Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4042: A Deep Learning Framework for Signal Detection and Modulation Classification
ihan Yang Deep learning (DL) is a powerful technique which has achieved great success in many applications. However, its usage in communication systems has not been well explored. This paper investigates algorithms for multi-signals detection and modulation classification, which are significant in many communication systems. In this work, a DL framework for multi-signals detection and modulation recognition is proposed. Compared to some existing methods, the signal modulation format, center frequency, and start-stop time can be obtained from the proposed scheme. Furthermore, two types of networks are built: (1) Single ...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiong Zha Hua Peng Xin Qin Guang Li Sihan Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4043: Empirical Formulas for Estimating Backscattering and Absorption Coefficients in Complex Waters from Remote-Sensing Reflectance Spectra and Examples of Their Application
We present, among other things, an example of a simple semi-analytical algorithm using both new empirical formulas. This algorithm is a modified version of the well-known quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA), and it can improve the results obtained in optically complex waters. This algorithm allows one to estimate the full spectra of the backscattering and absorption coefficients, without the need for any additional a priori assumptions regarding the spectral shape of absorption by dissolved and suspended seawater constituents. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: S ławomir B. Woźniak Miros ław Darecki S ławomir Sagan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4045: Cyber Situation Comprehension for IoT Systems based on APT Alerts and Logs Correlation
Chen With the emergence of the Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) attacks, many Internet of Things (IoT) systems have faced large numbers of potential threats with the characteristics of concealment, permeability, and pertinence. However, existing methods and technologies cannot provide comprehensive and prompt recognition of latent APT attack activities in the IoT systems. To address this problem, we propose an APT Alerts and Logs Correlation Method, named APTALCM and a framework of deploying APTALCM on the IoT system, where an edge computing architecture was used to achieve cyber situation comprehension without too mu...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiang Cheng Jiale Zhang Bing Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4044: UWB/Binocular VO Fusion Algorithm Based on Adaptive Kalman Filter
de Lv Among the existing wireless indoor positioning systems, UWB (ultra-wideband) is one of the most promising solutions. However, the single UWB positioning system is affected by factors such as non-line of sight and multipath, and the navigation accuracy will decrease. In order to make up for the shortcomings of a single UWB positioning system, this paper proposes a scheme based on binocular VO (visual odometer) and UWB sensor fusion. In this paper, the original distance measurement data of UWB and the position information of binocular VO are merged by adaptive Kalman filter, and the structural design of the fusion ...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qingxi Zeng Dehui Liu Chade Lv Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4046: Geometric Aberration Theory of Offner Imaging Spectrometers
nhao Li A third-order aberration theory has been developed for the Offner imaging spectrometer comprising an extended source; two concave mirrors; a convex diffraction grating; and an image plane. Analytic formulas of the spot diagram are derived for tracing rays through the system based on Fermat’s principle. The proposed theory can be used to discuss in detail individual aberrations of the system such as coma, spherical aberration and astigmatism, and distortion together with the focal conditions. It has been critically evaluated as well in a comparison with exact ray tracing constructed using the comme...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Meihong Zhao Yanxiu Jiang Shuo Yang Wenhao Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4047: Fault Feature Extraction and Diagnosis of Rolling Bearings Based on Enhanced Complementary Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise and Statistical Time-Domain Features
ngjian Wang In this paper, a novel method is proposed to enhance the accuracy of fault diagnosis for rolling bearings. First, an enhanced complementary empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (ECEEMDAN) method is proposed by determining two critical parameters, namely the amplitude of added white noise (AAWN) and the ensemble trails (ET). By introducing the concept of decomposition level, the optimal AAWN can be determined by judging the mutation of mutual information (MI) between adjacent intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Furthermore, the ET is fixed at two to reduce the computational cost. This method can avo...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Liwei Zhan Fang Ma Jingjing Zhang Chengwei Li Zhenghui Li Tingjian Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4048: Nanosystems, Edge Computing, and the Next Generation Computing Systems
