Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 161: Advances in Design Strategies of Multiplex Electrochemical Aptasensors
ska In recent years, the need for simple, fast, and economical detection of food and environmental contaminants, and the necessity to monitor biomarkers of different diseases have considerably accelerated the development of biosensor technology. However, designing biosensors capable of simultaneous determination of two or more analytes in a single measurement, for example on a single working electrode in single solution, is still a great challenge. On the other hand, such analysis offers many advantages compared to single analyte tests, such as cost per test, labor, throughput, and convenience. Because of the high sen...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Iwona Grabowska Maria Hepel Katarzyna Kurz ątkowska-Adaszyńska Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 160: Autonomous Incident Detection on Spectrometers Using Deep Convolutional Models
ul Bonnington This paper focuses on improving the performance of scientific instrumentation that uses glass spray chambers for sample introduction, such as spectrometers, which are widely used in analytical chemistry, by detecting incidents using deep convolutional models. The performance of these instruments can be affected by the quality of the introduction of the sample into the spray chamber. Among the indicators of poor quality sample introduction are two primary incidents: The formation of liquid beads on the surface of the spray chamber, and flooding at the bottom of the spray chamber. Detecting such events auto...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xuelin Zhang Donghao Zhang Alexander Leye Adrian Scott Luke Visser Zongyuan Ge Paul Bonnington Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 164: Real-Time PPG Signal Conditioning with Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Network for Wearable Devices
kowski This paper presents an algorithm for real-time detection of the heart rate measured on a person’s wrist using a wearable device with a photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensor and accelerometer. The proposed algorithm consists of an appropriately trained LSTM network and the Time-Domain Heart Rate (TDHR) algorithm for peak detection in the PPG waveform. The Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network uses the signals from the accelerometer to improve the shape of the PPG input signal in a time domain that is distorted by body movements. Multiple variants of the LSTM network have been evaluated, including takin...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Marek W ójcikowski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 163: Pilots for Healthy and Active Ageing (PHArA-ON) Project: Definition of New Technological Solutions for Older People in Italian Pilot Sites Based on Elicited User Needs
Conclusions: The main scientific contributions to this study are the following: to design and evaluate technology in the context of healthy and active ageing, to acquire relevant knowledge on user needs to develop technologies that can handle the real life situations of older people, obtain useful insights about the attitude and availability of end-users in using technologies in clinical practice, and to provide important guidelines to improve the PHArA-ON system. Specific experimentation stages were also carried out to understand which kind of technology is more acceptable, and to obtain feedback regarding the development...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Grazia D ’Onofrio Laura Fiorini Lara Toccafondi Erika Rovini Sergio Russo Filomena Ciccone Francesco Giuliani Daniele Sancarlo Filippo Cavallo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 162: Two Wire Sensor for Measuring the Velocity of Non-Isothermal Flows
oacute;z Changes in the temperature of the medium significantly affect the static characteristics of hot-wire anemometry measuring wires, which causes errors in the results of flow velocity measurements. High temperatures of the medium make it necessary to additionally heat the sensor to even higher temperatures, which may lead to its damage due to wire burnout. The article proposes a solution to the problem of measuring the flow velocity in conditions of non-stationary temperatures with the use of the method of cross-correlation of signals from two-wire resistance thermometers. The main assumptions of the method and i...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Katarzyna Socha Pawe ł Jamróz Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 165: A Fixed Algorithm of Ambiguity among the Network RTK Reference Stations
n Sun In the face of a complex observation environment, the solution of the reference station of the ambiguity of network real-time kinematic (RTK) will be affected. The joint solution of multiple systems makes the ambiguity dimension increase steeply, which makes it difficult to estimate all the ambiguity. In addition, when receiving satellite observation signals in the environment with many occlusions, the received satellite observation values are prone to gross errors, resulting in obvious deviations in the solution. In this paper, a new network RTK fixation algorithm for partial ambiguity among the reference statio...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shouhua Wang Zhiqi You Xiyan Sun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 166: Advancing Smart Home Awareness & mdash;A Conceptual Computational Modelling Framework for the Execution of Daily Activities of People with Alzheimer & rsquo;s Disease
Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 166: Advancing Smart Home Awareness—A Conceptual Computational Modelling Framework for the Execution of Daily Activities of People with Alzheimer’s Disease Sensors doi: 10.3390/s22010166 Authors: Nikolaos Liappas José Gabriel Teriús-Padrón Rebeca Isabel García-Betances María Fernanda Cabrera-Umpiérrez Utilizing context-aware tools in smart homes (SH) helps to incorporate higher quality interaction paradigms between the house and specific groups of users such as people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). One method o...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nikolaos Liappas Jos é Gabriel Teriús-Padrón Rebeca Isabel Garc ía-Betances Mar ía Fernanda Cabrera-Umpiérrez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 167: Early Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Convolutional Neural Networks Trained with Data Augmentation
Conclusions: Feature pre-selection and the use of a convolutional neural network may be a promising, nonharmful, low-cost, easy-to-perform and effective means of assisting the early diagnosis of MS based on SS-OCT thickness data. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Almudena L ópez-Dorado Miguel Ortiz Mar ía Satue Mar ía J. Rodrigo Rafael Barea Eva M. S ánchez-Morla Carlo Cavaliere Jos é M. Rodríguez-Ascariz Elvira Orduna-Hospital Luciano Boquete Elena Garcia-Martin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 146: Wheat Yellow Rust Disease Infection Type Classification Using Texture Features
Zahid Mahmood Wheat is a staple crop of Pakistan that covers almost 40% of the cultivated land and contributes almost 3% in the overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Pakistan. However, due to increasing seasonal variation, it was observed that wheat is majorly affected by rust disease, particularly in rain-fed areas. Rust is considered the most harmful fungal disease for wheat, which can cause reductions of 20–30% in wheat yield. Its capability to spread rapidly over time has made its management most challenging, becoming a major threat to food security. In order to counter this threat, precise detect...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Uferah Shafi Rafia Mumtaz Ihsan Ul Haq Maryam Hafeez Naveed Iqbal Arslan Shaukat Syed Mohammad Hassan Zaidi Zahid Mahmood Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 147: Plant Factory: A New Playground of Industrial Communication and Computing
aofang Gong Plant Factory is a newly emerging industry aiming at transforming crop production to an unprecedented model by leveraging industrial automation and informatics. However, today’s plant factory and vertical farming industry are still in a primitive phase, and existing industrial cyber-physical systems are not optimal for a plant factory due to diverse application requirements on communication, computing and artificial intelligence. In this paper, we review use cases and requirements for future plant factories, and then dedicate an architecture that incorporates the communication and computing do...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yu Liu Sepehr Mousavi Zhibo Pang Zhongjun Ni Magnus Karlsson Shaofang Gong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 148: An Open-Source, Durable, and Low-Cost Alternative to Commercially Available Soil Temperature Data Loggers
. Rocha Soil temperatures play an important role in determining the distribution and function of organisms. However, soil temperature is decoupled from air temperature and varies widely in space. Characterizing and predicting soil temperature requires large and expensive networks of data loggers. We developed an open-source soil temperature data logger and created online resources to ensure our design was accessible. We tested data loggers constructed by students, with little prior electronics experience, in the lab, and in the field in Alaska. The do-it-yourself (DIY) data logger was comparably accurate to a commercia...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Salvatore R. Curasi Ian Klupar Michael M. Loranty Adrian V. Rocha Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 150: Scheduling PID Attitude and Position Control Frequencies for Time-Optimal Quadrotor Waypoint Tracking under Unknown External Disturbances
Choi Recently, the use of quadrotors has increased in numerous applications, such as agriculture, rescue, transportation, inspection, and localization. Time-optimal quadrotor waypoint tracking is defined as controlling quadrotors to follow the given waypoints as quickly as possible. Although PID control is widely used for quadrotor control, it is not adaptable to environmental changes, such as various trajectories and dynamic external disturbances. In this work, we discover that adjusting PID control frequencies is necessary for adapting to environmental changes by showing that the optimal control frequencies can be d...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cheongwoong Kang Bumjin Park Jaesik Choi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 149: High-Speed Handling Robot with Bionic End-Effector for Large Glass Substrate in Clean Environment
aobiao Shan The development of “large display, high performance and low cost” in the FPD industry demands glass substrates to be “larger and thinner”. Therefore, the requirements of handling robots are developing in the direction of large scale, high speed, and high precision. This paper presents a novel construction of a glass substrate handling robot, which has a 2.5 m/s travelling speed. It innovatively adopts bionic end-suction technology to grasp the glass substrate more firmly. The structure design is divided into the following three parts: a travel track, a...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhengyong Liu Youdong Chen Henan Song Zhenming Xing Hongmiao Tian Xiaobiao Shan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 152: A Way of Bionic Control Based on EI, EMG, and FMG Signals
