect Microcontact Printing to Create Functional Patterns of Physisorbed Antibodies
This study presents the approach, assesses bovine serum albumin as backfilling agent for indirect µCP on different materials, reports the limitations of standard µCP on the functionality of patterned antibodies, and demonstrates the capabilities of indirect µCP to solve this issue. Bioreceptors were herein structured as diffractive gratings and used to measure biorecognition events in label-free conditions. Besides, as a preliminary approach towards sensing biomarkers, this work also reports the implementation of indirect µCP in an immunoassay to detect human immunogl...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Augusto Juste-Dolz Miquel Avella-Oliver Rosa Puchades Angel Maquieira Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3164: An Invisible Salient Landmark Approach to Locating Pedestrians for Predesigned Business Card Route of Pedestrian Navigation
uexian Geng Visual landmarks are important navigational aids for research into and design of applications for last mile pedestrian navigation, e.g., business card route of pedestrian navigation. The business card route is a route between a fixed origin (e.g., campus entrance) to a fixed destination (e.g., office). The changing characteristics and combinations of various sensors’ data in smartphones or navigation devices can be viewed as invisible salient landmarks for business card route of pedestrian navigation. However, the advantages of these invisible landmarks have not been fully utilized, despite th...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhixiang Fang Yuxin Jiang Hong Xu Shih-Lung Shaw Ling Li Xuexian Geng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3165: GNSS Trajectory Anomaly Detection Using Similarity Comparison Methods for Pedestrian Navigation
In this study, we detect GNSS trajectory anomalies by using similarity comparison methods between a pedestrian dead reckoning trajectory, recorded using a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit, and the corresponding GNSS trajectory. During a normal walk, the foot-mounted inertial dead reckoning setup is trustworthy up to a few tens of meters. Thus, the differing GNSS trajectory can be detected using form similarity comparison methods. Of the eight tested methods, the Hausdorff distance (HD) and the accumulated distance difference (ADD) give slightly more consistent detection results compared to the rest. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pekka Peltola Jialin Xiao Terry Moore Antonio R. Jim énez Fernando Seco Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3166: Fabrication and Characterization of High-Frequency Ultrasound Transducers Based on Lead-Free BNT-BT Tape-Casting Thick Film
n Qifa Zhou A lead-free 0.94(Na0.5Bi0.5) TiO3-0.06 BaTiO3 (BNT-BT) thick film, with a thickness of 60 μm, has been fabricated using a tape-casting method. The longitudinal piezoelectric constant, clamped dielectric permittivity constant, remnant polarization and coercive field of the BNT-BT thick film were measured to be 150 pC/N, 1928, 13.6 μC/cm2, and 33.6 kV/cm, respectively. The electromechanical coupling coefficient kt was calculated to be 0.55 according to the measured electrical impedance spectrum. A high-frequency plane ultrasound transducer was successfully fabricated using a BNT-BT thi...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Junshan Zhang Wei Ren Yantao Liu Xiaoqing Wu Chunlong Fei Yi Quan Qifa Zhou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3167: Design of Wideband GHz Electric Field Sensor Integrated with Optical Fiber Transmission Link for Electromagnetic Pulse Signal Measurement
Song Wang The detection of high frequency overvoltage and partial discharge is of great significance in evaluating the insulation condition of high-voltage power equipment. A wideband GHz electric field (E-field) sensor for electromagnetic pulse (EMP) signal measurement was proposed in this paper. An optical fiber transmission link was adopted in the design in order to implement high-voltage isolation and reduce electromagnetic interference during transmission. The designed sensor was mainly made up of a differential electric field (D-dot) antenna, transmitter, and receiver. The D-dot antenna was designed to detect ...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Li Qi Liu Song Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3168: Self-Diagnosis of Localization Status for Autonomous Mobile Robots
In this study, two indicators are empirically defined for the self-diagnosis of localization status. Each indicator shows significant changes when there are difficulties in light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor-based localization. In addition, the classification model of localization status is trained through machine learning using the two indicators. A robot can diagnose the localization status itself using the proposed classification model. To verify the usefulness of the proposed method, we carried out localization experiments in real environments. The proposed classification model successfully detected situations ...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jiwoong Kim Jooyoung Park Woojin Chung Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3169: Transfer Learning for Soil Spectroscopy Based on Convolutional Neural Networks and Its Application in Soil Clay Content Mapping Using Hyperspectral Imagery
