Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4512: Laser-Induced Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes in Fiber Optic Tips of MMI Devices
May-Arrioja The integration of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into optical fibers allows the application of their unique properties in robust and versatile devices. Here, we present a laser-induced technique to obtain the deposition of CNTs onto the fiber optics tips of multimode interference (MMI) devices. An MMI device is constructed by splicing a section of no-core fiber (NCF) to a single-mode fiber (SMF). The tip of the MMI device is immersed into a liquid solution of CNTs and laser light is launched into the MMI device. CNTs solutions using water and methanol as solvents were tested. In addition, the use of a polymer di...
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Natanael Cuando-Espitia Juan Bernal-Mart ínez Miguel Torres-Cisneros Daniel May-Arrioja Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4514: A New pH-Dependent Macrocyclic Rhodamine B-Based Fluorescent Probe for Copper Detection in White Wine
yot Nicolas Sok For efficiently measuring copper (II) ions in the acidic media of white wine, a new chemosensor based on rhodamine B coupled to a tetraazamacrocyclic ring (13aneN4CH2NH2) was designed and synthesized by a one-pot reaction using ethanol as a green solvent. The obtained chemosensor was characterized via NMR, UV and fluorescent spectra. It was marked with no color emission under neutral pH conditions, with a pink color emission under acidic conditions, and a magenta color emission under acidic conditions where copper (II) ions were present. The sensitivity towards copper (II) ions was tested and verified...
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nour Doumani Elias Bou-Maroun Jacqueline Maalouly Maya Tueni Adrien Dubois Claire Bernhard Franck Denat Philippe Cayot Nicolas Sok Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4515: Fixed-Time Observer Based Prescribed-Time Containment Control of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles with Faults and Uncertainties
Yu The problem of prescribed-time containment control of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) with faults and uncertainties is considered. Different from both regular finite-time control and fixed-time control, the proposed prescribed-time control strategy is built upon a novel coordinate transformation function and the block decomposition technique, resulting in the followers being able to move into the convex hull spanned by the leaders in prespecifiable convergence time. Moreover, intermediate variables and the control input terms are also shown to remain uniformly bounded at the prescribed-time. To reduce the magni...
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tingting Yang Shuanghe Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4513: A Framework for Automated Acquisition and Processing of As-Built Data with Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
ml;nig Planning and scheduling in construction heavily depend on current information about the state of construction processes. However, the acquisition process for visual data requires human personnel to take photographs of construction objects. We propose using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs) for automated creation of images and point cloud data of particular construction objects. The method extracts locations of objects that require inspection from Four Dimensional Building Information Modelling (4D-BIM). With this information at hand viable flight missions around the known structures of the construction site are com...
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Henk Freimuth Markus K önig Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4516: Extended Subaperture Imaging Method for Airborne Low Frequency Ultrawideband SAR Data
Chen The subaperture processing is one of the essential strategies for low frequency ultrawideband synthetic aperture radar (LF UWB SAR) imaging, especially for the real-time LF UWB SAR imaging because it can improve the parallelization of the imaging algorithm. However, due to the longer synthetic aperture of LF UWB SAR, the traditional subaperture imaging encounters an azimuth ambiguities problem, which severely degrades the focused quality of the imaging results. In this paper, the reason for the presence of azimuth ambiguities in the LF UWB SAR subaperture imaging and its influence on image quality is first analyz...
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Daoxiang An Wu Wang Leping Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4517: Classifying and Predicting Salinization Level in Arid Area Soil Using a Combination of Chua ’s Circuit and Fractional Order Sprott Chaotic System
In this study, typical saline soil spectrum data from different human interference areas in Fukang City (Xinjiang) and salt index test data from an indoor chemical analysis laboratory are used as the base information source. First, we explored the correlation between the spectrum reflectance features of soil with different levels of salinization and chaotic dynamic error and chaotic attractor. We discovered that the chaotic status error in the 0.6 order has the greatest change. The 0.6 order chaotic attractors are used to establish the extension matter-element model. The determination equation is built according to the cor...