Sergey Shchukin Creating highly functional prosthetic, orthotic, and rehabilitation devices is a socially relevant scientific and engineering task. Currently, certain constraints hamper the development of such devices. The primary constraint is the lack of an intuitive and reliable control interface working between the organism and the actuator. The critical point in developing these devices and systems is determining the type and parameters of movements based on control signals recorded on an extremity. In the study, we investigate the simultaneous acquisition of electric impedance (EI), electromyography (EMG), and fo...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andrey Briko Vladislava Kapravchuk Alexander Kobelev Ahmad Hammoud Steffen Leonhardt Chuong Ngo Yury Gulyaev Sergey Shchukin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 153: Structural Health Monitoring in Composite Structures: A Comprehensive Review
This study presents a comprehensive review of the history of research and development of different damage-detection methods in the realm of composite structures. Different fields of engineering, such as mechanical, architectural, civil, and aerospace engineering, benefit excellent mechanical properties of composite materials. Due to their heterogeneous nature, composite materials can suffer from several complex nonlinear damage modes, including impact damage, delamination, matrix crack, fiber breakage, and voids. Therefore, early damage detection of composite structures can help avoid catastrophic events and tragic consequ...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sahar Hassani Mohsen Mousavi Amir H. Gandomi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 151: Stress Watch: The Use of Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability to Detect Stress: A Pilot Study Using Smart Watch Wearables
This study aimed to determine if the change in heart rate variability could predict, in two different cohorts, the quality of response to acute stress when exposed to an acute stressor and, in turn, contribute to the development of a physiological algorithm for stress which could be utilized in future smartwatch technologies. This study also aimed to assess whether baseline stress levels may affect the changes seen in heart rate variability at baseline and following stress tasks. A total of 30 student doctor participants and 30 participants from the general population were recruited for the study. The Trier Stress Test was...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Taryn Chalmers Blake Anthony Hickey Phillip Newton Chin-Teng Lin David Sibbritt Craig S. McLachlan Roderick Clifton-Bligh John Morley Sara Lal Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 154: Two-Hop Energy Consumption Balanced Routing Algorithm for Solar Insecticidal Lamp Internet of Things
Heyang Yao Due to the sparsity deployment of nodes, the full connection requirement, and the unpredictable electromagnetic interference on communication caused by high voltage pulse current of Solar Insecticidal Lamps Internet of Things (SIL-IoTs), a Two-Hop Energy Consumption Balanced routing algorithm (THECB) is proposed in this research work. THECB selects next-hop nodes according to 1-hop and 2-hop neighbors’ information. In addition, the greedy forwarding mechanism is expressed in the form of probability; that is, each neighbor node is given a weight between 0 and 1 according to the distance. THEC...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xuanchen Guo Lei Shu Xing Yang Edmond Nurellari Kailiang Li Bangsong Du Heyang Yao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 155: Comparison of Machine Learning and Sentiment Analysis in Detection of Suspicious Online Reviewers on Different Type of Data
silko The article focuses on solving an important problem of detecting suspicious reviewers in online discussions on social networks. We have concentrated on a special type of suspicious authors, on trolls. We have used methods of machine learning for generation of detection models to discriminate a troll reviewer from a common reviewer, but also methods of sentiment analysis to recognize the sentiment typical for troll’s comments. The sentiment analysis can be provided also using machine learning or lexicon-based approach. We have used lexicon-based sentiment analysis for its better ability to detect a d...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kristina Machova Marian Mach Matej Vasilko Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 156: Testing for Wearability and Reliability of TPU Lamination Method in E-Textiles
teren Electronic textiles (e-textiles) and wearable computing have been emerging increasingly during the last decade. Since the market interest and predictions have grown, the research into increasing reliability and durability of wearables and e-textiles is developing rapidly. The washability of different integration methods and resistance to mechanical stress are the main obstacles being tackled. However, the freedom of movement and overall comfort is still often overlooked during the development phase. It is essential to see the e-textile product as a whole and consider several aspects of user experience. This work ...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Paula Veske Frederick Bossuyt Jan Vanfleteren Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 157: Time Series Classification with InceptionFCN