mam It is widely recognized that nanoscience and nanotechnology and their subfields, such as nanophotonics, nanoelectronics, and nanomechanics, have had a tremendous impact on recent advances in sensing, imaging, and communication, with notable developments, including novel transistors and processor architectures. For example, in addition to being supremely fast, optical and photonic components and devices are capable of operating across multiple orders of magnitude length, power, and spectral scales, encompassing the range from macroscopic device sizes and kW energies to atomic domains and single-photon energies. The ...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ali Passian Neena Imam Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4049: Privacy Aware Incentivization for Participatory Sensing
Bouroche Abstract: Participatory sensing is a process whereby mobile device users (or participants) collect environmental data on behalf of a service provider who can then build a service based upon these data. To attract submissions of such data, the service provider will often need to incentivize potential participants by offering a reward. However, for the privacy conscious, the attractiveness of such rewards may be offset by the fact that the receipt of a reward requires users to either divulge their real identity or provide a traceable pseudonym. An incentivization mechanism must therefore facilitate data submissi...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Connolly Dusparic Iosifidis Bouroche Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4050: Enhancement of Multimodal Microwave-Ultrasound Breast Imaging Using a Deep-Learning Technique
We present a deep learning method used in conjunction with dual-modal microwave-ultrasound imaging to produce tomographic reconstructions of the complex-valued permittivity of numerical breast phantoms. We also assess tumor segmentation performance using the reconstructed permittivity as a feature. The contrast source inversion (CSI) technique is used to create the complex-permittivity images of the breast with ultrasound-derived tissue regions utilized as prior information. However, imaging artifacts make the detection of tumors difficult. To overcome this issue we train a convolutional neural network (CNN) that takes in,...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vahab Khoshdel Ahmed Ashraf Joe LoVetri Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4051: Freeze-Damage Detection in Lemons Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Laguarda-Miró Lemon is the most sensitive citrus fruit to cold. Therefore, it is of capital importance to detect and avoid temperatures that could damage the fruit both when it is still in the tree and in its subsequent commercialization. In order to rapidly identify frost damage in this fruit, a system based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique (EIS) was used. This system consists of a signal generator device associated with a personal computer (PC) to control the system and a double-needle stainless steel electrode. Tests with a set of fruits both natural and subsequently frozen-thawed al...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ochandio Fern ández Olgu ín Pinatti Masot Peris Laguarda-Mir ó Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4052: Polymer Fibers Covered by Soft Multilayered Films for Sensing Applications in Composite Materials
i Piotr Lesiak This paper presents the possibility of applying a soft polymer coating by means of a layer-by-layer (LbL) technique to highly birefringent polymer optical fibers designed for laminating in composite materials. In contrast to optical fibers made of pure silica glass, polymer optical fibers are manufactured without a soft polymer coating. In typical sensor applications, the absence of a buffer coating is an advantage. However, highly birefringent polymer optical fibers laminated in a composite material are much more sensitive to temperature changes than polymer optical fibers in a free space as a result ...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dorian Nikoniuk Karolina Bednarska Maksymilian Sienkiewicz Grzegorz Krzesi ński Mateusz Olszyna Lars D ähne Tomasz R. Woli ński Piotr Lesiak Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4053: Detection of Hydraulic Phenomena in Francis Turbines with Different Sensors
za Egusquiza Nowadays, hydropower is demanded to provide flexibility and fast response into the electrical grid in order to compensate the non-constant electricity generation of other renewable sources. Hydraulic turbines are therefore demanded to work under off-design conditions more frequently, where different complex hydraulic phenomena appear, affecting the machine stability as well as reducing the useful life of its components. Hence, it is desirable to detect in real-time these hydraulic phenomena to assess the operation of the machine. In this paper, a large medium-head Francis turbine was selected for this p...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Valent ín Presas Valero Egusquiza Egusquiza Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4054: Recurrent Neural Network for Inertial Gait User Recognition in Smartphones
wa Wu In this article, a gait recognition algorithm is presented based on the information obtained from inertial sensors embedded in a smartphone, in particular, the accelerometers and gyroscopes typically embedded on them. The algorithm processes the signal by extracting gait cycles, which are then fed into a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) to generate feature vectors. To optimize the accuracy of this algorithm, we apply a random grid hyperparameter selection process followed by a hand-tuning method to reach the final hyperparameter configuration. The different configurations are tested on a public database with 744...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fernandez-Lopez Liu-Jimenez Kiyokawa Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4055: Decision-Making for the Autonomous Navigation of Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships Based on Scene Division and Deep Reinforcement Learning