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tian Fu Su Yau Xiong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4519: Robust and Cooperative Localization for Underwater Sensor Networks in the Existence of Malicious Anchors
unyi Yang Precise and robust localization in three-dimensional underwater sensor networks is still an important research problem. This problem is particularly challenging if there are some malicious anchors among ordinary anchor nodes that will broadcast their locations falsely and deliberately. In this paper, we study how to self-localize large teams of underwater sensor nodes under the condition that some malicious anchor nodes mixed with ordinary anchors. Due to malicious characteristic of some deliberate anchor nodes, an iterative and cooperative 3D-localization algorithm for underwater sensor networks in the exist...
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wenyu Cai Junlei Yang Meiyan Zhang Shiling Peng Junyi Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4518: Start from Scratch: A Crowdsourcing-Based Data Fusion Approach to Support Location-Aware Applications
quan Yi As one of the most important breakthroughs for modern transportation, the indoor location-based technology has been gradually penetrating into our daily lives and underlines the foundation of the Internet of Things (IoT). To improve the positioning accuracy and efficiency, crowdsourcing has been widely applied in indoor localization in recent years. However, the crowdsourced data can hardly be fused easily to enable usable applications for the reason that the data are collected by different users, in different locations, at different times, with different noises and distortions. Although different data fusing m...
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yonghang Jiang Bingyi Liu Ze Wang Xiaoquan Yi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4520: Impact of Physiological Signals Acquisition in the Emotional Support Provided in Learning Scenarios
Boticario Physiological sensors can be used to detect changes in the emotional state of users with affective computing. This has lately been applied in the educational domain, aimed to better support learners during the learning process. For this purpose, we have developed the AICARP (Ambient Intelligence Context-aware Affective Recommender Platform) infrastructure, which detects changes in the emotional state of the user and provides personalized multisensorial support to help manage the emotional state by taking advantage of ambient intelligence features. We have developed a third version of this infrastructure, AIC...
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Uria-Rivas Rodriguez-Sanchez Santos Vaquero Boticario Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4521: Energy-Efficient UAV-Enabled MEC System: Bits Allocation Optimization and Trajectory Design
sp;Zhiqun Hu The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) enabled mobile edge computing (MEC) system is attracting a lot of attentions for the potential of low latency and low transmission energy consumption, due to the advantages of high mobility and easy deployment. It has been widely applied to provide communication and computing services, especially in Internet of Things (IoT). However, there are still some challenges in the UAV-enabled MEC system. Firstly, the endurance of the UAV is limited and further impacts the performance of the system. Secondly, mobile devices are battery-powered and the batteries of some devices are h...
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Linpei Li Xiangming Wen Zhaoming Lu Qi Pan Wenpeng Jing and  Zhiqun Hu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4522: Passive Source Localization Using Compressive Sensing
Wen Xu This paper presents an underwater passive source localization method by forming an underdetermined linear inversion problem. The signal strength on a specified grid is evaluated using sparse reconstruction algorithms by exploiting the spatial sparsity of the source signals. Our strategy leads to a high ratio of measurements to sparsity (RMS), an increase in the peak sharpness with a low side lobe level, and minimization of the dimensionality of the problem due to the formulation of the system equation of the multiple snapshots based on the data correlation matrix. Furthermore, to reduce the computational burden...
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hangfang Zhao M Jehanzeb Irshad Huihong Shi Wen Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4523: Multiscale Supervised Classification of Point Clouds with Urban and Forest Applications
de;as and Javier de Cos-Juez We analyze the utility of multiscale supervised classification algorithms for object detection and extraction from laser scanning or photogrammetric point clouds. Only the geometric information (the point coordinates) was considered, thus making the method independent of the systems used to collect the data. A maximum of five features (input variables) was used, four of them related to the eigenvalues obtained from a principal component analysis (PCA). PCA was carried out at six scales, defined by the diameter of a sphere around each observation. Four multiclass supervised classification ...
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Carlos Cabo Celestino Ord óñez Fernando S áchez-Lasheras Javier Roca-Pardi ñas and Javier de Cos-Juez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4524: Study on the Quality Control for Periodogram in the Determination of Water Level Using the GNSS-IR Technique
ueyong Xu A GNSS station, located on the shore of sea and inland waters, and equipped with standard geodetic receivers and antennas, can be used to measure water levels using a technique called GNSS Interferometric Reflectometry (GNSS-IR). The classical GNSS-IR method is based on SNR data and LSP spectrum analysis method. In order to promote the application of GNSS-IR, the accuracy of the results needs to be further improved, and quality control needs to be achieved better. Classical quality control methods include denoising filtering based on data source SNR; post-processing filtering based on results; morphological a...