The objective of this study is to explore the potential of transfer learning for soil spectroscopy and its performance on soil clay content estimation using hyperspectral data. First, a one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D-CNN) is used on Land Use/Land Cover Area Frame Survey (LUCAS) mineral soils. To evaluate whether the pre-trained 1D-CNN model was transferrable, LUCAS organic soils were used to fine-tune and validate the model. The fine-tuned model achieved a good accuracy (coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.756, root-mean-square error (RMSE) = 7.07 and ratio of percent deviation (RPD) = 2.26) for the est...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lanfa Liu Min Ji Manfred Buchroithner Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3170: Path Smoothing Techniques in Robot Navigation: State-of-the-Art, Current and Future Challenges
hung Peng Robot navigation is an indispensable component of any mobile service robot. Many path planning algorithms generate a path which has many sharp or angular turns. Such paths are not fit for mobile robot as it has to slow down at these sharp turns. These robots could be carrying delicate, dangerous, or precious items and executing these sharp turns may not be feasible kinematically. On the contrary, smooth trajectories are often desired for robot motion and must be generated while considering the static and dynamic obstacles and other constraints like feasible curvature, robot and lane dimensions, and speed. The...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abhijeet Ravankar Ankit Ravankar Yukinori Kobayashi Yohei Hoshino Chao-Chung Peng Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3171: Reliability and Maintenance Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Ciani This paper focuses on the development of a new logistic approach based on reliability and maintenance assessment, with the final aim of establishing a more efficient interval for the maintenance activities for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). In the first part, we develop an architectural philosophy to obtain a more detailed reliability evaluation; then, we study the intrinsic reliability at the design stage in order to avoid severe critical issues in the UAV. In the second part, we compare different maintenance philosophies for UAVs and develop the concepts of preventive and corrective maintenance that consider t...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Enrico Petritoli Fabio Leccese Lorenzo Ciani Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3172: Deep Learning-Based Caution Area Traffic Prediction with Automatic Identification System Sensor Data
Lee In a crowded harbor water area, it is a major concern to control ship traffic for assuring safety and maximizing the efficiency of port operations. Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) operators pay much attention to caution areas like ship route intersections or traffic congestion area in which there are some risks of ship collision. They want to control the traffic of the caution area at a proper level to lessen risk. Inertial ship movement makes swift changes in direction and speed difficult. It is hence important to predict future traffic of the caution area earlier on so as to get enough time for control actions on sh...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kwang-Il Kim Keon Myung Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3155: Bandwidth Enhancement and Frequency Scanning Array Antenna Using Novel UWB Filter Integration Technique for OFDM UWB Radar Applications in Wireless Vital Signs Monitoring
Hamouda This paper presents the bandwidth enhancement and frequency scanning for fan beam array antenna utilizing novel technique of band-pass filter integration for wireless vital signs monitoring and vehicle navigation sensors. First, a fan beam array antenna comprising of a grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW) radiating element, CPW fed line, and the grounded reflector is introduced which operate at a frequency band of 3.30 GHz and 3.50 GHz for WiMAX (World-wide Interoperability for Microwave Access) applications. An advantageous beam pattern is generated by the combination of a CPW feed network, non-parasitic grounde...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: MuhibUr Rahman Mahdi NaghshvarianJahromi Seyed Sajad Mirjavadi Abdel Magid Hamouda Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3156: Air-Coupled Excitation of a Slow A0 Mode Wave in Thin Plastic Films by an Ultrasonic PMN-32%PT Array
