Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6750: Characterization and Analysis of Okoume and Aiele Essential Oils from Gabon by GC-MS, Electronic Nose, and Their Antibacterial Activity Assessment
Nezha El Bari Essential oil resins of Aucoumea klaineana (Okoume) and Canarium schweinfurthii (Aiele) species, of the Burseraceae family, were studied to investigate their bioactive constituents and their antibacterial activities. Aiele resin had a higher yield (6.86%) of essential oil than Okoume (3.62%). Twenty-one compounds for Okoume and eighteen for Aiele essential oil were identified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Gp-C-MS) technique. The main compounds identified in Okoume essential oil were benzenemethanol, α, α,4-trimethyl (28.85%), (+)-3-carene (3,7,7-trimethyl bicy...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Youssra Aghoutane Mohammed Moufid Soukaina Motia Guy Stephane Padzys Linda Priscilia Omouendze Eduard Llobet Benachir Bouchikhi Nezha El Bari Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6751: Behavioral, Physiological and EEG Activities Associated with Conditioned Fear as Sensors for Fear and Anxiety
Fred A. Lenz Anxiety disorders impose substantial costs upon public health and productivity in the USA and worldwide. At present, these conditions are quantified by self-report questionnaires that only apply to behaviors that are accessible to consciousness, or by the timing of responses to fear- and anxiety-related words that are indirect since they do not produce fear, e.g., Dot Probe Test and emotional Stroop. We now review the conditioned responses (CRs) to fear produced by a neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus CS+) when it cues a painful laser unconditioned stimulus (US). These CRs include autonomic (Skin Cond...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jui-Hong Chien Luana Colloca Anna Korzeniewska Timothy J. Meeker O. Joe Bienvenu Mark I. Saffer Fred A. Lenz Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6752: Nonlinear Complementary Filter for Attitude Estimation by Fusing Inertial Sensors and A Camera
Zhang Using a standalone camera for pose estimation has been quite a standard task. However, the point correspondence-based algorithms require at least four feature points in the field of view. This paper considers the situation that there are only two feature points. Focusing on the attitude estimation, we propose to fuse a camera with low-cost inertial sensors based on a nonlinear complementary filter design. An implicit geometry measurement model is derived using two feature points in an image. This geometry measurement is fused with the angle rate measurement and vector measurement from inertial sensors using the p...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lingxiao Zheng Xingqun Zhan Xin Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6755: Graphene and Perovskite-Based Nanocomposite for Both Electrochemical and Gas Sensor Applications: An Overview
achandran Perovskite and graphene-based nanocomposites have attracted much attention and been proven as promising candidates for both gas (H2S and NH3) and electrochemical (H2O2, CH3OH and glucose) sensor applications. In this review, the development of portable sensor devices on the sensitivity, selectivity, cost effectiveness, and electrode stability of chemical and electrochemical applications is summarized. The authors are mainly focused on the common analytes in gas sensors such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and electrochemical sensors including non-enzymatic glucose, hydrazine, dopamine, and hydrogen peroxide. Fi...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tse-Wei Chen Rasu Ramachandran Shen-Ming Chen Ganesan Anushya Kumarasamy Ramachandran Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6756: Robust Indoor Localization Methods Using Random Forest-Based Filter against MAC Spoofing Attack
Ho Choi With the development of wireless networks and mobile devices, interest on indoor localization systems (ILSs) has increased. In particular, Wi-Fi-based ILSs are widely used because of the good prediction accuracy without additional hardware. However, as the prediction accuracy decreases in environments with natural noise, some studies were conducted to remove it. So far, two representative methods, i.e., the filtering-based method and deep learning-based method, have shown a significant effect in removing natural noise. However, the prediction accuracy of these methods severely decreased under artificial noise c...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: DongHyun Ko Seok-Hwan Choi Sungyong Ahn Yoon-Ho Choi Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6757: An Adaptive Filter for Nonlinear Multi-Sensor Systems with Heavy-Tailed Noise
e Cai Aiming towards state estimation and information fusion for nonlinear systems with heavy-tailed measurement noise, a variational Bayesian Student’s t-based cubature information filter (VBST-CIF) is designed. Furthermore, a multi-sensor variational Bayesian Student’s t-based cubature information feedback fusion (VBST-CIFF) algorithm is also derived. In the proposed VBST-CIF, the spherical-radial cubature (SRC) rule is embedded into the variational Bayes (VB) method for a joint estimation of states and scale matrix, degree-of-freedom (DOF) parameter, as well as an auxiliary parameter in t...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiangxiang Dong Luigi Chisci Yunze Cai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6758: Multi-Modal Explicit Sparse Attention Networks for Visual Question Answering