Chen This research focuses on the adaptive navigation of maritime autonomous surface ships (MASSs) in an uncertain environment. To achieve intelligent obstacle avoidance of MASSs in a port, an autonomous navigation decision-making model based on hierarchical deep reinforcement learning is proposed. The model is mainly composed of two layers: the scene division layer and an autonomous navigation decision-making layer. The scene division layer mainly quantifies the sub-scenarios according to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREG). This research divides the navigational situation of a ...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Wang Liu Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4056: Geometry Optimisation of a Hall-Effect-Based Soft Fingertip for Estimating Orientation of Thin Rectangular Objects
We present a method of investigating the optimal geometrical design of a cylindrical soft sensor to increase its sensitivity. The finite element model of a soft fingertip was constructed in Abaqus with two design variables, i.e., hollow radius and magnet position. Then, the model was imported into Isight, with the maximisation of magnet displacement as the objective function. We found that the optimal design was at the boundary of the parameter design space. Four fingertips were fabricated with one intuitive, one optimal, and two optional sets of parameters. Experiments were performed, and object orientation was estimated ...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rosle Wang Hirai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4034: Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence —UCAmI
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4034: Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence—UCAmI Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19184034 Authors: Macarena Espinilla Vladimir Villarreal Ian McChesney The Ubiquitous Computing (UC) idea envisioned by Weiser in 1991 [...] (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Macarena Espinilla Vladimir Villarreal Ian McChesney Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4035: A Machine Learning Approach to Bridge-Damage Detection Using Responses Measured on a Passing Vehicle
ute;n Clarke This paper proposes a new two-stage machine learning approach for bridge damage detection using the responses measured on a passing vehicle. In the first stage, an artificial neural network (ANN) is trained using the vehicle responses measured from multiple passes (training data set) over a healthy bridge. The vehicle acceleration or Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) spectrum of the acceleration is used. The vehicle response is predicted from its speed for multiple passes (monitoring data set) over the bridge. Root-mean-square error is used to calculate the prediction error, which indicates the differences ...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abdollah Malekjafarian Fatemeh Golpayegani Callum Moloney Siobh án Clarke Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4036: AEF: Adaptive En-Route Filtering to Extend Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks
nyereye Static sink-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) suffer from an energy-hole problem. This incurs as the rate of energy consumption on sensor nodes around sinks and on critical paths is considerably faster. State-of-the-art en-routing filtering schemes save energy by countering false report injection attacks. In addition to their unique limitations, these schemes generally do not examine energy awareness in underlying routing. Mostly, these security methods are based on a fixed filtering capacity, unable to respond to changes in attack intensity. Therefore, these limitations cause network partition(s), exhibiti...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Muhammad K. Shahzad S. M. Riazul Islam Kyung-Sup Kwak Lewis Nkenyereye Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4037: Reducing the Cost of Implementing Filters in LoRa Devices
e Henry This paper presents two methods to optimize LoRa (Low-Power Long-Range) devices so that implementing multiplier-less pulse shaping filters is more economical. Basic chirp waveforms can be generated more efficiently using the method of chirp segmentation so that only a quarter of the samples needs to be stored in the ROM. Quantization can also be applied to the basic chirp samples in order to reduce the number of unique input values to the filter, which in turn reduces the size of the lookup table for multiplier-less filter implementation. Various tests were performed on a simulated LoRa system in order to evalu...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shania Stewart Ha H. Nguyen Robert Barton Jerome Henry Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4038: Multi-Layer IoT Security Framework for Ambient Intelligence Environments
a Matei Ambient intelligence is a new paradigm in the Internet of Things (IoT) world that brings smartness to living environments to make them more sensitive; adaptive; and personalized to human needs. A critical area where ambient intelligence can be used is health and social care; where it can improve and sustain the quality of life without increasing financial costs. The adoption of this new paradigm for health and social care largely depends on the technology deployed (sensors and wireless networks), the software used for decision-making and the security, privacy and reliability of the information. IoT sensors and ...
