Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4396: Labyrinth Metasurface for Biosensing Applications: Numerical Study on the New Paradigm of Metageometries
Quemada Miguel Beruete The use of metasurfaces operating in the terahertz regime as biosensor devices has attracted increased interest in recent years due to their enhanced sensitivity and more accurate detection capability. Typical designs are based on the replica of relatively simple unit cells, usually called metaatoms. In a previous paper, we proposed a new paradigm for ultrasensitive thin-film sensors based on complex unit cells, called generically metageometries or labyrinth metasurfaces. Here, we extend this concept towards biosensing, evaluating the performance of the labyrinth as a fungi detector. The sensi...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Irati J áuregui-López Pablo Rodr íguez-Ulibarri Sergei A. Kuznetsov Carlos Quemada Miguel Beruete Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4397: Explicit and Implicit Responses to Tasting Drinks Associated with Different Tasting Experiences
rie Brouwer Probing food experience or liking through verbal ratings has its shortcomings. We compare explicit ratings to a range of (neuro)physiological and behavioral measures with respect to their performance in distinguishing drinks associated with different emotional experience. Seventy participants tasted and rated the valence and arousal of eight regular drinks and a “ground truth” high-arousal, low-valence vinegar solution. The discriminative power for distinguishing between the vinegar solution and the regular drinks was highest for sip size, followed by valence ratings, arousal rat...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Daisuke Kaneko Maarten Hogervorst Alexander Toet Jan B. F. van Erp Victor Kallen Anne-Marie Brouwer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4398: A Hybrid Spectrum Access Strategy with Channel Bonding and Classified Secondary User Mechanism in Multichannel Cognitive Radio Networks
n Liu Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) can improve spectrum utilization by allowing secondary users (SUs) to dynamically access channels unoccupied by primary users (PUs). The spectrum access strategy, as a point to enhance user performance, has received much attention. In this paper, we propose a hybrid access mode for network users in multichannel CRNs. For meeting different SU demands, SUs are classified as SU1s and SU2s. We further introduce a channel bonding scheme for high-priority (PU and SU1) user packets to enhance transmission efficiency. At the same time, we propose a hybrid spectrum access strategy for SU2 p...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yuan Zhao Minglei Peng Jiemin Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4400: PEnBayes: A Multi-Layered Ensemble Approach for Learning Bayesian Network Structure from Big Data
ltintas Discovering the Bayesian network (BN) structure from big datasets containing rich causal relationships is becoming increasingly valuable for modeling and reasoning under uncertainties in many areas with big data gathered from sensors due to high volume and fast veracity. Most of the current BN structure learning algorithms have shortcomings facing big data. First, learning a BN structure from the entire big dataset is an expensive task which often ends in failure due to memory constraints. Second, it is quite difficult to select a learner from numerous BN structure learning algorithms to consistently achieve go...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yan Tang Jianwu Wang Mai Nguyen Ilkay Altintas Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4401: Mixed Maximum Loss Design for Optic Disc and Optic Cup Segmentation with Deep Learning from Imbalanced Samples
-rui Li Glaucoma is a serious eye disease that can cause permanent blindness and is difficult to diagnose early. Optic disc (OD) and optic cup (OC) play a pivotal role in the screening of glaucoma. Therefore, accurate segmentation of OD and OC from fundus images is a key task in the automatic screening of glaucoma. In this paper, we designed a U-shaped convolutional neural network with multi-scale input and multi-kernel modules (MSMKU) for OD and OC segmentation. Such a design gives MSMKU a rich receptive field and is able to effectively represent multi-scale features. In addition, we designed a mixed maximum loss mini...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yong-li Xu Shuai Lu Han-xiong Li Rui-rui Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4402: A Physical Model-Based Observer Framework for Nonlinear Constrained State Estimation Applied to Battery State Estimation
k Future electrified autonomous vehicles demand higly accurate knowledge of their system states to guarantee a high-fidelity and reliable control. This constitutes a challenging task—firstly, due to rising complexity and operational safeness, and secondly, due to the need for embedded service oriented architecture which demands a continuous development of new functionalities. Based on this, a novel model based Kalman filter framework is outlined in this publication, which enables the automatic incorporation of multiphysical Modelica models into discrete-time estimation algorithms. Additionally, these esti...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jonathan Brembeck Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4399: Fast and Accurate 3D Measurement Based on Light-Field Camera and Deep Learning