Han Visual question answering (VQA) is a multi-modal task involving natural language processing (NLP) and computer vision (CV), which requires models to understand of both visual information and textual information simultaneously to predict the correct answer for the input visual image and textual question, and has been widely used in smart and intelligent transport systems, smart city, and other fields. Today, advanced VQA approaches model dense interactions between image regions and question words by designing co-attention mechanisms to achieve better accuracy. However, modeling interactions between each image region...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zihan Guo Dezhi Han Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6753: Classification of Watermelon Seeds Using Morphological Patterns of X-ray Imaging: A Comparison of Conventional Machine Learning and Deep Learning
In this study, conventional machine learning and deep leaning approaches were evaluated using X-ray imaging techniques for investigating the internal parameters (endosperm and air space) of three cultivars of watermelon seed. In the conventional machine learning, six types of image features were extracted after applying different types of image preprocessing, such as image intensity and contrast enhancement, and noise reduction. The sequential forward selection (SFS) method and Fisher objective function were used as the search strategy and feature optimization. Three classifiers were tested (linear discriminant analysis (L...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mohammed Raju Ahmed Jannat Yasmin Eunsung Park Geonwoo Kim Moon S. Kim Collins Wakholi Changyeun Mo Byoung-Kwan Cho Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6760: Sensor Failure Detection in Ambient Assisted Living Using Association Rule Mining
Senner Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is becoming crucial to help governments face the consequences of the emerging ageing population. It aims to motivate independent living of older adults at their place of residence by monitoring their activities in an unobtrusive way. However, challenges are still faced to develop a practical AAL system. One of those challenges is detecting failures in non-intrusive sensors in the presence of the non-deterministic human behaviour. This paper proposes sensor failure detection and isolation system in the AAL environments equipped with event-driven, ambient binary sensors. Association ...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nancy E. ElHady Stephan Jonas Julien Provost Veit Senner Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6761: Matching IoT Devices to the Fog Service Providers: A Mechanism Design Perspective
Paul Krause In the Internet of Things (IoT) + Fog + Cloud architecture, with the unprecedented growth of IoT devices, one of the challenging issues that needs to be tackled is to allocate Fog service providers (FSPs) to IoT devices, especially in a game-theoretic environment. Here, the issue of allocation of FSPs to the IoT devices is sifted with game-theoretic idea so that utility maximizing agents may be benign. In this scenario, we have multiple IoT devices and multiple FSPs, and the IoT devices give preference ordering over the subset of FSPs. Given such a scenario, the goal is to allocate at most one FSP to each o...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Anjan Bandyopadhyay Vikash Kumar Singh Sajal Mukhopadhyay Ujjwal Rai Fatos Xhafa Paul Krause Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6754: Fast Sample Adaptive Offset Jointly Based on HOG Features and Depth Information for VVC in Visual Sensor Networks
Tang Visual sensor networks (VSNs) can be widely used in multimedia, security monitoring, network camera, industrial detection, and other fields. However, with the development of new communication technology and the increase of the number of camera nodes in VSN, transmitting and compressing the huge amounts of video and image data generated by video and image sensors has become a major challenge. The next-generation video coding standard—versatile video coding (VVC), can effectively compress the visual data, but the higher compression rate is at the cost of heavy computational complexity. Therefore, it i...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ruyan Wang Liuwei Tang Tong Tang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6759: Synthesis of ZnO Nanorod Film Deposited by Spraying with Application for Flexible Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Microdevices
Gilberto Hurtado Carlos Gallardo-Vega Arxel de León Industry 4.0 and the Internet of Things have significantly increased the use of sensors and electronic products based on flexible substrates, which require electrical energy for their performance. This electrical energy can be supplied by piezoelectric vibrational energy harvesting (pVEH) devices. These devices can convert energy from ambient mechanical excitations into electrical energy. In order to develop, these devices require piezoelectric films fabricated with a simple and low-cost process. In this work, we synthesize ZnO nanorod film by a solvothe...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ernesto A. Elvira-Hern ández Jorge Romero-Garc ía Antonio Ledezma-P érez Agust ín L. Herrera-May Ernesto Hern ández-Hernández Luis A. Uscanga-Gonz ález V íctor A. Jarvio-Cordova Gilberto Hurtado Carlos Gallardo-Vega Arxel de Le ón Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6762: Deep-Learning-Based Detection of Infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Auto-Encoder Feature Representation
Kook Kim Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder with a life-span disability. While diagnostic instruments have been developed and qualified based on the accuracy of the discrimination of children with ASD from typical development (TD) children, the stability of such procedures can be disrupted by limitations pertaining to time expenses and the subjectivity of clinicians. Consequently, automated diagnostic methods have been developed for acquiring objective measures of autism, and in various fields of research, vocal characteristics have not only been reported as distinctive characteristics by clini...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jung Hyuk Lee Geon Woo Lee Guiyoung Bong Hee Jeong Yoo Hong Kook Kim Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6763: Decoding Attempted Hand Movements in Stroke Patients Using Surface Electromyography