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Minfeng Song Xiufeng He Xiaolei Wang Ye Zhou Xueyong Xu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4525: Hydrazine-Selective Fluorescent Turn-On Probe Based on Ortho-Methoxy-Methyl-Ether (o-MOM) Assisted Retro-aza-Henry Type Reaction
g Kim Hydrazine (N2H4) is one of the most widely used industrial chemicals that can be utilized as a precursor of pesticides, pharmaceutics, and rocket propellant. Due to its biological and environmental toxicity with potential health risks, various sensing tools have been developed. Among them, fluorescence-based molecular sensing systems have been highlighted due to its simple-operation, high selectivity and sensitivity, and biocompatibility. In our recent report, we disclosed a ratiometric type fluorescent probe, called HyP-1, for the detection of hydrazine, which is based on ortho-methoxy-methyl-ether (o-MOM) mo...
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jung Park Kang Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4526: Mobile Phone Passive Positioning through the Detection of Uplink Signals for Search and Rescue
Sun Li To satisfy the service requirements of high accuracy and efficient life detection and location for search and rescue (SAR) missions after a disaster, we developed a passive positioning method to locate mobile phones by capturing the random access preamble, which can be applied to fourth-generation (4G) and even fifth-generation (5G) communication systems. We analyzed the characteristics of the random access procedure of a communication system and established a way to detect mobile phones by combining the time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) estimation to determine the location. Then, we performed an experiment ...
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gao Deng Zhang Sun Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4497: P3HT Processing Study for In-Liquid EGOFET Biosensors: Effects of the Solvent and the Surface
In this study, we investigate the effect of the solvent and of the substrate modification on thin films of organic semiconductor Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in order to improve the stability and electrical properties of an Electrolyte Gated Organic Field Effect Transistor (EGOFET) biosensor. The studied surface is the relevant interface between the P3HT and the electrolyte acting as gate dielectric for in-liquid detection of an analyte. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) characterizations were employed to study the effect of two solvents (toluene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene) and of a com...
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Matteo Parmeggiani Alessio Verna Alberto Ballesio Matteo Cocuzza Erik Piatti Vittorio Fra Candido Fabrizio Pirri Simone Luigi Marasso Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4498: Characteristics of a Magnetic Field Sensor with a Concentrating-Conducting Magnetic Flux Structure
This study makes it possible to not only realize the detection of magnetic field, but also to significantly improve the sensitivity of the sensor along a non-sensitive axis. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xuelei Li Xiaofeng Zhao Dianzhong Wen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4476: Point-of-Care Strategies for Detection of Waterborne Pathogens
eet Kaushik Waterborne diseases that originated due to pathogen microorganisms are emerging as a serious global health concern. Therefore, rapid, accurate, and specific detection of these microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasitic pathogens) in water resources has become a requirement of water quality assessment. Significant research has been conducted to develop rapid, efficient, scalable, and affordable sensing techniques to detect biological contaminants. State-of-the-art technology-assisted smart sensors have improved features (high sensitivity and very low detection limit) and can perform in ...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sandeep Kumar Monika Nehra Jyotsana Mehta Neeraj Dilbaghi Giovanna Marrazza Ajeet Kaushik Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4477: Comparison between Intramuscular Multichannel Electrodes and Supramysial Multichannel Electrodes via EMG Measurements for Potential Use as Larynx Stimulation Electrodes: In Vivo Animal Analysis
stoph Scholle One of the most common causes for larynx paralysis is the injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve which, among others, causes the paralysis of the posterior cricoarytenoideus muscle (PCA). Electrical stimulation of PCA offers an approach to retaining the function of the paralyzed larynx muscle. The study aim was to test the applicability of an intramuscular multichannel array electrode as a measuring electrode for myoelectrical potentials and as a possible electrode for stimulation, e.g., posterior cricoarytenoideus muscle stimulation. For this purpose, two different kinds of electrodes were compared. 42 ...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bernd Faenger Nikolaus P. Schumann Christoph Anders Dirk Arnold Roland Grassme Orlando Guntinas-Lichius Hans-Christoph Scholle Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4478: Recent Advances in Palladium Nanoparticles-Based Hydrogen Sensors for Leak Detection