ian Shi The precise combination of image sensor and micro-lens array enables light-field cameras to record both angular and spatial information of incoming light, therefore, one can calculate disparity and depth from one single light-field image captured by one single light-field camera. In turn, 3D models of the recorded objects can be recovered, which means a 3D measurement system can be built using a light-field camera. However, reflective and texture-less areas in light-field images have complicated conditions, making it hard to correctly calculate disparity with existing algorithms. To tackle this problem, we intr...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haoxin Ma Zhiwen Qian Tingting Mu Shengxian Shi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4403: Dynamic Consolidation Measurements in a Well Field Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors
L. Offerhaus Currently available groundwater flow prediction tools and methods are limited by insufficient spatial resolution of subsurface data and the unknown local heterogeneity. In this field study, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were installed in an extraction well field to investigate its potential to measure groundwater flow velocity. Reference in-situ pore pressure and temperature measurements were used to identify possible sources of FBG responses. FBG strain sensors were able to detect soil consolidation caused by groundwater extraction from 250 m distance. The results show that FBG responses were influenc...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sandra Drusov á R. Martijn Wagterveld Adam D. Wexler Herman L. Offerhaus Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4405: Virtualization of Industrial Real-Time Networks for Containerized Controllers
ook Jin The virtualization technology has a great potential to improve the manageability and scalability of industrial control systems, as it can host and consolidate computing resources very efficiently. There accordingly have been efforts to utilize the virtualization technology for industrial control systems, but the research for virtualization of traditional industrial real-time networks, such as Controller Area Network (CAN), has been done in a very limited scope. Those traditional fieldbuses have distinguished characteristics from well-studied Ethernet-based networks; thus, it is necessary to study how to support...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sang-Hun Lee Jong-Seo Kim Jong-Soo Seok Hyun-Wook Jin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4404: A Low-Profile High-Gain and Wideband Log-Periodic Meandered Dipole Array Antenna with a Cascaded Multi-Section Artificial Magnetic Conductor Structure
eum Cheol Hwang This paper presents a low-profile log-periodic meandered dipole array (LPMDA) antenna with wideband and high gain characteristics. The antenna consists of 14 dipole elements. For compactness, a meander line structure is applied to each dipole element to reduce its physical length. As a result, a compact and wideband LPMDA antenna is realized, exhibiting a wide impedance bandwidth of 1.04–5.22 GHz (ratio bandwidth of 5.02:1) for | S 11| < −10 dB. To enhance the antenna gain performance while maintaining the wideband behavior, the LPMDA antenna is integrated with a n...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Son Trinh-Van Oh Heon Kwon Euntae Jung Jinwoo Park Byunggil Yu Kichul Kim Jongwoo Seo Keum Cheol Hwang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4406: Near Field Communication-based Agricultural Management Service Systems for Family Farms
a Yi Yang This paper presents an agricultural management service system that aims to meet the needs of Internet of Things (IoT) information upgrades in China’s family farms. The proposed agricultural management service system consists of Near Field Communication (NFC) tags, in-field service nodes, and smartphones. NFC tags are used as the core identifier of various agricultural management elements. The in-field service node, which is based on a programmable system-on-chip with intellectual property cores (IP core), supports distributed agriculture device management and smartphone operations. Smartphones...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xue-fen Wan Tao Zheng Jian Cui Fan Zhang Zi-qian Ma Yi Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4407: DCS: Distributed Caching Strategy at the Edge of Vehicular Sensor Networks in Information-Centric Networking
ria Kim Information dissemination in current Vehicular Sensor Networks (VSN) depends on the physical location in which similar data is transmitted multiple times across the network. This data replication has led to several problems, among which resource consumption (memory), stretch, and communication latency due to the lake of data availability are the most crucial. Information-Centric Networking (ICN) provides an enhanced version of the internet that is capable of resolving such issues efficiently. ICN is the new internet paradigm that supports innovative communication systems with location-independent data dissem...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Meng Naeem Ali Zikria Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4408: Ambulatory and Laboratory Stress Detection Based on Raw Electrocardiogram Signals Using a Convolutional Neural Network