The objective of this research was development and investigation of air-coupled excitation of a slow A0 Lamb wave mode in thin plastic films by a PMN-32%PT ultrasonic array. It is known that when the velocity of the A0 mode in the film is less than the ultrasound velocity in air no leaky wave is observed in a surrounding air. It opens new possibilities for NDT of composite structures. The influence of the airborne wave may be eliminated by 3D filtering in a wavenumbers-frequency domain. A special filter and corresponding signals processing technique were developed in order to obtain directivity patterns and velocity maps o...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rymantas J. Kazys Liudas Mazeika Reimondas Sliteris Justina Sestoke Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3153: Hyperspectral Image Classification with Capsule Network Using Limited Training Samples
Shengyan Pu Deep learning techniques have boosted the performance of hyperspectral image (HSI) classification. In particular, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown superior performance to that of the conventional machine learning algorithms. Recently, a novel type of neural networks called capsule networks (CapsNets) was presented to improve the most advanced CNNs. In this paper, we present a modified two-layer CapsNet with limited training samples for HSI classification, which is inspired by the comparability and simplicity of the shallower deep learning models. The presented CapsNet is trained using two rea...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fei Deng Shengliang Pu Xuehong Chen Yusheng Shi Ting Yuan Shengyan Pu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3154: Sub-Diffraction Visible Imaging Using Macroscopic Fourier Ptychography and Regularization by Denoising
g Xin Wei Imaging past the diffraction limit is of significance to an optical system. Fourier ptychography (FP) is a novel coherent imaging technique that can achieve this goal and it is widely used in microscopic imaging. Most phase retrieval algorithms for FP reconstruction are based on Gaussian measurements which cannot extend straightforwardly to long range, sub-diffraction imaging setup because of laser speckle noise corruption. In this work, a new FP reconstruction framework is proposed for macroscopic visible imaging. When compared with existing research, the reweighted amplitude flow algorithm is adopted for ...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhixin Li Desheng Wen Zongxi Song Gang Liu Weikang Zhang Xin Wei Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3141: Smartphone-Based Microfluidic Colorimetric Sensor for Gaseous Formaldehyde Determination with High Sensitivity and Selectivity
Du-Li Yu Formaldehyde is one of the most dangerous air pollutants, which can cause sick building syndrome. Thus, it is very crucial to precisely determine formaldehyde with a low cost and simple operation. In this paper, a smartphone-based microfluidic colorimetric sensor is devised for gaseous formaldehyde determination with high sensitivity and selectivity. Specifically, a novel microfluidic chip is proposed based on the 4-aminohydrazine-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (AHMT) method to determine formaldehyde; the chip consists of two reagent reservoirs, one reaction reservoir and a mixing column. In this design to prevent...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiao-Liang Guo Yan Chen Hong-Lan Jiang Xian-Bo Qiu Du-Li Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3142: From Signal to Image: Enabling Fine-Grained Gesture Recognition with Commercial Wi-Fi Devices
iang Yang Gesture recognition acts as a key enabler for user-friendly human-computer interfaces (HCI). To bridge the human-computer barrier, numerous efforts have been devoted to designing accurate fine-grained gesture recognition systems. Recent advances in wireless sensing hold promise for a ubiquitous, non-invasive and low-cost system with existing Wi-Fi infrastructures. In this paper, we propose DeepNum, which enables fine-grained finger gesture recognition with only a pair of commercial Wi-Fi devices. The key insight of DeepNum is to incorporate the quintessence of deep learning-based image processing so as to bet...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qizhen Zhou Jianchun Xing Wei Chen Xuewei Zhang Qiliang Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3143: The Role of Proton Transport in Gating Current in a Voltage Gated Ion Channel, as Shown by Quantum Calculations
een Over two-thirds of a century ago, Hodgkin and Huxley proposed the existence of voltage gated ion channels (VGICs) to carry Na+ and K+ ions across the cell membrane to create the nerve impulse, in response to depolarization of the membrane. The channels have multiple physiological roles, and play a central role in a wide variety of diseases when they malfunction. The first channel structure was found by MacKinnon and coworkers in 1998. Subsequently, the structure of a number of VGICs was determined in the open (ion conducting) state. This type of channel consists of four voltage sensing domains (VSDs), each formed f...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alisher M. Kariev Michael E. Green Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3145: Simultaneous Localization and Map Change Update for the High Definition Map-Based Autonomous Driving Car