This study investigates whether nine different motion classes of the hand and forearm could be decoded from forearm EMG in 15 stroke patients. This study also evaluates the test-retest reliability of a classical, but simple, classifier (linear discriminant analysis) and advanced, but more computationally intensive, classifiers (autoencoders and convolutional neural networks). Moreover, the association between the level of motor impairment and classification accuracy was tested. Three channels of surface EMG were recorded during the following motion classes: Hand Close, Hand Open, Wrist Extension, Wrist Flexion, Supination,...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mads Jochumsen Imran Khan Niazi Muhammad Zia ur Rehman Imran Amjad Muhammad Shafique Syed Omer Gilani Asim Waris Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6764: An Analysis Review of Detection Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Based on Biosensor Application
ana Arsad Timely detection and diagnosis are essentially needed to guide outbreak measures and infection control. It is vital to improve healthcare quality in public places, markets, schools and airports and provide useful insights into the technological environment and help researchers acknowledge the choices and gaps available in this field. In this narrative review, the detection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) technologies is summarized and discussed with a comparison between them from several aspects to arrive at an accurate decision on the feasibility of applying the best of these techniques in the biosens...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bakr Ahmed Taha Yousif Al Mashhadany Mohd Hadri Hafiz Mokhtar Mohd Saiful Dzulkefly Bin Zan Norhana Arsad Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6766: Real-Time Locating System in Production Management
dreas Löcklin László Jakab János Abonyi Real-time monitoring and optimization of production and logistics processes significantly improve the efficiency of production systems. Advanced production management solutions require real-time information about the status of products, production, and resources. As real-time locating systems (also referred to as indoor positioning systems) can enrich the available information, these systems started to gain attention in industrial environments in recent years. This paper provides a review of the possible technologies and applications related to produ...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andr ás Rácz-Szabó Tam ás Ruppert L ászló Bántay Andreas L öcklin L ászló Jakab J ános Abonyi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6765: Bioimpedance Sensor and Methodology for Acute Pain Monitoring
M. Ionescu The paper aims to revive the interest in bioimpedance analysis for pain studies in communicating and non-communicating (anesthetized) individuals for monitoring purpose. The plea for exploitation of full potential offered by the complex (bio)impedance measurement is emphasized through theoretical and experimental analysis. A non-invasive, low-cost reliable sensor to measure skin impedance is designed with off-the-shelf components. This is a second generation prototype for pain detection, quantification, and modeling, with the objective to be used in fully anesthetized patients undergoing surgery. The 2D and...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mihaela Ghita Martine Neckebroek Jasper Juchem Dana Copot Cristina I. Muresan Clara M. Ionescu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6767: Development and Validation of Open-Source Activity Intensity Count and Activity Intensity Classification Algorithms from Raw Acceleration Signals of Wearable Sensors
Conclusion: The combination of the FB algorithm with the DM results is a solution close to that of ActiLife. However, the MB version remains valid while being more adaptable, and the CM is more precise. This paper proposes an open-source alternative for rehabilitation that is compatible with several wearable devices and not dependent on manufacturer commercial decisions. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Isabelle Poitras Jade Clou âtre Laurent J. Bouyer Fran çois Routhier Catherine Mercier Alexandre Campeau-Lecours Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6768: Classification of Bee Pollen and Prediction of Sensory and Colorimetric Attributes —A Sensometric Fusion Approach by e-Nose, e-Tongue and NIR
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6768: Classification of Bee Pollen and Prediction of Sensory and Colorimetric Attributes—A Sensometric Fusion Approach by e-Nose, e-Tongue and NIR Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20236768 Authors: László Sipos Rita Végh Zsanett Bodor John-Lewis Zinia Zaukuu Géza Hitka György Bázár Zoltan Kovacs The chemical composition of bee pollens differs greatly and depends primarily on the botanical origin of the product. Therefore, it is a crucially important task to discriminate pollens of different plant species. In our work, we aim to determine ...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: L ászló Sipos Rita V égh Zsanett Bodor John-Lewis Zinia Zaukuu G éza Hitka Gy örgy Bázár Zoltan Kovacs Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6769: Development of an IoT Structural Monitoring System Applied to a Hypogeal Site
Di Lorenzo This paper describes the development of a distributed sensing system that can be disseminated in an environment of interest to monitor the vibration of a structure. This low-cost system consists of several sensor nodes and a central receiving node. All nodes are built using off-the-shelf electronic components. Each of the sensor nodes is battery-powered and equipped with a triaxial MEMS accelerometer, a wireless Long Range (LoRa) transceiver module for data transmission, a GPS module used for synchronization, and a microcontroller. The operation of the sensor node is validated by controlled laboratory test...
