Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4360: An Automatic Stationary Water Color Parameters Observation System for Shallow Waters: Designment and Applications
Li Zhang Measurements of the above-water spectrum and concerned water color parameters (WCPs) are crucial for research and applications in water environment remote sensing. Due to the lack of system integration and automatization, conventional methods are labor-intensive, time-consuming, and prone to subjective influences. To obtain a highly accurate and long-term consistent spectrum and concurrent WCPs (Chl-a (chlorophyll-a), turbidity, and CDOM (Colored Dissolved Organic Matter)) data with a relatively low cost, an Automatic Stationary Water Color Parameters Observation System (AFWCPOS) was developed. Controlled b...
Source: Sensors - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wenkai Li Liqiao Tian Shanshan Guo Jian Li Zhaohua Sun Li Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4361: Uncertainty Quantification for Space Situational Awareness and Traffic Management
Neta Ezer This paper presents a sensor-orientated approach to on-orbit position uncertainty generation and quantification for both ground-based and space-based surveillance applications. A mathematical framework based on the least squares formulation is developed to exploit real-time navigation measurements and tracking observables to provide a sound methodology that supports separation assurance and collision avoidance among Resident Space Objects (RSO). In line with the envisioned Space Situational Awareness (SSA) evolutions, the method aims to represent the navigation and tracking errors in the form of an uncertai...
Source: Sensors - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Samuel Hilton Federico Cairola Alessandro Gardi Roberto Sabatini Nichakorn Pongsakornsathien Neta Ezer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4362: EAGLE —A Scalable Query Processing Engine for Linked Sensor Data
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4362: EAGLE—A Scalable Query Processing Engine for Linked Sensor Data Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19204362 Authors: Hoan Nguyen Mau Quoc Martin Serrano Han Mau Nguyen John G. Breslin Danh Le-Phuoc Recently, many approaches have been proposed to manage sensor data using semantic web technologies for effective heterogeneous data integration. However, our empirical observations revealed that these solutions primarily focused on semantic relationships and unfortunately paid less attention to spatio–temporal correlations. Most semantic approaches do not have spatio&n...
Source: Sensors - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hoan Nguyen Mau Quoc Martin Serrano Han Mau Nguyen John G. Breslin Danh Le-Phuoc Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4363: County-Level Soybean Yield Prediction Using Deep CNN-LSTM Model
ulong Lai Yield prediction is of great significance for yield mapping, crop market planning, crop insurance, and harvest management. Remote sensing is becoming increasingly important in crop yield prediction. Based on remote sensing data, great progress has been made in this field by using machine learning, especially the Deep Learning (DL) method, including Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) or Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM). Recent experiments in this area suggested that CNN can explore more spatial features and LSTM has the ability to reveal phenological characteristics, which both play an important role in crop yiel...
Source: Sensors - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jie Sun Liping Di Ziheng Sun Yonglin Shen Zulong Lai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4333: Fabrication of a Monolithic Lab-on-a-Chip Platform with Integrated Hydrogel Waveguides for Chemical Sensing
Alexander Heisterkamp Hydrogel waveguides have found increased use for variety of applications where biocompatibility and flexibility are important. In this work, we demonstrate the use of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) waveguides to realize a monolithic lab-on-a-chip device. We performed a comprehensive study on the swelling and optical properties for different chain lengths and concentrations in order to realize an integrated biocompatible waveguide in a microfluidic device for chemical sensing. Waveguiding properties of PEGDA hydrogel were used to guide excitation light into a microfluidic channel to measur...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Maria Leilani Torres-Mapa Manmeet Singh Olga Simon Jose Louise Mapa Manan Machida Axel G ünther Bernhard Roth Dag Heinemann Mitsuhiro Terakawa Alexander Heisterkamp Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4334: 2D Ultrasonic Antenna System for Imaging in Liquid Sodium
cedil;ois Baqué Laura Taupin Ultrasonic techniques are developed at CEA (French Alternative Energies and Nuclear Energy Commission) for in-service inspection of sodium-cooled reactors (SFRs). Among them, an ultrasound imaging system made up of two orthogonal antennas and originally based on an underwater imaging system is studied for long-distance vision in the liquid sodium of the reactor’s primary circuit. After a description of the imaging principle of this system, some results of a simulation study performed with the software CIVA in order to optimize the antenna parameters are presented. The...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: L éonard Le Jeune Rapha ële Raillon Gw énaël Toullelan Fran çois Baqué Laura Taupin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4335: Looking Through Paintings by Combining Hyper-Spectral Imaging and Pulse-Compression Thermography