ioude Along with the development of hydrogen as a sustainable energy carrier, it is imperative to develop very rapid and sensitive hydrogen leaks sensors due to the highly explosive and flammable character of this gas. For this purpose, palladium-based materials are being widely investigated by research teams because of the high affinity between this metal and hydrogen. Furthermore, nanostructured palladium may provide improved sensing performances compared to the use of bulk palladium. This arises from a higher effective surface available for interaction of palladium with the hydrogen gas molecules. Several works taki...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cynthia Cibaka Ndaya Nicolas Javahiraly Arnaud Brioude Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4479: Machine Learning Based Prediction of Insufficient Herbage Allowance with Automated Feeding Behaviour and Activity Data
This study further identified that number of rumination chews per day and grazing bites per minute were the most important predictors and examined the marginal effects of the variables on model prediction towards a decision support system. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Abu Zar Shafiullah Jessica Werner Emer Kennedy Lorenzo Leso Bernadette O ’Brien Christina Umst ätter Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4480: Marine NMEA 2000 Smart Sensors for Ship Batteries Supervision and Predictive Fault Diagnosis
The objective is to apply predictive fault diagnosis to detect any undesirable increase in battery temperature using prior indicators of heat dissipation process failure—to avoid the development of the most frequent and dangerous failure modes of VRLA batteries such as dry out and thermal runaway. It is concluded that these failure modes can be conveniently diagnosed by easily recognized patterns, obtained by performing comparative trend analyses to the variables measured onboard by NMEA sensors. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Emilio Garc ía Eduardo Quiles Antonio Correcher Francisco Morant Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4481: Hydrogen Detection with SAW Polymer/Quantum Dots Sensitive Films
spe Regarding the use of hydrogen as a fuel, it is necessary to measure its concentration in air at room temperature. In this paper, sensitive composite films have been developed for surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors, using quantum dots (QDs) and polymers. Si/SiO2 QDs were used due to having a high specific surface area, which considerably improves the sensitivity of the sensors compared to those that only have a polymer. Si/SiO2 QDs were obtained by laser ablation and analyzed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two types of polymers were used: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polymethylm...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Izabela Constantinoiu Cristian Viespe Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4482: Utility of Big Data in Predicting Short-Term Blood Glucose Levels in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Through Machine Learning Techniques
The objective of this work was to investigate the minimum data variety, volume, and velocity required to create accurate person-centric short-term prediction models. We developed a series of these models using different machine learning time series forecasting techniques suitable for execution within a wearable processor. We conducted an extensive passive patient monitoring study in real-world conditions to build an appropriate data set. The study involved a subset of type 1 diabetic subjects wearing a flash glucose monitoring system. We comparatively and quantitatively evaluated the performance of the developed data-drive...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ignacio Rodr íguez-Rodríguez Ioannis Chatzigiannakis Jos é-Víctor Rodríguez Marianna Maranghi Michele Gentili Miguel- Ángel Zamora-Izquierdo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4483: PRICHAIN: A Partially Decentralized Implementation of UbiPri Middleware Using Blockchain
Reis Quietinho Leithardt With the popularization of the Internet-of-Things, various applications have emerged to make life easier. These applications generate a large amount of user data. Analyzing the data obtained from these applications, one can infer personal information about each user. Considering this, it is clear that ensuring privacy in this type of application is essential. To guarantee privacy various solutions exist, one of them is UbiPri middleware. This paper presents a decentralized implementation of UbiPri middleware using the Ethereum blockchain. Smart contracts were used in conjunction with a communic...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Iago Sestrem Och ôa Luis Augusto Silva Gabriel de Mello Bruno Alves da Silva Juan Francisco de Paz Gabriel Villarrubia Gonz ález Nuno M. Garcia Valderi Reis Quietinho Leithardt Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4484: Automatic Change Detection System over Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Video Sequences Based on Convolutional Neural Networks
