Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6290: Feasibility of Location-Aware Handover for Autonomous Vehicles in Industrial Multi-Radio Environments
na Simona Lohan The integration of millimeter wave (mmWave) and low frequency interfaces brings an unique opportunity to unify the communications and positioning technologies in the future wireless heterogeneous networks (HetNets), which offer great potential for efficient handover using location awareness, hence a location-aware handover (LHO). Targeting a self-organized communication system with autonomous vehicles, we conduct and describe an experimental and analytical study on the LHO using a mmWave-enabled robotic platform in a multi-radio environment. Compared to the conventional received signal strength indicato...
Source: Sensors - November 5, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yi Lu Mikhail Gerasimenko Roman Kovalchukov Martin Stusek Jani Urama Jiri Hosek Mikko Valkama Elena Simona Lohan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6291: Modified Fixed Wall Oedometer When Considering Stress Dependence of Elastic Wave Velocities
gho Lee A modified oedometer cell for measuring the applied stresses and elastic waves at the top and bottom of the specimen is developed to evaluate the effect of the side friction on the stress dependence of the elastic wave velocities. In the modified cell, two load cells are installed at the top and bottom plates, respectively. To generate and detect the compressional and shear waves, a pair of piezo disk elements and a pair of bender elements are mounted at both the top and bottom plates. Experimental results show that the stresses measured at the bottom are smaller than those measured at the top during the loadin...
Source: Sensors - November 5, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jong-Sub Lee Geunwoo Park Yong-Hoon Byun Changho Lee Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6293: Accuracy of Mobile Applications versus Wearable Devices in Long-Term Step Measurements
onaro Fitness sensors and health systems are paving the way toward improving the quality of medical care by exploiting the benefits of new technology. For example, the great amount of patient-generated health data available today gives new opportunities to measure life parameters in real time and create a revolution in communication for professionals and patients. In this work, we concentrated on the basic parameter typically measured by fitness applications and devices—the number of steps taken daily. In particular, the main goal of this study was to compare the accuracy and precision of smartphone appli...
Source: Sensors - November 5, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Filippo Piccinini Giovanni Martinelli Antonella Carbonaro Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6294: Performance Assessment of Portable Optical Particle Spectrometer (POPS)
This study evaluates the performance of a POPS with an upgraded laser heater and additional temperature sensors in the aerosol pathway. POPS maintains its performance under different environmental conditions as long as the laser temperature remains above 25 °C and the aerosol flow temperature inside the optical chamber is 15 °C higher than the ambient temperature. The comparison between POPS and an Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS) suggests that the coincidence error is less than 25% when the number concentration is less than 4000 cm−3. The size distributions measured...
Source: Sensors - November 5, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fan Mei Gavin McMeeking Mikhail Pekour Ru-Shan Gao Gourihar Kulkarni Swarup China Hagen Telg Darielle Dexheimer Jason Tomlinson Beat Schmid Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6295: Attitude Trajectory Optimization to Ensure Balance Hexapod Locomotion
Mantian Li This paper proposes a simple attitude trajectory optimization method to enhance the walking balance of a large-size hexapod robot. To achieve balance motion control of a large-size hexapod robot on different outdoor terrains, we planned the balance attitude trajectories of the robot during walking and introduced how leg trajectories are generated based on the planned attitude trajectories. While planning the attitude trajectories, high order polynomial interpolation was employed with attitude fluctuation counteraction considered. Constraints that the planned attitude trajectories must satisfy during walki...
Source: Sensors - November 5, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chen Chen Wei Guo Pengfei Wang Lining Sun Fusheng Zha Junyi Shi Mantian Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6296: Optical-Amplifier-Compatible Long-Distance Secure Key Generation Based on Random Phase Fluctuations for WDM Systems
ang We proposed and experimentally demonstrated a secure key generation and distribution system that is compatible with optical amplifiers and standard wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems. The key is generated from the phase fluctuations induced by environmental instabilities. The key generation system is tested in a 240 km bidirectional fiber-pair link with multiple optical amplifiers. To demonstrate the compatibility with WDM systems, 38 WDM channels are transmitted together with the key distribution channel. The secret key is protected against eavesdropping and coherence detection attack by t...