In conclusion, our model outperforms previous models using raw ECGs from a small data set and, so, we believe that our model can significantly contribute to mobile healthcare for stress management in daily life. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hyun-Myung Cho Heesu Park Suh-Yeon Dong Inchan Youn Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4409: Modeling and Optimal Design for a High Stability 2D Optoelectronic Angle Sensor
n Li Wei The structural deformations caused by environmental changes in temperature, vibration, and other factors are harmful to the stability of high precision measurement equipment. The stability and optimal design method of a 2D optoelectronic angle sensor have been investigated in this study. The drift caused by structural deformations of the angle sensor has been studied and a drift error model has been achieved. Key components sensitive to thermal and vibrational effects were identified by error sensitivity analysis and simulation. The mounts of key components were analyzed using finite element analysis sof...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cheng Liu Xu Li Fan Li Wei Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4410: Resource-Efficient Sensor Data Management for Autonomous Systems Using Deep Reinforcement Learning
onguk Woo Hyperconnectivity via modern Internet of Things (IoT) technologies has recently driven us to envision “digital twin”, in which physical attributes are all embedded, and their latest updates are synchronized on digital spaces in a timely fashion. From the point of view of cyberphysical system (CPS) architectures, the goals of digital twin include providing common programming abstraction on the same level of databases, thereby facilitating seamless integration of real-world physical objects and digital assets at several different system layers. However, the inherent limitations of sa...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Seunghwan Jeong Gwangpyo Yoo Minjong Yoo Ikjun Yeom Honguk Woo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4411: Animal Movement Prediction Based on Predictive Recurrent Neural Network
jun Hwang Observing animal movements enables us to understand animal behavior changes, such as migration, interaction, foraging, and nesting. Based on spatiotemporal changes in weather and season, animals instinctively change their position for foraging, nesting, or breeding. It is known that moving patterns are closely related to their traits. Analyzing and predicting animals’ movement patterns according to spatiotemporal change offers an opportunity to understand their unique traits and acquire ecological insights into animals. Hence, in this paper, we propose an animal movement prediction scheme using ...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jehyeok Rew Sungwoo Park Yongjang Cho Seungwon Jung Eenjun Hwang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4386: InGaN as a Substrate for AC Photoelectrochemical Imaging
effi Krause AC photoelectrochemical imaging at electrolyte–semiconductor interfaces provides spatially resolved information such as surface potentials, ion concentrations and electrical impedance. In this work, thin films of InGaN/GaN were used successfully for AC photoelectrochemical imaging, and experimentally shown to generate a considerable photocurrent under illumination with a 405 nm modulated diode laser at comparatively high frequencies and low applied DC potentials, making this a promising substrate for bioimaging applications. Linear sweep voltammetry showed negligible dark currents. The imaging...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bo Zhou Anirban Das Menno J. Kappers Rachel A. Oliver Colin J. Humphreys Steffi Krause Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4387: Correction: Suwannapong, C. et al. Congestion Control in CoAP Observe Group Communication. Sensors 2019, 19, 3433
boa The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chanwit Suwannapong Chatchai Khunboa Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4388: Quality of Daily-Life Gait: Novel Outcome for Trials that Focus on Balance, Mobility, and Falls
We present variance estimates of daily-life gait characteristics that are sensitive to fall risk and estimate the number of participants required to obtain sufficient statistical power for repeated comparisons. The provided data allows for power analyses for studies using daily-life gait quality as outcome. Our results show that the number of participants required (i.e., 8 to 343 depending on the anticipated effect size and between-measurements correlation) is similar to that generally used in fall prevention trials. We propose that the quality of daily-life gait is a promising outcome for intervention studies that focus o...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kimberley S. van Schooten Mirjam Pijnappels Stephen R. Lord Jaap H. van Die ën Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4389: Improved Multi-GNSS PPP Software for Upgrading the DEMETRA Project Time Monitoring Service