Marco Ricci The use of different spectral bands in the inspection of artworks is highly recommended to identify the maximum number of defects/anomalies (i.e., the targets), whose presence ought to be known before any possible restoration action. Although an artwork cannot be considered as a composite material in which the zero-defect theory is usually followed by scientists, it is possible to state that the preservation of a multi-layered structure fabricated by the artist’s hands is based on a methodological analysis, where the use of non-destructive testing methods is highly desirable. In this paper, ...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Stefano Laureti Hamed Malekmohammadi Muhammad Khalid Rizwan Pietro Burrascano Stefano Sfarra Miranda Mostacci Marco Ricci Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4336: Design and Fabrication of a High-Frequency Single-Directional Planar Underwater Ultrasound Transducer
ikun Wang This paper describes the fabrication of 1-3 piezoelectric composites by using PZT5-A pure piezoelectric ceramics and the preparation of a high-frequency single-directional planar underwater ultrasound transducer by using the developed composites. First, three material models of the same size were designed and simulated by ANSYS finite element simulation software. Next, based on the simulation results, the 1-3 piezoelectric composites were developed. Finally, a high-frequency single-directional planar underwater ultrasound transducer was fabricated by encapsulating and gluing the 1-3 piezoelectric composites. ...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Qiguo Huang Hongwei Wang Shaohua Hao Chao Zhong Likun Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4337: A Drag Model-LIDAR-IMU Fault-Tolerance Fusion Method for Quadrotors
Zhimin Li In this paper, a drag model-aided fault-tolerant state estimation method is presented for quadrotors. Firstly, the drag model accuracy was improved by modeling an angular rate related item and an angular acceleration related item, which are related with flight maneuver. Then the drag model, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), and inertial measurement unit (IMU) were fused based on the Federal Kalman filter frame. In the filter, the LIDAR estimation fault was detected and isolated, and the disturbance to the drag model was estimated and compensated. Some experiments were carried out, showing that the velocity...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pin Lyu Bingqing Wang Jizhou Lai Shichao Liu Zhimin Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4338: Long-Term Glucose Forecasting Using a Physiological Model and Deconvolution of the Continuous Glucose Monitoring Signal
Conclusion: The proposed glucose forecasting algorithm is potentially well-suited for T1D management applications which require long-term glucose predictions. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chengyuan Liu Josep Veh í Parizad Avari Monika Reddy Nick Oliver Pantelis Georgiou Pau Herrero Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4339: Distributed Hybrid Two-Stage Multi-Sensor Fusion for Cooperative Modulation Classification in Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks
Dukic Recent studies showed that the performance of the modulation classification (MC) is considerably improved by using multiple sensors deployed in a cooperative manner. Such cooperative MC solutions are based on the centralized fusion of independent features or decisions made at sensors. Essentially, the cooperative MC employs multiple uncorrelated observations of the unknown signal to gather more complete information, compared to the single sensor reception, which is used in the fusion process to refine the MC decision. However, the non-cooperative nature of MC inherently induces large loss in cooperative MC perfo...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Markovic Sokolovic Dukic Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4341: Structural Damage Identification Based on AR Model with Additive Noises Using an Improved TLS Solution
In this study, a partial errors-in-variables (EIV) model is used so that both the current and prior observation errors are considered. Accordingly, a total least-squares (TLSE) solution is introduced to solve the partial EIV model. The solution estimates and accounts for the correlations between the current observed data and the design matrix. An effective damage indicator is chosen to count for damage levels of the structures. Both mathematical and finite element simulation results show that the proposed TLSE method yields better accuracy than the classical LS method and the AR model. Finally, the response data of a high-...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wu Li Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4340: Design and Fabrication of CMOS Microstructures to Locally Synthesize Carbon Nanotubes for Gas Sensing
Aasmundtveit Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be grown locally on custom-designed CMOS microstructures to use them as a sensing material for manufacturing low-cost gas sensors, where CMOS readout circuits are directly integrated. Such a local CNT synthesis process using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) requires temperatures near 900 °C, which is destructive for CMOS circuits. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure a high thermal gradient around the CNT growth structures to maintain CMOS-compatible temperature (below 300 °C) on the bulk part of the chip, where readout circuits are placed. This pa...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Avisek Roy Mehdi Azadmehr Bao Q. Ta Philipp H äfliger Knut E. Aasmundtveit Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4342: Prediction of Motor Failure Time Using An Artificial Neural Network