sé María Lalueza Mayordomo Federico Álvarez In recent years, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveillance tasks has increased considerably. This technology provides a versatile and innovative approach to the field. However, the automation of tasks such as object recognition or change detection usually requires image processing techniques. In this paper we present a system for change detection in video sequences acquired by moving cameras. It is based on the combination of image alignment techniques with a deep learning model based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). This appro...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: V íctor García Rubio Juan Antonio Rodrigo Ferr án Jose Manuel Men éndez García Nuria S ánchez Almodóvar Jos é María Lalueza Mayordomo Federico Álvarez Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4486: Three-Dimensional Measurement Method of Four-View Stereo Vision Based on Gaussian Process Regression
In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) measurement method of four-view stereo vision based on Gaussian process (GP) regression is proposed. Two sets of point cloud data of the measured object are obtained by gray-code phase-shifting technique. On the basis of the characteristics of the measured object, specific composite kernel functions are designed to obtain the initial GP model. In view of the difference of noise in each group of point cloud data, the weight idea is introduced to optimize the GP model, which is the data fusion based on Bayesian inference method for point cloud data. The proposed method does not require...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Miao Gong Zhijiang Zhang Dan Zeng Tao Peng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4485: The Impact of Technology on People with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Literature Review
Erick Jamet People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to enjoy themselves and be engaged when interacting with computers, as these interactions occur in a safe and trustworthy environment. In this paper, we present a systematic literature review on the state of the research on the use of technology to teach people with ASD. We reviewed 94 studies that show how the use of technology in educational contexts helps people with ASD develop several skills, how these approaches consider aspects of user experience, usability and accessibility, and how game elements are used to enrich learning environments. This systemat...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Katherine Valencia Cristian Rusu Daniela Qui ñones Erick Jamet Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4487: Packaging Technology for an Implantable Inner Ear MEMS Microphone
i Obrist Pfiffner Current cochlear implant (CI) systems provide substantial benefits for patients with severe hearing loss. However, they do not allow for 24/7 hearing, mainly due to the external parts that cannot be worn in all everyday situations. One of the key missing parts for a totally implantable CI (TICI) is the microphone, which thus far has not been implantable. The goal of the current project was to develop a concept for a packaging technology for state-of-the-art microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microphones that record the liquid-borne sound inside the inner ear (cochlea) as a microphone signal i...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Prochazka Huber Dobrev Harris Dalbert R öösli Obrist Pfiffner Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4488: System of Sensors and Actuators for the Production of Water Used in the Manufacture of Medicines
cute;s Ortiz Salazar This paper presents the development and implementation of a centralized industrial network for an automatic purified water production system used in the pharmaceutical industry. This implementation is part of a project to adapt an industrial plant to cope with advances in industrial technology to achieve the level of Industry 4.0. The adequacy of the instruments and the interconnection of the controllers made it possible to monitor the process steps by transforming a manual plant, with discontinuous production into an automated plant, improving the efficiency and quality of the produced water. The ...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fabricio Roosevelt Melo da Silva Diego Antonio de Moura Fons êca Werbet Luiz Almeida da Silva Elmer Rolando Llanos Villarreal German Alberto Echaiz Espinoza Andr és Ortiz Salazar Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4489: Virtual User in the IoT: Definition, Technologies and Experiments
gi Atzori Virtualization technologies are characterizing major advancements in the Internet of Things (IoT) arena, as they allow for achieving a cyber-physical world where everything can be found, activated, probed, interconnected, and updated at both the virtual and the physical levels. We believe these technologies should apply to human users other than things, bringing us the concept of the Virtual User (VU). This should represent the virtual counterpart of the IoT users with the ultimate goal of: (i) avoiding the user from having the burden of following the tedious processes of setting, configuring and updating IoT...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Roberto Girau Raimondo Cossu Massimo Farina Virginia Pilloni Luigi Atzori Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4491: Robust Stride Detector from Ankle-Mounted Inertial Sensors for Pedestrian Navigation and Activity Recognition with Machine Learning Approaches