a Sesia The H2020 DEMETRA project provides short latency clock monitoring services to the time users using the Atomium precise point positioning (PPP) software developed by the Royal Observatory of Belgium. In this paper, three recent updates of the current Atomium software are introduced: adding Galileo signals in the PPP computation; the option to constrain the receiver clock; PPP with integer ambiguity resolution. The advantages of these updates are demonstrated: Combining the Galileo and global positioning system (GPS) signals for PPP time transfer will further improve the frequency stability inside the computation...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wei Huang Pascale Defraigne Giovanna Signorile Ilaria Sesia Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4390: Switchable Piezoresistive SmS Thin Films on Large Area
F. Smet Samarium monosulfide (SmS) is a switchable material, showing a pressure-induced semiconductor to metal transition. As such, it can be used in different applications such as piezoresistive sensors and memory devices. In this work, we present how e-beam sublimation of samarium metal in a reactive atmosphere can be used for the deposition of semiconducting SmS thin films on 150 mm diameter silicon wafers. The deposition parameters influencing the composition and properties of the thin films are evaluated, such as the deposition rate of Sm metal, the substrate temperature and the H2S partial pressure. We then prese...
Source: Sensors - October 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andreas Sousanis Dirk Poelman Christophe Detavernier Philippe F. Smet Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4369: A Mobile Anchor Node Assisted RSSI Localization Scheme in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
ping Guan In this paper, a mobile anchor node assisted RSSI localization scheme in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) is proposed, which aims to improve location accuracy and shorten location time. First, to improve location accuracy, we design a support vector regression (SVR) based interpolation method to estimate the projection of sensor nodes on the linear trajectory of the mobile anchor node. The proposed method increases the accuracy of the nonlinear regression model of noisy measured data and synchronously decreases the estimation error caused by the discreteness of measured data. Second, to shorten loc...
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yanlong Sun Yazhou Yuan Qimin Xu Changchun Hua Xinping Guan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4370: Dual Model Medical Invoices Recognition
ang Xuan Qi Hospitals need to invest a lot of manpower to manually input the contents of medical invoices (nearly 300,000,000 medical invoices a year) into the medical system. In order to help the hospital save money and stabilize work efficiency, this paper designed a system to complete the complicated work using a Gaussian blur and smoothing–convolutional neural network combined with a recurrent neural network (GBS-CR) method. Gaussian blur and smoothing (GBS) is a novel preprocessing method that can fix the breakpoint font in medical invoices. The combination of convolutional neural network (CNN) and...
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fei Yi Yi-Fei Zhao Guan-Qun Sheng Kai Xie Chang Wen Xin-Gong Tang Xuan Qi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4371: Application of Ultrasonic Array Method for the Inspection of TC18 Addictive Manufacturing Titanium Alloy
ng Li Ultrasonic arrays have been investigated for inspecting the quality of special materials. Unfortunately, non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) of internal defects in additive manufacturing (AM) materials are difficult due to the anisotropy and the coarse grain. To solve the problem, this paper brings forward research on the inspection of TC18 AM titanium alloy products using an ultrasonic array. Firstly, a three-dimensional acoustic field distribution of different ultrasonic array transducers is established to design an optimal detection solution for an AM titanium alloy. Then, a total focusi...
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wentao Li Zhenggan Zhou Yang Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4372: Traversability Assessment and Trajectory Planning of Unmanned Ground Vehicles with Suspension Systems on Rough Terrain
ng Wang This paper presents a traversability assessment method and a trajectory planning method. They are key features for the navigation of an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) in a non-planar environment. In this work, a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor is used to obtain the geometric information about a rough terrain surface. For a given SE(2) pose of the vehicle and a specific vehicle model, the SE(3) pose of the vehicle is estimated based on LiDAR points, and then a traversability is computed. The traversability tells the vehicle the effects of its interaction with the rough terrain. Note that the travers...