a Silva Industry is constantly seeking ways to avoid corrective maintenance so as to reduce costs. Performing regular scheduled maintenance can help to mitigate this problem, but not necessarily in the most efficient way. In the context of condition-based maintenance, the main contributions of this work were to propose a methodology to treat and transform the collected data from a vibration system that simulated a motor and to build a dataset to train and test an Artificial Neural Network capable of predicting the future condition of the equipment, pointing out when a failure can happen. To achieve this goal, a device ...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gustavo Scalabrini Sampaio Arnaldo Rabello de Aguiar Vallim Filho Leilton Santos da Silva Leandro Augusto da Silva Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4343: An Amplifier-Less Acquisition Chain for Power Measurements in Series Resonant Inverters
n Denis Navarro Successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) manufacturers recommend the use of a driver amplifier to achieve the best performance. When a driver amplifier is not used, the conversion speed is severely penalized because of the need to meet the settling time constraint. This paper proposes a simple digital correction method to raise the performance (conversion speed and/or accuracy) when the acquisition chain lacks a driver amplifier. It is intended to reduce the cost, size and power consumption of the conditioning circuit while maintaining acceptable performance. The metho...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jorge Villa Jos é I. Artigas Luis A. Barrag án Denis Navarro Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4344: Unsupervised Moving Object Segmentation from Stationary or Moving Camera based on Multi-frame Homography Constraints
Wang Moving object segmentation is the most fundamental task for many vision-based applications. In the past decade, it has been performed on the stationary camera, or moving camera, respectively. In this paper, we show that the moving object segmentation can be addressed in a unified framework for both type of cameras. The proposed method consists of two stages: (1) In the first stage, a novel multi-frame homography model is generated to describe the background motion. Then, the inliers and outliers of that model are classified as background trajectories and moving object trajectories by the designed cumulative ackn...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cui Jiang Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4345: Gold-Film-Thickness Dependent SPR Refractive Index and Temperature Sensing with Hetero-Core Optical Fiber Structure
ie Li A simple hetero-core optical fiber (MMF-NCF-MMF) surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing structure was proposed. The SPR spectral sensitivity, full width of half peak (FWHM), valley depth (VD), and figure of merit (FOM) were defined to evaluate the sensing performance comprehensively. The effect of gold film thickness on the refractive index and temperature sensing performance was studied experimentally. The optimum gold film thickness was found. The maximum sensitivities for refractive index and temperature measurement were obtained to be 2933.25 nm/RIU and −0.91973 nm/°C, respectively....
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rui Zhang Shengli Pu Xinjie Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4346: Improved Optical Waveguide Microcantilever for Integrated Nanomechanical Sensor
Chen Li Li This paper reports on an improved optical waveguide microcantilever sensor with high sensitivity. To improve the sensitivity, a buffer was introduced into the connection of the input waveguide and optical waveguide cantilever by extending the input waveguide to reduce the coupling loss of the junction. The buffer-associated optical losses were examined for different cantilever thicknesses. The optimum length of the buffer was found to be 0.97 μm for a cantilever thickness of 300 nm. With this configuration, the optical loss was reduced to about 40%, and the maximum sensitivity was more tha...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jing Fan Wang Zhang Cai Wei Chen Li Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4347: Improving the GRACE Kinematic Precise Orbit Determination Through Modified Clock Estimating
In this study, we propose a kinematic orbit determination method for improving the GRACE orbit quality especially when the geometry of observed GPS satellites is weak, where an appropriate random walk clock constraint between adjacent epochs is recommended according to the stability of on-board GPS receiver clocks. GRACE data over one month were adopted in the experimental validation. Results show that the proposed method could improve the root mean square (RMS) by 20–40% in radial component and 5–20% in along and cross components. For those epochs with position dilution of precision (PDOP) larg...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhou Jiang Chen Li Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4348: Machine Learning for LTE Energy Detection Performance Improvement