Source: Sensors - November 5, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ben Wu Yue-Kai Huang Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6297: Dual-Task Gait Stability after Concussion and Subsequent Injury: An Exploratory Investigation
iam P. Meehan Persistent gait alterations can occur after concussion and may underlie future musculoskeletal injury risk. We compared dual-task gait stability measures among adolescents who did/did not sustain a subsequent injury post-concussion, and uninjured controls. Forty-seven athletes completed a dual-task gait evaluation. One year later, they reported sport-related injuries and sport participation volumes. There were three groups: concussion participants who sustained a sport-related injury (n = 8; age =15.4 ± 3.5 years; 63% female), concussion participants who did not sustain a sport-related inju...
Source: Sensors - November 5, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: David R. Howell Scott Bonnette Jed A. Diekfuss Dustin R. Grooms Gregory D. Myer Julie C. Wilson William P. Meehan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6298: A Full-Spectrum Registration Method for Zhuhai-1 Satellite Hyperspectral Imagery
eng Jun Yan Accurate registration is an essential prerequisite for analysis and applications involving remote sensing imagery. It is usually difficult to extract enough matching points for inter-band registration in hyperspectral imagery due to the different spectral responses for land features in different image bands. This is especially true for non-adjacent bands. The inconsistency in geometric distortion caused by topographic relief also makes it inappropriate to use a single affine transformation relationship for the geometric transformation of the entire image. Currently, accurate registration between spectral ...
Source: Sensors - November 5, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jinjun Meng Jiaqi Wu Linlin Lu Qingting Li Qiang Zhang Suyun Feng Jun Yan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6299: Vision and Deep Learning-Based Algorithms to Detect and Quantify Cracks on Concrete Surfaces from UAV Videos
havan Immediate assessment of structural integrity of important civil infrastructures, like bridges, hospitals, or dams, is of utmost importance after natural disasters. Currently, inspection is performed manually by engineers who look for local damages and their extent on significant locations of the structure to understand its implication on its global stability. However, the whole process is time-consuming and prone to human errors. Due to their size and extent, some regions of civil structures are hard to gain access for manual inspection. In such situations, a vision-based system of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)...
Source: Sensors - November 5, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sutanu Bhowmick Satish Nagarajaiah Ashok Veeraraghavan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6300: Smartphone Motion Sensor-Based Complex Human Activity Identification Using Deep Stacked Autoencoder Algorithm for Enhanced Smart Healthcare System
Murtaza Human motion analysis using a smartphone-embedded accelerometer sensor provided important context for the identification of static, dynamic, and complex sequence of activities. Research in smartphone-based motion analysis are implemented for tasks, such as health status monitoring, fall detection and prevention, energy expenditure estimation, and emotion detection. However, current methods, in this regard, assume that the device is tightly attached to a pre-determined position and orientation, which might cause performance degradation in accelerometer data due to changing orientation. Therefore, it is challengi...
Source: Sensors - November 5, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Uzoma Rita Alo Henry Friday Nweke Ying Wah Teh Ghulam Murtaza Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6303: Dual-Frequency Doppler LiDAR Based on External Optical Feedback Effect in a Laser
uo Jun Tong A novel Dual-frequency Doppler LiDAR (DFDL) is presented where the dual-frequency light source is generated by using external optical feedback (EOF) effect in a laser diode (LD). By operating a LD at period-one (P1) state and choosing suitable LD related parameters, a dual-frequency light source can be achieved. Such a dual-frequency source has advantages of the minimum part-count scheme, low cost in implementation, and ease in optical alignment. Theory and system design are presented for the proposed DFDL for velocity measurement with high measurement resolution. The proposed design has a potential contr...
Source: Sensors - November 5, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhuqiu Chen Yanguang Yu Yuxi Ruan Bairun Nie Jiangtao Xi Qinghua Guo Jun Tong Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6302: Subtask Segmentation of Timed Up and Go Test for Mobility Assessment of Perioperative Total Knee Arthroplasty
ia-Tai Chan Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most common treatments for people with severe knee osteoarthritis (OA). The accuracy of outcome measurements and quantitative assessments for perioperative TKA is an important issue in clinical practice. Timed up and go (TUG) tests have been validated to measure basic mobility and balance capabilities. A TUG test contains a series of subtasks, including sit-to-stand, walking-out, turning, walking-in, turning around, and stand-to-sit tasks. Detailed information about subtasks is essential to aid clinical professionals and physiotherapists in making assessment decis...