Source: Sensors - September 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ion Bica Bogdan-Cosmin Chifor Ștefan-Ciprian Arseni Ioana Matei Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4017: Elemental: An Open-Source Wireless Hardware and Software Platform for Building Energy and Indoor Environmental Monitoring and Control
ent Stephens This work demonstrates an open-source hardware and software platform for monitoring the performance of buildings, called Elemental, that is designed to provide data on indoor environmental quality, energy usage, HVAC operation, and other factors to its users. It combines: (i) custom printed circuit boards (PCBs) with RFM69 frequency shift keying (FSK) radio frequency (RF) transceivers for wireless sensors, control nodes, and USB gateway, (ii) a Raspberry Pi 3B with custom firmware acting as either a centralized or distributed backhaul, and (iii) a custom dockerized application for the backend called Brood ...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Akram Syed Ali Christopher Cot é Mohammad Heidarinejad Brent Stephens Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4018: Ultrathin Tunable Lens Based on Boundary Tension Effect
Qun Hao Solid and liquid lenses are commonly used in optical design. Such lenses have suitable thicknesses due to their working principle and processing mode. Thus, zoom optical systems comprising solid and liquid lenses are extremely large. This work presents a new ultrathin tunable lens (UTL) comprising two liquid film lenses (LFLs) obtained through aspheric deformation and produced from the surface of a micro-liquid under gravity and boundary tension. The UTL can flexibly change focal lengths between positive and negative lenses when the device thickness is merely 2.15 mm. The proposed lens has the advantages of s...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ao Yang Jie Cao Fanghua Zhang Yang Cheng Qun Hao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4019: Fault Detection and Diagnosis in Multi-Robot Systems: A Survey
ech The use of robots has increased significantly in the recent years; rapidly expending to numerous applications. These sophisticated machines are susceptible to different types of faults that might endanger the robot or its surroundings. These faults must be detected and diagnosed in time to allow continual operation. The field of Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) has been studied for many years. This research has given birth to many approaches that are applicable to different types of physical machines. However, the domain of robotics poses unique requirements that challenge traditional FDD approaches. The study o...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Eliahu Khalastchi Meir Kalech Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4021: Improved Traffic Sign Detection and Recognition Algorithm for Intelligent Vehicles
ixin Song Traffic sign detection and recognition are crucial in the development of intelligent vehicles. An improved traffic sign detection and recognition algorithm for intelligent vehicles is proposed to address problems such as how easily affected traditional traffic sign detection is by the environment, and poor real-time performance of deep learning-based methodologies for traffic sign recognition. Firstly, the HSV color space is used for spatial threshold segmentation, and traffic signs are effectively detected based on the shape features. Secondly, the model is considerably improved on the basis of the classical...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jingwei Cao Chuanxue Song Silun Peng Feng Xiao Shixin Song Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4020: Deceleration Planning Algorithm Based on Classified Multi-Layer Perceptron Models for Smart Regenerative Braking of EV in Diverse Deceleration Conditions
Kichun Jo The smart regenerative braking system (SRS) is an autonomous version of one-pedal driving in electric vehicles. To implement SRS, a deceleration planning algorithm is necessary to generate the deceleration used in automatic regenerative control. To reduce the discomfort from the automatic regeneration, the deceleration should be similar to human driving. In this paper, a deceleration planning algorithm based on multi-layer perceptron (MLP) is proposed. The MLP models can mimic the human driving behavior by learning the driving data. In addition, the proposed deceleration planning algorithm has a classified st...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gyubin Sim Kyunghan Min Seongju Ahn Myoungho Sunwoo Kichun Jo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4022: Detection of Cu2+ Ions with GGH Peptide Realized with Si-Nanoribbon ISFET
Michel Calame The presence of heavy metal ions such as copper in the human body at certain concentrations and specific conditions can lead to the development of different diseases. The currently available analytical detection methods remain expensive, time-consuming, and often require sample pre-treatment. The development of specific and quantitative, easy-in-operation, and cost-effective devices, capable of monitoring the level of Cu2+ ions in environmental and physiological media, is necessary. We use silicon nanoribbon (SiNR) ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) devices modified with a Gly–G...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Olena Synhaivska Yves Mermoud Masoud Baghernejad Israel Alshanski Mattan Hurevich Shlomo Yitzchaik Mathias Wipf Michel Calame Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4023: Adaptive Binocular Fringe Dynamic Projection Method for High Dynamic Range Measurement