ka The growing number of radio communication devices and limited spectrum resources are drivers for the development of new techniques of dynamic spectrum access and spectrum sharing. In order to make use of the spectrum opportunistically, the concept of cognitive radio was proposed, where intelligent decisions on transmission opportunities are based on spectrum sensing. In this paper, two Machine Learning (ML) algorithms, namely k-Nearest Neighbours and Random Forest, have been proposed to increase spectrum sensing performance. These algorithms have been applied to Energy Detection (ED) and Energy Vector-based data (EV...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ma łgorzata Wasilewska Hanna Bogucka Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4349: Beehive-Inspired Information Gathering with a Swarm of Autonomous Drones
uan Marchal This paper presents a beehive-inspired multi-agent drone system for autonomous information collection to support the needs of first responders and emergency teams. The proposed system is designed to be simple, cost-efficient, yet robust and scalable at the same time. It includes several unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs) that can be tasked with data collection, and a single control station that acts as a data accumulation and visualization unit. The system also provides a local communication access point for the UAVs to exchange information and coordinate the data collection routes. By avoiding peer-to-pee...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alberto Viseras Thomas Wiedemann Christoph Manss Valentina Karolj Dmitriy Shutin and  Juan Marchal Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4350: INSPEX: Optimize Range Sensors for Environment Perception as a Portable System
s Mareau John Barrett Susan Rea Alan McGibney François Birot Hugues de Chaumont Richard Banach Joseph Razavi Cian Ó’Murchú Environment perception is crucial for the safe navigation of vehicles and robots to detect obstacles in their surroundings. It is also of paramount interest for navigation of human beings in reduced visibility conditions. Obstacle avoidance systems typically combine multiple sensing technologies (i.e., LiDAR, radar, ultrasound and visual) to detect various types of obstacles under different lighting and weather conditions, with the drawbacks of a given tec...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Julie Foucault Suzanne Lesecq Gabriela Dudnik Marc Correvon Rosemary O ’Keeffe Vincenza Di Palma Marco Passoni Fabio Quaglia Laurent Ouvry Steven Buckley Jean Herveg Andrea di Matteo Tiana Rakotovao Olivier Debicki Nicolas Mareau John Barrett Susan Rea Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4352: Performance Analysis of Positioning Solution Using Low-Cost Single-Frequency U-Blox Receiver Based on Baseline Length Constraint
Chen With the rapid development of the satellite navigation industry, low-cost and high-precision Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning has recently become a research hotspot. The traditional application of GNSS may be further extended thanks to the low cost of measuring instruments, but effective methods are also desperately needed due to the low quality of the data obtained using these instruments. Thus, in this paper, we propose the analysis and evaluation of the ambiguity fixed-rate and positioning accuracy of single-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) and BeiDou Navigation Satellite Syste...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lu Ma Wu Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4351: Indoor Positioning on Disparate Commercial Smartphones Using Wi-Fi Access Points Coverage Area
This article presents a Wi-Fi fingerprinting approach that exploits Wi-Fi Access Points (APs) coverage area and does not utilize the RSS vector. Using the concepts of APs coverage area uniqueness and coverage area overlap, the proposed approach calculates the user’s current position with the help of APs’ intersection area. The experimental results demonstrate that the device dependency can be mitigated by making the fingerprinting database with the proposed approach. The experiments performed at a public place proves that positioning accuracy can also be increased because the proposed approach p...
Source: Sensors - October 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ashraf Hur Park Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4325: Developing a Neural –Kalman Filtering Approach for Estimating Traffic Stream Density Using Probe Vehicle Data
In conclusion, the proposed AKF is more accurate than the traditional Kalman filter. Finally, the AKFNN approach is more accurate than the AKF and the traditional Kalman filter since the AKFNN uses more accurate values of the probe vehicle market penetration rate. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mohammad A. Aljamal Hossam M. Abdelghaffar Hesham A. Rakha Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4324: Development of a New Embedded Dynamometer for the Measurement of Forces and Torques at the Ski-Binding Interface
Alain Schorderet In alpine skiing, understanding the interaction between skiers and snow is of primary importance for both injury prevention as well as performance analysis. Risk of injuries is directly linked to constraints undergone by the skier. A force platform placed as an interface between the ski and the skier should allow a better understanding of these constraints to be obtained to thereby develop a more reliable release system of binding. It should also provide useful information to allow for better physical condition training of athletes and non-professional skiers to reduce the risk of injury. Force and tor...