oo Kwon Deep neural networks (DNN) have proven to be efficient in computer vision and data classification with an increasing number of successful applications. Time series classification (TSC) has been one of the challenging problems in data mining in the last decade, and significant research has been proposed with various solutions, including algorithm-based approaches as well as machine and deep learning approaches. This paper focuses on combining the two well-known deep learning techniques, namely the Inception module and the Fully Convolutional Network. The proposed method proved to be more efficient than the previ...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Saidasul Usmankhujaev Bunyodbek Ibrokhimov Shokhrukh Baydadaev Jangwoo Kwon Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 158: The Search for Atmospheric Laminar Channels: Experimental Results and Method Dissemination
ricel Agop In this paper, a practical application of theoretical developments found in our previous works is explored in relation to atmospheric lidar data. Multifractal structures, previously named “laminar channels”, have been identified in atmospheric profiles—these exhibit cellular and self-structuring properties, and are spatially ordered across the atmospheric profile. Furthermore, these structures have been connected to the spontaneous emergence of turbulent behavior in the calm atmospheric flow. Calculating the location and occurrence of these channels can help identify...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Iulian-Alin Ro șu Drago ș-Constantin Nica C ătălin Dumitraș Drago ș Chitariu Lumini ța Bibire Adrian Stelian Ghenadi Valentin-Stelian Dragan Maricel Agop Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 159: Robust Estimation of Deformation from Observation Differences Using Some Evolutionary Optimisation Algorithms
Zoran Cekić In this paper, an original modification of the generalised robust estimation of deformation from observation differences (GREDOD) method is presented with the application of two evolutionary optimisation algorithms, the genetic algorithm (GA) and generalised particle swarm optimisation (GPSO), in the procedure of robust estimation of the displacement vector. The iterative reweighted least-squares (IRLS) method is traditionally used to perform robust estimation of the displacement vector, i.e., to determine the optimal datum solution of the displacement vector. In order to overcome the main flaw of the IRLS...
Source: Sensors - December 27, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mehmed Batilovi ć Radovan Đurović Zoran Su šić Željko Kanović Zoran Ceki ć Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 141: Environmental Durability of an Optical Fiber Cable Intended for Distributed Strain Measurements in Concrete Structures
Benzarti The present study investigates the environmental durability of a distributed optical fiber sensing (DOFS) cable on the market, commonly used for distributed strain measurements in reinforced concrete structures. An extensive experimental program was conducted on different types of specimens (including samples of bare DOFS cable and plain concrete specimens instrumented with this DOFS cable) that were exposed to accelerated and natural ageing (NA) conditions for different periods of up to 18 months. The instrumentation of both concrete specimens consisted of DOFS cables embedded at the center of the specimens ...
Source: Sensors - December 26, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ismail Alj Marc Quiertant Aghiad Khadour Quentin Grando Karim Benzarti Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 142: A Wearable Head Mounted Display Bio-Signals Pad System for Emotion Recognition
Xi Luo Multimodal bio-signals acquisition based on wearable devices and using virtual reality (VR) as stimulus source are promising techniques in emotion recognition research field. Numerous studies have shown that emotional states can be better evoked through Immersive Virtual Environments (IVE). The main goal of this paper is to provide researchers with a system for emotion recognition in VR environments. In this paper, we present a wearable forehead bio-signals acquisition pad which is attached to Head-Mounted Displays (HMD), termed HMD Bio Pad. This system can simultaneously record emotion-related two-channel elec...
Source: Sensors - December 26, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chunting Wan Dongyi Chen Zhiqi Huang Xi Luo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 139: An Occupancy Mapping Method Based on K-Nearest Neighbours
gilas OctoMap is an efficient probabilistic mapping framework to build occupancy maps from point clouds, representing 3D environments with cubic nodes in the octree. However, the map update policy in OctoMap has limitations. All the nodes containing points will be assigned with the same probability regardless of the points being noise, and the probability of one such node can only be increased with a single measurement. In addition, potentially occupied nodes with points inside but traversed by rays cast from the sensor to endpoints will be marked as free. To overcome these limitations in OctoMap, the current work pres...
Source: Sensors - December 26, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yu Miao Alan Hunter Ioannis Georgilas Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 143: Intelligent Approach to Network Device Migration Planning towards Software-Defined IPv6 Networks
Manzoni Internet and telecom service providers worldwide are facing financial sustainability issues in migrating their existing legacy IPv4 networking system due to backward compatibility issues with the latest generation networking paradigms viz. Internet protocol version 6 (IPv6) and software-defined networking (SDN). Bench marking of existing networking devices is required to identify their status whether the existing running devices are upgradable or need replacement to make them operable with SDN and IPv6 networking so that internet and telecom service providers can properly plan their network migration to optimiz...