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kai Zhang Yi Yang Mengyin Fu Meiling Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4373: An Ultra-Short Baseline Positioning Model Based on Rotating Array & amp; Reusing Elements and Its Error Analysis
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4373: An Ultra-Short Baseline Positioning Model Based on Rotating Array & Reusing Elements and Its Error Analysis Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19204373 Authors: Jinwu Tong Xiaosu Xu Lanhua Hou Yao Li Jian Wang Liang Zhang The USBL (Ultra-Short Base Line) positioning system is widely used in underwater acoustic positioning systems due to its small size and ease of use. The traditional USBL positioning system is based on ‘slant range and azimuth’. The positioning error is an increasing function with the increase in distance and the positioning accuracy de...
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jinwu Tong Xiaosu Xu Lanhua Hou Yao Li Jian Wang Liang Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4375: Satellite Edge Computing for the Internet of Things in Aerospace
Zhi Qu As one of the information industry’s future development directions, the Internet of Things (IoT) has been widely used. In order to reduce the pressure on the network caused by the long distance between the processing platform and the terminal, edge computing provides a new paradigm for IoT applications. In many scenarios, the IoT devices are distributed in remote areas or extreme terrain and cannot be accessed directly through the terrestrial network, and data transmission can only be achieved via satellite. However, traditional satellites are highly customized, and on-board resources are designed...
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yuxuan Wang Jun Yang Xiye Guo Zhi Qu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4374: RMLNet —A Reliable Wireless Network for a Multiarea TDOA-Based Localization System
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4374: RMLNet—A Reliable Wireless Network for a Multiarea TDOA-Based Localization System Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19204374 Authors: Yuan Xue Wei Su Dong Yang Hongchao Wang Weiting Zhang Ultrawideband (UWB) wireless communication is a promising spread-spectrum technology for accurate localization among devices characterized by a low transmission power, a high rate and immunity to multipath propagation. The accurately of the clock synchronization algorithm and the time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) localization algorithm provide precise position information of mobile nodes with centim...
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yuan Xue Wei Su Dong Yang Hongchao Wang Weiting Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4376: Recent Advances in Skin Chemical Sensors
nt Noël This review summarizes the latest developments in the field of skin chemical sensors, in particular wearable ones. Five major applications are covered in the present work: (i) sweat analysis, (ii) skin hydration, (iii) skin wounds, (iv) perspiration of volatile organic compounds, and (v) general skin conditions. For each application, the detection of the most relevant analytes is described in terms of transduction principles and sensor performances. Special attention is paid to the biological fluid collection and storage and devices are also analyzed in terms of reusability and lifetime. This review highli...
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Beno ît Piro Giorgio Mattana Vincent No ël Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4377: Single-Lead ECG Recordings Including Einthoven and Wilson Leads by a Smartwatch: A New Era of Patient Directed Early ECG Differential Diagnosis of Cardiac Diseases?
Conclusion: Consecutive recording of six single-lead ECGs including Einthoven and Wilson-like leads by a smartwatch is feasible with good ECG signal quality. Thus, this simulated six-lead smartwatch ECG may be useable for the detection of cardiac diseases necessitating more than one ECG lead like myocardial ischemia or more complex cardia arrhythmias. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alexander Samol Kristina Bischof Blerim Luani Dan Pascut Marcus Wiemer Sven Kaese Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4378: Vision Based Modeling of Plants Phenotyping in Vertical Farming under Artificial Lighting
Fiora Pirri In this paper, we present a novel method for vision based plants phenotyping in indoor vertical farming under artificial lighting. The method combines 3D plants modeling and deep segmentation of the higher leaves, during a period of 25–30 days, related to their growth. The novelty of our approach is in providing 3D reconstruction, leaf segmentation, geometric surface modeling, and deep network estimation for weight prediction to effectively measure plant growth, under three relevant phenotype features: height, weight and leaf area. Together with the vision based measurements, to verify the sou...