Source: Sensors - November 5, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chia-Yeh Hsieh Hsiang-Yun Huang Kai-Chun Liu Kun-Hui Chen Steen Jun-Ping Hsu Chia-Tai Chan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6310: Characterization of Response Frequency for the Pressure-Sensitive Paint Based on Fluorine-Containing Polymer Matrixes Using Oscillating Sound Wave Technique
n Limin Gao Five kinds of new homo-polymer and copolymers of methacrylate containing a fluorine ester group were synthesized and used for the binder of pressure-sensitive paint (PSP)to ensure the good compatibility between luminophore (Pt(II) meso-tetra (pentafluorophenyl) porphine (PtTFPP)) and polymer binder. In the work, we were concerned with how the structure of thesepolymers containing fluorine, especially the various ester group structure, affects the response frequency of PSP using oscillating sound wave technique. The results showed that the pressure sensitivities (Sp) of these PSP samples containing differe...
Source: Sensors - November 5, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yun Shao Liusheng Chen Qi Liao Heng Jiang Zhitian Liu Xigao Jin Limin Gao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6274: Correction: Liu, W. et al. Error Overboundings of KF-Based IMU/GNSS Integrated System Against IMU Faults. Sensors 2019, 19, 4912
un Fang To clearly highlight the differences between the error overboundings of error-state EKFs and full-state EKFs [...] (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wei Liu Dan Song Zhipeng Wang Kun Fang Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6277: Estimation of Three-Dimensional Lower Limb Kinetics Data during Walking Using Machine Learning from a Single IMU Attached to the Sacrum
In this study, an ANN for estimating gait kinetics with a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) was designed; the kinematics of the IMU placed on the sacrum as a proxy for the CoM kinematics were applied based on the 3D spring mechanics. The walking data from 17 participants walking at various speeds were used to train and validate the ANN. The estimated 3D GRF, CoP trajectory, and joint torques of the lower limbs were reasonably accurate, with normalized root-mean-square errors (NRMSEs) of 6.7% to 15.6%, 8.2% to 20.0%, and 11.4% to 24.1%, respectively. This result implies that the biomechanical characteristics can be use...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Myunghyun Lee Sukyung Park Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6275: Learning from Routing Information for Detecting Routing Misbehavior in Ad Hoc Networks
hoi Owing to ad hoc wireless networks’ properties, the implementation of complex security systems with higher computing resources seems troublesome in most situations. Therefore, the usage of anomaly or intrusion detection systems has attracted considerable attention. The detection systems are implemented either as host-based, run by each node; or as cluster/network-based, run by cluster head. These two implementations exhibit benefits and drawbacks, such as when cluster-based is used alone, it faces maintaining protection when nodes delay to elect or replace a cluster head. Despite different heuristic ap...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Robert Basomingera Young-June Choi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6278: Indoor Localization Based on Infrared Angle of Arrival Sensor Network
bic Accurate, inexpensive, and reliable real-time indoor localization holds the key to the full potential of the context-aware applications and location-based Internet of Things (IoT) services. State-of-the-art indoor localization systems are coping with the complex non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal propagation which hinders the use of proven multiangulation and multilateration methods, as well as with prohibitive installation costs, computational demands, and energy requirements. In this paper, we present a novel sensor utilizing low-range infrared (IR) signal in the line-of-sight (LOS) context providing high precision ...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Damir Arbula Sandi Ljubic Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6279: An Ultra-Wide Load Range Voltage Converter Using Proactive Phase Frequency Modulation for IoT Sensors
n Kim Modern sensor nodes have multiple operating states, which causes a conventional voltage converter to perform poorly over a wide load range of the operating states. This paper proposes a voltage converter whose switching frequency and output voltage are proactively adjusted to maintain high conversion efficiency. This allows the converter to exploit a wider frequency range to cover a wide load range. In addition, the proposed converter uses multiple smaller capacitor banks and employs multiphase operation to provide low output ripple voltage. A distributed topology for non-overlapping signal generation is proposed...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Saad Arslan Syed Asmat Ali Shah HyungWon Kim Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6280: Optimal Lateral Displacement in Automatic Close-Range Photogrammetry