Source: Sensors - December 26, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Babu R. Dawadi Danda B. Rawat Shashidhar R. Joshi Pietro Manzoni Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 144: An Experimental Urban Case Study with Various Data Sources and a Model for Traffic Estimation
ouvelas A reliable estimation of the traffic state in a network is essential, as it is the input of any traffic management strategy. The idea of using the same type of sensors along large networks is not feasible; as a result, data fusion from different sources for the same location should be performed. However, the problem of estimating the traffic state alongside combining input data from multiple sensors is complex for several reasons, such as variable specifications per sensor type, different noise levels, and heterogeneous data inputs. To assess sensor accuracy and propose a fusion methodology, we organized a vide...
Source: Sensors - December 26, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alexander Genser Noel Hautle Michail Makridis Anastasios Kouvelas Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 145: Jamming Strategy Optimization through Dual Q-Learning Model against Adaptive Radar
ong Sun Modern adaptive radars can switch work modes to perform various missions and simultaneously use pulse parameter agility in each mode to improve survivability, which leads to a multiplicative increase in the decision-making complexity and declining performance of the existing jamming methods. In this paper, a two-level jamming decision-making framework is developed, based on which a dual Q-learning (DQL) model is proposed to optimize the jamming strategy and a dynamic method for jamming effectiveness evaluation is designed to update the model. Specifically, the jamming procedure is modeled as a finite Markov dec...
Source: Sensors - December 26, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hongdi Liu Hongtao Zhang Yuan He Yong Sun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 137: Validity of the Wrist-Worn Polar Vantage V2 to Measure Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability at Rest
In conclusion, PPG was able to measure HR and HRV with adequate accuracy in recreational athletes. However, when strict absolute values are of importance, systematic overestimation, which seemed to especially concern participants with low LnRMSSD, should be acknowledged. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - December 26, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Olli-Pekka Nuuttila Elisa Korhonen Jari Laukkanen Heikki Kyr öläinen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 138: Multi-Channel Bioimpedance System for Detecting Vascular Tone in Human Limbs: An Approach
This study is a key step towards understanding the way vascular tone changes in the extremities and how the nervous system regulates these changes. Future studies based on records of healthy and diseased people will contribute to increasing the possibility of early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - December 26, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ahmad Hammoud Alexey Tikhomirov Galina Myasishcheva Zein Shaheen Alexander Volkov Andrey Briko Sergey Shchukin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 140: Advanced Feature Extraction and Selection Approach Using Deep Learning and Aquila Optimizer for IoT Intrusion Detection System
bd Elaziz Developing cyber security is very necessary and has attracted considerable attention from academy and industry organizations worldwide. It is also very necessary to provide sustainable computing for the the Internet of Things (IoT). Machine learning techniques play a vital role in the cybersecurity of the IoT for intrusion detection and malicious identification. Thus, in this study, we develop new feature extraction and selection methods and for the IDS system using the advantages of the swarm intelligence (SI) algorithms. We design a feature extraction mechanism depending on the conventional neural networks ...
Source: Sensors - December 26, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abdulaziz Fatani Abdelghani Dahou Mohammed A. A. Al-qaness Songfeng Lu Mohamed Abd Abd Elaziz Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 125: Performance Improvement of Substrate Integrated Cavity Fed Dipole Array Antenna Using ENZ Metamaterial for 5G Applications
-Hameed This paper exhibits a high-gain, low-profile dipole antenna array (DAA) for 5G applications. The dipole element has a semi-triangular shape to realize a simple input impedance regime. To reduce the overall antenna size, a substrate integrated cavity (SIC) is adopted as a power splitter feeding network. The transition between the SIC and the antenna element is achieved by a grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW) to increase the degree of freedom of impedance matching. Epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial technique is exploited for gain enhancement. The ENZ metamaterial unit cells of meander shape are placed in front...
Source: Sensors - December 25, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shaza El-Nady Rania R. Elsharkawy Asmaa I. Afifi Anwer S. Abd El-Hameed Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 126: Delicar: A Smart Deep Learning Based Self Driving Product Delivery Car in Perspective of Bangladesh
This study proposes Delicar, a self-driving product delivery vehicle that can drive the vehicle on the road and report the current geographical location to the authority in real-time through a map. The equipped camera module captures the road image and transfers it to the computer via socket server programming. The raspberry pi sends the camera image and waits for the steering angle value. The image is fed to the pre-trained deep learning model that predicts the steering angle regarding that situation. Then the steering angle value is passed to the raspberry pi that directs the L298 motor driver which direction the wheel s...