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Benjamin Franchetti Valsamis Ntouskos Pierluigi Giuliani Tiara Herman Luke Barnes Fiora Pirri Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4379: Analysis of Agile Canine Gait Characteristics Using Accelerometry
In conclusion, the methods applied in this research contribute to animal safety and welfare by eliminating the factors leading to injuries through optimising the track design and surface type. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hasti Hayati Fatemeh Mahdavi David Eager Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4380: Privacy Engineering for Domestic IoT: Enabling Due Diligence
We present a privacy-oriented, flow-based integrated development environment (IDE) for building domestic IoT applications. The IDE enables due diligence in (a) helping developers reason about personal data during the actual in vivo construction of IoT applications; (b) advising developers as to whether or not the design choices they are making occasion the need for a DPIA; and (c) attaching and making available to others (including data processors, data controllers, data protection officers, users and supervisory authorities) specific privacy-related information that has arisen during an application’s develop...
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tom Lodge Andy Crabtree Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4381: Data-Driven Calibration of Soil Moisture Sensor Considering Impacts of Temperature: A Case Study on FDR Sensors
In this study, the temperature impact on the soil moisture sensor reading was firstly analyzed. Next, a pioneer study on the data-driven calibration of soil moisture sensor was investigated considering the impacts of temperature. Different data-driven models including the multivariate adaptive regression splines and the Gaussian process regression were applied into the development of the calibration method. To verify the efficacy of the proposed methods, tests on four commercial soil moisture sensors were conducted; these sensors belong to the frequency domain reflection (FDR) type. The numerical results demonstrate that t...
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chen Zhangzhong Zheng Yu Wang Wang Huang Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4382: Noise Reduction for MEMS Gyroscope Signal: A Novel Method Combining ACMP with Adaptive Multiscale SG Filter Based on AMA
Wang In this paper, a novel hybrid method combining adaptive chirp mode pursuit (ACMP) with an adaptive multiscale Savitzky–Golay filter (AMSGF) based on adaptive moving average (AMA) is proposed for offline denoising micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope signal. The denoising scheme includes preliminary denoising and further denoising. At the preliminary denoising stage, the original gyroscope signal is decomposed into signal modes one by one using ACMP with modified stopping criterion based on mutual information. Useful information is extracted while most noise is discarded in the residue at...
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: He Sun Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4383: A Genetic-Based Extreme Gradient Boosting Model for Detecting Intrusions in Wireless Sensor Networks
n Ismail An Intrusion detection system is an essential security tool for protecting services and infrastructures of wireless sensor networks from unseen and unpredictable attacks. Few works of machine learning have been proposed for intrusion detection in wireless sensor networks and that have achieved reasonable results. However, these works still need to be more accurate and efficient against imbalanced data problems in network traffic. In this paper, we proposed a new model to detect intrusion attacks based on a genetic algorithm and an extreme gradient boosting (XGBoot) classifier, called GXGBoost model. The latter...
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alqahtani Gumaei Mathkour Maher Ben Ismail Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4384: ITC: Infused Tangential Curves for Smooth 2D and 3D Navigation of Mobile Robots
We present `ITC: Infused Tangential Curves’ which can generate smooth trajectories for mobile robots. The main characteristics of the proposed ITC algorithm are: (1) The curves are tangential to the path, thus maintaining G 1 continuity, (2) The curves are infused in the original global path to smooth out the turns, (3) The straight segments of the global path are kept straight and only the sharp turns are smoothed, (4) Safety is embedded in the ITC trajectories and robots are guaranteed to maintain a safe distance from the obstacles, (5) The curvature of ITC curves can easily be controlled and smooth trajectories ...
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abhijeet Ravankar Ankit Ravankar Arpit Rawankar Yohei   Hoshino Yukinori Kobayashi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4385: Forensic Speaker Verification Using Ordinary Least Squares
iveira In Brazil, the recognition of speakers for forensic purposes still relies on a subjectivity-based decision-making process through a results analysis of untrustworthy techniques. Owing to the lack of a voice database, speaker verification is currently applied to samples specifically collected for confrontation. However, speaker comparative analysis via contested discourse requires the collection of an excessive amount of voice samples for a series of individuals. Further, the recognition system must inform who is the most compatible with the contested voice from pre-selected individuals. Accordingly, this paper p...