un Wang Three-dimensional measurement with fringe projection sensor has been commonly researched. However, the measurement accuracy and efficiency of most fringe projection sensors are still seriously affected by image saturation and the non-linear effects of the projector. In order to solve the challenge, in conjunction with the advantages of stereo vision technology and fringe projection technology, an adaptive binocular fringe dynamic projection method is proposed. The proposed method can avoid image saturation by adaptively adjusting the projection intensity. Firstly, the flowchart of the proposed method is explain...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Changzhi Yu Fang Ji Junpeng Xue Yajun Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4024: Robust and Fast Scene Recognition in Robotics Through the Automatic Identification of Meaningful Images
Xosé R. Fdez-Vidal Scene recognition is still a very important topic in many fields, and that is definitely the case in robotics. Nevertheless, this task is view-dependent, which implies the existence of preferable directions when recognizing a particular scene. Both in human and computer vision-based classification, this actually often turns out to be biased. In our case, instead of trying to improve the generalization capability for different view directions, we have opted for the development of a system capable of filtering out noisy or meaningless images while, on the contrary, retaining those views from wh...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: David Santos Eric Lopez-Lopez Xos é M. Pardo Roberto Iglesias Sen én Barro Xos é R. Fdez-Vidal Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4025: An Extensible Positioning System for Locating Mobile Robots in Unfamiliar Environments
Bo Yang In this paper, an extensible positioning system for mobile robots is proposed. The system includes a stereo camera module, inertial measurement unit (IMU) and an ultra-wideband (UWB) network which includes five anchors, one of which is with the unknown position. The anchors in the positioning system are without requirements of communication between UWB anchors and without requirements of clock synchronization of the anchors. By locating the mobile robot using the original system, and then estimating the position of a new anchor using the ranging between the mobile robot and the new anchor, the system can be ext...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xiaosu Xu Xinghua Liu Beichen Zhao Bo Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4026: An Adaptive Real-Time Detection Algorithm for Dim and Small Photoelectric GSO Debris
iaotian Lin Geosynchronous orbit (GSO) is the ideal orbit for communication, navigation, meteorology and other satellites, but the space of GSO is limited, and there are still a large number of space debris threatening the safety of spacecraft. Therefore, real-time detection of GSO debris is necessary to avoid collision accidents. Because radar is limited by transmitting power and operating distance, it is difficult to detect GSO debris, so photoelectric detection becomes the mainstream way to detect GSO debris. This paper presents an adaptive real-time detection algorithm for GSO debris in the charge coupled device (C...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Quan Sun Zhaodong Niu Weihua Wang Haijing Li Lang Luo Xiaotian Lin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4027: Optimal Message Bundling with Delay and Synchronization Constraints in Wireless Sensor Networks
eun Kim Energy efficiency and end-to-end delay are two of the major requirements for the monitoring and detection applications based on resource-constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs). As new advanced technologies for accurate monitoring and detection—such as device-free wireless sensing schemes for human activity and gesture recognition—have been developed, time synchronization accuracy becomes an important requirement for those WSN applications too. Message bundling is considered one of the effective methods to reduce the energy consumption for message transmissions in WSNs, but bundl...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xintao Huan Kyeong Soo Kim Sanghyuk Lee Moon Keun Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4028: A Lane Detection Method Based on a Ridge Detector and Regional G-RANSAC
Wang Shen Lane detection plays an important role in improving autopilot’s safety. In this paper, a novel lane-division-lines detection method is proposed, which exhibits good performances in abnormal illumination and lane occlusion. It includes three major components: First, the captured image is converted to aerial view to make full use of parallel lanes’ characteristics. Second, a ridge detector is proposed to extract each lane’s feature points and remove noise points with an adaptable neural network (ANN). Last, the lane-division-lines are accurately fitted by an improved...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lu Xu Shan Liu Wang Shen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4029: Fast Measurements with MOX Sensors: A Least-Squares Approach to Blind Deconvolution