Source: Sensors - October 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fr édéric Meyer Alain Prenleloup Alain Schorderet Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4326: Arbitrary Microphone Array Optimization Method Based on TDOA for Specific Localization Scenarios
Xiao Various microphone array geometries (e.g., linear, circular, square, cubic, spherical, etc.) have been used to improve the positioning accuracy of sound source localization. However, whether these array structures are optimal for various specific localization scenarios is still a subject of debate. This paper addresses a microphone array optimization method for sound source localization based on TDOA (time difference of arrival). The geometric structure of the microphone array is established in parametric form. A triangulation method with TDOA was used to build the spatial sound source location model, which consi...
Source: Sensors - October 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haitao Liu Thia Kirubarajan Qian Xiao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4327: A Passive Wireless Crack Sensor Based on Patch Antenna with Overlapping Sub-Patch
Tao Ding Monolithic patch antennas for deformation measurements are designed to be stressed. To avoid the issues of incomplete strain transfer ratio and insufficient bonding strength of stressed antennas, this paper presents a passive wireless crack sensor based on an unstressed patch antenna. The rectangular radiation patch of the proposed sensor is partially covered by a radiation sub-patch, and the overlapped length between them will induce the resonate frequency shift representing the crack width. First, the cavity model theory is adopted to show how the resonant frequencies of the crack sensor are related to the ...
Source: Sensors - October 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Songtao Xue Zhuoran Yi Liyu Xie Guochun Wan Tao Ding Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4328: A Virtual Pressure and Force Sensor for Safety Evaluation in Collaboration Robot Application
Rhim Recent developments in robotics have resulted in implementations that have drastically increased collaborative interactions between robots and humans. As robots have the potential to collide intentionally and/or unexpectedly with a human during the collaboration, effective measures to ensure human safety must be devised. In order to estimate the collision safety of a robot, this study proposes a virtual sensor based on an analytical contact model that accurately estimates the peak collision force and pressure as the robot moves along a pre-defined path, even before the occurrence of a collision event, with a s...
Source: Sensors - October 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shin Kim Seo Rhim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4329: Spatial Aggregation Net: Point Cloud Semantic Segmentation Based on Multi-Directional Convolution
Yundong Wu Semantic segmentation of 3D point clouds plays a vital role in autonomous driving, 3D maps, and smart cities, etc. Recent work such as PointSIFT shows that spatial structure information can improve the performance of semantic segmentation. Motivated by this phenomenon, we propose Spatial Aggregation Net (SAN) for point cloud semantic segmentation. SAN is based on multi-directional convolution scheme that utilizes the spatial structure information of point cloud. Firstly, Octant-Search is employed to capture the neighboring points around each sampled point. Secondly, we use multi-directional convolution to...
Source: Sensors - October 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guorong Cai Zuning Jiang Zongyue Wang Shangfeng Huang Kai Chen Xuyang Ge Yundong Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4330: AR Enabled IoT for a Smart and Interactive Environment: A Survey and Future Directions
Kim Accompanying the advent of wireless networking and the Internet of Things (IoT), traditional augmented reality (AR) systems to visualize virtual 3D models of the real world are evolving into smart and interactive AR related to the context of things for physical objects. We propose the integration of AR and IoT in a complementary way, making AR scalable to cover objects everywhere with an acceptable level of performance and interacting with IoT in a more intuitive manner. We identify three key components for realizing such a synergistic integration: (1) distributed and object-centric data management (including for ...
Source: Sensors - October 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jo Kim Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4331: Digital Magnetic Compass Integration with Stationary, Land-Based Electro-Optical Multi-Sensor Surveillance System
ić Banjac Multi-sensor imaging systems using the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and digital magnetic compass (DMC) for geo-referencing have an important role and wide application in long-range surveillance systems. To achieve the required system heading accuracy, the specific magnetic compass calibration and compensation procedures, which highly depend on the application conditions, should be applied. The DMC compensation technique suitable for the operation environment is described and different technical solutions are studied. The application of the swinging procedure was shown as a good solution for D...