Source: Sensors - October 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Machado Vieira Filho de Oliveira Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4364: Satellite-Based Wireless Sensor Development and Deployment Studies for Surface Wave Testing
ang Although cable-based seismic sensing systems have provided reliable data in the past several decades, they become a bottleneck for large-area monitoring and critical environmental (volcanic eruptions) sensing because of their cost, difficulty in deploying and expanding, and lack of accurate three-dimensional geographic information. In this paper, a new wireless sensing system is designed consisting of a portable satellite device, a self-sustaining power source, a low-cost computational core, and a high-precision sensor. The emphasis of this paper is to implement in low-cost hardware without requirements of highly s...
Source: Sensors - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pengju Xu Wentao Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4365: L-VTP: Long-Term Vessel Trajectory Prediction Based on Multi-Source Data Analysis
hongwen Guo With the rapid development of marine IoT (Internet of Things), ocean MDTN (Mobile Delay Tolerant Network) has become a research hot spot. Long-term trajectory prediction is a key issue in MDTN. There are no long-term fine-grained trajectory prediction methods proposed for ocean vessels because a vessel’s mobility pattern lacks map topology support and can be easily influenced by the fish moratorium, sunshine duration, etc. A traditional on-land trajectory prediction algorithm cannot be directly utilized in this field because trajectory characteristics of ocean vessels are far different from th...
Source: Sensors - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chao Liu Shuai Guo Yuan Feng Feng Hong Haiguang Huang Zhongwen Guo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4366: Unique 4-DOF Relative Pose Estimation with Six Distances for UWB/V-SLAM-Based Devices
We present a linear algorithm that calculates the relative pose in 2D or 3D with four degrees of freedom (4-DOF). This algorithm needs a minimum of five or six distance measurements, respectively, to estimate the relative pose uniquely. We use the linear algorithm in conjunction with outlier detection algorithms and as a good initial estimate for iterative least squares refinement. The proposed method outperforms other related linear methods in terms of distance measurements needed and in terms of accuracy. In comparison with a related linear algorithm in 2D, we can reduce 10% of the translation error. In contrast to the m...
Source: Sensors - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Francisco Molina Martel Juri Sidorenko Christoph Bodensteiner Michael Arens Urs Hugentobler Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4367: Multirobot Heterogeneous Control Considering Secondary Objectives
Garrido Cooperative robotics has considered tasks that are executed frequently, maintaining the shape and orientation of robotic systems when they fulfill a common objective, without taking advantage of the redundancy that the robotic group could present. This paper presents a proposal for controlling a group of terrestrial robots with heterogeneous characteristics, considering primary and secondary tasks thus that the group complies with the following of a path while modifying its shape and orientation at any time. The development of the proposal is achieved through the use of controllers based on linear algebra, pro...
Source: Sensors - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Acosta Rivera Andaluz Garrido Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4368: Distributed Acoustic Sensing Using Chirped-Pulse Phase-Sensitive OTDR Technology
Hugo F. Martins In 2016, a novel interrogation technique for phase-sensitive (Φ)OTDR was mathematically formalized and experimentally demonstrated, based on the use of a chirped-pulse as a probe, in an otherwise direct-detection-based standard setup: chirped-pulse (CP-)ΦOTDR. Despite its short lifetime, this methodology has now become a reference for distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) due to its valuable advantages with respect to conventional (i.e., coherent-detection or frequency sweeping-based) interrogation strategies. Presenting intrinsic immunity to fading points and using direct detectio...
Source: Sensors - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mar ía R. Fernández-Ruiz Luis Costa Hugo F. Martins Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4353: Recent Progress in Wireless Sensors for Wearable Electronics
Park The development of wearable electronics has emphasized user-comfort, convenience, security, and improved medical functionality. Several previous research studies transformed various types of sensors into a wearable form to more closely monitor body signals and enable real-time, continuous sensing. In order to realize these wearable sensing platforms, it is essential to integrate wireless power supplies and data communication systems with the wearable sensors. This review article discusses recent progress in wireless technologies and various types of wearable sensors. Also, state-of-the-art research related to the...