Source: Sensors - November 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: De Angelis Santoni Carbone Cecconi Vecchietti Di Lorenzo Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6737: Foot Strike Angle Prediction and Pattern Classification Using LoadsolTM Wearable Sensors: A Comparison of Machine Learning Techniques
chwameder The foot strike pattern performed during running is an important variable for runners, performance practitioners, and industry specialists. Versatile, wearable sensors may provide foot strike information while encouraging the collection of diverse information during ecological running. The purpose of the current study was to predict foot strike angle and classify foot strike pattern from LoadsolTM wearable pressure insoles using three machine learning techniques (multiple linear regression―MR, conditional inference tree―TREE, and random forest―FRST). Model performance was assessed using three-dimensiona...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Stephanie R. Moore Christina Kranzinger Julian Fritz Thomas St ӧggl Josef Kr ӧll Hermann Schwameder Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6735: Coarse-to-Fine Satellite Images Change Detection Framework via Boundary-Aware Attentive Network
g Zhang Timely and accurate change detection on satellite images by using computer vision techniques has been attracting lots of research efforts in recent years. Existing approaches based on deep learning frameworks have achieved good performance for the task of change detection on satellite images. However, under the scenario of disjoint changed areas in various shapes on land surface, existing methods still have shortcomings in detecting all changed areas correctly and representing the changed areas boundary. To deal with these problems, we design a coarse-to-fine detection framework via a boundary-aware attentive n...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yi Zhang Shizhou Zhang Ying Li Yanning Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6739: PD-Impedance Combined Control Strategy for Capture Operations Using a 3-DOF Space Manipulator with a Compliant End-Effector
Zhang The contact force/torque between the end-effector of the space manipulator and the target spacecraft will reduce the efficiency and safety of the capture task. A capture strategy using PD-impedance combined control algorithm is proposed to achieve compliant contact between the chaser and target spacecraft. In order to absorb the impact energy, a spring-damper system is designed at the end-effector, and the corresponding dynamics model is established by Lagrange’s equation. Then a PD-impedance control algorithm based on steady-state force tracking error is proposed. Using this method, a compliant ...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kang Zhang Wu Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6740: Improving Polar-Coded SCMA System by Information Coupling and Parity Check
ang In this paper, the uplink information-coupled polar-coded sparse code multiple access (PC-SCMA) system is proposed. For this system, we first design the encoding method of systematic joint parity check and CRC-aided (PCCA) polar code. Using the systematic PCCA-polar code as base code, the partially information-coupled (PIC) polar code is constructed. Then, a joint iterative detection and successive cancellation list (SCL)-decoding receiver is proposed for the PC-SCMA system. For the receiver, the coupled polar decoder’s extrinsic messages are calculated by the Bayes rule and soft cancellation (SCAN) a...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xi Wu Yafeng Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6736: Piezoelectric Current Generator Based on Bismuth Ferrite Nanoparticles
Pavel Kaspar Gamzat Gadjilov Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles with an average particle diameter of 45 nm and spatial symmetry R3c were obtained by combustion of organic nitrate precursors. BiFeO3-silicone nanocomposites with various concentrations of nanoparticles were obtained by mixing with a solution of M10 silicone. Models of piezoelectric generators were made by applying nanocomposites on a glass substrate and using aluminum foil as contacts. The thickness of the layers was about 230 μm. There was a proportional relationship between the different concentrations of nanoparticles and the detected potentia...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Farid Orudzhev Shikhgasan Ramazanov Dinara Sobola Nariman Alikhanov Vladim ír Holcman Lubom ír Škvarenina Pavel Kaspar Gamzat Gadjilov Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6742: Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Based on Class of Support Vector Regression Models and Residual Analysis
Unguresan The intelligent condition monitoring of wind turbines reduces their downtime and increases reliability. In this manuscript, a feature selection-based methodology that essentially works on regression models is used for identifying faulty scenarios. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data with 1009 samples from one year and one month before failure are considered. Gearbox oil and bearing temperatures are treated as target variables with all the other variables used for the prediction model. Neighborhood component analysis (NCA) as a feature selection technique is employed to select the best featur...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Harsh S. Dhiman Dipankar Deb James Carroll Vlad Muresan Mihaela-Ligia Unguresan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6743: A Stable Backup Routing Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