We examined five different test objects made of rock, differing in terms of stone type and visual appearance. First, an accurate reference data set was generated by acquiring each object with an active range device, based on pattern projection (σz = 18 µm). Then, each object was 3D-captured with photogrammetry, using a set of images taken radially, with the camera pointing to the center of the specimen. The camera–object minimum distance was kept at 200 mm during the shooting, and the angular displacement was as small as π/60. We generated several dense clouds by samplin...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gabriele Guidi Umair Shafqat Malik Laura Loredana Micoli Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6276: Evaluation of Strain Transition Properties between Cast-In Fibre Bragg Gratings and Cast Aluminium during Uniaxial Straining
Wolfram Volk Current testing methods are capable of measuring strain near the surface on structural parts, for example by using strain gauges. However, stress peaks often occur within the material and can only be approximated. An alternative strain measurement incorporates fibre-optical strain sensors (Fiber Bragg Gratings, FBG) which are able to determine strains within the material. The principle has already been verified by using embedded FBGs in tensile specimens. The transition area between fibre and aluminium, however, is not yet properly investigated. Therefore, strains in tensile specimens containing FBGs were...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Florian Heilmeier Robert Koos Michael Singer Constantin Bauer Peter Hornberger Jochen Hiller Wolfram Volk Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6281: An Automated Pipeline for Image Processing and Data Treatment to Track Activity Rhythms of Paragorgia arborea in Relation to Hydrographic Conditions
Guosong Zhang Henning Wehde Jacopo Aguzzi Imaging technologies are being deployed on cabled observatory networks worldwide. They allow for the monitoring of the biological activity of deep-sea organisms on temporal scales that were never attained before. In this paper, we customized Convolutional Neural Network image processing to track behavioral activities in an iconic conservation deep-sea species—the bubblegum coral Paragorgia arborea—in response to ambient oceanographic conditions at the Lofoten-Vesterålen observatory. Images and concomitant oceanographic data were t...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ander Zuazo Jordi Griny ó Vanesa L ópez-Vázquez Erik Rodr íguez Corrado Costa Luciano Ortenzi Sascha Fl ögel Javier Valencia Simone Marini Guosong Zhang Henning Wehde Jacopo Aguzzi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6282: Three-Dimensional Microwave Imaging: Fast and Accurate Computations with Block Resolution Algorithms
Idier Yves Goussard This paper considers the microwave imaging reconstruction problem, based on additive penalization and gradient-based optimization. Each evaluation of the cost function and of its gradient requires the resolution of as many high-dimensional linear systems as the number of incident fields, which represents a large amount of computations. Since all such systems involve the same matrix, we propose a block inversion strategy, based on the block-biconjugate gradient stabilized (BiCGStab) algorithm, with efficient implementations specific to the microwave imaging context. Numerical experiments performed...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Corentin Friedrich S ébastien Bourguignon J érôme Idier Yves Goussard Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6283: In-Situ Screening of Soybean Quality with a Novel Handheld Near-Infrared Sensor
This study evaluates a novel handheld sensor technology coupled with pattern recognition to provide real-time screening of several soybean traits for breeders and farmers, namely protein and fat quality. We developed predictive regression models that can quantify soybean quality traits based on near-infrared (NIR) spectra acquired by a handheld instrument. This system has been utilized to measure crude protein, essential amino acids (lysine, threonine, methionine, tryptophan, and cysteine) composition, total fat, the profile of major fatty acids, and moisture content in soybeans (n = 107), and soy products including soy is...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Didem Peren Aykas Christopher Ball Amanda Sia Kuanrong Zhu Mei-Ling Shotts Anna Schmenk Luis Rodriguez-Saona Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6285: Differences in Power Spectral Densities and Phase Quantities Due to Processing of EEG Signals
This study aims to contrast widely used methodological approaches in EEG processing and compare their effects on the outcome variables. To this end, two publicly available datasets were collected, each having unique traits so as to validate the results in two different EEG territories. The first dataset included signals with event-related potentials (visual stimulation) from 45 subjects. The second dataset included resting state EEG signals from 16 subjects. Five EEG processing steps, involved in the computation of power and phase quantities of EEG frequency bands, were explored in this study: artifact removal choices (wit...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Raquib-ul Alam Haifeng Zhao Andrew Goodwin Omid Kavehei Alistair McEwan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6284: Separable MSE-Based Design of Two-Way Multiple-Relay Cooperative MIMO 5G Networks