Source: Sensors - December 25, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Md. Kalim Amzad Chy Abdul Kadar Muhammad Masum Kazi Abdullah Mohammad Sayeed Md Zia Uddin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 127: Optical Fiber Bundle-Based High-Speed and Precise Micro-Scanning for Image High-Resolution Reconstruction
Jing Zuo Xinyang Li We propose an imaging method based on optical fiber bundle combined with micro-scanning technique for improving image quality without complex image reconstruction algorithms. In the proposed method, a piezoelectric-ceramic-chip is used as the micro-displacement driver of the optical fiber bundle, which has the advantages of small volume, fast response speed and high precision. The corresponding displacement of the optical fiber bundle can be generated by precise voltage controlling. An optical fiber bundle with core/cladding diameter 4/80 μm and hexagonal arrangement is used to scan t...
Source: Sensors - December 25, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jiali Jiang Xin Zhou Jiaying Liu Likang Pan Ziting Pan Fan Zou Ziqiang Li Feng Li Xiaoyu Ma Chao Geng Jing Zuo Xinyang Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 128: Continuous Delivery of Blockchain Distributed Applications
e;rski Ensuring a production-ready state of the application under development is the imminent feature of the Continuous Delivery (CD) approach. In a blockchain network, nodes communicate and store data in a distributed manner. Each node executes the same business application but operates in a distinct execution environment. The literature lacks research focusing on continuous practices for blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT). Specifically, it lacks such works with support for both design and deployment. The author has proposed a solution that takes into account the continuous delivery of a business appli...
Source: Sensors - December 25, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tomasz G órski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 130: Non-Linear Regression Models with Vibration Amplitude Optimization Algorithms in a Microturbine
te; Manuel Álvarez-Alvarado Machinery condition monitoring and failure analysis is an engineering problem to pay attention to among all those being studied. Excessive vibration in a rotating system can damage the system and cannot be ignored. One option to prevent vibrations in a system is through preparation for them with a model. The accuracy of the model depends mainly on the type of model and the fitting that is attained. The non-linear model parameters can be complex to fit. Therefore, artificial intelligence is an option for performing this tuning. Within evolutionary computation, there are many optimizati...
Source: Sensors - December 25, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Omar Rodr íguez-Abreo Juvenal Rodr íguez-Reséndiz L. A. Montoya-Santiyanes Jos é Manuel Álvarez-Alvarado Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 131: Measuring Patient Similarity on Multiple Diseases by Joint Learning via a Convolutional Neural Network
Park Patient similarity research is one of the most fundamental tasks in healthcare, helping to make decisions without incurring additional time and costs in clinical practices. Patient similarity can also apply to various medical fields, such as cohort analysis and personalized treatment recommendations. Because of this importance, patient similarity measurement studies are actively being conducted. However, medical data have complex, irregular, and sequential characteristics, making it challenging to measure similarity. Therefore, measuring accurate similarity is a significant problem. Existing similarity measuremen...
Source: Sensors - December 25, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sang Ho Oh Seunghwa Back Jongyoul Park Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 132: Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensing of Ultrashort Optical Vortices
Guilbaud Light beams carrying Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM), also known as optical vortices (OV), have led to fascinating new developments in fields ranging from quantum communication to novel light–matter interaction aspects. Even though several techniques have emerged to synthesize these structured-beams, their detection, in particular, single-shot amplitude, wavefront, and modal content characterization, remains a challenging task. Here, we report the single-shot amplitude, wavefront, and modal content characterization of ultrashort OV using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. These vortex beams are o...
Source: Sensors - December 25, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alok Kumar Pandey Tanguy Larrieu Guillaume Dovillaire Sophie Kazamias Olivier Guilbaud Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 129: A Machine Learning Approach Involving Functional Connectivity Features to Classify Rest-EEG Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures from Healthy Controls
In conclusion, our results hypothesized two main aspects. The first is an intrinsic organization of functional brain networks that reflects a dysfunctional level of integration across brain regions, which can provide new insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of PNES. The second is that functional connectivity features and MLP could be a promising method to classify rest-EEG data of PNES form healthy controls subjects. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - December 25, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Giuseppe Varone Wadii Boulila Michele Lo Lo Giudice Bilel Benjdira Nadia Mammone Cosimo Ieracitano Kia Dashtipour Sabrina Neri Sara Gasparini Francesco Carlo Morabito Amir Hussain Umberto Aguglia Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 133: Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Medical Diagnosis Applications: A Review
u Jinfeng Zhu Plasmonic metasurfaces have been widely used in biosensing to improve the interaction between light and biomolecules through the effects of near-field confinement. When paired with biofunctionalization, plasmonic metasurface sensing is considered as a viable strategy for improving biomarker detection technologies. In this review, we enumerate the fundamental mechanism of plasmonic metasurfaces sensing and present their detection in human tumors and COVID-19. The advantages of rapid sampling, streamlined processes, high sensitivity, and easy accessibility are highlighted compared with traditional detecti...