Source: Sensors - October 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Livada Vuji ć Radi ć Unka šević Banjac Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4332: Airborne Visual Detection and Tracking of Cooperative UAVs Exploiting Deep Learning
asano The performance achievable by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for a large variety of civil and military applications, as well as the extent of applicable mission scenarios, can significantly benefit from the exploitation of formations of vehicles able to fly in a coordinated manner (swarms). In this respect, visual cameras represent a key instrument to enable coordination by giving each UAV the capability to visually monitor the other members of the formation. Hence, a related technological challenge is the development of robust solutions to detect and track cooperative targets through a sequence of frames....
Source: Sensors - October 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Roberto Opromolla Giuseppe Inchingolo Giancarmine Fasano Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4318: Mitigating the Impact on Users ’ Privacy Caused by over Specifications in the Design of IoT Applications
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4318: Mitigating the Impact on Users’ Privacy Caused by over Specifications in the Design of IoT Applications Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19194318 Authors: Alfredo Pérez Fernández Guttorm Sindre Privacy has long been an important issue for IT systems that handle personal information, and is further aggravated as technology for collecting and analyzing massive amounts of data is becoming increasingly effective. There are methods to help practitioners analyze the privacy implications of a system during the design time. However, this is still a difficult task, especially when de...
Source: Sensors - October 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Alfredo P érez Fernández Guttorm Sindre Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4319: Experimental Research on Data Synchronous Acquisition Method of Subsidence Monitoring in Submarine Gas Hydrate Mining Area
Hanquan Zhang The data synchronous acquisition is crucial to the seafloor subsidence monitoring system for gas hydrate mining areas based on microelectromechanical sensors (MEMS). Because the independent and high-precision time reference sources on land cannot be used on the seafloor, especially in the deep sea, a relative time synchronization method based on input/output (I/O) and controller area network (CAN) bus was proposed to realize the internal time synchronization of the system. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, tests including the deformation test of the MEMS sensor array under high pres...
Source: Sensors - October 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jiawang Chen Chen Cao Yongqiang Ge Huangchao Zhu Chunying Xu Yan Sheng Lieyu Tian Hanquan Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4320: An Adaptive, Discrete Space Oriented Wolf Pack Optimization Algorithm for a Movable Wireless Sensor Network
Qian Ni Recently, many related algorithms have been proposed to find an efficient wireless sensor network with good sustainability, a stable connection, and a high covering rate. To further improve the coverage rate of movable wireless sensor networks under the condition of guaranteed connectivity, this paper proposes an adaptive, discrete space oriented wolf pack optimization algorithm for a movable wireless sensor network (DSO-WPOA). Firstly, a strategy of adaptive expansion based on a minimum overlapping full-coverage model is designed to achieve minimum overlap and no-gap coverage for the monitoring area. Moreov...
Source: Sensors - October 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wang Wang Ban Qian Ni Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4321: A Quality of Service-Aware Secured Communication Scheme for Internet of Things-Based Networks
halid Hussain The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology that aims to enable the interconnection of a large number of smart devices and heterogeneous networks. Ad hoc networks play an important role in the designing of IoT-enabled platforms due to their efficient, flexible, low-cost and dynamic infrastructures. These networks utilize the available resources efficiently to maintain the Quality of Service (QoS) in a multi-hop communication. However, in a multi-hop communication, the relay nodes can be malicious, thus requiring a secured and reliable data transmission. In this paper, we propose a QoS-aware sec...
Source: Sensors - October 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fazlullah Khan Ateeq ur Rehman Abid Yahya Mian Ahmad Jan Joseph Chuma Zhiyuan Tan Khalid Hussain Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4322: Double-Drum Test Bench for Variable Load Transfer Simulation by Electromechanical Inertia Compensation
This study could help further improve the accuracy and reduce the cost of vehicle performance testing, thus greatly benefitting the vehicle development and testing industry. (Source: Sensors)
Source: Sensors - October 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhichao Xing Guoye Wang Zhangpeng Gong Shudong Zhang Dongxin Xu Sijie Peng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4323: Are Existing Monocular Computer Vision-Based 3D Motion Capture Approaches Ready for Deployment? A Methodological Study on the Example of Alpine Skiing
In this study, we compared a monocular computer vision (MCV)-based approach with the golden standard for collecting kinematic data on ski tracks (i.e., video-based stereophotogrammetry) and assessed its deployment readiness for answering applied research questions in the context of alpine skiing. The investigated MCV-based approach predicted the three-dimensional human pose and ski orientation based on the image data from a single camera. The data set used for training and testing the underlying deep nets originated from a field experiment with six competitive alpine skiers. The normalized mean per joint position error of ...