o Verde While the combination of multi-antenna and relaying techniques has been extensively studied for Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) and Internet of Things (IoT) applications, it is expected to still play an important role in 5th Generation (5G) networks. However, the expected benefits of these technologies cannot be achieved without a proper system design. In this paper, we consider the problem of jointly optimizing terminal precoders/decoders and relay forwarding matrices on the basis of the sum mean square error (MSE) criterion in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) two-way relay systems, where two multi-a...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Donatella Darsena Giacinto Gelli Ivan Iudice Francesco Verde Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6286: Advanced Fiber-Coupled Diode Laser Sensor for Calibration-Free 1f-WMS Determination of an Absorption Line Intensity
Bolshov A new scheme for a calibration-free diode laser absorption spectroscopy (DLAS) sensor for measuring the parameters of harsh zones is proposed. The key element of the scheme is a micro-prism retroreflector (MPRR). The MPRR facilitates an increase in the mechanical stability of the sensor and a decrease in the background thermal radiation in the hot areas of a tested zone. Reduction in the broadband thermal emission allowed the application of a differential logarithmic conversion (LC) technique for elimination of the residual amplitude modulation and other sources of non-selective attenuation of the probing laser...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vladimir Liger Vladimir Mironenko Yury Kuritsyn Mikhail Bolshov Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6287: An Intelligent Data Uploading Selection Mechanism for Offloading Uplink Traffic of Cellular Networks
n Guizani Wi-Fi uploading is considered an effective method for offloading the traffic of cellular networks generated by the data uploading process of mobile crowd sensing applications. However, previously proposed Wi-Fi uploading schemes mainly focus on optimizing one performance objective: the offloaded cellular traffic or the reduced uploading cost. In this paper, we propose an Intelligent Data Uploading Selection Mechanism (IDUSM) to realize a trade-off between the offloaded traffic of cellular networks and participants’ uploading cost considering the differences among participants’ data...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qian Wang Juan Fang Bei Gong Xiaojiang Du Mohsen Guizani Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6288: Car Seats with Capacitive ECG Electrodes Can Detect Cardiac Pacemaker Spikes
This study aims to expand the application range of cECG not in terms of the measurement scenario but in the profile of the subjects by including subjects with implanted cardiac pacemakers. Within this study, 20 patients with cardiac pacemakers were recruited during their clinical device follow-up and cECG measurements were conducted using a seat equipped with integrated cECG electrodes. The multichannel cECG recordings of active unipolar and bipolar pacemaker stimulation were analyzed offline and evaluated in terms of Fβ scores using a pacemaker spike detection algorithm. Fβ scores from 3652 pacin...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Durmus Umutcan Uguz Rosalia Dettori Andreas Napp Marian Walter Nikolaus Marx Steffen Leonhardt Christoph Hoog Antink Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6289: Optical Biosensors for the Detection of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Biomarkers: A Comprehensive Review
cute;n Ignacio Raúl Matías A comprehensive review of optical biosensors for the detection of biomarkers associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is presented here, including microRNAs (miRNAs), C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and histidine, which are biomarkers that enable RA detection and/or monitoring. An overview of the different optical biosensors (based on fluorescence, plasmon resonances, interferometry, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) among other optical techniques) used to detect these biomarkers is ...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jos é Javier Imas Carlos Ruiz Zamarre ño Pablo Zubiate Lorena Sanchez-Mart ín Javier Campi ón Ignacio Ra úl Matías Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6272: Obscuration Threshold Database Construction of Smoke Detectors for Various Combustibles
ang The obscuration thresholds for various smoke detectors and combustibles, required as an input parameter in fire simulation, were measured to predict the accurate activation time of detectors. One ionization detector and nine photoelectric detectors were selected. A fire detector evaluator, which can uniformly control the velocity and smoke concentration, was utilized. Filter paper, liquid fuels, and polymer pellets were employed as smoke-generation combustibles. The nominal obscuration thresholds of the considered detectors were 15 %/m, but the ionization detectors activated at approximately 40 %/m and 16 %/m, resp...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hyo-Yeon Jang Cheol-Hong Hwang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6273: Tracking and Characterization of Spinal Cord-Injured Patients by Means of RGB-D Sensors
Molinero In physical rehabilitation, motion capture solutions are well-known but not as widespread as they could be. The main limit to their diffusion is not related to cost or usability but to the fact that the data generated when tracking a person must be elaborated according to the specific context and aim. This paper proposes a solution including customized motion capture and data elaboration with the aim of supporting medical personnel in the assessment of spinal cord-injured (SCI) patients using a wheelchair. The configuration of the full-body motion capturing system is based on an asymmetric 3 Microsoft Kinect ...