Source: Sensors - December 25, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhenbiao Wang Junjie Chen Sayed Ali Khan Fajun Li Jiaqing Shen Qilin Duan Xueying Liu Jinfeng Zhu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 134: Context-Aware Human Activity Recognition in Industrial Processes
en Hompel The automatic, sensor-based assessment of human activities is highly relevant for production and logistics, to optimise the economics and ergonomics of these processes. One challenge for accurate activity recognition in these domains is the context-dependence of activities: Similar movements can correspond to different activities, depending on, e.g., the object handled or the location of the subject. In this paper, we propose to explicitly make use of such context information in an activity recognition model. Our first contribution is a publicly available, semantically annotated motion capturing dataset of su...
Source: Sensors - December 25, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Friedrich Niemann Stefan L üdtke Christian Bartelt Michael ten Hompel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 135: A Custom-Made Lower Limb Dynamometer for Assessing Ankle Joint Torque in Humans: Calibration and Measurement Procedures
s Mihai Ionac Custom-made dynamometry was shown to objectively analyze human muscle strength around the ankle joint with accuracy, easy portability and low costs. This paper describes the full method of calibration and measurement setup and the measurement procedure when capturing ankle torque for establishing reliability of a portable custom-built electronic dynamometer. After considering the load cell offset voltage, the pivotal position was determined, and calibration with loads followed. Linear regression was used for calculating the proportionality constant between torque and measured voltage. Digital means were...
Source: Sensors - December 25, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Iulia Iovanca Dr ăgoi Florina Georgeta Popescu Teodor Petri ța Romulus Fabian Tatu Cosmina Ioana Bondor Carmen Tatu Frank L. Bowling Neil D. Reeves Mihai Ionac Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 136: Computationally Efficient Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Algorithms for a Cubic Coprime Array
hen In this paper, we investigate the problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) radar, and propose a total array-based multiple signals classification (TA-MUSIC) algorithm for two-dimensional direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation with a coprime cubic array (CCA). Unlike the conventional multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, the TA-MUSIC algorithm employs not only the auto-covariance matrix but also the mutual covariance matrix by stacking the received signals of two sub cubic arrays so that full degrees of freedom (DOFs) can be utilized. We verified that th...
Source: Sensors - December 25, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pan Gong Xixin Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 124: Validity and Reliability of a Smartphone App for Gait and Balance Assessment
This study investigated the validity and reliability of a smartphone-based application to measure postural stability and spatiotemporal aspects of gait during four static balance and two gait tasks. Thirty healthy participants (aged 20–69 years) performed the following tasks: (1) standing on a firm surface with eyes opened, (2) standing on a firm surface with eyes closed, (3) standing on a compliant surface with eyes open, (4) standing on a compliant surface with eyes closed, (5) walking in a straight line, and (6) walking in a straight line while turning their head from side to side. During these tasks, the ...
Source: Sensors - December 25, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Usman Rashid David Barbado Sharon Olsen Gemma Alder Jose L. L. Elvira Sue Lord Imran Khan Niazi Denise Taylor Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 105: Fabrication of AuNPs/MWCNTS/Chitosan Nanocomposite for the Electrochemical Aptasensing of Cadmium in Water
Amina Rhouati Cadmium (Cd2+) is one of the most toxic heavy metals causing serious health problems; thus, designing accurate analytical methods for monitoring such pollutants is highly urgent. Herein, we report a label-free electrochemical aptasensor for cadmium detection in water. For this, a nanocomposite combining the advantages of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and chitosan (Cs) was constructed and used as immobilization support for the cadmium aptamer. First, the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with CNTs-CS. Then, AuNPs were deposited on CNTs-CS/GCE using chrono-ampero...