Bertrand Michel In this paper, a stride detector algorithm combined with a technique inspired by zero velocity update (ZUPT) is proposed to reconstruct the trajectory of a pedestrian from an ankle-mounted inertial device. This innovative approach is based on sensor alignment and machine learning. It is able to detect 100% of both normal walking strides and more than 97% of atypical strides such as small steps, side steps, and backward walking that existing methods can hardly detect. This approach is also more robust in critical situations, when for example the wearer is sitting and moving the ankle or when the weare...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bertrand Beaufils Fr édéric Chazal Marc Grelet Bertrand Michel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4490: Robust and Accurate Hand –Eye Calibration Method Based on Schur Matric Decomposition
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4490: Robust and Accurate Hand–Eye Calibration Method Based on Schur Matric Decomposition Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19204490 Authors: Liu Wu Li To improve the accuracy and robustness of hand–eye calibration, a hand–eye calibration method based on Schur matric decomposition is proposed in this paper. The accuracy of these methods strongly depends on the quality of observation data. Therefore, preprocessing observation data is essential. As with traditional two-step hand–eye calibration methods, we first solve the rotation parameters and then ...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Liu Wu Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4492: Love Wave Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor with Laser-Deposited Nanoporous Gold Sensitive Layer
n Miu Laser-deposited gold immobilization layers with different porosities were incorporated into Love Wave Surface Acoustic Wave sensors (LW-SAWs). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme was immobilized onto three gold interfaces with different morphologies, and the sensor response to chloroform was measured. The response of the sensors to various chloroform concentrations indicates that their sensing properties (sensitivity, limit of detection) are considerably improved when the gold layers are porous, in comparison to a conventional dense gold layer. The results obtained can be used to improve properties of SAW-based...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Viespe Dinca Popescu-Pelin Miu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4493: Spectrum-Efficient Resource Allocation in Multi-Radio Multi-Hop Cognitive Radio Networks
g Jiang The multi-hop cognitive radio network (CRN) has attracted much attention in industry and academia because of its seamless wireless coverage by forming multi-hop links and high spectrum utilization of cognitive radio (CR) technology. Using multi-slot statistical spectrum status information (SSI), this work investigates the average spectrum efficiency (SE) of a multi-radio multi-hop (MRMH) CRN where each hop is permitted to use different spectra and long-distance hops can reuse the same idle primary user (PU) spectrum. Faced with the modeled SE problem, which is a complex non-convex fractional mixed integer nonli...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bin Han Ying Luo Min Zeng Hong Jiang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4494: Accurate and Robust Monocular SLAM with Omnidirectional Cameras
Yang Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) are fundamental elements for many emerging technologies, such as autonomous driving and augmented reality. For this paper, to get more information, we developed an improved monocular visual SLAM system by using omnidirectional cameras. Our method extends the ORB-SLAM framework with the enhanced unified camera model as a projection function, which can be applied to catadioptric systems and wide-angle fisheye cameras with 195 degrees field-of-view. The proposed system can use the full area of the images even with strong distortion. For omnidirectional cameras, a map i...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Liu Guo Feng Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4495: An Ensemble Learning Approach for Electrocardiogram Sensor Based Human Emotion Recognition
Nawinne Recently, researchers in the area of biosensor based human emotion recognition have used different types of machine learning models for recognizing human emotions. However, most of them still lack the ability to recognize human emotions with higher classification accuracy incorporating a limited number of bio-sensors. In the domain of machine learning, ensemble learning methods have been successfully applied to solve different types of real-world machine learning problems which require improved classification accuracies. Emphasising on that, this research suggests an ensemble learning approach for developing a ...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Theekshana Dissanayake Yasitha Rajapaksha Roshan Ragel Isuru Nawinne Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4496: Simultaneous Assessment of Urinary and Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in De Novo Pediatric IBD
Tim G.J. de Meij Endoscopic evaluation is mandatory in establishing the diagnosis of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but unfortunately carries a high burden on patients. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) have been proposed as alternative, noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers for IBD. The current study aimed to assess and compare the potential of fecal and urinary VOC as diagnostic biomarkers for pediatric IBD in an intention-to-diagnose cohort. In this cohort study, patients aged 4–17 years, referred to the outpatient clinic of a tertiary referral center under suspicion of IBD, were eligible to...