Source: Sensors - November 4, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Filippo Colombo Zefinetti Andrea Vitali Daniele Regazzoni Caterina Rizzi Guido Molinero Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6261: Deep Photometric Stereo Network with Multi-Scale Feature Aggregation
We present photometric stereo algorithms robust to non-Lambertian reflection, which are based on a convolutional neural network in which surface normals of objects with complex geometry and surface reflectance are estimated from a given set of an arbitrary number of images. These images are taken from the same viewpoint under different directional illumination conditions. The proposed method focuses on surface normal estimation, where multi-scale feature aggregation is proposed to obtain a more accurate surface normal, and max pooling is adopted to obtain an intermediate order-agnostic representation in the photometric ste...
Source: Sensors - November 3, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chanki Yu Sang Wook Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6262: A Robust Reactive Static Obstacle Avoidance System for Surface Marine Vehicles
ález Agustín Consegliere This paper is centered on the guidance systems used to increase the autonomy of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). The new Robust Reactive Static Obstacle Avoidance System (RRSOAS) has been specifically designed for USVs. This algorithm is easily applicable, since previous knowledge of the USV mathematical model and its controllers is not needed. Instead, a new estimated closed-loop model (ECLM) is proposed and used to estimate possible future trajectories. Furthermore, the prediction errors (due to the uncertainty present in the ECLM) are taken into account by modeling the USV&a...
Source: Sensors - November 3, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rafael Guarde ño Manuel J. L ópez Jes ús Sánchez Alberto Gonz ález Agust ín Consegliere Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6264: Reconstruction of High-Precision Semantic Map
We present a real-time Truncated Signed Distance Field (TSDF)-based three-dimensional (3D) semantic reconstruction for LiDAR point cloud, which achieves incremental surface reconstruction and highly accurate semantic segmentation. The high-precise 3D semantic reconstruction in real time on LiDAR data is important but challenging. Lighting Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with high accuracy is massive for 3D reconstruction. We so propose a line-of-sight algorithm to update implicit surface incrementally. Meanwhile, in order to use more semantic information effectively, an online attention-based spatial and temporal featur...
Source: Sensors - November 3, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xinyuan Tu Jian Zhang Runhao Luo Kai Wang Qingji Zeng Yu Zhou Yao Yu Sidan Du Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6263: Classification of Variable Foundation Properties Based on Vehicle –Pavement–Foundation Interaction Dynamics
Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6263: Classification of Variable Foundation Properties Based on Vehicle–Pavement–Foundation Interaction Dynamics Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20216263 Authors: Robin Eunju Kim The dynamic interaction between vehicle, roughness, and foundation is a fundamental problem in road management and also a complex problem, with their coupled and nonlinear behavior. Thus, in this study, the vehicle–pavement–foundation interaction model was formulated to incorporate the mass inertia of the vehicle, stochastic roughness, and non-uniform and deformable foundation. Herein, ...
Source: Sensors - November 3, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Robin Eunju Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6265: Blade Rub-Impact Fault Identification Using Autoencoder-Based Nonlinear Function Approximation and a Deep Neural Network
n Kim A blade rub-impact fault is one of the complex and frequently appearing faults in turbines. Due to their nonlinear and nonstationary nature, complex signal analysis techniques, which are expensive in terms of computation time, are required to extract valuable fault information from the vibration signals collected from rotor systems. In this work, a novel method for diagnosing the blade rub-impact faults of different severity levels is proposed. Specifically, the deep undercomplete denoising autoencoder is first used for estimating the nonlinear function of the system under normal operating conditions. Next, the r...
Source: Sensors - November 3, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alexander E. Prosvirin Farzin Piltan Jong-Myon Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6266: Flexibility Services Based on OpenADR Protocol for DSO Level
Ricardo Pérez Carlos León Nowadays, Distribution System Operators are increasing the digitalization of their smart grids, making it possible to measure and manage their state at any time. However, with the massive eruption of change-distributed generation (e.g., renewable resources, electric vehicles), the grid operation have become more complex, requiring specific technologies to balance it. In this sense, the demand-side management is one of its techniques; the demand response is a promising approach for providing Flexibility Services (FSs) and complying with the regulatory directives of the energy ...
Source: Sensors - November 3, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Juan Ignacio Guerrero Alonso Enrique Personal Sebasti án García Antonio Parejo Mansueto Rossi Antonio Garc ía Federico Delfino Ricardo P érez Carlos Le ón Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6268: Volatile Gas Sensing through Terahertz Pipe Waveguide
ing-Ping Yu Gas sensing to recognize volatile liquids is successfully conducted through pipe-guided terahertz (THz) radiation in a reflective and label-free manner. The hollow core of a pipe waveguide can efficiently deliver the sensing probe of the THz confined waveguide fields to any place where dangerous vapors exist. Target vapors that naturally diffuse from a sample site into the pipe core can be detected based on strong interaction between the probe and analyte. The power variation of the THz reflectance spectrum in response to various types and densities of vapors are characterized experimentally using a glass p...