unwoo High Definition (HD) maps are becoming key elements of the autonomous driving because they can provide information about the surrounding environment of the autonomous car without being affected by the real-time perception limit. To provide the most recent environmental information to the autonomous driving system, the HD map must maintain up-to-date data by updating changes in the real world. This paper presents a simultaneous localization and map change update (SLAMCU) algorithm to detect and update the HD map changes. A Dempster–Shafer evidence theory is applied to infer the HD map changes based o...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kichun Jo Chansoo Kim Myoungho Sunwoo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3144: Evaluation of Metal Oxide Surface Catalysts for the Electrochemical Activation of Amino Acids
Halpern Electrochemical detection of amino acids is important due to their correlation with certain diseases; however, most amino acids require a catalyst to electrochemically activate. One common catalyst for electrochemical detection of amino acids are metal oxides. Metal oxide nanoparticles were electrodeposited onto glassy carbon and platinum working electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments in a flow cell were performed to evaluate the sensors’ ability to detect arginine, alanine, serine, and valine at micromolar and nanomolar concentrations as high as 4 mM. Solutions were prepared in phosphate...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Christian A. Tooley Charles H. Gasperoni Sabrina Marnoto Jeffrey Mark Halpern Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3146: Multi-Robot Cyber Physical System for Sensing Environmental Variables of Transmission Line
Song Yang The normal operation of a power grid largely depends on the effective monitoring and maintenance of transmission lines, which is a process that has many challenges. The traditional method of the manual or remote inspection of transmission lines is time-consuming, laborious, and inefficient. To address this problem, a novel method has been proposed for the Multi-Robot Cyber Physical System (MRCPS) of a power grid based on inspection robots, a wireless sensor network (WSN), and multi-agent theory to achieve a low-cost, efficient, fault-tolerant, and remote monitoring of power grids. For the sake of an effective...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fei Fan Gongping Wu Man Wang Qi Cao Song Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3147: A Reduced GO-Graphene Hybrid Gas Sensor for Ultra-Low Concentration Ammonia Detection
Hongzhong Liu A hybrid structure gas sensor of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) decorated graphene (RGO-Gr) is designed for ultra-low concentration ammonia detection. The resistance value of the RGO-Gr hybrid is the indicator of the ammonia concentration and controlled by effective charge transport from RGO to graphene after ammonia molecule adsorption. In this hybrid material, RGO is the adsorbing layer to catch ammonia molecules and graphene is the conductive layer to effectively enhance charge/electron transport. Compared to a RGO gas sensor, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the RGO-Gr is increased from 22 to 1008. ...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chang Wang Shaochong Lei Xin Li Shixi Guo Ping Cui Xianqi Wei Weihua Liu Hongzhong Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3148: 3DoF+ 360 Video Location-Based Asymmetric Down-Sampling for View Synthesis to Immersive VR Video Streaming
eok Ryu Recently, with the increasing demand for virtual reality (VR), experiencing immersive contents with VR has become easier. However, a tremendous amount of calculation and bandwidth is required when processing 360 videos. Moreover, additional information such as the depth of the video is required to enjoy stereoscopic 360 contents. Therefore, this paper proposes an efficient method of streaming high-quality 360 videos. To reduce the bandwidth when streaming and synthesizing the 3DoF+ 360 videos, which supports limited movements of the user, a proper down-sampling ratio and quantization parameter are offered from ...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: JongBeom Jeong Dongmin Jang Jangwoo Son Eun-Seok Ryu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3149: Smartphone-Based Traveled Distance Estimation Using Individual Walking Patterns for Indoor Localization