ang High-speed mobility and heavy-load traffic in mobile Ad hoc networks (MANET) may result in frequent topology changes and packet loss. To guarantee packet delivery, a novel stable backup routing (SBR) scheme is put forward in this paper, which consists of the establishment of backup routes and route maintenance. In SBR, backup routes are set up by overhearing MAC signals, and the bit error rate is considered in path selection for improving stability. To repair broken links effectively and reasonably, qualified backup routes are classified into three categories with different priorities, based on which the relevant n...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fan Zhang Gangqiang Yang Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6741: A Sensor Fusion Method for Pose Estimation of C-Legged Robots
onio Barrientos In this work the authors present a novel algorithm for estimating the odometry of “C” legged robots with compliant legs and an analysis to estimate the pose of the robot. Robots with “C” legs are an alternative to wheeled and tracked robots for overcoming obstacles that can be found in different scenarios like stairs, debris, etc. Therefore, this kind of robot has become very popular for its locomotion capabilities, but at this point these robots do not have developed algorithms to implement autonomous navigation. With that objective in mind, the a...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jorge De Le ón Ra úl Cebolla Antonio Barrientos Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6744: Design and Implementation of Fuzzy Compensation Scheme for Temperature and Solar Irradiance Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) on Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System
a Khamsah Photovoltaic (PV) systems need measurements of incident solar irradiance and PV surface temperature for performance analysis and monitoring purposes. Ground-based network sensor measurement is preferred in many near real-time operations such as forecasting and photovoltaic (PV) performance evaluation on the ground. Hence, this study proposed a Fuzzy compensation scheme for temperature and solar irradiance wireless sensor network (WSN) measurement on stand-alone solar photovoltaic (PV) system to improve the sensor measurement. The WSN installation through an Internet of Things (IoT) platform for solar irradian...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abdul Rahim Pazikadin Damhuji Rifai Kharudin Ali Nor Hana Mamat Noraznafulsima Khamsah Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6745: Multi-Object Tracking Algorithm for RGB-D Images Based on Asymmetric Dual Siamese Networks
ng Zhao Currently, intelligent security systems are widely deployed in indoor buildings to ensure the safety of people in shopping malls, banks, train stations, and other indoor buildings. Multi-Object Tracking (MOT), as an important component of intelligent security systems, has received much attention from many researchers in recent years. However, existing multi-objective tracking algorithms still suffer from trajectory drift and interruption problems in crowded scenes, which cannot provide valuable data for managers. In order to solve the above problems, this paper proposes a Multi-Object Tracking algorithm for RGB...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wen-Li Zhang Kun Yang Yi-Tao Xin Ting-Song Zhao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6746: Identifying Defects in Aerospace Composite Sandwich Panels Using High-Definition Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors
The objective is to identify these defects in a sandwich panel by measuring the heat transfer through the panel thickness. A heater mat is used to rapidly increase the temperature of the panel with the HD-FOS sensor positioned on the top surface, measuring temperature. HD-FOS measurements are made using the Luna optical distributed sensor interrogator (ODISI) 9100 system comprising a sensor fabricated using standard single mode fibre (SMF)-20 of external diameter 250 µμm, including the cladding. Results show that areas in which defects are present modulate thermal conductivity, resulting in a lower...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: James A. Mills Andrew W. Hamilton David I. Gillespie Ivan Andonovic Craig Michie Kenneth Burnham Christos Tachtatzis Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6747: Wireless Sensor Network in Agriculture: Model of Cyber Security
evan Stankovski Nowadays, wireless sensor networks (WSN) are widely used in agriculture monitoring to improve the quality and productivity of farming. In this application, sensors gather different types of data (i.e., humidity, carbon dioxide level, and temperature) in real-time scenarios. Thus, data gathering, transmission, and rapid response to new circumstances require a secured data mechanism to avoid malicious adversaries. Therefore, this paper focuses on data security from the data origin source to the end-user, and proposes a general data security model that is independent of the network topology and structure, ...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Radomir Prodanovi ć Dejan Ran čić Ivan Vuli ć Nenad Zori ć Du šan Bogićević Gordana Ostoji ć Sohail Sarang Stevan Stankovski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6726: Scale-Aware Multi-View Reconstruction Using an Active Triple-Camera System