Source: Sensors - November 3, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ja-Yu Lu Borwen You Jiun-You Wang Sheng-Syong Jhuo Tun-Yao Hung Ching-Ping Yu Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6269: Digital Cultural Heritage Preservation in Art Painting: A Surface Roughness Approach to the Brush Strokes
This article presents the Digital Surface HyperHeritage approach, an academic project to identify the topography of art painting surfaces at the scale at which the elementary information of sensorial rendering is contained. High-resolution roughness and imaging measurement tools are then required. The high-resolution digital model of painted surfaces provides a solid foundation for artwork-related information and is a source of many potential opportunities in the fields of identification, conservation, and restoration. It can facilitate the determination of the operations used by the artist in the creative process and allo...
Source: Sensors - November 3, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Anna Mironova Frederic Robache Raphael Deltombe Robin Guibert Ludovic Nys Maxence Bigerelle Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6267: Energy Harvested and Cooperative Enabled Efficient Routing Protocol (EHCRP) for IoT-WBAN
Muhammad Ali The health industry is one of the most auspicious domains for the application of Internet of Things (IoT) based technologies. Lots of studies have been carried out in the health industry field to minimize the use of resources and increase the efficiency. The use of IoT combined with other technologies has brought quality advancement in the health sector at minimum expense. One such technology is the use of wireless body area networks (WBANs), which will help patients incredibly in the future and will make them more productive because there will be no need for staying at home or a hospital for a long tim...
Source: Sensors - November 3, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Muhammad Dawood Khan Zahid Ullah Arshad Ahmad Bashir Hayat Ahmad Almogren Kyong Hoon Kim Muhammad Ilyas Muhammad Ali Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6270: Graph Search-Based Exploration Method Using a Frontier-Graph Structure for Mobile Robots
u This paper describes a graph search-based exploration method. Segmented frontier nodes and their relative transformations constitute a frontier-graph structure. Frontier detection and segmentation are performed using local grid maps of adjacent nodes. The proposed frontier-graph structure can systematically manage local information according to the exploration state and overcome the problem caused by updating a single global grid map. The robot selects the next target using breadth-first search (BFS) exploration of the frontier-graph. The BFS exploration is improved to generate an efficient loop-closing sequence betw...
Source: Sensors - November 3, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hyejeong Ryu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6271: Simultaneous Prediction of Soil Properties Using Multi_CNN Model
ehua Du Soil nutrient prediction based on near-infrared spectroscopy has become the main research direction for rapid acquisition of soil information. The development of deep learning has greatly improved the prediction accuracy of traditional modeling methods. In view of the low efficiency and low accuracy of current soil prediction models, this paper proposes a soil multi-attribute intelligent prediction method based on convolutional neural networks, by constructing a dual-stream convolutional neural network model Multi_CNN that combines one-dimensional convolution and two-dimensional convolution, the intelligent pre...
Source: Sensors - November 3, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ruixue Li Bo Yin Yanping Cong Zehua Du Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6255: Statistical Beamforming for Massive MIMO Systems with Distinct Spatial Correlations
ark In this paper, we propose a novel statistical beamforming (SBF) method called the partial-nulling-based SBF (PN-SBF) to serve a number of users that are undergoing distinct degrees of spatial channel correlations in massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. We consider a massive MIMO system with two user groups. The first group experiences a low spatial channel correlation, whereas the second group has a high spatial channel correlation, which can happen in massive MIMO systems that are based on fifth-generation networks. By analyzing the statistical signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio, it can be o...
Source: Sensors - November 2, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Taehyoung Kim Sangjoon Park Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6260: Review of Laser Raman Spectroscopy for Surgical Breast Cancer Detection: Stochastic Backpropagation Neural Networks
bardi Laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) is a highly specific biomolecular technique which has been shown to have the ability to distinguish malignant and normal breast tissue. This paper discusses significant advancements in the use of LRS in surgical breast cancer diagnosis, with an emphasis on statistical and machine learning strategies employed for precise, transparent and real-time analysis of Raman spectra. When combined with a variety of “machine learning” techniques LRS has been increasingly employed in oncogenic diagnostics. This paper proposes that the majority of these algorithms fail...