Source: Sensors - October 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sofia el Manouni el Hassani Sofie Bosch Jesse P.M. Lemmen Marina Brizzio Brentar Ibrahim Ayada Alfian N. Wicaksono James A. Covington Marc A. Benninga Nanne K.H. de Boer Tim G.J. de Meij Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4469: Coherent Noise Suppression Using Adaptive Homomorphic Filtering for Wideband Electromagnetic Imaging System
Xie The wideband electromagnetic imaging system using a parabolic reflector is a device for detecting and locating electromagnetic interference sources (EMIS). When multiple coherent interference sources are detected, the confusion will occur due to the coherent noise that is caused by interference phenomenons. Previous works have removed the coherent noise by using iterative techniques, but they face a limitation in removing noise in that the coherent noise pattern changes with frequency in a wideband. In this paper, an adaptive homomorphic filtering is proposed to overcome the limitations of conventional methods from...
Source: Sensors - October 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yanju Zhu Shuguo Xie Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4470: Evaluating Origin –Destination Matrices Obtained from CDR Data
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4470: Evaluating Origin–Destination Matrices Obtained from CDR Data Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19204470 Authors: Marco Mamei Nicola Bicocchi Marco Lippi Stefano Mariani Franco Zambonelli Understanding and correctly modeling urban mobility is a crucial issue for the development of smart cities. The estimation of individual trips from mobile phone positioning data (i.e., call detail records (CDR)) can naturally support urban and transport studies as well as marketing applications. Individual trips are often aggregated in an origin–destination (OD) matrix counting the num...
Source: Sensors - October 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Marco Mamei Nicola Bicocchi Marco Lippi Stefano Mariani Franco Zambonelli Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4471: Data Products, Quality and Validation of the DLR Earth Sensing Imaging Spectrometer (DESIS)
er Reinartz Rudolf Richter Robert Ryan Ilse Sebastian Mirco Tegler Imaging spectrometry from aerial or spaceborne platforms, also known as hyperspectral remote sensing, provides dense sampled and fine structured spectral information for each image pixel, allowing the user to identify and characterize Earth surface materials such as minerals in rocks and soils, vegetation types and stress indicators, and water constituents. The recently launched DLR Earth Sensing Imaging Spectrometer (DESIS) installed on the International Space Station (ISS) closes the long-term gap of sparsely available spaceborne imaging spect...
Source: Sensors - October 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kevin Alonso Martin Bachmann Kara Burch Emiliano Carmona Daniele Cerra Raquel de los Reyes Daniele Dietrich Uta Heiden Andreas H ölderlin Jack Ickes Uwe Knodt David Krutz Heath Lester Rupert M üller Mary Pagnutti Peter Reinartz Rudolf Richter Robert Rya Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4472: Uncertainty Analysis of a Test Bed for Calibrating Voltage Transformers vs. Temperature
Ghaderi The paper addresses the evaluation of the uncertainty sources of a test bed system for calibrating voltage transformers vs. temperature. In particular, the Monte Carlo method has been applied in order to evaluate the effects of the uncertainty sources in two different conditions: by using the nominal accuracy specifications of the elements which compose the setup, or by exploiting the results of their metrological characterization. In addition, the influence of random effects on the system accuracy has been quantified and evaluated. From the results, it emerges that the choice of the uncertainty evaluation met...
Source: Sensors - October 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mingotti Peretto Tinarelli Ghaderi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4473: Recent Progress in Fabrications and Applications of Heating-Induced Long Period Fiber Gratings
He Wang This paper presents a review of our work concerning the recent progress in fabrications and applications of heating-induced long period fiber gratings (LPFGs). Firstly, three kinds of heating fabrication techniques based on CO2 laser, hydrogen–oxygen flame and arc discharge are demonstrated to fabricate LPFGs, i.e., standard LPFGs (SLPFGs) and helical LPFGs (HLPFGs), in different types of optical fibers such as conventional fibers, photonic crystal fibers, and photonic bandgap fibers. Secondly, the all-fiber orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode converters based on heating-induced SLPFGs and ...