Source: Sensors - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Young-Geun Park Sangil Lee Jang-Ung Park Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4354: An Interoperable Component-Based Architecture for Data-Driven IoT System
ekhilef The advancement of the Internet of Things (IoT) as a solution in diverse application domains has nurtured the expansion in the number of devices and data volume. Multiple platforms and protocols have been introduced and resulted in high device ubiquity and heterogeneity. However, currently available IoT architectures face challenges to accommodate the diversity in IoT devices or services operating under different operating systems and protocols. In this paper, we propose a new IoT architecture that utilizes the component-based design approach to create and define the loosely-coupled, standalone but interoperabl...
Source: Sensors - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sin Kit Lo Chee Sun Liew Kok Soon Tey Saad Mekhilef Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4355: Quantitative Analysis of Soil Total Nitrogen Using Hyperspectral Imaging Technology with Extreme Learning Machine
un Le Soil nutrient detection is important for precise fertilization. A total of 150 soil samples were picked from Lishui City. In this work, the total nitrogen (TN) content in soil samples was detected in the spectral range of 900–1700 nm using a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system. Characteristic wavelengths were extracted using uninformative variable elimination (UVE) and the successive projections algorithm (SPA), separately. Partial least squares (PLS) and extreme learning machine (ELM) were used to establish the calibration models with full spectra and characteristic wavelengths, respectively. The re...
Source: Sensors - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hongyang Li Shengyao Jia Zichun Le Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4356: Real-Time Human-In-The-Loop Simulation with Mobile Agents, Chat Bots, and Crowd Sensing for Smart Cities
gel Modelling and simulation of social interaction and networks are of high interest in multiple disciplines and fields of application ranging from fundamental social sciences to smart city management. Future smart city infrastructures and management are characterised by adaptive and self-organising control using real-world sensor data. In this work, humans are considered as sensors. Virtual worlds, e.g., simulations and games, are commonly closed and rely on artificial social behaviour and synthetic sensor information generated by the simulator program or using data collected off-line by surveys. In contrast, real wor...
Source: Sensors - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Stefan Bosse Uwe Engel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4357: Real-Time Hybrid Multi-Sensor Fusion Framework for Perception in Autonomous Vehicles
Cetin There are many sensor fusion frameworks proposed in the literature using different sensors and fusion methods combinations and configurations. More focus has been on improving the accuracy performance; however, the implementation feasibility of these frameworks in an autonomous vehicle is less explored. Some fusion architectures can perform very well in lab conditions using powerful computational resources; however, in real-world applications, they cannot be implemented in an embedded edge computer due to their high cost and computational need. We propose a new hybrid multi-sensor fusion pipeline configuration th...
Source: Sensors - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Babak Shahian Jahromi Theja Tulabandhula Sabri Cetin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4358: Single-Nanowire Fuse for Ionization Gas Detection
ong Huang Local electric field enhancement is crucial to detect gases for an ionization gas sensor. Nanowires grown collectively along the identical lattice orientation have been claimed to show a strong tip effect in many previous studies. Herein, we propose a novel ionization gas detector structure by using a single crystalline silicon nanowire as one electrode that is placed above the prepatterned nanotips. A significant improvement of the local electric field in its radical direction was obtained leading to an ultralow operation voltage for gas breakdown. Different from the tip of the nanowire in the reported ioniz...
Source: Sensors - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hai Liu Wenhuan Zhu Yutong Han Zhi Yang Yizhong Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4359: A Low-Cost Micro-Volume Nephelometric System for Quantitative Immunoagglutination Assays
an Shen Immunoassays have been widely used in scientific research and clinical diagnosis due to their versatile detection capability and high specificity. Immunoagglutination assays are kinds of immunoassay, which can simply and rapidly measure the concentration of analytes. In this work, we developed a low-cost micro-volume nephelometric system for quantitative immunoagglutination assays. We used off-the-shelf components to build the system, and the total cost of key components is only about 20 US dollars. The total detection volume in our system was as low as 3 µL, which could significantly reduce the r...
Source: Sensors - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qiqi Sun Wei Zheng Chao Lin Dongxuan Shen Tags: Article Source Type: research