meier This paper presents an active wide-baseline triple-camera measurement system designed especially for 3D modeling in general outdoor environments, as well as a novel parallel surface refinement algorithm within the multi-view stereo (MVS) framework. Firstly, the pre-processing module converts the synchronized raw triple images from one single-shot acquisition of our setup to aligned RGB-Depth frames, which are then used for camera pose estimation using iterative closest point (ICP) and RANSAC perspective-n-point (PnP) approaches. Afterwards, an efficient dense reconstruction method, mostly implemented on the GPU i...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hang Luo Christian Pape Eduard Reithmeier Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6727: EEG-Based Emotion Classification Using Long Short-Term Memory Network with Attention Mechanism
hoi Recently, studies that analyze emotions based on physiological signals, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), by applying a deep learning algorithm have been actively conducted. However, the study of sequence modeling considering the change of emotional signals over time has not been fully investigated. To consider long-term interaction of emotion, in this study, we propose a long short-term memory network to consider changes in emotion over time and apply an attention mechanism to assign weights to the emotional states appearing at specific moments based on the peak–end rule in psychology. We used 32-c...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Youmin Kim Ahyoung Choi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6728: Estimation of the Complex Dynamic Stiffness of Inflated Rubber Diaphragms in Pneumatic Springs Using Finite Element Method
Lee The accurate modeling of the complex dynamic stiffness of inflated rubber diaphragms in pneumatic springs is necessary for an efficient design of vibration isolation tables for precision instruments, such as optical devices and nano-scale equipment. In addition to pressurized air, rubber diaphragms, essentially employed for the prevention of air leakage, make a significant contribution to the total complex stiffness. To reflect the effect of the dynamic stiffness of the inflated rubber diaphragm on the total complex stiffness during the initial design or design improvement stage, it is desirable to predict the comp...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yun-Ho Shin Jeung-Hoon Lee Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6729: Is Standardization Necessary for Sharing of a Large Mid-Infrared Soil Spectral Library?
man Recent developments in diffuse reflectance soil spectroscopy have increasingly focused on building and using large soil spectral libraries with the purpose of supporting many activities relevant to monitoring, mapping and managing soil resources. A potential limitation of using a mid-infrared (MIR) spectral library developed by another laboratory is the need to account for inherent differences in the signal strength at each wavelength associated with different instrumental and environmental conditions. Here we apply predictive models built using the USDA National Soil Survey Center–Kellogg Soil Survey...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shree R. S. Dangal Jonathan Sanderman Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6730: Reducing Response Time in Motor Imagery Using A Headband and Deep Learning
ute; Rodríguez-Fórtiz Electroencephalography (EEG) signals to detect motor imagery have been used to help patients with low mobility. However, the regular brain computer interfaces (BCI) capturing the EEG signals usually require intrusive devices and cables linked to machines. Recently, some commercial low-intrusive BCI headbands have appeared, but with less electrodes than the regular BCIs. Some works have proved the ability of the headbands to detect basic motor imagery. However, all of these works have focused on the accuracy of the detection, using session sizes larger than 10 s, in order to improve t...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Francisco M. Garcia-Moreno Maria Bermudez-Edo Jos é Luis Garrido Mar ía José Rodríguez-Fórtiz Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6732: Estimation of Peanut Leaf Area Index from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Multispectral Images
In this study, we used a fixed-wing UAV with multispectral cameras for remote sensing monitoring. We conducted field experiments with two peanut varieties at different planting densities to estimate LAI from multispectral images and establish a high-precision LAI prediction model. We used eight vegetation indices (VIs) and developed simple regression and artificial neural network (BPN) models for LAI and spectral VIs. The empirical model was calibrated to estimate peanut LAI, and the best model was selected from the coefficient of determination and root mean square error. The red (660 nm) and near-infrared (790 nm) bands e...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haixia Qi Bingyu Zhu Zeyu Wu Yu Liang Jianwen Li Leidi Wang Tingting Chen Yubin Lan Lei Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6731: A Kalman Filter for Nonlinear Attitude Estimation Using Time Variable Matrices and Quaternions