;s Marco Metal oxide (MOX) sensors are widely used for chemical sensing due to their low cost, miniaturization, low power consumption and durability. Yet, getting instantaneous measurements of fluctuating gas concentration in turbulent plumes is not possible due to their slow response time. In this paper, we show that the slow response of MOX sensors can be compensated by deconvolution, provided that an invertible, parametrized, sensor model is available. We consider a nonlinear, first-order dynamic model that is mathematically tractable for MOX identification and deconvolution. By transforming the sensor signal in ...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Martinez Burgu és Marco Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4030: Addressing Challenges in Fabricating Reflection-Based Fiber Optic Interferometers
Hjelme Fabrication of multimode fiber optic interferometers requires accurate control of certain parameters to obtain reproducible results. This paper evaluates the consequences of practical challenges in fabricating reflection-based, fiber optic interferometers by the use of theory and experiments. A guided-mode propagation approach is used to investigate the effect of the end-face cleave angle and the accuracy of the splice in core-mismatched fiber optic sensors. Cleave angles from high-end fiber cleavers give differences in optical path lengths approaching the wavelength close to the circumference of the fiber, and ...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wahl Wilhelmsen Hjelme Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4032: Completion Time Minimization for Multi-UAV Information Collection via Trajectory Planning
engqin Xu Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are widely used as mobile information collectors for sensors to prolong the network time in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) due to their flexible deployment, high mobility, and low cost. This paper focuses on the scenario where rotary-wing UAVs complete information collection mission cooperatively. For the first time, we study the problem of minimizing the mission completion time for a multi-UAV system in a monitoring scenario when considering the information collection quality. The mission completion time includes flying time and hovering time. By optimizing the trajectories o...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhen Qin Aijing Li Chao Dong Haipeng Dai Zhengqin Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4031: DOA Tracking Based on Unscented Transform Multi-Bernoulli Filter in Impulse Noise Environment
Xue Cai Aiming at the problem of multiple-source direction of arrival (DOA) tracking in impulse noise, this paper models the impulse noise by using the symmetric α stable (SαS) distribution, and proposes a DOA tracking algorithm based on the Unscented Transform Multi-target Multi-Bernoulli (UT-MeMBer) filter framework. In order to overcome the problem of particle decay in particle filtering, UT is adopted to select a group of sigma points with different weights to make them close to the posterior probability density of the state. Since the α stable distribution does not have...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wu Zhao Dong Xue Cai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4033: A Multiple Target Positioning and Tracking System Behind Brick-Concrete Walls Using Multiple Monostatic IR-UWB Radars
In this study, we design a through-wall radar system to estimate and track multiple targets behind a wall. The radar signal received through the wall experiences distortion, such as attenuation and delay, and the characteristics of the wall are estimated to compensate the distance error. In addition, unlike general cases, it is difficult to maintain a high detection rate and low false alarm rate in this through-wall radar application due to the attenuation and distortion caused by the wall. In particular, the generally used delay-and-sum algorithm is significantly affected by the motion of targets and distortion caused by ...
Source: Sensors - September 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yoo Wang Seol Lee Chung Cho Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4010: Height Variation Depending on the Source of Antenna Phase Centre Corrections: LEIAR25.R3 Case Study
In this study, we compared two sets of antenna phase center corrections for groups of the same type of antenna mounted at the continuously operating global navigation satellite system (GNSS) reference stations. The first set involved type mean models provided by the International GNSS Service (release igs08), while the second set involved individual models developed by Geo++. Our goal was to check which set gave better results in the case of height estimation. The paper presents the differences between models and their impact on resulting height. Analyses showed that, in terms of the stability of the determined height, as ...