Source: Sensors - October 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ostrek Rhodin Fua M üller Sp örri Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4314: Chaotic Oscillators as Inductive Sensors: Theory and Practice
In this study, we investigated the possibility of creating inductive sensors based on Sprott chaotic oscillators with a planar printed circuit board inductive coil. The electric circuit of each sensor was obtained by merging two parts, namely, a harmonic oscillator and a nonlinear filter. A novel method for real-time oscillation analysis using a bandpass filter is presented. The suggested design technique was experimentally validated, and the sensor prototype showed characteristics making it practically applicable. In addition, the proposed technique can be used for the development of other types of sensors based on chaoti...
Source: Sensors - October 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Timur Karimov Erivelton Geraldo Nepomuceno Olga Druzhina Artur Karimov Denis Butusov Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4315: Multisensor Multi-Target Tracking Based on GM-PHD Using Out-Of-Sequence Measurements
n Zhang In this paper, we study the issue of out-of-sequence measurement (OOSM) in a multi-target scenario to improve tracking performance. The OOSM is very common in tracking systems, and it would result in performance degradation if we used it inappropriately. Thus, OOSM should be fully utilized as far as possible. To improve the performance of the tracking system and use OOSM sufficiently, firstly, the problem of OOSM is formulated. Then the classical B1 algorithm for OOSM problem of single target tracking is given. Next, the random finite set (RFS)-based Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density (GM-PHD) is i...
Source: Sensors - October 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Meiqin Liu Tianyi Huai Ronghao Zheng Senlin Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4316: Ultrasound as a Tool to Study Muscle –Tendon Functions during Locomotion: A Systematic Review of Applications
We present measured fascicle velocities and discuss the results with respect to operating frame rates during recording. Furthermore, we derive why muscle and tendon functions should be recorded with a frame rate of at least 150 Hz and a range of view of 250 mm. Moreover, we analyze why and how the development of better ultrasound observation devices at the hierarchical level of muscles and tendons can support biomechanics research. Additionally, we present recent technological advances and their possible application. We provide a list of recommendations for the development of a more advanced ultrasound sensor system class ...
Source: Sensors - October 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Christoph Leitner Pascal A. Hager Harald Penasso Markus Tilp Luca Benini Christian Peham Christian Baumgartner Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4317: Pressure Signal Enhancement of Slowly Increasing Leaks Using Digital Compensator Based on Acoustic Sensor
nbo Qiu Pipeline leak detection technologies are critical for the safety protection of pipeline transportation. However, they are insensitive to slowly increasing leaks. Therefore, this study proposes an enhancement method for slowly increasing leak signals. By analyzing the characteristics of pressure signals of slowly increasing leaks, a digital compensator is developed to overcome the disadvantages of pressure signals and enhance the pressure signals. According to the frequency response analysis of the digital compensator, the enhancement principle is the parameter adjustment of the digital compensator. Therefore, t...
Source: Sensors - October 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fang Wang Weiguo Lin Zheng Liu Xianbo Qiu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4311: Non-Invasive Device for Blood Pressure Wave Acquisition by Means of Mechanical Transducer
r-Navarro Blood pressure wave monitoring provides interesting information about the patient’s cardiovascular function. For this reason, this article proposes a non-invasive device capable of capturing the vibrations (pressure waves) produced by the carotid artery by means of a pressure sensor encapsulated in a closed dome filled with air. When the device is placed onto the outer skin of the carotid area, the vibrations of the artery will exert a deformation in the dome, which, in turn, will lead to a pressure increase in its inner air. Then, the sensor inside the dome captures this pressure increase. By c...
Source: Sensors - October 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: David Zambrana-Vinaroz Jose Maria Vicente-Samper Carlos G. Juan Vicente Esteve-Sala Jose Maria Sabater-Navarro Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4312: PRISEC: Comparison of Symmetric Key Algorithms for IoT Devices
te;lez Paul Crocker With the growing number of heterogeneous resource-constrained devices connected to the Internet, it becomes increasingly challenging to secure the privacy and protection of data. Strong but efficient cryptography solutions must be employed to deal with this problem, along with methods to standardize secure communications between these devices. The PRISEC module of the UbiPri middleware has this goal. In this work, we present the performance of the AES (Advanced Encryption Standard), RC6 (Rivest Cipher 6), Twofish, SPECK128, LEA, and ChaCha20-Poly1305 algorithms in Internet of Things (IoT) devices,...