enal Fernando López Peña The nonlinear problem of sensing the attitude of a solid body is solved by a novel implementation of the Kalman Filter. This implementation combines the use of quaternions to represent attitudes, time-varying matrices to model the dynamic behavior of the process and a particular state vector. This vector was explicitly created from measurable physical quantities, which can be estimated from the filter input and output. The specifically designed arrangement of these three elements and the way they are combined allow the proposed attitude estimator to be formulated following a cla...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Álvaro Deibe Jos é Augusto Antón Nacimiento Jes ús Cardenal Fernando L ópez Peña Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6733: Multi-Scale Shape Adaptive Network for Raindrop Detection and Removal from a Single Image
ng Linfeng Xu Removing raindrops from a single image is a challenging problem due to the complex changes in shape, scale, and transparency among raindrops. Previous explorations have mainly been limited in two ways. First, publicly available raindrop image datasets have limited capacity in terms of modeling raindrop characteristics (e.g., raindrop collision and fusion) in real-world scenes. Second, recent deraining methods tend to apply shape-invariant filters to cope with diverse rainy images and fail to remove raindrops that are especially varied in shape and scale. In this paper, we address these raindrop removal ...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hao Luo Qingbo Wu King Ngi Ngan Hanxiao Luo Haoran Wei Hongliang Li Fanman Meng Linfeng Xu Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6734: Subsampling Approaches for Compressed Sensing with Ultrasound Arrays in Non-Destructive Testing
rian Römer Full Matrix Capture is a multi-channel data acquisition method which enables flexible, high resolution imaging using ultrasound arrays. However, the measurement time and data volume are increased considerably. Both of these costs can be circumvented via compressed sensing, which exploits prior knowledge of the underlying model and its sparsity to reduce the amount of data needed to produce a high resolution image. In order to design compression matrices that are physically realizable without sophisticated hardware constraints, structured subsampling patterns are designed and evaluated in this work. The ...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Eduardo P érez Jan Kirchhof Fabian Krieg Florian R ömer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6738: Observability Analysis and Observer Design for a Nonlinear Three-Tank System: Theory and Experiments
Carlos A. Zuluaga This paper addresses the observability analysis and observer design for a nonlinear interacting three-tank system. The plant configuration is first described using the process and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) and a state–space realization is derived; some insights about the behavior of the nonlinear system, considering equilibrium points and the phase portrait are provided. Then, observability in the Hermann–Krener sense is analyzed. A high-gain observer (HGO) is then designed, using the equivalence of the original state–space realization with it...
Source: Sensors - November 25, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Santiago R úa Rafael E. V ásquez Naveen Crasta Carlos A. Zuluaga Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6716: Using a Social Robot to Evaluate Facial Expressions in the Wild
rales In this work an affective computing approach is used to study the human-robot interaction using a social robot to validate facial expressions in the wild. Our global goal is to evaluate that a social robot can be used to interact in a convincing manner with human users to recognize their potential emotions through facial expressions, contextual cues and bio-signals. In particular, this work is focused on analyzing facial expression. A social robot is used to validate a pre-trained convolutional neural network (CNN) which recognizes facial expressions. Facial expression recognition plays an important role in recog...
Source: Sensors - November 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Silvia Ramis Jose Maria Buades Francisco J. Perales Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6720: Analysis of Impact of Rain Conditions on ADAS
In this study, we quantitatively measured the effect of bad weather conditions on the actual ADAS function. Additionally, we conducted a vehicle-based driving experiment to suggest an improvement plan for safer driving. In the driving experiment, when the vehicle driving speed was changed in four stages of rainfall, it was confirmed that it affected the View Range value, where the primary variable is the visibility of ADAS. As a result of the analysis, we demonstrated that when the rainfall exceeded a precipitation of 20 mm, the ADAS sensor did not operate, regardless of the vehicle speed. This means that a problem affecti...