Source: Sensors - November 2, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ragini Kothari Yuman Fong Michael C. Storrie-Lombardi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6258: Differences in Motion Accuracy of Baduanjin between Novice and Senior Students on Inertial Sensor Measurement Systems
This study aimed to evaluate the motion accuracy of novice and senior students in Baduanjin (a traditional Chinese sport) using an inertial sensor measurement system (IMU). Study participants were nine novice students, 11 senior students, and a teacher. The motion data of all participants were measured three times with the IMU. Using the motions of the teacher as the standard motions, we used dynamic time warping to calculate the distances between the motion data of the students and the teacher to evaluate the motion accuracy of the students. The distances between the motion data of the novice students and the teacher were...
Source: Sensors - November 2, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hai Li Selina Khoo Hwa Jen Yap Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6257: Integration of Microstrip Slot Array Antenna with Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
nming Liu This paper describes the integration of microstrip slot array antennas with dye-sensitized solar cells that can power array antennas at 5.8 GHz, ensuring normal communications. To appraise the antennas, a 2 × 2 circularly polarized microstrip slot array antenna integrated with dye-sensitized solar cells using a stacked design method was analyzed, fabricated and measured. The size of the entire array is 140 mm × 140 mm, where the size of each solar cell is 35 mm × 35 mm. The results show that the effect of the antenna has a slight influence on the output performance of...
Source: Sensors - November 2, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bowen Bai Zheng Zhang Xiaoping Li Chao Sun Yanming Liu Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6259: Propagation and Attenuation Characteristics of an Ultrasonic Beam in Dissimilar-Metal Welds
ng-Sik Kang Ultrasonic inspection of welds joining dissimilar metals in nuclear power plants has proven to be a challenge, because the ultrasonic waves are subject to diffraction, distortion, scattering, and noise. These perturbations are due to their interactions with coarse-grained microstructures having anisotropic and heterogeneous metallurgical properties that can promote ultrasonic attenuation. In this paper, to improve the reliability of ultrasonic testing for dissimilar-metal welds (DMWs), ultrasonic beam characteristics for DMWs with a buttering layer were investigated in order to analyze the beam distortion p...
Source: Sensors - November 2, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Young-In Hwang Deokyong Sung Hak-Joon Kim Sung-Jin Song Ki-Bok Kim Sung-Sik Kang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6256: Sensor Fusion of Motion-Based Sign Language Interpretation with Deep Learning
Chung Sign language was designed to allow hearing-impaired people to interact with others. Nonetheless, knowledge of sign language is uncommon in society, which leads to a communication barrier with the hearing-impaired community. Many studies of sign language recognition utilizing computer vision (CV) have been conducted worldwide to reduce such barriers. However, this approach is restricted by the visual angle and highly affected by environmental factors. In addition, CV usually involves the use of machine learning, which requires collaboration of a team of experts and utilization of high-cost hardware utilities; thi...
Source: Sensors - November 2, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Boon Giin Lee Teak-Wei Chong Wan-Young Chung Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6246: Reconstruction of Periodic Band Limited Signals from Non-Uniform Samples with Sub-Nyquist Sampling Rate
ai Wang Important state parameters, such as torque and angle obtained from the servo control and drive system, can reflect the operating condition of the equipment. However, there are two problems with the information obtained through the network from the control and drive system: the low sampling rate, which does not meet the sampling theorem and the nonuniformity of the sampling points. By combing equivalent sampling and nonuniform signal reconstruction theory, this paper proposes a reconstruction method for signal obtained from servo system in periodic reciprocating motion. Equivalent sampling combines the low rate ...
Source: Sensors - November 2, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dongxiao Wang Xiaoqin Liu Xing Wu Zhihai Wang Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 6243: Identification of Rice Sheath Blight through Spectral Responses Using Hyperspectral Images
This study evaluated the spectral responses of leaf blade fractions with different development stages of ShB symptoms to construct the spectral feature library of rice ShB based on “three-edge” parameters and narrow-band vegetation indices to identify the disease on the leaves. The spectral curves of leaf blade lesions have significant changes in the blue edge, green peak, yellow edge, red valley, red edge and near-infrared regions. The variables of the normalized index between green peak amplitude and red valley amplitude (Rg − Ro)/(Rg + Ro), the normalized index between the yello...
Source: Sensors - November 2, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fenfang Lin Sen Guo Changwei Tan Xingen Zhou Dongyan Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research