Source: Sensors - October 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Daniel A. F. Saraiva Valderi Reis Quietinho Leithardt Diandre de Paula Andr é Sales Mendes Gabriel Villarrubia Gonz ález Paul Crocker Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4313: M-Bonacci Zone Plates for Ultrasound Focusing
ster Pilar Candelas In this work, we present a thorough analysis on M-bonacci zone plates for ultrasound focusing applications. These planar lenses are capable of providing bifocal focusing profiles with equal intensity in both foci and become very appealing for a wide range of scenarios including medical and industrial applications. We show that in high-wavelength domains, such as acoustics or microwaves, the separation between both foci can be finely adjusted at the expense of slightly increasing the distortion of the focusing profile, and we introduce a design parameter to deal with this issue and simplify the des...
Source: Sensors - October 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sergio P érez-López Jos é Miguel Fuster Pilar Candelas Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4297: Detection of 8-Hydroxy-2 ′-Deoxyguanosine Biomarker with a Screen-Printed Electrode Modified with Graphene
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4297: Detection of 8-Hydroxy-2′-Deoxyguanosine Biomarker with a Screen-Printed Electrode Modified with Graphene Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19194297 Authors: Codruta Varodi Florina Pogacean Maria Coros Marcela-Corina Rosu Raluca-Ioana Stefan-van Staden Emese Gal Lucian-Barbu Tudoran Stela Pruneanu Simona Mirel In this work we present the preparation of graphene material by exfoliation of graphite rods via pulses of current in electrolyte, containing a mixture of boric acid (0.05 M) and sodium chloride (0.05 M). The material was morphologically and structurally characterized b...
Source: Sensors - October 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Codruta Varodi Florina Pogacean Maria Coros Marcela-Corina Rosu Raluca-Ioana Stefan-van Staden Emese Gal Lucian-Barbu Tudoran Stela Pruneanu Simona Mirel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4298: Fabrication, Measurement and Time Decay of the Electromagnetic Properties of Semi-Solid Water-Based Phantoms
Peixeiro This paper presents a complete and detailed description of the fabrication and measurement of the electromagnetic properties of water-based semi-solid phantoms with emphasis on the analysis of the time evolution of the complex permittivity of several samples stored in different conditions. A known recipe for a 2/3 muscle equivalent phantom is used as test material, and the several phantom sample properties are measured with an in-house developed coaxial probe technique. It is shown that the storing condition is of paramount importance to extend the lifetime of a given phantom. This behavior stems from the way ...
Source: Sensors - October 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Carlos Mendes Cust ódio Peixeiro Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4299: Measurement System for Lossy Capacitive Sensors: Application to Edible Oils Quality Assessment
fa Kanoun This paper aimed to develop a portable, low-cost, and easy-to-use measurement system for oil quality degradation assessment. The main two chemical parameters affected by frying are the total polar compounds (TPC) and free fatty acids. The system should characterize the change of chemical parameters by measuring the changes in its dielectric parameters. The dielectric parameters, relative permittivity, and conductivity are measured by measuring the capacitance and resistance of a capacitive sensor dipped in oil. The main challenges are that the corresponding changes of the capacitance and resistance are very s...
Source: Sensors - October 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ahmed Fendri Ahmed Yahia Kallel Hanen Nouri Hamadi Ghariani Olfa Kanoun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4300: China ’s First Demonstration of Cobalt-rich Manganese Crust Thickness Measurement in the Western Pacific with a Parametric Acoustic Probe
Sensors, Vol. 19, Pages 4300: China’s First Demonstration of Cobalt-rich Manganese Crust Thickness Measurement in the Western Pacific with a Parametric Acoustic Probe Sensors doi: 10.3390/s19194300 Authors: Hong Feng Huang Wang Xia Cobalt-rich manganese crusts (CRCs) are important as a potential mineral source that could occur throughout the Pacific on seamounts, ridges, and plateaus. We built a prototype parametric acoustic probe to complete the task of in-situ thickness measurements to estimate the volumetric distribution of deep-sea mineral. The prototype is designed with dual-channels for rec...
Source: Sensors - October 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hong Feng Huang Wang Xia Tags: Article Source Type: research