Source: Sensors - November 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chang-Gyun Roh Jisoo Kim I-Jeong Im Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6708: A Numerical Model for Experimental Designs of Vibration-Based Leak Detection and Monitoring of Water Pipes Using Piezoelectric Patches
rashi While the potential use of energy harvesters and structural health monitors show promise, numerical models related to the design, deployment and performance of such monitors often present significant challenges. One such challenge lies in the problem of leak detection in fluid-carrying pipes. Recent advances in experimental studies on energy harvesters for such monitoring has been promising but there is a paucity in existing literature in linking relevant fluid–structure interaction models around such applications. This paper addresses the abovementioned issue by developing a numerical model with Co...
Source: Sensors - November 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Favour Okosun Mert Celikin Vikram Pakrashi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6710: Radio Wave Propagation and WSN Deployment in Complex Utility Tunnel Environments
Francisco Falcone The significant growth of wireless communications systems in the last years has led to the adoption of a wide range of applications not only for the general public but, also, including utilities and administrative authorities. In this context, the notable expansion of new services for smart cities requires, in some specific cases, the construction of underground tunnels in order to enable the maintenance and operation works of utilities, as well as to reduce the visual impact within the city center. One of the main challenges is that, inherently, underground service tunnels lack coverage from exter...
Source: Sensors - November 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mikel Celaya-Echarri Leyre Azpilicueta Peio Lopez-Iturri Imanol Picallo Erik Aguirre Jose Javier Astrain Jes ús Villadangos Francisco Falcone Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6712: PADL: A Modeling and Deployment Language for Advanced Analytical Services
Javier Del Ser Aitor Almeida In the smart city context, Big Data analytics plays an important role in processing the data collected through IoT devices. The analysis of the information gathered by sensors favors the generation of specific services and systems that not only improve the quality of life of the citizens, but also optimize the city resources. However, the difficulties of implementing this entire process in real scenarios are manifold, including the huge amount and heterogeneity of the devices, their geographical distribution, and the complexity of the necessary IT infrastructures. For this reason, the ma...
Source: Sensors - November 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Josu D íaz-de-Arcaya Ra úl Miñón Ana I. Torre-Bastida Javier Del Ser Aitor Almeida Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6713: Pre-Trained Deep Convolutional Neural Network for Clostridioides Difficile Bacteria Cytotoxicity Classification Based on Fluorescence Images
In this study, we take advantage of transfer learning methodology by examining pre-trained VGG-19, ResNet50, Xception, and DenseNet121 convolutional neural network (CNN) models with adjusted, densely connected classifiers. We compare the obtained results with those of other machine learning algorithms and also visualize and interpret them. The proposed models have been evaluated on a dataset containing 369 images with 6112 cases. DenseNet121 achieved the highest results with a 93.5% accuracy, 92% sensitivity, and 95% specificity, respectively. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andrzej Brodzicki Joanna Jaworek-Korjakowska Pawel Kleczek Megan Garland Matthew Bogyo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6711: Internet of Medical Things: An Effective and Fully Automatic IoT Approach Using Deep Learning and Fine-Tuning to Lung CT Segmentation
e Albuquerque Pedro P. Rebouças Filho Several pathologies have a direct impact on society, causing public health problems. Pulmonary diseases such as Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are already the third leading cause of death in the world, leaving tuberculosis at ninth with 1.7 million deaths and over 10.4 million new occurrences. The detection of lung regions in images is a classic medical challenge. Studies show that computational methods contribute significantly to the medical diagnosis of lung pathologies by Computerized Tomography (CT), as well as through Internet of Things (IoT) methods bas...
Source: Sensors - November 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lu ís Fabrício de Freitas Souza I ágson Carlos Lima Silva Adriell Gomes Marques Francisco H ércules dos S. Silva Virg ínia Xavier Nunes Mohammad Mehedi Hassan Victor Hugo C. de Albuquerque Pedro P. Rebou ças Filho Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6709: Review of MAC Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Feng Liu Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) need to support the timely end-to-end transmissions of safety and non-safety messages. Medium access control (MAC) protocols can ensure fair and efficient sharing of channel resources among multiple vehicles for VANETs, which can provide timely packet transmissions and significantly improve road safety. In this paper, we review the standards of some countries for VANETs. Then, we divide the MAC protocols proposed for VANETs into single-channel MAC protocols and multi-channel MAC protocols according to the number of physical occupied spectrum resources. Both are further discu...
Source: Sensors - November 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mengyuan Ma Kai Liu Xiling Luo Tao Zhang Feng Liu Tags: Review Source Type: research