Source: Sensors - September 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Andrzej Araszkiewicz Damian Kiliszek Anna Podkowa Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4011: An FPGA-Based Neuro-Fuzzy Sensor for Personalized Driving Assistance
o Victoria Martínez Advanced driving-assistance systems (ADAS) are intended to automatize driver tasks, as well as improve driving and vehicle safety. This work proposes an intelligent neuro-fuzzy sensor for driving style (DS) recognition, suitable for ADAS enhancement. The development of the driving style intelligent sensor uses naturalistic driving data from the SHRP2 study, which includes data from a CAN bus, inertial measurement unit, and front radar. The system has been successfully implemented using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device of the Xilinx Zynq programmable system-on-chip (PSoC). It ca...
Source: Sensors - September 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Óscar Mata-Carballeira Jon Guti érrez-Zaballa In és del Campo Victoria Mart ínez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4012: Radio Frequency Identification and Sensing Techniques and Their Applications —A Review of the State-of-the-Art
This study aims to provide an exhaustive review on the state-of-art RFID sensor technologies from the system implementation perspective by focusing on the fundamental RF energy harvesting theories, the recent technical progresses and commercial solutions, innovative applications and some RFID sensor based IoT solutions, identify the underlying technological challenges at the time being, and give the future research trends and promising application fields in the rich sensing applications of the forthcoming IoT era. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - September 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lei Cui Zonghua Zhang Nan Gao Zhaozong Meng Zhen Li Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4013: Crop Water Content of Winter Wheat Revealed with Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Imagery
This study aims to efficiently estimate the crop water content of winter wheat using high spatial and temporal resolution satellite-based imagery. Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) data collected by the Sentinel-1 satellite and optical imagery from the Sentinel-2 satellite was used to create inversion models for winter wheat crop water content, respectively. In the Sentinel-1 approach, several enhanced radar indices were constructed by Sentinel-1 backscatter coefficient of imagery, and selected the one that was most sensitive to soil water content as the input parameter of a water cloud model. Finally, a water content inversi...
Source: Sensors - September 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dong Han Shuaibing Liu Ying Du Xinrui Xie Lingling Fan Lei Lei Zhenhong Li Hao Yang Guijun Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4014: A Wearable In-Ear EEG Device for Emotion Monitoring
rasena For future healthcare applications, which are increasingly moving towards out-of-hospital or home-based caring models, the ability to remotely and continuously monitor patients’ conditions effectively are imperative. Among others, emotional state is one of the conditions that could be of interest to doctors or caregivers. This paper discusses a preliminary study to develop a wearable device that is a low cost, single channel, dry contact, in-ear EEG suitable for non-intrusive monitoring. All aspects of the designs, engineering, and experimenting by applying machine learning for emotion classificati...
Source: Sensors - September 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Athavipach Pan-ngum Israsena Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4015: Design of Cavity-Backed Bow-Tie Antenna with Matching Layer for Human Body Application
Lee This paper presents the broadband antenna for the microwave radiometric sensing of internal body temperature. For broadband operation, the bow-tie antenna was designed and backed with a cylindrical cavity, which decreased environmental electromagnetic interference and also improved the directivity of the antenna. The broadband impedance-transforming balun in microstrip form was also designed to feed the bow-tie antenna, and was located inside the cavity. An impedance-matching dielectric layer (IMDL) was introduced on top of the bow-tie antenna, for impedance match with the human body with high permittivity. The ...
Source: Sensors - September 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jeong Park Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4016: Fluorescence Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) in Percolation Water and Lateral Seepage Affected by Soil Solution (S-S) in a Lysimeter Test
n Yeh : The composition and structure of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are sensitive indicators that guide the water infiltration process in soil. The DOM chemical composition in seepage affects river water quality and changes soil organic matter (SOM). In this lysimeter test study, fluorescence spectra and optical indices were used to examine the interaction between the percolation water (P-W) and leachate water (L-W) DOMs affected by the soil solution (S-S). The L-W DOM had a higher aromaticity (SUVA254), average molecular weight (S275-295) and terrestrial source (fluorescence index (FI)), but fewer autochthonous...