p Eom We introduce a novel method for indoor localization with the user’s own smartphone by learning personalized walking patterns outdoors. Most smartphone and pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR)-based indoor localization studies have used an operation between step count and stride length to estimate the distance traveled via generalized formulas based on the manually designed features of the measured sensory signal. In contrast, we have applied a different approach to learn the velocity of the pedestrian by using a segmented signal frame with our proposed hybrid multiscale convolutional and recurrent neural...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jiheon Kang Joonbeom Lee Doo-Seop Eom Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3150: A Type of Annulus-Based Energy Balanced Data Collection Method in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks
an Wang With the increasing number of ubiquitous terminals and the continuous expansion of network scale, the problem of unbalanced energy consumption in sensor networks has become increasingly prominent in recent years. However, a node scheduling strategy or an energy consumption optimization algorithm may be not enough to meet the requirements of large-scale application. To address this problem a type of Annulus-based Energy Balanced Data Collection (AEBDC) method is proposed in this paper. The circular network is divided into several annular sectors of different sizes. Nodes in the same annulus-sector form a cluster...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chao Sha Qin Liu Si-Yi Song Ru-Chuan Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3151: Performance Evaluation Strategies for Eye Gaze Estimation Systems with Quantitative Metrics and Visualizations
ran An eye tracker’s accuracy and system behavior play critical roles in determining the reliability and usability of eye gaze data obtained from them. However, in contemporary eye gaze research, there exists a lot of ambiguity in the definitions of gaze estimation accuracy parameters and lack of well-defined methods for evaluating the performance of eye tracking systems. In this paper, a set of fully defined evaluation metrics are therefore developed and presented for complete performance characterization of generic commercial eye trackers, when they operate under varying conditions on desktop or mobile ...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Anuradha Kar Peter Corcoran Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3152: Let ’s Talk about TEX—Understanding Consumer Preferences for Smart Interactive Textile Products Using a Conjoint Analysis Approach
Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3152: Let’s Talk about TEX—Understanding Consumer Preferences for Smart Interactive Textile Products Using a Conjoint Analysis Approach Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18093152 Authors: Julia Offermann-van Heek Philipp Brauner Martina Ziefle Interactive textiles are reaching maturity. First technology augmented textiles in form of clothes and furnitures are becoming commercially available. In contrast to the close link between technological development and innovations, future users’ acceptance and usage of such interactive textiles has not been integrated sufficiently, ye...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Julia Offermann-van Heek Philipp Brauner Martina Ziefle Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3129: Development of an Apparatus for Crop-Growth Monitoring and Diagnosis
Yan Zhu To non-destructively acquire leaf nitrogen content (LNC), leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA), leaf area index (LAI), and leaf dry weight (LDW) data at high speed and low cost, a portable apparatus for crop-growth monitoring and diagnosis (CGMD) was developed according to the spectral monitoring mechanisms of crop growth. According to the canopy characteristics of crops and actual requirements of field operation environments, splitting light beams by using an optical filter and proper structural parameters were determined for the sensors. Meanwhile, an integral-type weak optoelectronic signal processing circuit ...
Source: Sensors - September 17, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jun Ni Jingchao Zhang Rusong Wu Fangrong Pang Yan Zhu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 3128: Finite Element Calculation with Experimental Verification for a Free-Flooded Transducer Based on Fluid Cavity Structure
iang Tian A free-flooded transducer that couples the vibration of a longitudinal vibration transducer and the fluid cavity of an aluminum ring was investigated. Given the transducer is based on a fluid cavity structure and has no air cavity, it can resist high hydrostatic pressure when working underwater, which is suitable for application in the deep sea. At first, the structure and working principle of the transducer were introduced. Then, the axisymmetric finite element model of the transducer was established; and the transmitting voltage response, admittance, and radiation directivity of the transducer were simulate...
Source: Sensors - September 17, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhengyao He Geng Chen Yun Wang Kan Zhang Wenqiang Tian Tags: Article Source Type: research