Source: Sensors - December 24, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Selma Rabai Ahlem Teniou Ga ëlle Catanante Messaoud Benounis Jean-Louis Marty Amina Rhouati Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 102: A Wearable Biofeedback Device to Increase Gait Swing Time Could Have Positive Effects on Gait among Older Adults
This study investigated whether using a wireless smart insole system that monitored and provided biofeedback to encourage an extension of swing time could increase stride length and hip flexion, while reducing the cadence. Seven older adults were tested in this study, with and without the biofeedback device, in an outdoor environment. Gait analysis was performed by using GaitRite system and Xsens MVN. Repeated measures analysis demonstrated that with biofeedback, the swing time increased by 6.45%, stride length by 4.52% and hip flexion by 14.73%, with statistical significance. It also decreased the cadence significantly by...
Source: Sensors - December 24, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alexandra Giraldo-Pedroza Winson Chiu-Chun Lee Wing-Kai Lam Robyn Coman Gursel Alici Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 106: Performance Index for Extrinsic Calibration of LiDAR and Motion Sensor for Mapping and Localization
m Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a sensor that uses a laser to represent the surrounding environment in three-dimensional information. Thanks to the development of LiDAR, LiDAR-based applications are being actively used in autonomous vehicles. In order to effectively use the information coming from LiDAR, extrinsic calibration which finds the translation and the rotation relationship between LiDAR coordinate and vehicle coordinate is essential. Therefore, many studies on LiDAR extrinsic calibration are steadily in progress. The performance index (PI) of the calibration parameter is a value that quantitatively i...
Source: Sensors - December 24, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gamin Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 107: The SALT & mdash;Readout ASIC for Silicon Strip Sensors of Upstream Tracker in the Upgraded LHCb Experiment
Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 107: The SALT—Readout ASIC for Silicon Strip Sensors of Upstream Tracker in the Upgraded LHCb Experiment Sensors doi: 10.3390/s22010107 Authors: Carlos Abellan Abellan Beteta Dimitra Andreou Marina Artuso Andy Beiter Steven Blusk Roma Bugiel Szymon Bugiel Antonio Carbone Ina Carli Bo Chen Nadim Conti Federico De De Benedetti Shuchong Ding Scott Ely Miroslaw Firlej Tomasz Fiutowski Paolo Gandini Danielle Germann Nathan Grieser Marek Idzik Xiaojie Jiang Wojciech Krupa Yiming Li Zhuoming Li Xixin Liang Shuaiyi Liu Yu Lu Lauren Mackey ...
Source: Sensors - December 24, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Carlos Abellan Abellan Beteta Dimitra Andreou Marina Artuso Andy Beiter Steven Blusk Roma Bugiel Szymon Bugiel Antonio Carbone Ina Carli Bo Chen Nadim Conti Federico De De Benedetti Shuchong Ding Scott Ely Miroslaw Firlej Tomasz Fiutowski Paolo Gandini Da Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 108: Multilevel Central Trust Management Approach for Task Scheduling on IoT-Based Mobile Cloud Computing
M. Althobaiti With the increasing number of mobile devices and IoT devices across a wide range of real-life applications, our mobile cloud computing devices will not cope with this growing number of audiences soon, which implies and demands the need to shift to fog computing. Task scheduling is one of the most demanding scopes after the trust computation inside the trustable nodes. The mobile devices and IoT devices transfer the resource-intensive tasks towards mobile cloud computing. Some tasks are resource-intensive and not trustable to allocate to the mobile cloud computing resources. This consequently gives rise to...
Source: Sensors - December 24, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abid Ali Muhammad Munawar Iqbal Harun Jamil Habib Akbar Ammar Muthanna Meryem Ammi Maha M. Althobaiti Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 22, Pages 103: Pilot Study on Analysis of Electroencephalography Signals from Children with FASD with the Implementation of Naive Bayesian Classifiers
ala-Sterniuk In this paper Naive Bayesian classifiers were applied for the purpose of differentiation between the EEG signals recorded from children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders (FASD) and healthy ones. This work also provides a brief introduction to the FASD itself, explaining the social, economic and genetic reasons for the FASD occurrence. The obtained results were good and promising and indicate that EEG recordings can be a helpful tool for potential diagnostics of FASDs children affected with it, in particular those with invisible physical signs of these spectrum disorders. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - December 24, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Katarzyna Anna Dyl ąg Wiktoria Wieczorek Waldemar Bauer Piotr Walecki Bozena Bando Radek Martinek Aleksandra Kawala-Sterniuk Tags: Article Source Type: research