Source: Sensors - September 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chiu Huang Chen Yeh Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4007: Method for Detecting Abnormal Activity in a Group of Mobile Robots
In this study, we propose an analysis of the following cyber parameters: the power consumption and the residual energy, as well as an in-depth traffic analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of the attack and identify abnormal network. We realized an analysis of the behavior of robotic systems under normal conditions and determined that, by their nature, robotic systems have a static and uniform behavior. We developed an experimental stand, and also conducted a theoretical analysis to confirm our assumptions. We found that some indicators of the components of the robotic system change statically; that is, there was a little...
Source: Sensors - September 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Elena Basan Alexandr Basan Alexey Nekrasov Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4008: A Container-Attachable Inertial Sensor for Real-Time Hydration Tracking
iswas Various sensors have been proposed to address the negative health ramifications of inadequate fluid consumption. Amongst these solutions, motion-based sensors estimate fluid intake using the characteristics of drinking kinematics. This sensing approach is complicated due to the mutual influence of both the drink volume and the current fill level on the resulting motion pattern, along with differences in biomechanics across individuals. While motion-based strategies are a promising approach due to the proliferation of inertial sensors, previous studies have been characterized by limited accuracy and substantial va...
Source: Sensors - September 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Henry Griffith Yan Shi Subir Biswas Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4009: Optimization of Modulation Methods for Solenoid Valves to Realize an Odor Generation System
amoto An artificial olfactory system coupled with an odor generation system is herein reported. The artificial olfactory system is composed of four chemical sensors consisting of quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) coated with room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The sensors are interrogated by four vector network analyzers, which are used to measure the series resonant frequency and motional resistance. The odor generation system can generate eight different odors and mix them in any composition. Solenoid valves are used to switch the path and control the concentration of the different odors before blending. Two al...
Source: Sensors - September 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Manuel Aleixandre Kaoru Nakazawa Takamichi Nakamoto Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3991: Wideband and Wide Beam Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF) Acoustic Transducer for Broadband Underwater Communications
io Silva Sérgio M. Jesus The advances in wireless communications are still very limited when intended to be used on Underwater Communication Systems mainly due to the adverse proprieties of the submarine channel to the acoustic and radio frequency (RF) waves propagation. This work describes the development and characterization of a polyvinylidene difluoride ultrasound transducer to be used as an emitter in underwater wireless communications. The transducer has a beam up to 10° × 70° degrees and a usable frequency band up to 1 MHz. The transducer was designed using Finite E...
Source: Sensors - September 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Marcos S. Martins Carlos L. Faria Tiago Matos Lu ís M. Goncalves Jos é Cabral Ant ónio Silva S érgio M. Jesus Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3993: A GPS Spoofing Generator Using an Open Sourced Vector Tracking-Based Receiver
El-Mowafy Spoofing can seriously threaten the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) in critical applications such as positioning and navigation of autonomous vehicles. Research into spoofing generation will contribute to assessment of the threat of possible spoofing attacks and help in the development of anti-spoofing methods. However, the recent commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) spoofing generators are expensive and the technology implementation is complicated. To address the above problem and promote the GPS safety-critical applications, a spoofing generator using a vector tracking-based software-defined receiver ...
Source: Sensors - September 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qian Meng Li-Ta Hsu Bing Xu Xiapu Luo Ahmed El-Mowafy Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 3992: Multi-Source Deep Transfer Neural Network Algorithm
eng Gao Transfer learning can enhance classification performance of a target domain with insufficient training data by utilizing knowledge relating to the target domain from source domain. Nowadays, it is common to see two or more source domains available for knowledge transfer, which can improve performance of learning tasks in the target domain. However, the classification performance of the target domain decreases due to mismatching of probability distribution. Recent studies have shown that deep learning can build deep structures by extracting more effective features to resist the mismatching. In this paper, we pro...
Source: Sensors - September 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jingmei Li Weifei Wu Di Xue Peng Gao Tags: Article Source Type: research