Source: Sensors - October 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fu Wang Liu Bai Liao He Wang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4474: A Novel Human Activity Recognition and Prediction in Smart Home Based on Interaction
In this study, we unwrap this issue and propose a novel framework to not only recognize human activity but also predict it. The framework contains three stages: recognition after the activity, recognition in progress, and activity prediction in advance. Furthermore, using passive RFID tags, the hardware cost of our framework is sufficiently low to popularize the framework. In addition, the experimental result demonstrates that our framework can realize good performance in both activity recognition and prediction with high scalability. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Du Lim Tan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4475: Double-Gap Magnetic Flux Concentrator Design for High-Sensitivity Magnetic Tunnel Junction Sensors
iu Mengchun Pan To improve the sensitivity of the magnetic tunnel junction(MTJ)sensor, a novel architecture for a double-gap magnetic flux concentrator (MFC) was studied theoretically and experimentally in this paper. The three-dimensional finite element model of magnetic flux was established to optimize the magnetic field amplification factor, with different gaps. The simulation results indicate that the sensitivity of an MTJ sensor with a double-gap MFC can be significantly better than that of a sensor with a traditional single-gap MFC, due to the fact that the magnetic magnification sharply increases with the decr...
Source: Sensors - October 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jiafei Hu Minhui Ji Weicheng Qiu Long Pan Peisen Li Junping Peng Yueguo Hu Huiyan Liu Mengchun Pan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4459: Interference Mitigation in Automotive Radars Using Pseudo-Random Cyclic Orthogonal Sequences
arampalli The number of small sophisticated wireless sensors which share the electromagnetic spectrum is expected to grow rapidly over the next decade and interference between these sensors is anticipated to become a major challenge. In this paper we study the interference mechanisms in one such sensor, automotive radars, where our results are directly applicable to a range of other sensor situations. In particular, we study the impact of radar waveform design and the associated receiver processing on the statistics of radar–radar interference and its effects on sensing performance. We propose a novel int...
Source: Sensors - October 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sruthy Skaria Akram Al-Hourani Robin J. Evans Kandeepan Sithamparanathan Udaya Parampalli Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4460: Design of a Phased Array EMAT for Inspection Applications in Liquid Sodium
This article describes the development of a French CEA in-house phased array Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) adapted to hot and opaque sodium environment for in-service inspection of Sodium Fast Reactors. The work presented herein aimed at improving in-service inspection techniques for the ASTRID reactor project. The design process of the phased array EMAT is explained and followed by a review of laboratory experimental test results. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Laura Pucci Rapha ële Raillon Laura Taupin Fran çois Baqué Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4461: Mechanical Design and Kinematic Modeling of a Cable-Driven Arm Exoskeleton Incorporating Inaccurate Human Limb Anthropomorphic Parameters
oping Bai Compared with conventional exoskeletons with rigid links, cable-driven upper-limb exoskeletons are light weight and have simple structures. However, cable-driven exoskeletons rely heavily on the human skeletal system for support. Kinematic modeling and control thus becomes very challenging due to inaccurate anthropomorphic parameters and flexible attachments. In this paper, the mechanical design of a cable-driven arm rehabilitation exoskeleton is proposed to accommodate human limbs of different sizes and shapes. A novel arm cuff able to adapt to the contours of human upper limbs is designed. This has given ri...
Source: Sensors - October 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Weihai Chen Zhongyi Li Xiang Cui Jianbin Zhang Shaoping Bai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4462: Constrained MLAMBDA Method for Multi-GNSS Structural Health Monitoring
This study proposes a composite strategy that incorporates modified least-squares ambiguity decorrelation adjustment (MLAMBDA) method with priori information of the structural deformation. Data from the observation sites of Baishazhou Bridge are used to test method performance. Compared to MLAMBDA methods that do not consider priori information, the ambiguity success rate (ASR) improves by 20% for global navigation satellite system (GLONASS) and 10% for Multi-GNSS, while running time is reduced by 60 s for a single system and 180 s for Multi-GNSS system. Experimental results of Teaching Experiment Building indicate that ou...
Source: Sensors - October 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haiyang Li Guigen Nie Dezhong Chen Shuguang Wu Kezhi Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4463: E-Textiles for Healthy Ageing
e Beeby The ageing population has grown quickly in the last half century with increased longevity and declining birth rate. This presents challenges to health services and the wider society. This review paper considers different aspects (e.g., physical, mental, and social well-being) of healthy ageing and how health devices can help people to monitor health conditions, treat diseases and promote social interactions. Existing technologies for addressing non-physical (e.g., Alzheimer’s, loneliness) and physical (e.g., stroke, bedsores, and fall) related challenges are presented together with the drivers and...
Source: Sensors - October 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kai Yang Beckie Isaia Laura J.E. Brown Steve Beeby Tags: Review Source Type: research